WorldWideScience

Sample records for knowledge translation science

  1. Knowledge Translation: Moving Proteomics Science to Innovation in Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christina; McDonald, Fiona; Jones, Mavis; Graham, Janice

    2016-06-01

    Proteomics is one of the pivotal next-generation biotechnologies in the current "postgenomics" era. Little is known about the ways in which innovative proteomics science is navigating the complex socio-political space between laboratory and society. It cannot be assumed that the trajectory between proteomics laboratory and society is linear and unidirectional. Concerned about public accountability and hopes for knowledge-based innovations, funding agencies and citizens increasingly expect that emerging science and technologies, such as proteomics, are effectively translated and disseminated as innovation in society. Here, we describe translation strategies promoted in the knowledge translation (KT) and science communication literatures and examine the use of these strategies within the field of proteomics. Drawing on data generated from qualitative interviews with proteomics scientists and ethnographic observation of international proteomics conferences over a 5-year period, we found that proteomics science incorporates a variety of KT strategies to reach knowledge users outside the field. To attain the full benefit of KT, however, proteomics scientists must challenge their own normative assumptions and approaches to innovation dissemination-beyond the current paradigm relying primarily on publication for one's scientific peers within one's field-and embrace the value of broader (interdisciplinary) KT strategies in promoting the uptake of their research. Notably, the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) is paying increasing attention to a broader range of KT strategies, including targeted dissemination, integrated KT, and public outreach. We suggest that increasing the variety of KT strategies employed by proteomics scientists is timely and would serve well the omics system sciences community.

  2. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.

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    Elshakry, Marwa S

    2008-12-01

    This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.

  3. Topical Review: Translating Translational Research in Behavioral Science.

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    Hommel, Kevin A; Modi, Avani C; Piazza-Waggoner, Carrie; Myers, James D

    2015-01-01

    To present a model of translational research for behavioral science that communicates the role of behavioral research at each phase of translation. A task force identified gaps in knowledge regarding behavioral translational research processes and made recommendations regarding advancement of knowledge. A comprehensive model of translational behavioral research was developed. This model represents T1, T2, and T3 research activities, as well as Phase 1, 2, 3, and 4 clinical trials. Clinical illustrations of translational processes are also offered as support for the model. Behavioral science has struggled with defining a translational research model that effectively articulates each stage of translation and complements biomedical research. Our model defines key activities at each phase of translation from basic discovery to dissemination/implementation. This should be a starting point for communicating the role of behavioral science in translational research and a catalyst for better integration of biomedical and behavioral research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Knowledge translation is the use of knowledge in health care decision making.

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    Straus, Sharon E; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Graham, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    To provide an overview of the science and practice of knowledge translation. Narrative review outlining what knowledge translation is and a framework for its use. Knowledge translation is defined as the use of knowledge in practice and decision making by the public, patients, health care professionals, managers, and policy makers. Failures to use research evidence to inform decision making are apparent across all these key decision maker groups. There are several proposed theories and frameworks for achieving knowledge translation. A conceptual framework developed by Graham et al., termed the knowledge-to-action cycle, provides an approach that builds on the commonalities found in an assessment of planned action theories. Review of the evidence base for the science and practice of knowledge translation has identified several gaps including the need to develop valid strategies for assessing the determinants of knowledge use and for evaluating sustainability of knowledge translation interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

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    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  6. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

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    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  7. Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Festic

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is considered a 21st century term, translational research has been present for much longer. Idea of translating experimental discovery to its’ clinical application and use is old as research itself. However, it is the understanding of missing links between the basic science research and clinical research that emerged in the past decade and mobilized scientific and clinical communities and organizations worldwide. Hence term, translational research, which represents an “enterprise of harnessing knowledge from basic sciences to produce new drugs, devices, and treatment options for patients” (1. It has been also characterized as “effective translation of the new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, which is essential for improving health” (2.This translation is a complex process and involves more than one step for transfer of research knowledge. At least 3 such roadblocks have been identified (Figure 1 ; T1 translation: “The transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans”, T2 translation: “The translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making”, and T3 translation: “Practice-based research, which is often necessary before distilled knowledge (e.g., systematic reviews, guidelines can be implemented in practice” (3-5.The international research community rapidly recognized importance for promotion of translational research and made it their priority(5. In the USA, National Institutes of Health, (NIH expects to fund 60 translational research centers with a budget of $500 million per year by 2012 (6. Besides academic centers, foundations, industry, disease-related organizations, and individual hospitals and

  8. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI).

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    Gholami, Jaleh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Nedjat, Sima; Maleki, Katayoun; Ashoorkhani, Mahnaz; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh

    2011-02-22

    The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5) respectively.Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments.

  9. The Role of Integrated Knowledge Translation in Intervention Research.

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    Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-04-01

    There is widespread recognition across the full range of applied research disciplines, including health and social services, about the challenges of integrating scientifically derived research evidence into policy and/or practice decisions. These "disconnects" or "knowledge-practice gaps" between research production and use have spawned a new research field, most commonly known as either "implementation science" or "knowledge translation." The present paper will review key concepts in this area, with a particular focus on "integrated knowledge translation" (IKT)-which focuses on researcher-knowledge user partnership-in the area of mental health and prevention of violence against women and children using case examples from completed and ongoing work. A key distinction is made between the practice of KT (disseminating, communicating, etc.), and the science of KT, i.e., research regarding effective KT approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance of IKT for mental health intervention research with children and adolescents.

  10. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  11. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  12. The Use of Clinical Interviews to Develop Inservice Secondary Science Teachers' Nature of Science Knowledge and Assessment of Student Nature of Science Knowledge

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    Peters-Burton, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    To fully incorporate nature of science knowledge into classrooms, teachers must be both proficient in their own nature of science knowledge, but also skillful in translating their knowledge into a learning environment which assesses student knowledge. Twenty-eight inservice teachers enrolled in a graduate course which in part required a clinical…

  13. Knowledge Translation Capacity of Arts-informed Dissemination: A Narrative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L Lapum; Linda Liu; Kathryn Church; Sarah Hume; Bailey Harding; Siyuan Wang; Megan Nguyen; Gideon Cohen; Terrence M Yau

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arts-informed dissemination is an expanding approach to enhancing knowledge translation in the health sciences. Problematic is the minimal evaluation studies and the rare reporting of the influencing factors of knowledge translation. “The 7,024th Patient” is a research-derived art installation created to disseminate findings about patients’ experiences of heart surgery and the importance of humanistic patient-centred care approaches. The current study’s purpose was to explor...

  14. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine.

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    Szalma, Sándor; Koka, Venkata; Khasanova, Tatiana; Perakslis, Eric D

    2010-07-19

    The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.

  15. Effective knowledge management in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasanova Tatiana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. Methods The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. Results The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. Conclusions The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.

  16. From dental science to clinical practice: Knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry principles

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    Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT, encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.

  17. From dental science to clinical practice: Knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry principles.

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    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Assery, Mansour K

    2017-07-01

    It has been claimed that in order to decrease the gap between what we know and what we do, research findings must be translated from knowledge to action. Such practices better enable dentists to make evidence-based decisions instead of personal ideas and judgments. To this end, this literature review aims to revisit the concepts of knowledge translation and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) and depict their role and influence within dental education. It addresses some possible strategies to facilitate knowledge translation (KT), encourage dental students to use EBD principles, and to encourage dental educators to create an environment in which students become self-directed learners. It concludes with a call to develop up-to-date and efficient online platforms that could grant dentists better access to EBD sources in order to more efficiently translate research evidence into the clinic.

  18. Translating Knowledge: The role of Shared Learning in Bridging the Science-Application Divide

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    Moench, M.

    2014-12-01

    As the organizers of this session state: "Understanding and managing our future relation with the Earth requires research and knowledge spanning diverse fields, and integrated, societally-relevant science that is geared toward solutions." In most cases, however, integration is weak and scientific outputs do not match decision maker requirements. As a result, while scientific results may be highly relevant to society that relevance is operationally far from clear. This paper explores the use of shared learning processes to bridge the gap between the evolving body of scientific information on climate change and its relevance for resilience planning in cities across Asia. Examples related to understanding uncertainty, the evolution of scientific knowledge from different sources, and data extraction and presentation are given using experiences generated over five years of work as part of the Rockefeller Foundation supported Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network and other programs. Results suggest that processes supporting effective translation of knowledge between different sources and different applications are essential for the identification of solutions that respond to the dynamics and uncertainties inherent in global change processes.

  19. Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Research: Conceptual Issues, Methodology, and Knowledge Translation.

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    Malti, Tina; Beelmann, Andreas; Noam, Gil G; Sommer, Simon

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we introduce the special issue entitled Innovation and Integrity in Intervention Science. Its focus is on essential problems and prospects for intervention research examining two related topics, i.e., methodological issues and research integrity, and challenges in the transfer of research knowledge into practice and policy. The main aims are to identify how to advance methodology in order to improve research quality, examine scientific integrity in the field of intervention science, and discuss future steps to enhance the transfer of knowledge about evidence-based intervention principles into sustained practice, routine activities, and policy decisions. Themes of the special issue are twofold. The first includes questions about research methodology in intervention science, both in terms of research design and methods, as well as data analyses and the reporting of findings. Second, the issue tackles questions surrounding the types of knowledge translation frameworks that might be beneficial to mobilize the transfer of research-based knowledge into practice and public policies. The issue argues that innovations in methodology and thoughtful approaches to knowledge translation can enable transparency, quality, and sustainability of intervention research.

  20. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

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    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  1. The translational science training program at NIH: Introducing early career researchers to the science and operation of translation of basic research to medical interventions.

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    Gilliland, C Taylor; Sittampalam, G Sitta; Wang, Philip Y; Ryan, Philip E

    2017-01-02

    Translational science is an emerging field that holds great promise to accelerate the development of novel medical interventions. As the field grows, so does the demand for highly trained biomedical scientists to fill the positions that are being created. Many graduate and postdoctorate training programs do not provide their trainees with sufficient education to take advantage of this growing employment sector. To help better prepare the trainees at the National Institutes of Health for possible careers in translation, we have created the Translational Science Training Program (TSTP). The TSTP is an intensive 2- to 3-day training program that introduces NIH postdoctoral trainees and graduate students to the science and operation of turning basic research discoveries into a medical therapeutic, device or diagnostic, and also exposes them to the variety of career options in translational science. Through a combination of classroom teaching from practicing experts in the various disciplines of translation and small group interactions with pre-clinical development teams, participants in the TSTP gain knowledge that will aid them in obtaining a career in translational science and building a network to make the transition to the field. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):13-24, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Knowledge of healthy foods does not translate to healthy snack consumption among exercise science undergraduates.

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    McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.

  3. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences

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    ... Models Core Technologies Clinical Innovation Clinical and Translational Science Awards Program Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network Patient ... to our monthly e-newsletter. About Translation Translational Science Spectrum Explore the full spectrum of translational science, ...

  4. Using knowledge translation as a framework for the design of a research protocol.

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    Fredericks, Suzanne; Martorella, Géraldine; Catallo, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge translation has been defined as the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health, resulting in a stronger health-care system. Using KT activities to aid in the adoption of evidence into practice can address current health-care challenges such as increasing organizational practice standards, alleviating the risk for adverse events and meeting practitioner needs for evidence at the bedside. Two general forms of KT have been identified. These being integrated KT and end-of-grant KT. Integrated KT involves the knowledge users in the research team and in the majority of stages of the research process. End-of-grant KT relates to the translation of findings through a well-developed dissemination plan. This paper describes the process of using an integrated knowledge translation approach to design a research protocol that will examine the effectiveness of a web-based patient educational intervention. It begins with a description of integrated knowledge translation, followed by the presentation of a specific case example in which integrated knowledge translation is used to develop a nursing intervention. The major elements of integrated knowledge translation pertain to need for a knowledge user who represents the broad target user group, and who is knowledgeable in the area under investigation and who as authority to enact changes to practice. Use of knowledge users as equal partners within the research team; exploring all feasible opportunities for knowledge exchange; and working with knowledge users to identify all outcomes related to knowledge translation are the other major elements of integrated knowledge translation that are addressed throughout this paper. Furthermore, the relevance of psychosocial or educational interventions to knowledge translation is also discussed as a source of knowledge. In summary, integrated knowledge translation is an important tool for the development of new interventions, as

  5. Towards a sociology of knowledge translation: the importance of being dis-interested in knowledge translation.

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    Kitto, Simon C; Sargeant, Joan; Reeves, Scott; Silver, Ivan

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 15 years there has been an increasingly energetic search for theories and definitions in the burgeoning area of knowledge translation (KT) in the health care context. The focus has been on the design and evaluation of KT activities with little attention to developing a considered KT theoretical/methodological approach that takes a more distanced critical inquiry to the studying of KT interventions. As such, what has been overlooked in the health professions KT literature to date is a suitably complex conceptualisation of translation that encompasses the multiplicity of KT interventions, the dynamic environments in which they are occurring, and the production of new knowledge which arises from their interactions. Attending to these epistemological issues; i.e. issues of the type of knowledge and how it is produced, is crucial to developing a relational understanding of the production and emergence of context-specific clinical knowledge and practice in KT processes. Such an approach is compared to the traditional KT evaluations by KT practitioners themselves of the compliance or non-compliance of individual and organisational behaviour change. A Sociology of KT (SKT) is proposed to complement the applied and evaluative research practice of implementing planned action KT activities. The purpose of a SKT basic research agenda is to understand both the context-specific nature of KT interventions and the epistemological premises of the activities of KT implementers themselves, in order to advance the science of KT and inform, complement and add to the success of applied and evaluative KT research in the future.

  6. Ethical perspectives on knowledge translation in rehabilitation.

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    Banja, John D; Eisen, Arri

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on the ethical dimensions of knowledge creation, use, and dissemination is voluminous, it has not particularly examined the ethical dimensions of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Yet, whether research is done in a wet lab or treatments are provided to patients in therapeutic settings, rehabilitation professionals commonly use (as well as create) knowledge and disseminate it to peers, patients, and various others. This article will refer to knowledge creation, use, and transfer as knowledge translation and examine some of its numerous ethical challenges. Three ethical dimensions of knowledge translation will particularly attract our attention: (1) the quality of knowledge disseminated to rehabilitationists; (2) ethical challenges in being too easily persuaded by or unreasonably resistant to putative knowledge; and (3) organizational barriers to knowledge translation. We will conclude with some recommendations on facilitating the ethical soundness of knowledge translation in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge Translation Capacity of Arts-informed Dissemination: A Narrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Lapum

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arts-informed dissemination is an expanding approach to enhancing knowledge translation in the health sciences. Problematic is the minimal evaluation studies and the rare reporting of the influencing factors of knowledge translation. “The 7,024th Patient” is a research-derived art installation created to disseminate findings about patients’ experiences of heart surgery and the importance of humanistic patient-centred care approaches. The current study’s purpose was to explore how arts-informed dissemination (i.e., “The 7,024th Patient” influenced healthcare practitioners’ delivery of care. Methods: An arts-informed narrative study was guided by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework. The sample included a multi-disciplinary group of 19 individuals who worked with patients undergoing and recovering from heart surgery. Two interviews were conducted with each participant at the time of viewing the installation and 6 months later. A narrative analysis was conducted using Pictorial Narrative Mapping techniques. Results: Study findings indicated that the arts as a form of evidence provide an experiential and aesthetic encounter, which stimulated reflective practice. Participants’ accounts reflected cognitive and behavioral modifications related to empathy, holistic approaches and relational care. However, the complexities associated with the interpretive process and the influencing knowledge translation elements indicated a need to dialogue about the translation process, including deconstructing the evidence within the context of one’s own practice. Conclusions: Art is not just works of beauty or eccentric paintings. There is an imaginative and aesthetic capacity that can be cultivated with diligence, creativity, and rigour in the world of healthcare research and knowledge translation. Next steps require the examination of the knowledge translation capacity of different art forms with

  8. The Ethics of Translational Science: Imagining Public Benefit in Gene-Environment Interaction Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research is increasingly informed by expectations of “translation,” which call for the production of scientific knowledge that can be used to create services and products that improve health outcomes. In this paper, we ask how translation, in particular the idea of social responsibility, is understood and enacted in the post-genomic life sciences. Drawing on theories examining what constitutes “good science,” and interviews with 35 investigators who study the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, we describe the dynamic and unsettled ethics of translational science through which the expected social value of scientific knowledge about complex disease causation is negotiated. To describe how this ethics is formed, we first discuss the politics of knowledge production in interdisciplinary research collectives. Researchers described a commitment to working across disciplines to examine a wide range of possible causes of disease, but they also pointed to persistent disciplinary and ontological divisions that rest on the dominance of molecular conceptions of disease risk. The privileging of molecular-level causation shapes and constrains the kinds of knowledge that can be created about gene-environment interactions. We then turn to scientists’ ideas about how this knowledge should be used, including personalized prevention strategies, targeted therapeutics, and public policy interventions. Consensus about the relative value of these anticipated translations was elusive, and many scientists agreed that gene-environment interaction research is part of a shift in biomedical research away from considering important social, economic, political and historical causes of disease and disease disparities. We conclude by urging more explicit engagement with questions about the ethics of translational science in the post-genomic life sciences. This would include a consideration

  9. Approaches to translational plant science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    is lessened. In our opinion, implementation of translational plant science is a necessity in order to solve the agricultural challenges of producing food and materials in the future. We suggest an approach to translational plant science forcing scientists to think beyond their own area and to consider higher......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...

  10. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  11. Effect of Content Schema, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension on Translation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schemata refer to all kinds of knowledge which are gained throughout the lifetime. Few studies tried to integrate schema theory and the next two crucial factors in translation and learning which are vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Thus, the present research aimed at delineating the potential effect of these three factors on translation performance of Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training. To this end, 172 Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training were selected based on two-step cluster sampling. To collect data, the participants answered a set of 6 open-ended questions to measure the students’ content schema along with a vocabulary size test, reading comprehension test, and translation task. To analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient as well as stepwise multiple regressions was conducted through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data analysis indicated that the independent variables significantly correlated with translation performance. In addition, multiple regressions analysis specified reading comprehension as the main contributing variable and content schema as the second in students’ translation performance. It also showed that vocabulary knowledge could not be a predicting factor in translation performance of the learners; the reason may refer to the inseparable component of their translation task that is dictionary. The results highlighted the role of content schema in translation performance of the learners.

  12. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Brouwers, Melissa; Johnson, David; Lavis, John N; Légaré, France; Majumdar, Sumit R; McKibbon, K Ann; Sales, Anne E; Stacey, Dawn; Klein, Gail; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-12-09

    Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT) and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  13. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Rogers, Juan D

    2011-09-12

    Government sponsors of research and development, along with their funded investigators, are increasingly tasked with demonstrating evidence of knowledge use by nontraditional audiences. This requires efforts to translate their findings for effective communication. For technology-related knowledge, these audiences include clinicians, consumers, manufacturers, public policy agencies, and knowledge brokers. One potentially efficient approach is to communicate research findings through relevant national organizations. However, this requires an understanding of how such organizations view and treat research knowledge, which can be determined through knowledge-value mapping. Do knowledge values differ between national organizations representing different audiences? Can a deeper understanding of knowledge values help sponsors, investigators, and organizations better communicate research findings to stakeholders? A series of comparative case studies on knowledge-value mapping were derived through interviews with spokespersons for six national organizations. The semi-structured interviews followed a 10-item questionnaire to characterize different ways in which each organization engages with research-based knowledge. Each participating organization represents a particular stakeholder group, while all share a common interest in the research subject matter. Each national organization considers the value of the research knowledge in the context of their organization's mission and the interests of their members. All are interested in collaborating with researchers to share relevant findings, while they vary along the following dimensions of knowledge engagement: create, identify, translate, adapt, communicate, use, promote, absorptive capacity, and recommendations for facilitation. The principles of knowledge translation suggest that investigators can increase use by tailoring the format and context of their findings to the absorptive capacity of nonscholars. Greater absorption

  14. Knowledge creation through total clinical outcomes management: a practice-based evidence solution to address some of the challenges of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S

    2009-02-01

    The challenges of knowledge translation in behavioural health care are unique to this field for a variety of reasons including the fact that effective treatment is invariably embedded in a strong relationship between practitioners and the people they serve. Practitioners' knowledge gained from experience and intuition become an even more important consideration in the knowledge translation process since clinicians are, in fact, a component of most treatments. Communication of findings from science must be conceptualized with sensitivity to this reality. Considering knowledge translation as a communication process suggests the application of contemporary theories of communication which emphasize the creation of shared meaning over the transmission of knowledge from one person to the next. In this context outcomes management approaches to create a learning environment within clinical practices that facilitate the goals of knowledge transfer while respecting that the scientific enterprise is neither the sole nor primary repository of knowledge.

  15. Core competencies in the science and practice of knowledge translation: description of a Canadian strategic training initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, healthcare systems are attempting to optimize quality of care. This challenge has resulted in the development of implementation science or knowledge translation (KT and the resulting need to build capacity in both the science and practice of KT. Findings We are attempting to meet these challenges through the creation of a national training initiative in KT. We have identified core competencies in this field and have developed a series of educational courses and materials for three training streams. We report the outline for this approach and the progress to date. Conclusions We have prepared a strategy to develop, implement, and evaluate a national training initiative to build capacity in the science and practice of KT. Ultimately through this initiative, we hope to meet the capacity demand for KT researchers and practitioners in Canada that will lead to improved care and a strengthened healthcare system.

  16. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J.; Lynam, M. Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  17. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Lynam, M Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  18. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: Comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Juan D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government sponsors of research and development, along with their funded investigators, are increasingly tasked with demonstrating evidence of knowledge use by nontraditional audiences. This requires efforts to translate their findings for effective communication. For technology-related knowledge, these audiences include clinicians, consumers, manufacturers, public policy agencies, and knowledge brokers. One potentially efficient approach is to communicate research findings through relevant national organizations. However, this requires an understanding of how such organizations view and treat research knowledge, which can be determined through knowledge-value mapping. Do knowledge values differ between national organizations representing different audiences? Can a deeper understanding of knowledge values help sponsors, investigators, and organizations better communicate research findings to stakeholders? Methods A series of comparative case studies on knowledge-value mapping were derived through interviews with spokespersons for six national organizations. The semi-structured interviews followed a 10-item questionnaire to characterize different ways in which each organization engages with research-based knowledge. Each participating organization represents a particular stakeholder group, while all share a common interest in the research subject matter. Results Each national organization considers the value of the research knowledge in the context of their organization's mission and the interests of their members. All are interested in collaborating with researchers to share relevant findings, while they vary along the following dimensions of knowledge engagement: create, identify, translate, adapt, communicate, use, promote, absorptive capacity, and recommendations for facilitation. Conclusions The principles of knowledge translation suggest that investigators can increase use by tailoring the format and context of their

  19. TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    abstract A collaborative consortium, named “TRANSAUTOPHAGY,” has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in November 2015 as a COST Action of the European Union (COST means: CO-operation in Science and Technology), and will be sponsored for 4 years. TRANSAUTOPHAGY will form an interdisciplinary platform for basic and translational researchers, enterprises and stakeholders of diverse disciplines (including nanotechnology, bioinformatics, physics, chemistry, biology and various medical disciplines). TRANSAUTOPHAGY will establish 5 different thematic working groups, formulated to cooperate in research projects, share ideas, and results through workshops, meetings and short term exchanges of personnel (among other initiatives). TRANSAUTOPHAGY aims to generate breakthrough multidisciplinary knowledge about autophagy regulation, and to boost translation of this knowledge into biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27046256

  20. TRANSAUTOPHAGY: European network for multidisciplinary research and translation of autophagy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Caty; Codogno, Patrice; Pinti, Marcello; Batoko, Henri; Morán, María; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula; Reggiori, Fulvio; Sirko, Agnieszka; Soengas, María S; Velasco, Guillermo; Lafont, Frank; Lane, Jon; Faure, Mathias; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A collaborative consortium, named "TRANSAUTOPHAGY," has been created among European research groups, comprising more than 150 scientists from 21 countries studying diverse branches of basic and translational autophagy. The consortium was approved in the framework of the Horizon 2020 Program in November 2015 as a COST Action of the European Union (COST means: CO-operation in Science and Technology), and will be sponsored for 4 years. TRANSAUTOPHAGY will form an interdisciplinary platform for basic and translational researchers, enterprises and stakeholders of diverse disciplines (including nanotechnology, bioinformatics, physics, chemistry, biology and various medical disciplines). TRANSAUTOPHAGY will establish 5 different thematic working groups, formulated to cooperate in research projects, share ideas, and results through workshops, meetings and short term exchanges of personnel (among other initiatives). TRANSAUTOPHAGY aims to generate breakthrough multidisciplinary knowledge about autophagy regulation, and to boost translation of this knowledge into biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  1. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  2. Revisiting interaction in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zackheim Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the study of research utilization is not new, there has been increased emphasis on the topic over the recent past. Science push models that are researcher driven and controlled and demand pull models emphasizing users/decision-maker interests have largely been abandoned in favour of more interactive models that emphasize linkages between researchers and decisionmakers. However, despite these and other theoretical and empirical advances in the area of research utilization, there remains a fundamental gap between the generation of research findings and the application of those findings in practice. Methods Using a case approach, the current study looks at the impact of one particular interaction approach to research translation used by a Canadian funding agency. Results Results suggest there may be certain conditions under which different levels of decisionmaker involvement in research will be more or less effective. Four attributes are illuminated by the current case study: stakeholder diversity, addressability/actionability of results, finality of study design and methodology, and politicization of results. Future research could test whether these or other variables can be used to specify some of the conditions under which different approaches to interaction in knowledge translation are likely to facilitate research utilization. Conclusion This work suggests that the efficacy of interaction approaches to research translation may be more limited than current theory proposes and underscores the need for more completely specified models of research utilization that can help address the slow pace of change in this area.

  3. Translating Behavioral Science into Practice: A Framework to Determine Science Quality and Applicability for Police Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kimberley A; McGuire, Katherine L; Chapan, Denis M

    2018-05-07

    Policy on officer-involved shootings is critically reviewed and errors in applying scientific knowledge identified. Identifying and evaluating the most relevant science to a field-based problem is challenging. Law enforcement administrators with a clear understanding of valid science and application are in a better position to utilize scientific knowledge for the benefit of their organizations and officers. A recommended framework is proposed for considering the validity of science and its application. Valid science emerges via hypothesis testing, replication, extension and marked by peer review, known error rates, and general acceptance in its field of origin. Valid application of behavioral science requires an understanding of the methodology employed, measures used, and participants recruited to determine whether the science is ready for application. Fostering a science-practitioner partnership and an organizational culture that embraces quality, empirically based policy, and practices improves science-to-practice translation. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  5. Integrated knowledge translation: digging deeper, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Wathen, C Nadine

    2017-06-01

    Integrated knowledge translation has risen in popularity as a solution to the underuse of research in policy and practice settings. It engages knowledge users-policymakers, practitioners, patients/consumers or their advocates, and members of the wider public-in mutually beneficial research that can involve the joint development of research questions, data collection, analysis and dissemination of findings. Knowledge that is co-produced has a better chance of being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to update developments in the field of integrated knowledge translation through a deeper analysis of the approach in practice-oriented and policy-oriented health research. We present collaborative models that fall outside the scope of integrated knowledge translation, but then explore consensus-based approaches and networks as alternate sites of knowledge co-production. We discuss the need to advance the field through the development, or use, of data collection and interpretation tools that creatively engage knowledge users in the research process. Most importantly, conceptually relevant outcomes need to be identified, including ones that focus on team transformation through the co-production of knowledge. We explore some of these challenges and benefits in detail to help researchers understand what integrated knowledge translation means, and whether the approach's potential added value is worth the investment of time, energy and other resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation: a framework for knowledge translation and patient outcomes improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane M; Sidani, Souraya

    2007-01-01

    Regularly accessing information that is current and reliable continues to be a challenge for front-line staff nurses. Reconceptualizing how nurses access information and designing appropriate decision support systems to facilitate timely access to information may be important for increasing research utilization. An outcomes-focused knowledge translation framework was developed to guide the continuous improvement of patient care through the uptake of research evidence and feedback data about patient outcomes. The framework operationalizes the three elements of the PARIHS framework at the point of care. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation involves four components: (a) patient outcomes measurement and real-time feedback about outcomes achievement; (b) best-practice guidelines, embedded in decision support tools that deliver key messages in response to patient assessment data; (c) clarification of patients' preferences for care; and (d) facilitation by advanced practice nurses and practice leaders. In this paper the framework is described and evidence is provided to support theorized relationships among the concepts in the framework. The framework guided the design of a knowledge translation intervention aimed at continuous improvement of patient care and evidence-based practice, which are fostered through real-time feedback data about patient outcomes, electronic access to evidence-based resources at the point of care, and facilitation by advanced practice nurses. The propositions in the framework need to be empirically tested through future research.

  7. Sociology, systems and (patient) safety: knowledge translations in healthcare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2008-03-01

    In 2000 the American Institute of Medicine, adviser to the federal government on policy matters relating to the health of the public, published the report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which was to become a call to arms for improving patient safety across the Western world. By re-conceiving healthcare as a system, it was argued that it was possible to transform the current culture of blame, which made individuals take defensive precautions against being assigned responsibility for error - notably by not reporting adverse events, into a culture of safety. The IOM report draws on several prominent social scientists in accomplishing this re-conceptualisation. But the analyses of these authors are not immediately relevant for health policy. It requires knowledge translation to make them so. This paper analyses the process of translation. The discussion is especially pertinent due to a certain looping effect between social science research and policy concerns. The case here presented is thus doubly illustrative: exemplifying first how social science is translated into health policy and secondly how the transformation required for this to function is taken as an analytical improvement that can in turn be redeployed in social research.

  8. From theoretical model to practical use: an example of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Carsten Munch; Brynildsen, Grethe; Frederiksen, Anne-Marie Skovsgaard; Larsen, Karin; Reierson, Inger Åse; Sommer, Irene; Stenholt, Britta

    2013-10-01

    To present a case of knowledge translation in nursing education and practice and discusses mechanisms relevant to bringing knowledge into action. The process of knowledge translation aspires to close the gap between theory and practice. Knowledge translation is a cyclic process involving both the creation and application of knowledge in several phases. The case presented in this paper is the translation of the Model of Practical Skill Performance into education and practice. Advantages and problems with the use of this model and its adaptation and tailoring to local contexts illustrate the cyclic and iterative process of knowledge translation. The cultivation of a three-sided relationship between researchers, educators, and clinical nurses was a major asset in driving the process of knowledge translation. The knowledge translation process gained momentum by replacing passive diffusion strategies with interaction and teamwork between stakeholders. The use of knowledge creates feedback that might have consequences for the refinement and tailoring of that same knowledge itself. With end-users in mind, several heuristics were used by the research group to increase clarity of the model and to tailor the implementation of knowledge to the users. This article illustrates the need for enduring collaboration between stakeholders to promote the process of knowledge translation. Translation of research knowledge into practice is a time-consuming process that is enhanced when appropriate support is given by leaders in the involved facilities. Knowledge translation is a time-consuming and collaborative endeavour. On the basis of our experience we advocate the implementation and use of a conceptual framework for the entire process of knowledge translation. More descriptions of knowledge translation in the nursing discipline are needed to inspire and advise in this process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation: A Shared Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer L; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Backus, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    Advances in rehabilitation provide the infrastructure for research and clinical data to improve care and patient outcomes. However, gaps between research and practice are prevalent. Knowledge translation (KT) aims to decrease the gap between research and its clinical use. This special communication summarizes KT-related proceedings from the 2016 IV STEP conference, describes current KT in rehabilitation science, and provides suggestions for its application in clinical care. We propose a vision for rehabilitation clinical practice and research that includes the development, adaptation, and implementation of evidence-based practice recommendations, which will contribute to a learning health care system. A clinical research culture that supports this vision and methods to engage key stakeholders to innovate rehabilitation science and practice are described. Through implementation of this vision, we can lead an evolution in rehabilitation practice to ultimately prevent disabilities, predict better outcomes, exploit plasticity, and promote participation.

  10. Uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice: lessons learned from a knowledge translation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joan M; Browne, Annette J; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Lynam, M Judith; Rodney, Paddy; Varcoe, Colleen; Wong, Sabrina; Tan, Elsie; Smye, Victoria; McDonald, Heather; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; Reimer, Joanne; Peltonen, Adrienne; Brar, Anureet

    2010-09-01

    This article is based on a knowledge translation (KT) study of the transition of patients from hospital to home. It focuses on the lessons learned about the challenges of translating research-derived critical knowledge in practice settings. The authors situate the article in current discourses about KT; discuss their understanding of the nature of critical knowledge; and present themes from their body of research, which comprises the knowledge that was translated. The findings have the potential to guide future KT research that focuses on the uptake of critical knowledge in nursing practice.

  11. Knowledge translation in health care as a multimodal interactional accomplishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of their education where they are in clinical practice. The analysis is made possible through video recordings of how student nurses translate their theoretical knowledge into a professional situational conduct in everyday interactional accomplishments among supervisors and patients. The analysis shows how some......In the theory of health care, knowledge translation is regarded as a crucial phenomenon that makes the whole health care system work in a desired manner. The present paper studies knowledge translation from the student nurses’ perspective and does that through a close analysis of the part...... knowledge gets translated through the use of rich multimodal embodied interactions, whereas the more abstract aspects of knowledge remain untranslated. Overall, the study contributes to the understanding of knowledge translation as a multimodal, locally situated accomplishment....

  12. Systematic reviews and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugwell, Peter; Robinson, Vivian; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Santesso, Nancy

    2006-08-01

    Proven effective interventions exist that would enable all countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals. However, uptake and use of these interventions in the poorest populations is at least 50% less than in the richest populations within each country. Also, we have recently shown that community effectiveness of interventions is lower for the poorest populations due to a "staircase" effect of lower coverage/access, worse diagnostic accuracy, less provider compliance and less consumer adherence. We propose an evidence-based framework for equity-oriented knowledge translation to enhance community effectiveness and health equity. This framework is represented as a cascade of steps to assess and prioritize barriers and thus choose effective knowledge translation interventions that are tailored for relevant audiences (public, patient, practitioner, policy-maker, press and private sector), as well as the evaluation, monitoring and sharing of these strategies. We have used two examples of effective interventions (insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria and childhood immunization) to illustrate how this framework can provide a systematic method for decision-makers to ensure the application of evidence-based knowledge in disadvantaged populations. Future work to empirically validate and evaluate the usefulness of this framework is needed. We invite researchers and implementers to use the cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation as a guide when planning implementation strategies for proven effective interventions. We also encourage policy-makers and health-care managers to use this framework when deciding how effective interventions can be implemented in their own settings.

  13. Translational science: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephen H

    2008-02-01

    The concept of translational science is at least 15 years old. However, in its most recent incarnation, it represents the identification of a funding category designed to encourage academic participation in a critical stage of the drug discovery and product development process. It is hoped that this will make the process both shorter and more efficient. In this review, the author first considers the historical development of the pharmaceutical R&D process. The place of translational science in the process, the scientific techniques involved, and aspects of the business environment necessary for its success are then considered. Translational science does not displace preclinical development. Both concepts are relevant to the paramount importance of successfully and expeditiously bridging the gap between preclinical science and clinical testing, "from bench to bedside." Translational science is particularly likely to stimulate biomarker research in the universities and related business community and will probably give a modest boost to early clinical testing and commercialization of discoveries within the academic setting. Whether there will be a consequent improvement in the quality and efficiency of the overall process remains to be seen.

  14. Africa Centre for Systematic Reviews and Knowledge Translation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa Centre for Systematic Reviews and Knowledge Translation ... It will also establish greater self-reliance for evidence synthesis and knowledge translation to bridge the gaps between research and health policy. ... Institution. Makerere University. Pays d' institution. Uganda. Site internet. http://www.makerere.ac.ug ...

  15. Knowledge Translation: The Bridging Function of Cochrane Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Gimigliano, Francesca; Arienti, Chiara; Kiekens, Carlotte

    2017-12-12

    Cochrane Rehabilitation is aimed to ensure that all rehabilitation professionals can apply Evidence Based Clinical Practice and take decisions according to the best and most appropriate evidence in this specific field, combining the best available evidence as gathered by high-quality Cochrane systematic reviews, with their own clinical expertise and the values of patients. This mission can be pursued through knowledge translation. The aim of this article is to shortly present what knowledge translation is, how and why Cochrane (previously known as Cochrane Collaboration) is trying to reorganize itself in light of knowledge translation, and the relevance that this process has for Cochrane Rehabilitation and in the end for the whole world of rehabilitation. It is well known how it is difficult to effectively apply in everyday life what we would like to do and to apply the scientific knowledge in the clinical field: this is called the know-do gap. In the field of evidence-based medicine, where Cochrane belongs, it has been proven that high-quality evidence is not consistently applied in practice. A solution to these problems is the so-called knowledge translation. In this context, Cochrane Rehabilitation is organized to provide the best possible knowledge translation in both directions (bridging function), obviously toward the world of rehabilitation (spreading reviews), but also to the Cochrane community (production of reviews significant for rehabilitation). Cochrane is now strongly pushing to improve its knowledge translation activities, and this creates a strong base for Cochrane Rehabilitation work, focused not only on spreading the evidence but also on improving its production to make it more meaningful for the world of rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Translational plant proteomics: A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic

  17. Is it time to drop the 'knowledge translation' metaphor? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wieringa, Sietse

    2011-12-01

    The literature on 'knowledge translation' presents challenges for the reviewer because different terms have been used to describe the generation, sharing and application of knowledge and different research approaches embrace different philosophical positions on what knowledge is. We present a narrative review of this literature which deliberately sought to highlight rather than resolve tensions between these different framings. Our findings suggest that while 'translation' is a widely used metaphor in medicine, it constrains how we conceptualise and study the link between knowledge and practice. The 'translation' metaphor has, arguably, led to particular difficulties in the fields of 'evidence-based management' and 'evidence-based policymaking' - where it seems that knowledge obstinately refuses to be driven unproblematically into practice. Many non-medical disciplines such as philosophy, sociology and organization science conceptualise knowledge very differently, as being (for example) 'created', 'constructed', 'embodied', 'performed' and 'collectively negotiated' - and also as being value-laden and tending to serve the vested interests of dominant élites. We propose that applying this wider range of metaphors and models would allow us to research the link between knowledge and practice in more creative and critical ways. We conclude that research should move beyond a narrow focus on the 'know-do gap' to cover a richer agenda, including: (a) the situation-specific practical wisdom (phronesis) that underpins clinical judgement; (b) the tacit knowledge that is built and shared among practitioners ('mindlines'); (c) the complex links between power and knowledge; and (d) approaches to facilitating macro-level knowledge partnerships between researchers, practitioners, policymakers and commercial interests.

  18. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  19. What can organisational theory offer knowledge translation in healthcare? A thematic and lexical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadich, Ann; Doloswala, Navin

    2018-05-10

    Despite the relative abundance of frameworks and models to guide implementation science, the explicit use of theory is limited. Bringing together two seemingly disparate fields of research, this article asks, what can organisational theory offer implementation science? This is examined by applying a theoretical lens that incorporates agency, institutional, and situated change theories to understand the implementation of healthcare knowledge into practice. Interviews were conducted with 20 general practitioners (GPs) before and after using a resource to facilitate evidence-based sexual healthcare. Research material was analysed using two approaches - researcher-driven thematic coding and lexical analysis, which was relatively less researcher-driven. The theoretical lens elucidated the complex pathways of knowledge translation. More specifically, agency theory revealed tensions between the GP as agent and their organisations and patients as principals. Institutional theory highlighted the importance of GP-embeddedness within their chosen specialty of general practice; their medical profession; and the practice in which they worked. Situated change theory exposed the role of localised adaptations over time - a metamorphosis. This study has theoretical, methodological, and practical implications. Theoretically, it is the first to examine knowledge translation using a lens premised on agency, institutional, and situated change theories. Methodologically, the study highlights the complementary value of researcher-driven and researcher-guided analysis of qualitative research material. Practically, this study signposts opportunities to facilitate knowledge translation - more specifically, it suggests that efforts to shape clinician practices should accommodate the interrelated influence of the agent and the institution, and recognise that change can be ever so subtle.

  20. National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM): advancing the field of translational medicine and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Quevedo, João; Roesler, Rafael; Schröder, Nadja; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-03-01

    Translational medicine has been described as the integrated application of innovative pharmacology tools, biomarkers, clinical methods, clinical technologies and study designs to improve the understanding of medical disorders. In medicine, translational research offers an opportunity for applying the findings obtained from basic research to every-day clinical applications. The National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is comprised of six member institutions (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade de São Paulo-Ribeirão Preto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Estadual de Santa Catarina and a core facility that serves all centers). The objectives of the project are divided into four areas: Institutional, Research, Human Resources and Technology for the Community and Productive Sector. In this manuscript, we describe some of the approaches used to attain the main objectives of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine, which include the development of 1) animal models for bipolar disorder; 2) strategies to investigate neurobehavioral function and cognitive dysfunction associated with brain disorders; 3) experimental models of brain function and behavior, neuropsychiatric disorders, cell proliferation, and cancer; 4) Simulated Public Speaking and 5) Virtual reality simulation for inducing panic disorder and agoraphobia. The main focus of the National Science and Technology Institute for Translational Medicine is the development of more useful methods that allow for a better application of basic research-based knowledge to the medical field.

  1. The contribution of conceptual frameworks to knowledge translation interventions in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Anne; Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  2. The Contribution of Conceptual Frameworks to Knowledge Translation Interventions in Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Mathieu-Joël; Hunt, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of knowledge translation activities in physical therapy to ensure that research findings are integrated into clinical practice, and increasing numbers of knowledge translation interventions are being conducted. Although various frameworks have been developed to guide and facilitate the process of translating knowledge into practice, these tools have been infrequently used in physical therapy knowledge translation studies to date. Knowledge translation in physical therapy implicates multiple stakeholders and environments and involves numerous steps. In light of this complexity, the use of explicit conceptual frameworks by clinicians and researchers conducting knowledge translation interventions is associated with a range of potential benefits. This perspective article argues that such frameworks are important resources to promote the uptake of new evidence in physical therapist practice settings. Four key benefits associated with the use of conceptual frameworks in designing and implementing knowledge translation interventions are identified, and limits related to their use are considered. A sample of 5 conceptual frameworks is evaluated, and how they address common barriers to knowledge translation in physical therapy is assessed. The goal of this analysis is to provide guidance to physical therapists seeking to identify a framework to support the design and implementation of a knowledge translation intervention. Finally, the use of a conceptual framework is illustrated through a case example. Increased use of conceptual frameworks can have a positive impact on the field of knowledge translation in physical therapy and support the development and implementation of robust and effective knowledge translation interventions that help span the research-practice gap. PMID:25060959

  3. Evidence-based decision-making 7: Knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Braden J

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant gap between what is known and what is implemented by key stakeholders in practice (the evidence to practice gap). The primary purpose of knowledge translation is to address this gap, bridging evidence to clinical practice. The knowledge to action cycle is one framework for knowledge translation that integrates policy-makers throughout the research cycle. The knowledge to action cycle begins with the identification of a problem (usually a gap in care provision). After identification of the problem, knowledge creation is undertaken, depicted at the center of the cycle as a funnel. Knowledge inquiry is at the wide end of the funnel, and moving down the funnel, the primary data is synthesized into knowledge products in the form of educational materials, guidelines, decision aids, or clinical pathways. The remaining components of the knowledge to action cycle refer to the action of applying the knowledge that has been created. This includes adapting knowledge to local context, assessing barriers to knowledge use, selecting, tailoring implementing interventions, monitoring knowledge use, evaluating outcomes, and sustaining knowledge use. Each of these steps is connected by bidirectional arrows and ideally involves healthcare decision-makers and key stakeholders at each transition.

  4. Learning, Unlearning and Relearning--Knowledge Life Cycles in Library and Information Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Denise A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge life cycle is applied to two core capabilities of library and information science (LIS) education--teaching, and research and development. The knowledge claim validation, invalidation and integration steps of the knowledge life cycle are translated to learning, unlearning and relearning processes. Mixed methods are used to determine…

  5. The Sydney West Knowledge Portal: Evaluating the Growth of a Knowledge Portal to Support Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Robinson, Tracy Elizabeth; Provan, Pamela; Shaw, Tim

    2016-06-29

    The Sydney West Translational Cancer Research Centre is an organization funded to build capacity for translational research in cancer. Translational research is essential for ensuring the integration of best available evidence into practice and for improving patient outcomes. However, there is a low level of awareness regarding what it is and how to conduct it optimally. One solution to addressing this gap is the design and deployment of web-based knowledge portals to disseminate new knowledge and engage with and connect dispersed networks of researchers. A knowledge portal is an web-based platform for increasing knowledge dissemination and management in a specialized area. To measure the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal for increasing individual awareness of translational research and to build organizational capacity for the delivery of translational research projects in cancer. An adaptive methodology was used to capture the design and growth of an web-based knowledge portal in cancer. This involved stakeholder consultations to inform initial design of the portal. Once the portal was live, site analytics were reviewed to evaluate member usage of the portal and to measure growth in membership. Knowledge portal membership grew consistently for the first 18 months after deployment, before leveling out. Analysis of site metrics revealed members were most likely to visit portal pages with community-generated content, particularly pages with a focus on translational research. This was closely followed by pages that disseminated educational material about translational research. Preliminary data from this study suggest that knowledge portals may be beneficial tools for translating new evidence and fostering an environment of communication and collaboration.

  6. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  7. Knowledge translation in eHealth: building a virtual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis; Hagens, Simon; Leaver, Chad; Price, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge can be powerful in eliciting positive change when it is put into action. This is the belief that drives knowledge translation. The University of Victoria (UVic) eHealth Observatory is focused on deriving knowledge from health information system (HIS) evaluation, which needs to be shared with HIS practitioners. Through an application of the Knowledge-to-Action Framework and the concept of a virtual community, we have established the virtual eHealth Benefits Evaluation Knowledge Translation (KT) Community. This paper describes the foundational elements of the KT Community and our overall KT strategy.

  8. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  9. Translators vs pharmacists as successful interlingual knowledge mediators?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth

    a contrastive source text/target text linguistic framework focussing on elements such as the use of nominalization, compounds nouns, medical terminology and other formal register. Findings showed significant differences between the two translator groups. My findings revealed that the nature of the translator......Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) were introduced in the EU as mandatory texts accompanying all medication informing users about dosage, side effects, etc. in order to foster informed decision-making and patient empowerment. By its nature, the PIL genre is complex aiming at instructing lay people...... about complex medical content, i.e. mediation of specialized medical knowledge across a knowledge asymmetry. Within the EU, this intralingual translation is further complicated by an interlingual dimension as PILs must be translated from English into all other 23 EU languages. Legally, PILs must...

  10. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical application: challenges for genomic translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Wylie; Korngiebel, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Despite early predictions and rapid progress in research, the introduction of personal genomics into clinical practice has been slow. Several factors contribute to this translational gap between knowledge and clinical application. The evidence available to support genetic test use is often limited, and implementation of new testing programs can be challenging. In addition, the heterogeneity of genomic risk information points to the need for strategies to select and deliver the information most appropriate for particular clinical needs. Accomplishing these tasks also requires recognition that some expectations for personal genomics are unrealistic, notably expectations concerning the clinical utility of genomic risk assessment for common complex diseases. Efforts are needed to improve the body of evidence addressing clinical outcomes for genomics, apply implementation science to personal genomics, and develop realistic goals for genomic risk assessment. In addition, translational research should emphasize the broader benefits of genomic knowledge, including applications of genomic research that provide clinical benefit outside the context of personal genomic risk.

  11. Knowledge translation to fitness trainers: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Kristi B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates approaches for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers. Specific questions were: Where do fitness trainers get their evidence-based information? What types of interventions are effective for translating evidence-based knowledge for use by fitness trainers? What are the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence-based information by fitness trainers in their practice? Methods We describe a systematic review of studies about knowledge translation interventions targeting fitness trainers. Fitness trainers were defined as individuals who provide exercise program design and supervision services to the public. Nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, school teachers, athletic trainers, and sport team strength coaches were excluded. Results Of 634 citations, two studies were eligible for inclusion: a survey of 325 registered health fitness professionals (66% response rate and a qualitative study of 10 fitness instructors. Both studies identified that fitness trainers obtain information from textbooks, networking with colleagues, scientific journals, seminars, and mass media. Fitness trainers holding higher levels of education are reported to use evidence-based information sources such as scientific journals compared to those with lower education levels, who were reported to use mass media sources. The studies identified did not evaluate interventions to translate evidence-based knowledge for fitness trainers and did not explore factors influencing uptake of evidence in their practice. Conclusion Little is known about how fitness trainers obtain and incorporate new evidence-based knowledge into their practice. Further exploration and specific research is needed to better understand how emerging health-fitness evidence can be translated to maximize its use by fitness trainers providing services to the general public.

  12. "Exploring knowledge-user experiences in integrated knowledge translation: a biomedical investigation of the causes and consequences of food allergy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jenna; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2016-01-01

    practices for treatment. Formed to tackle these very questions, the GET-FACTS (Genetics, Environment and Therapies: Food Allergy Clinical Tolerance Studies) research study centers around a novel concept in biomedical research: in order to make this science useful, knowledge creation must include meaningful interactions with knowledge-users, known as Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT). In IKT, knowledge-users are present at every stage of the research and are crucial, central and equal contributors. This paper contributes to this exciting form of research by reflecting on the beginning of that journey from the perspective of the knowledge-users. Semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted in year 2 of the 5 year GET-FACTS project with all ( n  = 9) non-scientist members of the GET-FACTS steering committee, representing Canadian organizations that deal with patient advocacy and policy with regards to food allergy. Transcripts were coded and organized by themes developed both deductively and inductively. Steering committee members indicated a clear sense that scientists and knowledge-users are equally responsible for the translation of knowledge into action and the importance of consulting and integrating knowledge-users throughout research. Overall, these knowledge-users have very high expectations for the GET-FACTS IKT process; they feel that this model of doing science will create better scientists (e.g. improve communication skills) and make the resulting science more useful and relevant; indeed, they reported that this model of knowledge creation can be paradigm shifting. This study highlights both the unique contributions that knowledge-users can offer to knowledge creation as well as the challenges of trying to unify members from such different communities (policy/advocacy and biomedical science). While our steering committee has a strong conceptual grasp on IKT and vision for their contributions, execution is not without challenges. There remains a real

  13. A Landscape for Training in Dementia Knowledge Translation (DKT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Judy; Chahal, Neil; Beattie, B. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful translation of dementia research findings from the bench to the bedside is dependent on the quality of the knowledge to transfer and the availability and skills of investigators engaged in the knowledge translation process. Although there is no shortage of research on dementia, the latter has been more challenging. Results from a survey…

  14. Knowledge Translation for Cardiovascular Disease Research and Management in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shommu, Nusrat S; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge translation is an essential and emerging arena in healthcare research. It is the process of aiding the application of research knowledge into clinical practice or policymaking. Individuals at all levels of the health care system, including patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers, are affected by the gaps that exist between research evidence and practice; the process of knowledge translation plays a role in bridging these gaps and incorporating high-quality clinical research into decision-making. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) management is a crucial area of healthcare where information gaps are known to exist. Although Japan has one of the lowest risks and mortality rates from CVDs, an increasing trend of cardiovascular incidence and changes in the risk factor conditions have been observed in recent years. This article provides an overview of knowledge translation and its importance in the cardiovascular health of the Japanese population, and describes the key steps of a typical knowledge translation strategy.

  15. Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps--an open letter to world leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekim, Nezih; Coşkun, Yavuz; Sınav, Ahmet; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K; Karaömerlioğlu, M Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Sardaş, Şemra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit; Özdemir, Vural

    2014-07-01

    Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health"--encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health--thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21(st) century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21(st) century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly

  16. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.

  17. Knowledge translation in healthcare: Incorporating theories of learning and knowledge from the management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Racko, Girts

    2013-01-01

    The authors draw selectively on theories of learning and knowledge, which currently have received little attention from knowledge translation (KT) researchers, and suggest how they might usefully inform future development of the KT literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide conceptual tools and strategies for the growing number of managers, clinicians and decision makers navigating this arena The authors conducted a narrative review to synthesise two streams of literature and examine evolving conceptual landscape concerning knowledge translation over the previous three decades. Conceptual mapping was used iteratively to develop and synthesise the literature. Iterative feedback from relevant research and practice stakeholder groups was used to focus and strengthen the review. KT has been conceptualised along three competing frames; one focusing on linear (largely unidirectional) transfer of knowledge; one focusing on KT as a social process; and another that seeks to more fully incorporate contextual issues in understanding research implementation. Three overlapping themes are found in the management literature that inform these debates in the health literature, namely knowledge boundaries, organisational learning and absorptive capacity. Literature on knowledge boundaries problematizes the nature of boundaries and the stickiness of knowledge. Organisational learning conceptualises the need for organisational wide systems to facilitate learning processes; it also draws on a more expansive view of knowledge. Absorptive capacity focuses at the firm level on the role of developing organisational capabilities that enable the identification, assimilation and use of new knowledge to enable innovation. The paper highlights the need to consider KT processes at multiple levels, including individual, organisational and strategic levels. These are important not only for research but also have practical implications for individuals and organisations involved in KT

  18. Translational medicine: science or wishful thinking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehling Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Translational medicine" as a fashionable term is being increasingly used to describe the wish of biomedical researchers to ultimately help patients. Despite increased efforts and investments into R&D, the output of novel medicines has been declining dramatically over the past years. Improvement of translation is thought to become a remedy as one of the reasons for this widening gap between input and output is the difficult transition between preclinical ("basic" and clinical stages in the R&D process. Animal experiments, test tube analyses and early human trials do simply not reflect the patient situation well enough to reliably predict efficacy and safety of a novel compound or device. This goal, however, can only be achieved if the translational processes are scientifically backed up by robust methods some of which still need to be developed. This mainly relates to biomarker development and predictivity assessment, biostatistical methods, smart and accelerated early human study designs and decision algorithms among other features. It is therefore claimed that a new science needs to be developed called 'translational science in medicine'.

  19. Community-based participatory research and integrated knowledge translation: advancing the co-creation of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Giles, Audrey; Graham, Ian D

    2017-12-19

    Better use of research evidence (one form of "knowledge") in health systems requires partnerships between researchers and those who contend with the real-world needs and constraints of health systems. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and integrated knowledge translation (IKT) are research approaches that emphasize the importance of creating partnerships between researchers and the people for whom the research is ultimately meant to be of use ("knowledge users"). There exist poor understandings of the ways in which these approaches converge and diverge. Better understanding of the similarities and differences between CBPR and IKT will enable researchers to use these approaches appropriately and to leverage best practices and knowledge from each. The co-creation of knowledge conveys promise of significant social impacts, and further understandings of how to engage and involve knowledge users in research are needed. We examine the histories and traditions of CBPR and IKT, as well as their points of convergence and divergence. We critically evaluate the ways in which both have the potential to contribute to the development and integration of knowledge in health systems. As distinct research traditions, the underlying drivers and rationale for CBPR and IKT have similarities and differences across the areas of motivation, social location, and ethics; nevertheless, the practices of CBPR and IKT converge upon a common aim: the co-creation of knowledge that is the result of knowledge user and researcher expertise. We argue that while CBPR and IKT both have the potential to contribute evidence to implementation science and practices for collaborative research, clarity for the purpose of the research-social change or application-is a critical feature in the selection of an appropriate collaborative approach to build knowledge. CBPR and IKT bring distinct strengths to a common aim: to foster democratic processes in the co-creation of knowledge. As research

  20. Ebola: translational science considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A

    2015-01-16

    We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus

  1. Exploring Gaps in Concussion Knowledge and Knowledge Translation Among Coaches of Youth Female Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, David; Verweel, Lee; Reed, Nick

    2017-10-27

    To better understand the level of concussion knowledge of youth female hockey coaches and to identify preferred methods of knowledge translation for this population. Cross-sectional survey. Participants independently completed written surveys before in-person concussion information sessions or online surveys through link provided in emails. Convenience sampling yielded 130 coaches of youth female hockey from Canada. Knowledge level on concussion, resources from which coaches obtained information on concussion, opinions on the current level of concussion knowledge, and knowledge translation. Coaches demonstrated adequate knowledge on concussion, achieving 84% correct on true-false questions and 92% correct on symptom identification accuracy. However, coaches showed limited awareness of concussion specific to mechanisms for injury (identification) and postconcussion symptoms. Internet resources were rated as the most used resources for concussion yet were not rated very helpful. Nonetheless, coaches indicated online courses and web sites as the most preferred method for concussion knowledge translation. Youth female hockey coaches have overall adequate knowledge of concussion; however, gaps in knowledge do exist. Future efforts to raise the concussion knowledge among coaches of female youth hockey should include information specific to the mechanism of injury, along with sign and symptom identification, with particular attention paid to emotional symptoms. Given the reported preferences and the widespread availability of the Internet, further exploration and research validation of online courses and web sites tailored to the youth female hockey community is encouraged.

  2. The development of a classification schema for arts-based approaches to knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Mandy M; Caine, Vera; Scott, Shannon D

    2014-10-01

    Arts-based approaches to knowledge translation are emerging as powerful interprofessional strategies with potential to facilitate evidence uptake, communication, knowledge, attitude, and behavior change across healthcare provider and consumer groups. These strategies are in the early stages of development. To date, no classification system for arts-based knowledge translation exists, which limits development and understandings of effectiveness in evidence syntheses. We developed a classification schema of arts-based knowledge translation strategies based on two mechanisms by which these approaches function: (a) the degree of precision in key message delivery, and (b) the degree of end-user participation. We demonstrate how this classification is necessary to explore how context, time, and location shape arts-based knowledge translation strategies. Classifying arts-based knowledge translation strategies according to their core attributes extends understandings of the appropriateness of these approaches for various healthcare settings and provider groups. The classification schema developed may enhance understanding of how, where, and for whom arts-based knowledge translation approaches are effective, and enable theorizing of essential knowledge translation constructs, such as the influence of context, time, and location on utilization strategies. The classification schema developed may encourage systematic inquiry into the effectiveness of these approaches in diverse interprofessional contexts. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Toward actionable science: Empowering ecologists to engage in the process of translation through decision-maker and stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, C.; Jackson, S. T.; Garfin, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Translational ecology is an approach by which ecologists, stakeholders, and decision-makers work collaboratively to develop and deliver ecological research that, ideally, results in actionable science that leads to improved environmental decision-making. We analyzed a diverse array of real-world case studies and distilled six principles that characterize the practice of translational ecology: communication, commitment, collaboration, engagement, process, and decision-framing. In this talk, we highlight a subset of the case studies that illustrate these principles. Notably, we found that translational ecology is distinct from both basic and applied ecological research. As a practice, the approach deliberately extends research beyond theory or opportunistic applications, motivated by a search for outcomes that directly serve the needs of natural resource managers and decision-makers. Translational ecology is also distinct from knowledge co-production in that it does not require deep engagement between collaborators, although incorporating differing modes of co-production relative to the decision context, associated time frame, and available financial resources can greatly enhance the translational approach. Although there is a need for incentives to pursue in this type of work, we found that the creativity and context-specific knowledge of resource managers, practitioners, and decision-makers informs and enriches the scientific process, helping shape actionable science. Moreover, the process of addressing research questions arising from on-the-ground management issues, rather than from the top-down or expert-oriented perspectives of traditional science, can foster the long-term trust and commitment that is critical for long-term, sustained engagement between partners. Now, perhaps more than ever, the climate and environmental issues facing society are complex, often politicized, and value-laden. We argue that ecological science should play a key role in informing

  4. Understanding context in knowledge translation: a concept analysis study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Graham, Ian D; Hutchinson, Alison M; Linklater, Stefanie; Brehaut, Jamie C; Curran, Janet; Ivers, Noah; Lavis, John N; Michie, Susan; Sales, Anne E; Fiander, Michelle; Fenton, Shannon; Noseworthy, Thomas; Vine, Jocelyn; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a concept analysis of clinical practice contexts (work environments) that facilitate or militate against the uptake of research evidence by healthcare professionals in clinical practice. This will involve developing a clear definition of context by describing its features, domains and defining characteristics. The context where clinical care is delivered influences that care. While research shows that context is important to knowledge translation (implementation), we lack conceptual clarity on what is context, which contextual factors probably modify the effect of knowledge translation interventions (and hence should be considered when designing interventions) and which contextual factors themselves could be targeted as part of a knowledge translation intervention (context modification). Concept analysis. The Walker and Avant concept analysis method, comprised of eight systematic steps, will be used: (1) concept selection; (2) determination of aims; (3) identification of uses of context; (4) determination of defining attributes of context; (5) identification/construction of a model case of context; (6) identification/construction of additional cases of context; (7) identification/construction of antecedents and consequences of context; and (8) definition of empirical referents of context. This study is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (January 2014). This study will result in a much needed framework of context for knowledge translation, which identifies specific elements that, if assessed and used to tailor knowledge translation activities, will result in increased research use by nurses and other healthcare professionals in clinical practice, ultimately leading to better patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Inspiring hope-A physician's responsibility, translating the science into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Walley J

    2018-03-01

    Giving hope to patients is our responsibility. It is the essence of a meaningful practice in medicine. Science now allows us to understand this complex and multidimensional human dynamic, and translate it into clinical practice. Quantitative research has shown hope is strong even in terminal illness. Through qualitative methodology hope fostering strategies and hope hindering behaviors have been identified. This exciting new knowledge facilitates the challenging task of disclosure of bad news while enabling hope. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  7. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  8. Translating Biotechnology to Knowledge-Based Innovation, Peace, and Development? Deploy a Science Peace Corps—An Open Letter to World Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Ağırbaşlı, Mehmet; Akintola, Simisola O.; Aynacıoğlu, Şükrü; Bayram, Mustafa; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Dandara, Collet; Dereli, Türkay; Dove, Edward S.; Elbeyli, Levent; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Erciyas, Kamile; Faris, Jack; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Güngör, Kıvanç; Gürsoy, Mervi; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.; Karaömerlioğlu, M. Asım; Kickbusch, Ilona; Kılıç, Türker; Kılınç, Metin; Kocagöz, Tanıl; Lin, Biaoyang; LLerena, Adrián; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Nair, Bipin; Özkan, Bülent; Pang, Tikki; Şardaş, Semra; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Toraman, Cengiz; Üstün, Kemal; Warnich, Louise; Wonkam, Ambroise; Yakıcıer, Mustafa Cengiz; Yaşar, Ümit

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of “one health”—encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health—thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed

  9. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  10. Knowledge translation interventions for critically ill patients: a systematic review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuff, Tasnim; Muscedere, John; Adhikari, Neill K J; Stelfox, Henry T; Dodek, Peter; Heyland, Daren K; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Cook, Deborah J; Pinto, Ruxandra; Manoharan, Venika; Currie, Jan; Cahill, Naomi; Friedrich, Jan O; Amaral, Andre; Piquette, Dominique; Scales, Damon C; Dhanani, Sonny; Garland, Allan

    2013-11-01

    We systematically reviewed ICU-based knowledge translation studies to assess the impact of knowledge translation interventions on processes and outcomes of care. We searched electronic databases (to July, 2010) without language restrictions and hand-searched reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing any ICU-based knowledge translation intervention (e.g., protocols, guidelines, and audit and feedback) to management without a knowledge translation intervention. We focused on clinical topics that were addressed in greater than or equal to five studies. Pairs of reviewers abstracted data on the clinical topic, knowledge translation intervention(s), process of care measures, and patient outcomes. For each individual or combination of knowledge translation intervention(s) addressed in greater than or equal to three studies, we summarized each study using median risk ratio for dichotomous and standardized mean difference for continuous process measures. We used random-effects models. Anticipating a small number of randomized controlled trials, our primary meta-analyses included randomized controlled trials and observational studies. In separate sensitivity analyses, we excluded randomized controlled trials and collapsed protocols, guidelines, and bundles into one category of intervention. We conducted meta-analyses for clinical outcomes (ICU and hospital mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay) related to interventions that were associated with improvements in processes of care. From 11,742 publications, we included 119 investigations (seven randomized controlled trials, 112 observational studies) on nine clinical topics. Interventions that included protocols with or without education improved continuous process measures (seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial; standardized

  11. Translational plant proteomics: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Pedreschi, Romina; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Cramer, Rainer; Sarkar, Abhijit; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Rakwal, Randeep

    2012-08-03

    Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic values of plants, food security and safety, and energy sustainability. In this review, we highlight the substantial progress reached in plant proteomics during the past decade which has paved the way for translational plant proteomics. Increasing proteomics knowledge in plants is not limited to model and non-model plants, proteogenomics, crop improvement, and food analysis, safety, and nutrition but to many more potential applications. Given the wealth of information generated and to some extent applied, there is the need for more efficient and broader channels to freely disseminate the information to the scientific community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge translation for nephrologists: strategies for improving the identification of patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Manns, Braden J; Straus, Sharon; Naugler, Christopher; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Braun, Ted C; Levin, Adeera; Klarenbach, Scott; Lee, Patrick F; Hafez, Kevin; Schwartz, Daniel; Jindal, Kailash; Ervin, Kathy; Bello, Aminu; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; McBrien, Kerry; Elliott, Meghan; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    For health scientists, knowledge translation refers to the process of facilitating uptake of knowledge into clinical practice or decision making. Since high-quality clinical research that is not applied cannot improve outcomes, knowledge translation is critical for realizing the value and potential for all types of health research. Knowledge translation is particularly relevant for areas within health care where gaps in care are known to exist, which is the case for some areas of management for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including assessment of proteinuria. Given that proteinuria is a key marker of cardiovascular and renal risk, forthcoming international practice guidelines will recommend including proteinuria within staging systems for CKD. While this revised staging system will facilitate identification of patients at higher risk for progression of CKD and mortality who benefit from intervention, strategies to ensure its appropriate uptake will be particularly important. This article describes key elements of effective knowledge translation strategies based on the knowledge-to-action cycle framework and describes options for effective knowledge translation interventions related to the new CKD guidelines, focusing on recommendations related to assessment for proteinuria specifically. The article also presents findings from a multidisciplinary meeting aimed at developing knowledge translation intervention strategies, with input from key stakeholders (researchers, knowledge users, decision makers and collaborators), to facilitate implementation of this guideline. These considerations are relevant for dissemination and implementation of guidelines on other topics and in other clinical settings.

  13. Use of Sports Science Knowledge by Turkish Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    KILIC, KORAY; INCE, MUSTAFA LEVENT

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the following research questions in Turkish coaching context: a) What are coaches’ perceptions on the application of sport science research to their coaching methods? b) What sources do coaches utilize to obtain the knowledge they need? c) What barriers do coaches encounter when trying to access and apply the knowledge they need for their sport? In addition, differences in research questions responses were examined based on gender, years of coaching experience, academic educational level, coaching certificate level, coaching team or individual sports, and being paid or unpaid for coaching. The participants were 321 coaches (255 men, 66 women) from diverse sports and coaching levels working in Ankara. The questionnaire “New Ideas for Coaches” by Reade, Rodgers and Hall (2008) was translated, adapted into Turkish, and validated for the current study. According to our findings among Turkish coaches, there is a high prevalence of beliefs that sport science contributes to sport (79.8%);however, there are gaps between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being conducted. Coaches are most likely to attend seminars or consult other coaches to get new information. Scientific publications were ranked very low by the coaches in getting current information. The barriers to coaches’ access to sport science research are finding out the sources of information, being able to implement the sport science knowledge into the field of coaching, lack of monetary support in acquiring knowledge, and language barriers. Also, differences in perceptions and preferences for obtaining new information were identified based on coaches’ gender, coaching contexts (i.e., professional-amateur), coaching settings (i.e., team/individual), and their other demographic characteristics (i.e., coaching experience, coaching educational level, and coaching certificate level). Future coach education programs should emphasize the development of

  14. Use of Sports Science Knowledge by Turkish Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Koray; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    The purpose of this study is to examine the following research questions in Turkish coaching context: a) What are coaches' perceptions on the application of sport science research to their coaching methods? b) What sources do coaches utilize to obtain the knowledge they need? c) What barriers do coaches encounter when trying to access and apply the knowledge they need for their sport? In addition, differences in research questions responses were examined based on gender, years of coaching experience, academic educational level, coaching certificate level, coaching team or individual sports, and being paid or unpaid for coaching. The participants were 321 coaches (255 men, 66 women) from diverse sports and coaching levels working in Ankara. The questionnaire "New Ideas for Coaches" by Reade, Rodgers and Hall (2008) was translated, adapted into Turkish, and validated for the current study. According to our findings among Turkish coaches, there is a high prevalence of beliefs that sport science contributes to sport (79.8%);however, there are gaps between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being conducted. Coaches are most likely to attend seminars or consult other coaches to get new information. Scientific publications were ranked very low by the coaches in getting current information. The barriers to coaches' access to sport science research are finding out the sources of information, being able to implement the sport science knowledge into the field of coaching, lack of monetary support in acquiring knowledge, and language barriers. Also, differences in perceptions and preferences for obtaining new information were identified based on coaches' gender, coaching contexts (i.e., professional-amateur), coaching settings (i.e., team/individual), and their other demographic characteristics (i.e., coaching experience, coaching educational level, and coaching certificate level). Future coach education programs should emphasize the development of coaches

  15. The Culture of Translational Science Research: Participants' Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R

    2013-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of "scientist" to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research.

  16. A knowledge translation project on community-centred approaches in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, J; South, J

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the development and impact of a national knowledge translation project aimed at improving access to evidence and learning on community-centred approaches for health and wellbeing. Structural changes in the English health system meant that knowledge on community engagement was becoming lost and a fragmented evidence base was seen to impact negatively on policy and practice. A partnership started between Public Health England, NHS England and Leeds Beckett University in 2014 to address these issues. Following a literature review and stakeholder consultation, evidence was published in a national guide to community-centred approaches. This was followed by a programme of work to translate the evidence into national strategy and local practice.The article outlines the key features of the knowledge translation framework developed. Results include positive impacts on local practice and national policy, for example adoption within National Institute for Health and Care Evidence (NICE) guidance and Local Authority public health plans and utilization as a tool for local audit of practice and commissioning. The framework was successful in its non-linear approach to knowledge translation across a range of inter-connected activity, built on national leadership, knowledge brokerage, coalition building and a strong collaboration between research institute and government agency.

  17. Designing a post-genomics knowledge ecosystem to translate pharmacogenomics into public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Faraj, Samer A; Kolker, Eugene; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-01-01

    Translation of pharmacogenomics to public health action is at the epicenter of the life sciences agenda. Post-genomics knowledge is simultaneously co-produced at multiple scales and locales by scientists, crowd-sourcing and biological citizens. The latter are entrepreneurial citizens who are autonomous, self-governing and increasingly conceptualizing themselves in biological terms, ostensibly taking responsibility for their own health, and engaging in patient advocacy and health activism. By studying these heterogeneous 'scientific cultures', we can locate innovative parameters of collective action to move pharmacogenomics to practice (personalized therapeutics). To this end, we reconceptualize knowledge-based innovation as a complex ecosystem comprising 'actors' and 'narrators'. For robust knowledge translation, we require a nested post-genomics technology governance system composed of first-order narrators (for example, social scientists, philosophers, bioethicists) situated at arm's length from innovation actors (for example, pharmacogenomics scientists). Yet, second-order narrators (for example, an independent and possibly crowd-funded think-tank of citizen scholars, marginalized groups and knowledge end-users) are crucial to prevent first-order narrators from gaining excessive power that can be misused in the course of steering innovations. To operate such 'self-calibrating' and nested innovation ecosystems, we introduce the concept of 'wiki-governance' to enable mutual and iterative learning among innovation actors and first- and second-order narrators. '[A] scientific expert is someone who knows more and more about less and less, until finally knowing (almost) everything about (almost) nothing.' [1] 'Ubuntu: I am because you are.' [2].

  18. Africa Centre for Systematic Reviews and Knowledge Translation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Several initiatives focused on bridging the "know-do" gap emphasize ... and knowledge translation to bridge the gaps between research and health policy. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  19. Achieving conservation science that bridges the knowledge-action boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge-action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  20. Protocol for a systematic review of the use of narrative storytelling and visual-arts-based approaches as knowledge translation tools in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Brett-MacLean, Pamela; Archibald, Mandy; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-03-20

    The arts are powerful, accessible forms of communication that have the potential to impart knowledge by attracting interest and developing meaningful connections. Knowledge translation aims to reduce the 'evidence-practice' gap by developing, implementing and evaluating strategies designed to enhance awareness and promote behavior change congruent with research evidence. Increasingly, innovative approaches such as narrative storytelling and other arts-based interventions are being investigated to bridge the growing gap between practice and research. This study is the first to systematically identify and synthesize current research on narrative storytelling and visual art to translate and disseminate health research. A health research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify relevant evidence. Studies will be included if they are primary research employing narrative storytelling and/or visual art as a knowledge translation strategy in healthcare. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data will be grouped and analyzed by research design, type of knowledge translation strategy (that is, a narrative or visual-arts-based approach), and target audience. An overall synthesis across all studies will be conducted. The findings from this research project will describe the 'state of the science' regarding the use of narrative storytelling and visual art as knowledge translation strategies. This systematic review will provide critical information for: (1) researchers conducting knowledge translation intervention studies; (2) nursing, medicine, and allied healthcare professionals; (3) healthcare consumers, including patients and families; and (4) decision makers and knowledge users who are charged to increase use of the latest research in healthcare settings.

  1. Establishing a national knowledge translation and generation network in kidney disease: the CAnadian KidNey KNowledge TraNslation and GEneration NeTwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Braden; Barrett, Brendan; Evans, Michael; Garg, Amit; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Kappel, Joanne; Klarenbach, Scott; Madore, Francois; Parfrey, Patrick; Samuel, Susan; Soroka, Steven; Suri, Rita; Tonelli, Marcello; Wald, Ron; Walsh, Michael; Zappitelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) do not always receive care consistent with guidelines, in part due to complexities in CKD management, lack of randomized trial data to inform care, and a failure to disseminate best practice. At a 2007 conference of key Canadian stakeholders in kidney disease, attendees noted that the impact of Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) guidelines was attenuated given limited formal linkages between the CSN Clinical Practice Guidelines Group, kidney researchers, decision makers and knowledge users, and that further knowledge was required to guide care in patients with kidney disease. The idea for the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET) developed from this meeting. CANN-NET is a pan-Canadian network established in partnership with CSN, the Kidney Foundation of Canada and other professional societies to improve the care and outcomes of patients with and at risk for kidney disease. The initial priority areas for knowledge translation include improving optimal timing of dialysis initiation, and increasing the appropriate use of home dialysis. Given the urgent need for new knowledge, CANN-NET has also brought together a national group of experienced Canadian researchers to address knowledge gaps by encouraging and supporting multicentre randomized trials in priority areas, including management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney failure.

  2. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  3. Knowledge gain and behavioral change in citizen-science programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C; Gray, Steven A; Howe, David V; Brooks, Wesley R; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2011-12-01

    Citizen-science programs are often touted as useful for advancing conservation literacy, scientific knowledge, and increasing scientific-reasoning skills among the public. Guidelines for collaboration among scientists and the public are lacking and the extent to which these citizen-science initiatives change behavior is relatively unstudied. Over two years, we studied 82 participants in a three-day program that included education about non-native invasive plants and collection of data on the occurrence of those plants. Volunteers were given background knowledge about invasive plant ecology and trained on a specific protocol for collecting invasive plant data. They then collected data and later gathered as a group to analyze data and discuss responsible environmental behavior with respect to invasive plants. We tested whether participants without experience in plant identification and with little knowledge of invasive plants increased their knowledge of invasive species ecology, participation increased knowledge of scientific methods, and participation affected behavior. Knowledge of invasive plants increased on average 24%, but participation was insufficient to increase understanding of how scientific research is conducted. Participants reported increased ability to recognize invasive plants and increased awareness of effects of invasive plants on the environment, but this translated into little change in behavior regarding invasive plants. Potential conflicts between scientific goals, educational goals, and the motivation of participants must be considered during program design. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Personal Knowledge Management in the Training of Non-Literary Translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2009-01-01

    of problems. As Karl Popper states we may even say that a profession is a conglomerate of acknowledged problems and the disciplinary-internal resources with which to solve these problems (Popper 1979[1962]:108). The particular translation problem, which I will be discussing in this paper, was reintroduced...... to us by the German translation scholar Reiss back in the 1980s when she laconically stated that "you cannot translate what you do not understand". In this article I will discuss one particular aspect of this problem, namely how students of non-literary translation are currently taught to reach...... the ground for rethinking how we deal with subject matter in the training of non-literary translators   KEYWORDS   Translator training, translation curricula, subject matter competence, Personal Knowledge Management...

  5. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  6. Increasing knowledge of best practices for occupational therapists treating post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect: results of a knowledge-translation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Salbach, Nancy M; Ahmed, Sara; Menon, Anita; Ogourtsova, Tatiana

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the feasibility of delivering a multi-modal knowledge translation intervention specific to the management of acute post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect; and (ii) the impact of the knowledge translation intervention on occupational therapists' knowledge of evidence-based unilateral spatial neglect problem identification, assessment and treatment, and self-efficacy related to evidence-based practice implementation. A 3-period (pre-post) repeated measures design. Acute care occupational therapists treating patients with post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect were recruited from two major Canadian cities. Participants completed two pre-intervention assessments, took part in a day-long interactive multi-modal knowledge translation intervention and a subsequent 8-week follow-up, and completed a post-intervention assessment. Knowledge of evidence-based problem identification, assessment and treatment of unilateral spatial neglect, and self-efficacy to perform evidence-based practice activities were measured using standard scales. The intervention was tested on 20 occupational therapists. Results indicate a significant improvement in knowledge of best practice unilateral spatial neglect management (p knowledge translation intervention is feasible and can significantly improve occupational therapists' knowledge of unilateral spatial neglect best practices and self-efficacy. The findings should help advance best practices specific to the management of post-stroke unilateral spatial neglect as well as informing knowledge translation studies in other areas of practice.

  7. Communicating knowledge in science, science journalism and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    Richter. The specialized knowledge about the image is communicated in three very different contexts with three very different outcomes. The paper uses Niklas Luhmann's system theory to describe science, science journalism, and art as autonomous social subsystems of communication. Also, Luhmann's notions...... of irritation and interference are employed to frame an interpretation of the complex relations between communicating knowledge about the image in science, science journalism, and art. Even though the functional differentiation between the communication systems of science, science journalism, and art remains...... that Richter's Erster Blick ends up questioning the epistemological and ontological grounds for communication of knowledge in science and in science journalism....

  8. Knowledge translation mechanisms in open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simeone, Luca; Secundo, Giustina; Schiuma, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This paper investigates the role of design as a knowledge translation mechanism in R&D-oriented open innovation. The scope of the paper is the investigation of how design can be used as a mean of knowledge transfer among various stakeholders who speak different languages and have divergent...... needs and interests in a process where knowledge openly flew across the boundaries of a high number of organizations. Methods. The paper combines the insights from theory with the empirical evidences gathered by adopting an extreme case study approach: the detailed analysis of a case study related...... and favors coordination in open innovation projects where many different stakeholders are engaged in. Research limitations. Although the adoption of an extreme case study approach offers important implications to understand the role of design in R&D-oriented open innovation, the use of single case study...

  9. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  10. Innovative teaching methods for capacity building in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Al-Ansary, Lubna A

    2011-10-14

    In some current healthcare settings, there is a noticeable absence of national institutions committed to the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare decision- and policy-making. This absence creates a need to broaden the responsibilities of healthcare providers to include knowledge brokering and advocacy in order to optimize knowledge translation to other stakeholders, especially policy-makers. However, this process requires practitioners and researchers to acquire certain types of knowledge and skills. This article introduces two innovative methods for capacity building in knowledge translation (KT). During a workshop aimed at preparing 21 trainers in evidence-based medicine, two innovative methods were used: (1) debate and (2) a knowledge translation project (KTP). The main objective of the debates approach was to strengthen participants' critical thinking abilities by requiring them to search for and appraise evidence and defend their arguments. The KTP was used to introduce participants to the essential steps of knowledge translation and to suggest an extended role for healthcare practitioners, i.e., using evidence to manage not only individual patients but also to a community of patients. Participants' performances were assessed according to a pre-designed scheme. At the end of the workshop, participants' opinions and experiences with the innovative teaching methods were evaluated based on their answers to a questionnaire and the results of small-group discussions. The participants performed well in both the debate and KTP methods. During post-workshop group discussions, they indicated that the debate approach had added a new dimension to their evidence-based medicine skills by adding purpose and motivation. However, they felt that their performances would have been better if they had been offered practical demonstrations of how to conduct the debate. The participants indicated that the KTP enhanced their understanding of the relationships between evidence

  11. Innovative teaching methods for capacity building in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ansary Lubna A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some current healthcare settings, there is a noticeable absence of national institutions committed to the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare decision- and policy-making. This absence creates a need to broaden the responsibilities of healthcare providers to include knowledge brokering and advocacy in order to optimize knowledge translation to other stakeholders, especially policy-makers. However, this process requires practitioners and researchers to acquire certain types of knowledge and skills. This article introduces two innovative methods for capacity building in knowledge translation (KT. Methods During a workshop aimed at preparing 21 trainers in evidence-based medicine, two innovative methods were used: (1 debate and (2 a knowledge translation project (KTP. The main objective of the debates approach was to strengthen participants' critical thinking abilities by requiring them to search for and appraise evidence and defend their arguments. The KTP was used to introduce participants to the essential steps of knowledge translation and to suggest an extended role for healthcare practitioners, i.e., using evidence to manage not only individual patients but also to a community of patients. Participants' performances were assessed according to a pre-designed scheme. At the end of the workshop, participants' opinions and experiences with the innovative teaching methods were evaluated based on their answers to a questionnaire and the results of small-group discussions. Results The participants performed well in both the debate and KTP methods. During post-workshop group discussions, they indicated that the debate approach had added a new dimension to their evidence-based medicine skills by adding purpose and motivation. However, they felt that their performances would have been better if they had been offered practical demonstrations of how to conduct the debate. The participants indicated that the KTP enhanced their

  12. Patient safety, quality of care, and knowledge translation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M

    2010-07-01

    A large gap exists between the completion of clinical research demonstrating the benefit of new treatment interventions and improved patient outcomes resulting from implementation of these interventions as part of routine clinical practice. This gap clearly affects patient safety and quality of care. Knowledge translation is important for addressing this gap, but evaluation of the most appropriate and effective knowledge translation methods is still ongoing. Through describing one model for knowledge translation and an example of its implementation, insights can be gained into systematic methods for advancing the implementation of evidence-based interventions to improve safety, quality, and patient outcomes.

  13. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  14. Inside the "Black Box" of a Knowledge Translation Program in Applied Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Establishing a National Knowledge Translation and Generation Network in Kidney Disease: The CAnadian KidNey KNowledge TraNslation and GEneration NeTwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braden Manns

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD do not always receive care consistent with guidelines, in part due to complexities in CKD management, lack of randomized trial data to inform care, and a failure to disseminate best practice. At a 2007 conference of key Canadian stakeholders in kidney disease, attendees noted that the impact of Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN guidelines was attenuated given limited formal linkages between the CSN Clinical Practice Guidelines Group, kidney researchers, decision makers and knowledge users, and that further knowledge was required to guide care in patients with kidney disease. The idea for the Canadian Kidney Knowledge Translation and Generation Network (CANN-NET developed from this meeting. CANN-NET is a pan-Canadian network established in partnership with CSN, the Kidney Foundation of Canada and other professional societies to improve the care and outcomes of patients with and at risk for kidney disease. The initial priority areas for knowledge translation include improving optimal timing of dialysis initiation, and increasing the appropriate use of home dialysis. Given the urgent need for new knowledge, CANN-NET has also brought together a national group of experienced Canadian researchers to address knowledge gaps by encouraging and supporting multicentre randomized trials in priority areas, including management of cardiovascular disease in patients with kidney failure.

  16. Swiss family physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards knowledge translation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, Theresa; Bovet, Emilie; Bécherraz, Camille; Schlegel, Susanne; Burnand, Bernard; Pidoux, Vincent

    2015-12-11

    Several studies have been performed to understand the way family physicians apply knowledge from medical research in practice. However, very little is known concerning family physicians in Switzerland. In an environment in which information constantly accumulates, it is crucial to identify the major sources of scientific information that are used by family physicians to keep their medical knowledge up to date and barriers to use these sources. Our main objective was to examine medical knowledge translation (KT) practices of Swiss family physicians. The population consisted of French- and German-speaking private practice physicians specialised in family medicine. We conducted four interviews and three focus groups (n = 25). The interview guides of the semi-structured interviews and focus groups focused on (a) ways and means used by physicians to keep updated with information relevant to clinical practice; (b) how they consider their role in translating knowledge into practice; (c) potential barriers to KT; (d) solutions proposed by physicians for effective KT. Family physicians find themselves rather ambivalent about the translation of knowledge based on scientific literature, but generally express much interest in KT. They often feel overwhelmed by "information floods" and perceive clinical practice guidelines and other supports to be of limited usefulness for their practice. They often combine various formal and informal information sources to keep their knowledge up to date. Swiss family physicians report considering themselves as artisans, caring for patients with complex needs. Improved performance of KT initiatives in family medicine should be tailored to actual needs and based on high quality evidence-based sources.

  17. A mentor development program for clinical translational science faculty leads to sustained, improved confidence in mentoring skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D; Steinauer, Jody E; Khalili, Mandana; Huang, Laurence; Kahn, James S; Lee, Kathryn A; Creasman, Jennifer; Brown, Jeanette S

    2012-08-01

    Mentorship is crucial for academic productivity and advancement for clinical and translational (CT) science faculty. However, little is known about the long-term effects of mentor training programs. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Clinical and Translational Science Institute launched a Mentor Development Program (MDP) in 2007 for CT faculty. We report on an evaluation of the first three cohorts of graduates from the MDP. In 2010, all Mentors in Training (MITs) who completed the MDP from 2007 to 2009 (n= 38) were asked to complete an evaluation of their mentoring skills and knowledge; all MITs (100%) completed the evaluation. Two-thirds of MDP graduates reported that they often apply knowledge, attitudes, or skills obtained in the MDP to their mentoring. Nearly all graduates (97%) considered being a mentor important to their career satisfaction. Graduates were also asked about the MDP's impact on specific mentoring skills; 95% agreed that the MDP helped them to become a better mentor and to focus their mentoring goals. We also describe a number of new initiatives to support mentoring at UCSF that have evolved from the MDP. To our knowledge, this is the first evaluation of the long-term impact of a mentor training program for CT researchers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Implementing family nursing: how do we translate knowledge into clinical practice? Part II: The evolution of 20 years of teaching, research, and practice to a Center of Excellence in Family Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhamel, Fabie

    2010-02-01

    The author's reflections on knowledge transfer/translation highlight the importance of the circular process between science and practice knowledge, leading to the notion of "knowledge exchange." She addresses the dilemmas of translating knowledge into clinical practice by describing her academic contributions to knowledge exchange within Family Systems Nursing (FSN). Teaching and research strategies are offered that address the circularity between science and practice knowledge. The evolution of 20 years of teaching, research, and clinical experience has resulted in the recent creation of a Center of Excellence in Family Nursing at the University of Montreal. The three main objectives of the Center uniquely focus on knowledge exchange by providing (a) a training context for skill development for nurses specializing in FSN, (b) a research milieu for knowledge "creation" and knowledge "in action" studies to further advance the practice of FSN, and (c) a family healing setting to support families who experience difficulty coping with health issues.

  19. Scotland's Knowledge Network: translating knowledge into action to improve quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A

    2012-11-01

    The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.

  20. Protocol of a scoping review on knowledge translation competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidou, Anastasia A; Atherton, Pat; Chan, Liza; Frisch, Noreen; Glegg, Stephanie; Scarrow, Gayle

    2017-05-02

    Knowledge translation (KT) activities can reduce the gap between "what is known" and "what is done". Several factors hinder or facilitate KT activities including individual characteristics and organizational attributes; we will focus on individual healthcare professional modifiable characteristics. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize knowledge on KT competencies for knowledge users, knowledge brokers, and knowledge producers/researchers to support evidence-based practice (EBP) and inform policy and research in health. Our objectives are to explore the relevant theoretical and empirical literature; map the publications for key themes and research gaps of KT competencies, and interventions for enhancing KT competencies; summarize and disseminate findings; produce an action plan and research agenda; and develop self-assessment tools (the KT Pathways) for professional development for our three target audiences. The scoping review method will guide our study by following six stages: formulating the research question; identifying relevant studies; selecting the literature; charting the data; collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and developing a KT plan and consulting stakeholders involved in the fields of KT, EBP, evidence-informed policy-making, and/or research. We will include empirical and theoretical/conceptual peer-reviewed and grey literature in health that examine knowledge user, knowledge broker and knowledge producer KT competencies. Publications written in the English language and published after 2003 only will be considered. Our multidisciplinary research team will collaborate using technology (i.e., WebEx for discussions and a Web 2.0 website for storing documents). Our KT plan consists of an Advisory Group and dissemination plan of the findings. We expect the identified KT competencies to contribute to the KT science by providing positive outcomes in practice, policy, education, and future research. Incorporation of the core KT

  1. Science knowledge and biblical literalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigerell, L J

    2012-04-01

    Biblical literalists are often described as scientific illiterates, but little if any empirical research has tested this claim. Analysis of a sixteen-item battery from the 2008 US General Social Survey revealed that literalists possess less science knowledge than those with other views of Scripture, but that much of this deficit can be attributed to demographic factors and unequal educational attainment. The marginal direct effect of biblical belief suggests that literalism is not incompatible with knowledge of science and, therefore, the best avenue for increasing science knowledge among literalists may be to foster interest in science and design science courses to attenuate any perceived conflict between science and religion.

  2. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a medical practice based on interventional epidemiology. It is regarded by its proponents as a natural progression from Evidence-Based Medicine. It integrates research from the basic sciences, social sciences and political sciences with the aim of optimizing patient care and preventive measures which may extend beyond healthcare services. In short, it is the process of turning appropriate biological discoveries into drugs and medical devices that can be used in the treatment of patients.[1]Scientific research and the development of modern powerful techniques are crucial for improving patient care in a society that is increasingly demanding the highest quality health services.[2] Indeed, effective patient care requires the continuous improvement of knowledge on the pathophysiology of the diseases, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic tools available. To this end, development of both clinical and basic research in health sciences is required. However, what is most effective in improving medical knowledge, and hence patient care, is the cross-fertilization between basic and clinical science. This has been specifically highlighted in recent years with the coining of the term “translational research”.[3] Translational research is of great importance in all medical specialties.Translational Research is the basis for Translational Medicine. It is the process which leads from evidence based medicine to sustainable solutions for public health problems.[4] It aims to improve the health and longevity of the world’s populations and depends on developing broad-based teams of scientists and scholars who are able to focus their efforts to link basic scientific discoveries with the arena of clinical investigation, and translating the results of clinical trials into changes in clinical practice, informed by evidence from the social and political sciences. Clinical science and ecological support from effective policies can

  3. Once upon a time: Storytelling as a knowledge translation strategy for qualitative researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Anne; Michaud, Cécile

    2018-06-10

    Qualitative research should strive for knowledge translation toward the goal of closing the gap between knowledge and practice. However, it is often a challenge in nursing to identify knowledge translation strategies able to illustrate the usefulness of qualitative results in any given context. This article defines storytelling and uses pragmatism to examine storytelling as a strategy to promote the knowledge translation of qualitative results. Pragmatism posits that usefulness is defined by the people affected by the problem and that usefulness is promoted by modalities, like storytelling, that increase sensitivity to an experience. Indeed, stories have the power to give meaning to human behaviors and to trigger emotions, and in doing so bring many advantages. For example, by contextualizing research results and appealing to both the reason and the emotions of audiences, storytelling can help us grasp the usefulness of these research results. Various strategies exist to create stories that will produce an emotional experience capable of influencing readers' or listeners' actions. To illustrate the potential of storytelling as a knowledge translation strategy in health care, we will use our story of discovering this strategy during a qualitative study in a nursing home as an example. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Innovative teaching methods for capacity building in knowledge translation

    OpenAIRE

    Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Al-Ansary, Lubna A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In some current healthcare settings, there is a noticeable absence of national institutions committed to the synthesis and use of evidence in healthcare decision- and policy-making. This absence creates a need to broaden the responsibilities of healthcare providers to include knowledge brokering and advocacy in order to optimize knowledge translation to other stakeholders, especially policy-makers. However, this process requires practitioners and researchers to acquire cer...

  5. Knowledge translation in rehabilitation engineering research and development: a knowledge ecosystem framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Moghimi, Saba; Popovic, Milos R

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation engineering is concerned with technology innovations and technology-mediated treatments for the improvement of quality of care and quality of life of individuals with disability. Unlike many other fields of health research, the knowledge translation (KT) cycle of rehabilitation engineering research and development (R&D) is often considered incomplete until a technology product or technology-facilitated therapy is available to target clientele. As such, the KT journey of rehabilitation engineering R&D is extremely challenging, necessarily involving knowledge exchange among numerous players across multiple sectors. In this article, we draw on recent literature about the knowledge trichotomy in technology-based rehabilitation R&D and propose a knowledge ecosystem to frame the rehabilitation engineering KT process from need to product. Identifying the principal process of the ecosystem as one of knowledge flow, we elucidate the roles of repository and networked knowledge, identify key consumers and producers in a trinity of communities of practice, and draw on knowledge management literature to describe different knowledge flows. The article concludes with instantiations of this knowledge ecosystem for 2 local rehabilitation engineering research-development-commercialization endeavors. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  7. Strategies to translate knowledge related to common musculoskeletal conditions into physiotherapy practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Marie-Ève; Poitras, Stéphane; Bastien, Marc; Laliberté, Lydie-Anne; Lacharité, Anyck; Gross, Douglas P

    2018-03-01

    Many physiotherapists underuse evidence-based practice guidelines or recommendations when treating patients with musculoskeletal disorders, yet synthesis of knowledge translation interventions used within the field of physiotherapy fails to offer clear conclusions to guide the implementation of clinical practice guidelines. To evaluate the effectiveness of various knowledge translation interventions used to implement changes in the practice of current physiotherapists treating common musculoskeletal issues. A computerized literature search of MEDLINE, CINHAL and ProQuest of systematic reviews (from inception until May 2016) and primary research studies (from January 2010 until June 2016). Eligibility criteria specified articles evaluating interventions for translating knowledge into physiotherapy practice. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Of a total of 13014 articles located and titles and abstracts screened, 34 studies met the inclusion criteria, including three overlapping publications, resulting in 31 individual studies. Knowledge translation interventions appear to have resulted in a positive change in physiotherapist beliefs, attitudes, skills and guideline awareness. However, no consistent improvement in clinical practice, patient and economic outcomes were observed. The studies included had small sample sizes and low methodological quality. The heterogeneity of the studies was not conducive to pooling the data. The intensity and type of knowledge translation intervention seem to have an effect on practice change. More research targeting financial, organizational and regulatory knowledge translation interventions is needed. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a mentorship strategy: a knowledge translation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Graham, Ian D; Taylor, Mark; Lockyer, Jocelyn

    2008-01-01

    There are many theories and frameworks for achieving knowledge translation, and the assortment can be confusing to those responsible for planning, evaluation, or policymaking in knowledge translation. A conceptual framework developed by Graham and colleagues provides an approach that builds on the commonalities found in an assessment of planned-action theories. This article describes the application of this knowledge to action framework to a mentorship initiative in academic medicine. Mentorship influences career success but is threatened in academia by increased clinical, research, and administrative demands. A case study review was undertaken of the role of mentors, the experiences of mentors and mentees, and mentorship initiatives in developing and retaining clinician scientists at two universities in Alberta, Canada. This project involved relevant stakeholders including researchers, university administrators, and research funders. The knowledge to action framework was used to develop a strategy for mentorship for clinician researchers. The framework highlights the need to identify and engage stakeholders in the process of knowledge implementation. A series of initiatives were selected and tailored to barriers and facilitators to implementation of the mentorship initiative; strategies for evaluating the knowledge use and its impact on outcomes were developed. The knowledge to action framework can be used to develop a mentorship initiative for clinician researchers. Future work to evaluate the impact of this intervention on recruitment and retention is planned.

  9. Adapting Knowledge Translation Strategies for Rare Rheumatic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellucci, Tania; Lee, Shirley; Webster, Fiona

    2016-08-01

    Rare rheumatic diseases present unique challenges to knowledge translation (KT) researchers. There is often an urgent need to transfer knowledge from research findings into clinical practice to facilitate earlier diagnosis and better outcomes. However, existing KT frameworks have not addressed the specific considerations surrounding rare diseases for which gold standard evidence is not available. Several widely adopted models provide guidance for processes and problems associated with KT. However, they do not address issues surrounding creation or synthesis of knowledge for rare diseases. Additional problems relate to lack of awareness or experience in intended knowledge users, low motivation, and potential barriers to changing practice or policy. Strategies to address the challenges of KT for rare rheumatic diseases include considering different levels of evidence available, linking knowledge creation and transfer directly, incorporating patient and physician advocacy efforts to generate awareness of conditions, and selecting strategies to address barriers to practice or policy change.

  10. Exploratory study of the role of knowledge brokers in translating knowledge to action following global maternal and newborn health technical meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, T C; Howell, C; Reynolds, C

    2016-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for more research on interventions to successfully translate evidence-based knowledge into improved health policy and practices. This paper reports on an exploratory study of knowledge translation interventions conducted with participants of global health meetings held in Bangladesh in 2012 and in South Africa in 2013. We measured stakeholders' uptake of evidence-based knowledge in terms of their translation of this knowledge into actions around public health policy and practice. The research sought to determine whether participants shared and used knowledge from the meetings to improve health policy and practices in their settings and the factors influencing sharing and use. An exploratory study employed quantitative and qualitative methods of online surveys and in-depth interviews to collect data from all meeting participants. All participants in the Bangladesh and South Africa meetings were invited to complete an online survey during the meetings and over the following six weeks. Of 411 participants in the 2012 Bangladesh meeting, 148 participants from 22 countries completed the survey. Eleven of these respondents (from eight countries) were interviewed. Of the 436 participants in the 2013 South Africa meeting, 126 respondents from 33 countries completed an online survey; none of these respondents were interviewed. The analysis revealed that most respondents used new knowledge to advocate for policy change (2012: 65.5%; 2013: 67.5%) or improve service quality (2012: 60.1%; 2013: 70.6%). The type of knowledge that respondents most commonly shared was clinical or scientific information (2012: 79.1%; 2013: 66.7%) and country-specific information (2012: 73.0%; 2013: 71.4%). Most 2012 respondents shared knowledge because they thought it would be useful to a co-worker or colleague (79.7%). Findings on knowledge use and sharing suggest that most respondents saw themselves as knowledge brokers or intermediaries in a position to influence

  11. Knowledge translation studies in paediatric emergency medicine: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine L; Johnson, David; Oakley, Ed

    2016-02-01

    Systematic review of knowledge translation studies focused on paediatric emergency care to describe and assess the interventions used in emergency department settings. Electronic databases were searched for knowledge translation studies conducted in the emergency department that included the care of children. Two researchers independently reviewed the studies. From 1305 publications identified, 15 studies of varied design were included. Four were cluster-controlled trials, two patient-level randomised controlled trials, two interrupted time series, one descriptive study and six before and after intervention studies. Knowledge translation interventions were predominantly aimed at the treating clinician, with some targeting the organisation. Studies assessed effectiveness of interventions over 6-12 months in before and after studies, and 3-28 months in cluster or patient level controlled trials. Changes in clinical practice were variable, with studies on single disease and single treatments in a single site showing greater improvement. Evidence for effective methods to translate knowledge into practice in paediatric emergency medicine is fairly limited. More optimal study designs with more explicit descriptions of interventions are needed to facilitate other groups to effectively apply these procedures in their own setting. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Li, Ben

    2017-02-15

    A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice) AND (framework OR model OR theory) AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine). Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or 'T' models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research-practice gap.

  13. Social and behavioral science priorities for genomic translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Persky, Susan; Spotts, Erica; Acca, Gillian

    2018-01-29

    This commentary highlights the essential role of the social and behavioral sciences for genomic translation, and discusses some priority research areas in this regard. The first area encompasses genetics of behavioral, social, and neurocognitive factors, and how integration of these relationships might impact the development of treatments and interventions. The second area includes the contributions that social and behavioral sciences make toward the informed translation of genomic developments. Further, there is a need for behavioral and social sciences to inform biomedical research for effective implementation. The third area speaks to the need for increased outreach and education efforts to improve the public's genomic literacy such that individuals and communities can make informed health-related and societal (e.g., in legal or consumer settings) decisions. Finally, there is a need to prioritize representation of diverse communities in genomics research and equity of access to genomic technologies. Examples from National Institutes of Health-based intramural and extramural research programs and initiatives are used to discuss these points. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  14. TRANSLATING ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: A CASE STUDY OF EPISTEMICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARNEDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of discourse in the social sciences, economics textbooks written in English in which knowledge has been transferred to other languages through translation have brought a certain impact on both the target language and the target culture. In terms of ideology, this article argues about the hegemonic status of the dominant language or culture that creates socalled epistemicide or the erosion of knowledge, partly due to translation strategies adopted by the translator. Investigation is done using the corpusbased approach, theories of translation strategies and the comparative model. The study reveals that the translator in the macro-level text adopts the ideology of foreignising strategy rather than domesticating strategy when translating an economics textbook from English into Indonesian. This is supported by the use of the number of the source language-orientated translation techniques leading to two translation methods (i.e. literal translation and faithful translation adopted in the micro-level text. This research strongly supports another relevant study pertaining to the globalisation of knowledge through translation and also the translation theories of equivalence (i.e. overt and covert translation. The research findings also have some pedagogical implications on teaching English for Specific Purposes in higher education.

  15. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

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    Adilia Maria Pires Sciarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. OBJECTIVE: To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. METHODS: A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. RESULTS: As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. CONCLUSION: Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  16. Technological Devices Improving System of Translating Languages: What About their Usefulness on the Applicability in Medicine and Health Sciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Batigália, Fernando; Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de

    2015-01-01

    In a world in which global communication is becoming ever more important and in which English is increasingly positioned as the pre-eminent international language, that is, English as a Lingua Franca refers to the use of English as a medium of communication between peoples of different languages. It is important to highlight the positive advances in communication in health, provided by technology. To present an overview on some technological devices of translating languages provided by the Web as well as to point out some advantages and disadvantages specially using Google Translate in Medicine and Health Sciences. A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices. Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability.

  17. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts' opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha. The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia.

  18. Knowledge Translation: Supports, Challenges, and Opportunities for Change in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowicz, Susan; Ray, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) provides a lens to examine the process of moving research-informed knowledge into early intervention practice (P. Sudsawad, 2007). The process of KT entails cognitive, affective, and behavioral stages that are mediated by factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the practitioner. Facilitators and barriers to this process may…

  19. Knowledge of Knowledge: Problematic of Epistemology of Library and Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Keseroğlu

    2010-12-01

    philosophy, taken off from all the implementations, is only based on concepts and language. It is upper disciplinary. The focus of this study is to argue the Library and Information Science theory problematic in Turkey and an attempt to describe knowledge of this field. The theory of knowledge of any discipline can solely be established and enhanced onto the unique knowledge of that discipline. Mentioning of theory of Library and Information Science knowledge, is possible due to the distinctive knowledge detached from other disciplines. This distinctive knowledge, is the knowledge of library institution, that has come unchanged since its first models, and when removed from the field (LIS, becomes ordinary and moves out of originality of the library and information science. “The theory of knowledge of the field of Library and information science” need to be examined from three perspectives: Library and information science field knowledge; knowledge of organization of recorded information as object of the library (all processes from selection to use and knowledge of the user.

  20. The "Making" of Knowledge Society in Rwanda? Translations, Tensions and Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Beniamin

    2012-01-01

    In the year 2000, Rwanda launched an ambitious long-term development strategy intended to render a fundamental transformation from an agrarian to a knowledge society by 2020. Knowledge society, however, could be viewed as a "floating signifier" open for a wide range of interpretations. Guided by a policy translation perspective the aim…

  1. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  2. The pleasure and the search for knowledge in some of the 12th C Western Latin translators

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    Pedro Mantas-España

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the twelfth century, a group of Western Latin intellectuals are struggling to learn the new philosophy and science texts translated into Arabic. We are witnesses of a process of transmission of knowledge that represent a search and a strong desire in the access to the contents and innovations that those texts could provide. It is not just a process of knowledge increasing but a change of perspective concerning the interests of knowledge. A new perspective which illustrates a change of intellectual attitude – a ‘rational’ searching for causes which tries to explain the order of nature – and a vivid interest in approaching to some scientific and philosophical texts that they see as a new knowledge filled with new answers. In this sense, I make several references to Adelard of Bath, Hermann of Carinthia and Dominicus Gundissalinus, whose work we consider paradigmatic of a search and desire for ‘rational’ knowledge, that enables us to delineate more precisely the phenomenon of transmission of knowledge, and the pleasure they find within it.

  3. Implementing 'translational' biomedical research: convergence and divergence among clinical and basic scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Barry, Christine A; Donovan, Jenny L; Sandall, Jane; Wolfe, Charles D A; Boaz, Annette

    2011-10-01

    Universities are increasingly regarded as key actors in the new 'knowledge economy', with requirements to produce market-oriented knowledge and engage in commercialization. This is of particular significance in the biomedical field, reflecting the perceived gap between success in terms of scientific discoveries and its transformation into products. The dominant discourse attributes this situation to 'blocks' in the translational pathway from 'bench to bedside', leading to policies to 'reengineer' the research enterprise. This study examines a pilot initiative established by the UK's Medical Research Council (MRC). This involved employing a change agent (Research Translator) supported by a small amount of translational funding to promote the culture and practice of translational research at a university/hospital site in England. An ethnographically informed case study involving semi-structured and open exploratory interviews, observation and document review, was conducted in 2008. Analysis and interpretation were informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice applied to science. The requirements of translational research promoted by the Research Translator and its sources of capital (authority, prestige etc) were largely congruent with the 'field' of clinical science. In contrast, translational research diverged from perceptions of 'legitimate' science and requirements for capital accumulation held by the majority of basic scientists who often described this research as 'high risk' and were resistant to the Research Translator's advice. However some differences in motivations and practices were identified within groups of scientists associated with career stage, work environment and specialty. We argue that there are convergent and divergent forces that influence scientists' readiness to adopt a market-oriented translational research model and in turn facilitate or constrain the effectiveness of a knowledge broker. We also identify ways in which current structures and

  4. Surgical data science: The new knowledge domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S. Swaroop; Hager, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of Surgical/Interventional Data Science (SDS) as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes, and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data is pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or post-operative recovery. Existing literature already provides preliminary results suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from pre-, intra-, and post-operative contexts, how it could support intra-operative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective assessments, automated virtual coaching, and robot

  5. Surgical data science: The new knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, S Swaroop; Hager, Gregory D

    2017-04-01

    Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care with the goal of maximizing quality and value of care. While innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytic techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of Surgical/Interventional Data Science (SDS) as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes, and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data is pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or post-operative recovery. Existing literature already provides preliminary results suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from pre-, intra-, and post-operative contexts, how it could support intra-operative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective assessments, automated virtual coaching, and robot

  6. Surgical data science: the new knowledge domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedula S. Swaroop

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare in general, and surgery/interventional care in particular, is evolving through rapid advances in technology and increasing complexity of care, with the goal of maximizing the quality and value of care. Whereas innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic technologies have driven past improvements in the quality of surgical care, future transformation in care will be enabled by data. Conventional methodologies, such as registry studies, are limited in their scope for discovery and research, extent and complexity of data, breadth of analytical techniques, and translation or integration of research findings into patient care. We foresee the emergence of surgical/interventional data science (SDS as a key element to addressing these limitations and creating a sustainable path toward evidence-based improvement of interventional healthcare pathways. SDS will create tools to measure, model, and quantify the pathways or processes within the context of patient health states or outcomes and use information gained to inform healthcare decisions, guidelines, best practices, policy, and training, thereby improving the safety and quality of healthcare and its value. Data are pervasive throughout the surgical care pathway; thus, SDS can impact various aspects of care, including prevention, diagnosis, intervention, or postoperative recovery. The existing literature already provides preliminary results, suggesting how a data science approach to surgical decision-making could more accurately predict severe complications using complex data from preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative contexts, how it could support intraoperative decision-making using both existing knowledge and continuous data streams throughout the surgical care pathway, and how it could enable effective collaboration between human care providers and intelligent technologies. In addition, SDS is poised to play a central role in surgical education, for example, through objective

  7. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  8. Narrative review of frameworks for translating research evidence into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a examine different research translation frameworks; b examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. Methods: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed. The search string was (translational research OR knowledge translation OR evidence to practice AND (framework OR model OR theory AND (public health OR health promotion OR medicine. Included studies were published in English between January 1990 and December 2014, and described frameworks, models or theories associated with research translation. Results: The final review included 98 papers, and 41 different frameworks and models were identified. The most frequently applied knowledge translation framework in the literature was RE-AIM, followed by the knowledge translation continuum or ‘T’ models, the Knowledge to Action framework, the PARiHS framework, evidence based public health models, and the stages of research and evaluation model. Conclusion: The models identified in this review stem from different fields, including implementation science, basic and medical sciences, health services research and public health, and propose different but related pathways to closing the research–practice gap.

  9. Translation and validation of the Greek version of the hypertension knowledge-level scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziefstratiou, Anastasia A; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Fotos, Nikolaos V; Baltopoulos, George; Brokalaki-Pananoudaki, Hero

    2015-12-01

    To translate and validate a Greek version of the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale. The major barrier in the management of hypertension is the lack of adherence to medications and lifestyle adjustments. Patients' knowledge of the nature of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors is a significant factor affecting individuals' adherence. However, few instruments have been developed to assess patients' knowledge level and no one has been translated into Greek. This study used a case control study design. Data collection for this research occurred between February 7, 2013 and March 10, 2013. The sample included both hypertensives and non-hypertensives. Participants simultaneously completed the version of the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale. A total of 68 individuals completed the questionnaire. Coefficient alpha was 0·66 for hypertensives and 0·79 for non-hypertensives. The difference for the mean scores in the entire scale between the two samples was statistically significant. In addition, significant differences were observed in many sub-dimensions and no correlation was found between level, knowledge and age, gender and education level. Findings provide support for the validity of the Greek version of the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale. The translation and validation of an instrument evaluating the level of knowledge of hypertension contribute to assessing the provided educational intervention. Low knowledge level should lead to the development of new methods of education, therefore nurses will have the opportunity to amplify their role in patients' education and develop relationships based on honesty and respect. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The art of translating nutritional science into dietary guidance: history and evolution of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mary Lee; Hager, Mary H; Toner, Cheryl D; Weber, Jennifer A

    2011-07-01

    The United States government has published official Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) since 1980 and has recently released the 2010 version. Serving as a foundational cornerstone for federal nutrition policy, the DGA embrace current nutritional science and translate it into practical guidance to enhance the overall health of Americans. This article reviews the history and process for developing the DGA, including the incorporation of sophisticated and systematic techniques for reviewing emerging evidence. It also explores issues related to implementation of the guidelines through federal policy, the food supply, and consumer knowledge and behavior. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Entomology in translation: interpreting French medical entomological knowledge in colonial Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Vernick, T

    2008-12-01

    This essay examines how knowledge and practices around entomology and parasitology travelled and the consequences of their mobility. In exploring three anti-malaria campaigns in French Soudan before 1960, it argues that the history of medical entomology's travels entailed multiple temporal, spatial, social translations that African medical personnel, intellectuals, healers, and farmers in French Soudan reinterpreted, appropriated, and sometimes wholly rejected. This essay also focuses on "erroneous" translations, detailing how and why middle class medical personnel and intellectuals interpreted and reformulated farmers' and healers' diagnostic categories that may or may not be malaria. Anti-mosquito and antilarval interventions, and more generally anti-malaria interventions, influenced how African colonial subjects and health workers understood certain vectors and of certain maladies. These understandings, in turn, shaped the consequences of subsequent public health measures. Histories of translated parasitological and entomological knowledge and etiologies of illness have critical implications for contemporary malaria control efforts: interventions to reduce malaria transmission through various kinds of entomological controls that require active participation of local populations cannot be effective if all participants cannot agree upon what is being controlled or prevented.

  12. Online Localization of "Zooniverse" Citizen Science Projects--On the Use of Translation Platforms as Tools for Translator Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at describing the way in which online translation platforms can facilitate the process of training translators. "Zooniverse," a website hosting a variety of citizen science projects in which everyone can take part, was used as an example of such a concept. The first section of this paper is focused on the history, idea…

  13. What is the role of culture, diversity, and community engagement in transdisciplinary translational science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Phillip W; Kim, Mimi M; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Yaros, Anna; Richmond, Alan N; Jackson, Melvin; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-03-01

    Concepts of culture and diversity are necessary considerations in the scientific application of theory generation and developmental processes of preventive interventions; yet, culture and/or diversity are often overlooked until later stages (e.g., adaptation [T3] and dissemination [T4]) of the translational science process. Here, we present a conceptual framework focused on the seamless incorporation of culture and diversity throughout the various stages of the translational science process (T1-T5). Informed by a community-engaged research approach, this framework guides integration of cultural and diversity considerations at each phase with emphasis on the importance and value of "citizen scientists" being research partners to promote ecological validity. The integrated partnership covers the first phase of intervention development through final phases that ultimately facilitate more global, universal translation of changes in attitudes, norms, and systems. Our comprehensive model for incorporating culture and diversity into translational research provides a basis for further discussion and translational science development.

  14. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne

    2012-06-22

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.

  15. Social Media, Health Policy, and Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been cited as a methodology for reducing the knowledge translation gap, creating communities of practice, and reducing traditional hierarchical divisions. Social movements have also embraced social media as a means of spreading their aims and reaching wide audiences. However, its impact on health policy is seldom considered. The author examines the complexity of clinicians' use of social media to influence policy and how policy and government groups may use social media to help their own objectives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reengineering the National Clinical and Translational Research Enterprise: The Strategic Plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E.; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R.; Califf, Robert M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Johnson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process in turn depends upon observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public-health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation’s academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding. To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006, the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program’s overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation’s academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  17. Development of a replicable process for translating science into practical health education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyus, Nadra C; Freeman, Randall J; Gibbons, M Christopher

    2006-09-01

    There has been considerable discussion about translating science into practical messages, especially among urban minority and "hard-to-reach" populations. Unfortunately, many research findings rarely make it back in useful format to the general public. Few innovative techniques have been established that provide researchers with a systematic process for developing health awareness and prevention messages for priority populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the early development and experience of a unique community-based participatory process used to develop health promotion messages for a predominantly low-income, black and African-American community in Baltimore, MD. Scientific research findings from peer-reviewed literature were identified by academic researchers. Researchers then taught the science to graphic design students and faculty. The graphic design students and faculty then worked with both community residents and researchers to transform this information into evidence-based public health education messages. The final products were culturally and educationally appropriate, health promotion messages reflecting urban imagery that were eagerly desired by the community. This early outcome is in contrast to many previously developed messages and materials created through processes with limited community involvement and by individuals with limited practical knowledge of local community culture or expertise in marketing or mass communication. This process may potentially be utilized as a community-based participatory approach to enhance the translation of scientific research into desirable and appropriate health education messages.

  18. [The role of Hunayn, physician and translator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbi, J

    1994-01-01

    Hunayn ibn Ishāq is one of the most important translators of scientific and medical texts in the 'abbāsid era. He played a fundamental role in the transmission of Greek medical science to the Arab world, because of his deep knowledge of the Syriac, Arabic and Persian languages. He translated about 300 texts, especially medical ones, and he founded a school in which many disciples were instructed in the art of translation, like his son Ishāq and his nephew Hubays. Hunayn composed a lexicon of scientific terminology, using a new method of translation which represents his great innovation.

  19. Knowledge management for systems biology a general and visually driven framework applied to translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falciani Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To enhance our understanding of complex biological systems like diseases we need to put all of the available data into context and use this to detect relations, pattern and rules which allow predictive hypotheses to be defined. Life science has become a data rich science with information about the behaviour of millions of entities like genes, chemical compounds, diseases, cell types and organs, which are organised in many different databases and/or spread throughout the literature. Existing knowledge such as genotype - phenotype relations or signal transduction pathways must be semantically integrated and dynamically organised into structured networks that are connected with clinical and experimental data. Different approaches to this challenge exist but so far none has proven entirely satisfactory. Results To address this challenge we previously developed a generic knowledge management framework, BioXM™, which allows the dynamic, graphic generation of domain specific knowledge representation models based on specific objects and their relations supporting annotations and ontologies. Here we demonstrate the utility of BioXM for knowledge management in systems biology as part of the EU FP6 BioBridge project on translational approaches to chronic diseases. From clinical and experimental data, text-mining results and public databases we generate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD knowledge base and demonstrate its use by mining specific molecular networks together with integrated clinical and experimental data. Conclusions We generate the first semantically integrated COPD specific public knowledge base and find that for the integration of clinical and experimental data with pre-existing knowledge the configuration based set-up enabled by BioXM reduced implementation time and effort for the knowledge base compared to similar systems implemented as classical software development projects. The knowledgebase enables the

  20. Louis Figuier translated in Brazil: science popularizers in the last quarter of 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kodama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to address aspects of the history of the divulgation of sciences in Brazil in the nineteenth century, through the analysis of the circulation of some translations into Portuguese of the works of French popularizer of science, Louis Figuier. His works, which were translated to different languages, received editions in Brazil and Portugal since late 1860. During this period, a model of popularization of science for non-specialists - working class, women and youth - with emphasis on applied science was gaining terrain. However, this model was also marked by limitations and discontinuities that reflect social issues in the passage to the twentieth century. This paper attempts to highlight the role of translators and editors, understood as mediators of science, whose projects of social reform was primarily focused in popular instruction.

  1. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  2. Knowledge Translation and Interprofessional Collaboration: Where the Rubber of Evidence-Based Care Hits the Road of Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Reeves, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation interventions and interprofessional education and collaboration interventions all aim at improving health care processes and outcomes. Knowledge-translation interventions attempt to increase evidence-based practice by a single professional group and thus may fail to take into account barriers from difficulties in…

  3. From Idea to Product--Translating Knowledge between the Lab and the Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayfer Habib

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three essays looking at innovation at Academic Medical Centers. It tries to empirically explore the problem of translating knowledge from the laboratory bench to the clinic and from the clinic to the bench. Chapter 1, co-authored with Iain Cockburn, establishes the importance of in-house complementary knowledge in…

  4. The Knowledge Production Model of the New Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    , coexists with the standard model of knowledge production in clinical medicine. Our comparison of the two approaches finds that Translational Research allows investigations across diverse and cognitively distant knowledge bases, thanks to the intensive use of research technologies that emerge from...

  5. Epigenetics in the Neoliberal "Regime of Truth": A Biopolitical Perspective on Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings in epigenetics have been attracting much attention from social scientists and bioethicists because they reveal the molecular mechanisms by which exposure to socioenvironmental factors, such as pollutants and social adversity, can influence the expression of genes throughout life. Most surprisingly, some epigenetic modifications may also be heritable via germ cells across generations. Epigenetics may be the missing molecular evidence of the importance of using preventive strategies at the policy level to reduce the incidence and prevalence of common diseases. But while this "policy translation" of epigenetics introduces new arguments in favor of public health strategies and policy-making, a more "clinical translation" of epigenetics is also emerging. It focuses on the biochemical mechanisms and epigenetic variants at the origin of disease, leading to novel biomedical means of assessing epigenetic susceptibility and reversing detrimental epigenetic variants. In this paper, we argue that the impetus to create new biomedical interventions to manipulate and reverse epigenetic variants is likely to garner more attention than effective social and public health interventions and therefore also to garner a greater share of limited public resources. This is likely to happen because of the current biopolitical context in which scientific findings are translated. This contemporary neoliberal "regime of truth," to use a term from Michel Foucault, greatly influences the ways in which knowledge is being interpreted and implemented. Building on sociologist Thomas Lemke's Foucauldian "analytics of biopolitics" and on literature from the field of science and technology studies, we present two sociological trends that may impede the policy translation of epigenetics: molecularization and biomedicalization. These trends, we argue, are likely to favor the clinical translation of epigenetics-in other words, the development of new clinical tools fostering what has been

  6. Antidepressant use in pregnancy: knowledge transfer and translation of research findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einarson, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge Transfer and Translation(KT) has become an important component in health care systems worldwide. Antidepressant use in pregnancy has become a controversial subject for a number of reasons, including differing interpretations of study results. An important question then arises

  7. Introduction--Knowledge translation and urban health equity: advancing the agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, an interdisciplinary symposium was organized in Toronto, Canada to investigate prevailing models of health policy change in the knowledge translation literature and to assess the applicability of these models for equity-focused urban health research. The papers resulting from the symposium have been published together, in the Journal of Urban Health, along with this introductory essay. This essay describes how the different papers grapple in different ways with how to understand and to bridge the gaps between urban health research and action. The breadth of perspectives reflected in the papers (e.g., social epidemiology, public health, political science, sociology, critical labor studies, and educational psychology) shed much light on core tensions in the relationship between KT and health equity. The first tension is whether the content of evidence or the context of decision making is the strong determinate of research impact in relation to health equity policy. The second tension is whether relationships between health equity researchers and decision makers are best viewed in terms of collaboration or of conflict. The third concerns the role that power plays in evidence-based policy making, when the issues at stake are not only empirical but also normative.

  8. Ethnodrama: An Innovative Knowledge Translation Tool in the Management of Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shahid; Quinlan, Elizabeth; McMullen, Linda; Thomas, Roanne; Fichtner, Pam; Block, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lymphedema can cause significant physical impairment and quality-of-life issues. Yet there is a gap in knowledge about lymphedema among breast cancer survivors (BCS), and health care professionals (HCP). Ethnodrama is an innovative knowledge translation strategy that uses theatrical performances for dissemination of research results. We evaluated the impact of live ethnodrama on HCP' and BCS' awareness and attitudes in relation to impact of lymphedema on BCS' lives. Methods: Ethno...

  9. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emma; Hohnen, Harry; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Scalley, Benjamin D; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011-2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell's cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including individual attributes, experiences and relationships and systemic factors

  10. Knowledge translation lessons from an audit of Aboriginal Australians with acute coronary syndrome presenting to a regional hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Haynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Translation of evidence into practice by health systems can be slow and incomplete and may disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death among Aboriginal Australians. Timely access to effective medical care for acute coronary syndrome substantially improves survival. A quality-of-care audit conducted at a regional Western Australian hospital in 2011–2012 compared the Emergency Department management of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal acute coronary syndrome patients. This audit is used as a case study of translating knowledge processes in order to identify the factors that support equity-oriented knowledge translation. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of the audit team and further key stakeholders with interest/experience in knowledge translation in the context of Aboriginal health. Interviews were analysed for alignment of the knowledge translation process with the thematic steps outlined in Tugwell’s cascade for equity-oriented knowledge translation framework. Results: In preparing the audit, groundwork helped shape management support to ensure receptivity to targeting Aboriginal cardiovascular outcomes. Reporting of audit findings and resulting advocacy were undertaken by the audit team with awareness of the institutional hierarchy, appropriate timing, personal relationships and recognising the importance of tailoring messages to specific audiences. These strategies were also acknowledged as important in the key stakeholder interviews. A follow-up audit documented a general improvement in treatment guideline adherence and a reduction in treatment inequalities for Aboriginal presentations. Conclusion: As well as identifying outcomes such as practice changes, a useful evaluation increases understanding of why and how an intervention worked. Case studies such as this enrich our understanding of the complex human factors, including

  11. Partnerships for Knowledge Translation and Exchange in the Context of Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, France; Borduas, Francine; MacLeod, Tanya; Sketris, Ingrid; Campbell, Barbara; Jacques, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) is an important vehicle for knowledge translation (KT); however, selecting CPD strategies that will impact health professionals' behavior and improve patient outcomes is complex. In response, we, KT researchers and CPD knowledge users, have recently formed a partnership known as the National Network for…

  12. Translating Nutrition Science into Policy as Witness and Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sustained effort to witness and participate in the targeted translation of nutritional science and policy forms the structure of this narrative. The memoir starts with an early career-directing experience with nutrition and cholera and proceeds with a long thread of interest in folic acid malabs...

  13. Multi-dimensional knowledge translation: enabling health informatics capacity audits using patient journey models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Christina; McGregor, Carolyn; Percival, Jennifer; Curry, Joanne; James, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-dimensional approach to knowledge translation, enabling results obtained from a survey evaluating the uptake of Information Technology within Neonatal Intensive Care Units to be translated into knowledge, in the form of health informatics capacity audits. Survey data, having multiple roles, patient care scenarios, levels, and hospitals, is translated using a structured data modeling approach, into patient journey models. The data model is defined such that users can develop queries to generate patient journey models based on a pre-defined Patient Journey Model architecture (PaJMa). PaJMa models are then analyzed to build capacity audits. Capacity audits offer a sophisticated view of health informatics usage, providing not only details of what IT solutions a hospital utilizes, but also answering the questions: when, how and why, by determining when the IT solutions are integrated into the patient journey, how they support the patient information flow, and why they improve the patient journey.

  14. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods to Succeed in Effective Knowledge Translation in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison L; Harvey, Gillian

    2016-05-01

    To explore the evidence around facilitation as an intervention for the successful implementation of new knowledge into clinical practice. The revised version of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, called the integrated or i-PARIHS framework, is used as the explanatory framework. This framework posits that evidence is a multidimensional construct embedded within innovation and operationalized by clinicians (individuals and within teams), working across multiple layers of context. Facilitation is the active ingredient that promotes successful implementation. An emerging body of evidence supports facilitation as a mechanism to getting new knowledge into clinical practice. Facilitation roles are divided into beginner, experienced, and expert facilitators. Facilitators can be internal or external to the organization they work in, and their skills and attributes complement other knowledge translation (KT) roles. Complex KT projects require facilitators who are experienced in implementation methods. Facilitation is positioned as the active ingredient to effectively introduce new knowledge into a clinical setting. Levels of facilitation experience are assessed in relation to the complexity of the KT task. Three core facilitation roles are identified, and structured interventions are established taking into account the nature and novelty of the evidence, the receptiveness of the clinicians, and the context or setting where the new evidence is to be introduced. Roles such as novice, experienced, and expert facilitators have important and complementary parts to play in enabling the successful translation of evidence into everyday practice in order to provide effective care for patients. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (V.2016) in Arabic: Translation and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaiti, Ali Hassan; Alotaibi, Alanod Raffa; Jones, Linda Katherine; DaCosta, Cliff; Lenon, George Binh

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To translate the revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test into the Arabic language and examine its psychometric properties. Setting. Of the 139 participants recruited through King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 34 agreed to the second-round sample for retesting purposes. Methods. The translation process followed the World Health Organization’s guidelines for the translation and adaptation of instruments. All translations were examined for their validity and reliability...

  17. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  18. Amateur knowledge: public art and citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The science studies literatures on amateurs and citizen science have remained largely unconnected despite similarities between the two categories. The essay connects amateur knowledge and citizen science through examples from public art. Through an analysis of the use of the term "amateur" by contemporary artists working to engage the public in critiques of science, connections in the ideals of democratic knowledge making by amateurs and citizen scientists are further explored.

  19. Knowledge Translation to Optimize Adult Inpatient Glycemic Management with Basal Bolus Insulin Therapy and Improve Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmle, Karmon E; Chacko, Sunita; Chan, Trevor; Drake, Alison; Edwards, Alun L; Moore, Glenda E; Philp, Leta C; Popeski, Naomi; Roedler, Rhonda L; Rogers, Edwin J R; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; McKeen, Julie

    2017-12-27

    To develop and evaluate a Basal Bolus Insulin Therapy (BBIT) Knowledge Translation toolkit to address barriers to adoption of established best practice with BBIT in the care of adult inpatients. This study was conducted in 2 phases and focused on the hospitalist provider group across 4 acute care facilities in Calgary. Phase 1 involved a qualitative evaluation of provider and site specific barriers and facilitators, which were mapped to validated interventions using behaviour change theory. This informed the co-development and optimization of the BBIT Knowledge Translation toolkit, with each tool targeting a specific barrier to improved diabetes care practice, including BBIT ordering. In Phase 2, the BBIT Knowledge Translation toolkit was implemented and evaluated, focusing on BBIT ordering frequency, as well as secondary outcomes of hyperglycemia (patient-days with BG >14.0 mmol/L), hypoglycemia (patient-days with BG Knowledge Translation toolkit resulted in a significant 13% absolute increase in BBIT ordering. Hyperglycemic patient-days were significantly reduced, with no increase in hypoglycemia. There was a significant, absolute 14% reduction in length of stay. The implementation of an evidence-informed, multifaceted BBIT Knowledge Translation toolkit effectively reduced a deeply entrenched in-patient diabetes care gap. The resulting sustained practice change improved patient clinical and system resource utilization outcomes. This systemic approach to implementation will guide further scale and spread of glycemic optimization initiatives. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Translational science matters: forging partnerships between biomedical and behavioral science to advance the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M

    2018-03-29

    The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.

  1. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  2. Knowledge translation and interprofessional collaboration: Where the rubber of evidence-based care hits the road of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarenstein, Merrick; Reeves, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge-translation interventions and interprofessional education and collaboration interventions all aim at improving health care processes and outcomes. Knowledge-translation interventions attempt to increase evidence-based practice by a single professional group and thus may fail to take into account barriers from difficulties in interprofessional relations. Interprofessional education and collaboration interventions aim to improve interprofessional relations, which may in turn facilitate the work of knowledge translation and thus evidence-based practice. We summarize systematic review work on the effects of interventions for interprofessional education and collaboration. The current evidence base contains mainly descriptive studies of these interventions. Knowledge is limited regarding the impact on care and outcomes and the extent to which the interventions increase the practice of evidence-based care. Rigorous multimethod research studies are needed to develop and strengthen the current evidence base in this field. We describe a Health Canada-funded randomized trial in which quantitative and qualitative data will be gathered in 20 general internal medicine units located at 5 Toronto, Ontario, teaching hospitals. The project examines the impact of interprofessional education and collaboration interventions on interprofessional relationships, health care processes (including evidence-based practice), and patient outcomes. Routes are suggested by which interprofessional education and collaboration interventions might affect knowledge translation and evidence-based practice.

  3. Team Science, Justice, and the Co-Production of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2018-06-08

    Science increasingly consists of interdisciplinary team-based research to address complex social, biomedical, public health, and global challenges through a practice known as team science. In this article, I discuss the added value of team science, including participatory team science, for generating scientific knowledge. Participatory team science involves the inclusion of public stakeholders on science teams as co-producers of knowledge. I also discuss how constructivism offers a common philosophical foundation for both community psychology and team science, and how this foundation aligns well with contemporary developments in science that emphasize the co-production of knowledge. I conclude with a discussion of how the co-production of knowledge in team science can promote justice. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  4. Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, Zeynep; Jakobson, Britt; Molander, Bengt-Olov; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2016-10-01

    In this article we examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science. Studies concerning bilingual students language use in science class have mainly been conducted in settings where both the teacher and the students speak the same minority language. In this study data was collected in a class consisting of students aged 13-14. All students had Turkish as their minority language, whereas the teacher's minority language was Bosnian. The class was observed when they were working with acids and bases. In addition, the students were interviewed in groups. They were asked about how they use their languages during science lessons and then asked to describe and explain scientific phenomena and processes that had been a part of the observed lessons. For the analysis, practical epistemology analysis and the theory of translanguaging were used. The results show how the students' everyday language repertoire may limit their possibilities to make meaning of science. In particular, the teacher's practice of facilitating and supporting students' understanding of science content by relating it to concrete examples took another direction since the everyday words he used were not a part of the students' language repertoire. The study also shows how the students used their minority language as a resource to translate words from Swedish to Turkish in order to proceed with the science activities. However, translating scientific concepts was problematic and led to the students' descriptions of the concepts not being in line with how they are viewed in science. Finally, the study also demonstrates how monolingual exams may limit bilingual students' achievements in science. The study contributes by presenting and discussing circumstances that need to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting science lessons in classes where the teacher and the student do not share the same minority language.

  5. Interdisciplinary knowledge translation: lessons learned from a mental health: fire service collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna L; Mackay, Sherri; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2010-12-01

    Collaborative approaches are being increasingly advocated for addressing a variety of health, mental health and social needs for children, youth and families. Factors important for effective knowledge translation of collaborative approaches of service delivery across disciplines, however, have not been rigorously examined. TAPP-C: The Arson Prevention Program for Children is an intervention program for child and adolescent firesetters provided collaboratively by fire service and mental health professionals. The present study examined the adopter, innovation, and dissemination characteristics associated with TAPP-C implementation, protocol adherence and extent of collaboration by 241 community-based fire service professionals from communities across Ontario. Results revealed that dissemination factors are particularly important for understanding program implementation, adherence and cross-discipline collaboration. Moreover, the findings of this study show significant benefits to both within discipline (intra-disciplinary) and across discipline (interdisciplinary) knowledge translation strategies.

  6. Evolving the theory and praxis of knowledge translation through social interaction: a social phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forbes Dorothy

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an inherently human process fraught with subjectivity, dynamic interaction, and change, social interaction knowledge translation (KT invites implementation scientists to explore what might be learned from adopting the academic tradition of social constructivism and an interpretive research approach. This paper presents phenomenological investigation of the second cycle of a participatory action KT intervention in the home care sector to answer the question: What is the nature of the process of implementing KT through social interaction? Methods Social phenomenology was selected to capture how the social processes of the KT intervention were experienced, with the aim of representing these as typical socially-constituted patterns. Participants (n = 203, including service providers, case managers, administrators, and researchers organized into nine geographically-determined multi-disciplinary action groups, purposefully selected and audiotaped three meetings per group to capture their enactment of the KT process at early, middle, and end-of-cycle timeframes. Data, comprised of 36 hours of transcribed audiotapes augmented by researchers' field notes, were analyzed using social phenomenology strategies and authenticated through member checking and peer review. Results Four patterns of social interaction representing organization, team, and individual interests were identified: overcoming barriers and optimizing facilitators; integrating 'science push' and 'demand pull' approaches within the social interaction process; synthesizing the research evidence with tacit professional craft and experiential knowledge; and integrating knowledge creation, transfer, and uptake throughout everyday work. Achieved through relational transformative leadership constituted simultaneously by both structure and agency, in keeping with social phenomenology analysis approaches, these four patterns are represented holistically in a typical

  7. Outward bound: women translators and scientific travel writing, 1780-1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alison E

    2016-04-01

    As the Enlightenment drew to a close, translation had gradually acquired an increasingly important role in the international circulation and transmission of scientific knowledge. Yet comparatively little attention has been paid to the translators responsible for making such accounts accessible in other languages, some of whom were women. In this article I explore how European women cast themselves as intellectually enquiring, knowledgeable and authoritative figures in their translations. Focusing specifically on the genre of scientific travel writing, I investigate the narrative strategies deployed by women translators to mark their involvement in the process of scientific knowledge-making. These strategies ranged from rhetorical near-invisibility, driven by women's modest marginalization of their own public engagement in science, to the active advertisement of themselves as intellectually curious consumers of scientific knowledge. A detailed study of Elizabeth Helme's translation of the French ornithologist François le Vaillant's Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique [Voyage into the Interior of Africa] (1790) allows me to explore how her reworking of the original text for an Anglophone reading public enabled her to engage cautiously - or sometimes more openly - with questions regarding how scientific knowledge was constructed, for whom and with which aims in mind.

  8. Synergies and Distinctions between Computational Disciplines in Biomedical Research: Perspective from the Clinical and Translational Science Award Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Hersh, William R.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P.; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P.; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D.; Scheuermann, Richard H.; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin B.; Harris, Paul A.; Smith, Jack W.; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C.; Krusch, David A.; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally-oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays and sub-optimal results. Although written from the perspective of clinical and translational science award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, the paper addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers. PMID:19550198

  9. Cognitive knowledge, attitude toward science, and skill development in virtual science laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Mahya

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive, single group, pretest posttest design study was to explore the influence of a Virtual Science Laboratory (VSL) on middle school students' cognitive knowledge, skill development, and attitudes toward science. This study involved 2 eighth grade Physical Science classrooms at a large urban charter middle school located in Southern California. The Buoyancy and Density Test (BDT), a computer generated test, assessed students' scientific knowledge in areas of Buoyancy and Density. The Attitude Toward Science Inventory (ATSI), a multidimensional survey assessment, measured students' attitudes toward science in the areas of value of science in society, motivation in science, enjoyment of science, self-concept regarding science, and anxiety toward science. A Virtual Laboratory Packet (VLP), generated by the researcher, captured students' mathematical and scientific skills. Data collection was conducted over a period of five days. BDT and ATSI assessments were administered twice: once before the Buoyancy and Density VSL to serve as baseline data (pre) and also after the VSL (post). The findings of this study revealed that students' cognitive knowledge and attitudes toward science were positively changed as expected, however, the results from paired sample t-tests found no statistical significance. Analyses indicated that VSLs were effective in supporting students' scientific knowledge and attitude toward science. The attitudes most changed were value of science in society and enjoyment of science with mean differences of 1.71 and 0.88, respectively. Researchers and educational practitioners are urged to further examine VSLs, covering a variety of topics, with more middle school students to assess their learning outcomes. Additionally, it is recommended that publishers in charge of designing the VSLs communicate with science instructors and research practitioners to further improve the design and analytic components of these

  10. Mode-2 social science knowledge production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer; Blok, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The notion of mode-2 knowledge production points to far-reaching transformations in science-society relations, but few attempts have been made to investigate what growing economic and political demands on research may entail for the social sciences. This case study of new patterns of social science...... knowledge production outlines some major institutional and cognitive changes in Danish academic sociology during 'mode-2' times, from the 1980s onwards. Empirically, we rely on documentary sources and qualitative interviews with Danish sociologists, aiming to reconstruct institutional trajectories...... show how a particular cognitive modality of sociology — 'welfare reflexivity' — has become a dominant form of Danish sociological knowledge production. Welfare reflexivity has proven a viable response to volatile mode-2 policy conditions....

  11. Stimulating translational research: several European life science institutions put their heads together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-09-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  13. Patterns of patient safety culture: a complexity and arts-informed project of knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gail J; Tregunno, Deborah; Gray, Julia; Ginsberg, Liane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe patterns of patient safety culture that emerged from an innovative collaboration among health services researchers and fine arts colleagues. The group engaged in an arts-informed knowledge translation project to produce a dramatic expression of patient safety culture research for inclusion in a symposium. Scholars have called for a deeper understanding of the complex interrelationships among structure, process and outcomes relating to patient safety. Four patterns of patient safety culture--blinding familiarity, unyielding determination, illusion of control and dismissive urgency--are described with respect to how they informed creation of an arts-informed project for knowledge translation.

  14. Science to the People

    CERN Document Server

    Doswaldbeck, L; Brancati, D; Colombo, U; Coyaud, S; De Semir, V; Dupuy, G; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Lecourt, D; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Mettan, G; Montagnier, L; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Rampini, F; Ting, Samuel C C; Ugo, R; Widman, A; CERN. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Science & society : urgent topics Risk perception : Ringing the alarm bells Basic research : Understanding its relevance Science and Economics : Comparing puplic costs and puplic benefits Language(s) : Translating expert knowledge into common culture Science and ethics : Freedom of research and limits to its applications Science,Media & Society: A confrontation

  15. Enhancing the quality of oral nutrition support for hospitalized patients: a mixed methods knowledge translation study (The EQONS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Kate; Laker, Sara; Taylor, Carolyn; Kennedy, Fiona; McDonnell, Ann

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention to facilitate use of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and innovation in nutritional care for patients at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients is a widespread problem leading to adverse health outcomes. Despite evidence of the benefits of malnutrition screening and recommendations for achieving good nutrition, shortfalls in practice continue. A mixed method integrated knowledge translation study. The knowledge translation intervention comprised nutrition champions supported by knowledge translation facilitators and an action planning process. Data collection was undertaken over 18 months between 2011-2012 in a hospital in England. Data comprised observation of mealtimes, audit of patient records, survey of nurses and semi-structured interviews with nutrition champions, knowledge translation facilitators, senior ward nurses and nurse managers. Statistically significant relationships (Chi Square) were observed between self-reported confidence of nurses (a) to assess patients using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, (b) to teach colleagues how to use the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and (c) to ensure that patients were assessed within 24 hours of admission. Ward-based nutrition champions facilitated successful innovation in nutrition support. Contextual factors operating at micro (ward), meso (organization) and macro (healthcare system) levels acted as barriers and enablers for change. Nutrition champions were successful in increasing the timely assessment of patients at risk of malnutrition and promoting innovation in nutritional care. Support from knowledge translation facilitators helped nutrition champions develop their role and work collaboratively with senior ward nurses to implement action plans for improving nutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Knowledge translation tools for parents on child health topics: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D.; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background An emerging field of knowledge translation (KT) research has begun to focus on health consumers, particularly in child health. KT tools provide health consumers with research knowledge to inform health decision-making and may foster ‘effective consumers’. Thus, the purpose of this scoping review was to describe the state of the field of previously published effectiveness research on child health-related KT tools for parents/caregivers to understand the evidence-base, identify gaps,...

  17. Employing the arts for knowledge production and translation: Visualizing new possibilities for women speaking up about safety concerns in maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane; Collison, Claire; Carter, Wendy; Harris, James

    2018-06-01

    This project used animated film to translate research findings into accessible health information aimed at enabling women to speak up and secure professional help for serious safety concerns during pregnancy and after birth. We tested as proof of concept our use of the arts both as product (knowledge production) and process (enabling involvement). Emergencies during pregnancy and birth, while unusual, can develop rapidly and unexpectedly, with catastrophic consequences. Women's tacit knowledge of changes in their condition is an important resource to aid early detection, but women can worry about the legitimacy of their concerns and struggle to get these taken seriously by staff. Arts-based knowledge translation. A user group of women who had experienced complications in the perinatal period (n = 34) helped us develop and pilot test the animation. Obstetricians and midwives (15), clinical leads (3) and user group representatives (8) helped with the design and testing. The consultation process, script and storyboard enabled active interaction with the evidence, meaningful engagement with stakeholders and new understandings about securing help for perinatal complications. The method enabled us to address gender stereotypes and social norms about speaking up and embed a social script for women within the animation, to help structure their help seeking. While for some women, there was an emotional burden, the majority were glad to have been part of the animation's development and felt it had enabled their voices to be heard. This project has demonstrated the benefits of arts-science collaborations for meaningful co-production and effective translation of research evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cultural safety and the challenges of translating critically oriented knowledge in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen; Smye, Victoria; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Lynam, M Judith; Wong, Sabrina

    2009-07-01

    Cultural safety is a relatively new concept that has emerged in the New Zealand nursing context and is being taken up in various ways in Canadian health care discourses. Our research team has been exploring the relevance of cultural safety in the Canadian context, most recently in relation to a knowledge-translation study conducted with nurses practising in a large tertiary hospital. We were drawn to using cultural safety because we conceptualized it as being compatible with critical theoretical perspectives that foster a focus on power imbalances and inequitable social relationships in health care; the interrelated problems of culturalism and racialization; and a commitment to social justice as central to the social mandate of nursing. Engaging in this knowledge-translation study has provided new perspectives on the complexities, ambiguities and tensions that need to be considered when using the concept of cultural safety to draw attention to racialization, culturalism, and health and health care inequities. The philosophic analysis discussed in this paper represents an epistemological grounding for the concept of cultural safety that links directly to particular moral ends with social justice implications. Although cultural safety is a concept that we have firmly positioned within the paradigm of critical inquiry, ambiguities associated with the notions of 'culture', 'safety', and 'cultural safety' need to be anticipated and addressed if they are to be effectively used to draw attention to critical social justice issues in practice settings. Using cultural safety in practice settings to draw attention to and prompt critical reflection on politicized knowledge, therefore, brings an added layer of complexity. To address these complexities, we propose that what may be required to effectively use cultural safety in the knowledge-translation process is a 'social justice curriculum for practice' that would foster a philosophical stance of critical inquiry at both the

  19. A Knowledge Translation Programme to Increase the Utilization of Thoracic Spine Mobilization and Manipulation for Patients with Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Steve; Westerheide, Angela; Daniel, Laura

    2016-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that mobilization and manipulation of the thoracic spine is associated with improved outcomes in patients with neck pain. However, these evidence-based techniques are not always utilized. Successful knowledge translation programmes are needed to move the best available evidence to clinical practice. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the effects of a structured knowledge translation programme on the frequency of manual therapy techniques performed by physical therapists on patients with neck pain. Prior to our intervention, we assessed physical therapists' use of thoracic spine intervention for the treatment of neck pain and their knowledge of the evidence. We delivered a multimodal knowledge translation programme and then reassessed their use and knowledge of the interventions. The majority of our physical therapists increased the use of thoracic spine techniques for their patients with neck pain. The increase was greater in those who used the techniques infrequently. Overall knowledge of the evidence appeared unchanged. Knowledge translation programmes are essential in ensuring clinical use of evidence-based practice. Our programme results, although on a small scale and not statistically significant, showed a positive trend toward increased thoracic spine manual therapy use for neck pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Zimmermann, Gabrielle L; Nuspl, Megan; Hanson, Heather M; Albrecht, Lauren; Esmail, Rosmin; Sauro, Khara; Newton, Amanda S; Donald, Maoliosa; Dyson, Michele P; Thomson, Denise; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-12-06

    As implementation science advances, the number of interventions to promote the translation of evidence into healthcare, health systems, or health policy is growing. Accordingly, classification schemes for these knowledge translation (KT) interventions have emerged. A recent scoping review identified 51 classification schemes of KT interventions to integrate evidence into healthcare practice; however, the review did not evaluate the quality of the classification schemes or provide detailed information to assist researchers in selecting a scheme for their context and purpose. This study aimed to further examine and assess the quality of these classification schemes of KT interventions, and provide information to aid researchers when selecting a classification scheme. We abstracted the following information from each of the original 51 classification scheme articles: authors' objectives; purpose of the scheme and field of application; socioecologic level (individual, organizational, community, system); adaptability (broad versus specific); target group (patients, providers, policy-makers), intent (policy, education, practice), and purpose (dissemination versus implementation). Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the development of each classification scheme using an adapted version of the AGREE II tool. Based on these assessments, two independent reviewers reached consensus about whether to recommend each scheme for researcher use, or not. Of the 51 original classification schemes, we excluded seven that were not specific classification schemes, not accessible or duplicates. Of the remaining 44 classification schemes, nine were not recommended. Of the 35 recommended classification schemes, ten focused on behaviour change and six focused on population health. Many schemes (n = 29) addressed practice considerations. Fewer schemes addressed educational or policy objectives. Twenty-five classification schemes had broad applicability

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (V.2016) in Arabic: Translation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaiti, Ali Hassan; Alotaibi, Alanod Raffa; Jones, Linda Katherine; DaCosta, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To translate the revised Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test into the Arabic language and examine its psychometric properties. Setting. Of the 139 participants recruited through King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 34 agreed to the second-round sample for retesting purposes. Methods. The translation process followed the World Health Organization's guidelines for the translation and adaptation of instruments. All translations were examined for their validity and reliability. Results. The translation process revealed excellent results throughout all stages. The Arabic version received 0.75 for internal consistency via Cronbach's alpha test and excellent outcomes in terms of the test-retest reliability of the instrument with a mean of 0.90 infraclass correlation coefficient. It also received positive content validity index scores. The item-level content validity index for all instrument scales fell between 0.83 and 1 with a mean scale-level index of 0.96. Conclusion. The Arabic version is proven to be a reliable and valid measure of patient's knowledge that is ready to be used in clinical practices. PMID:27995149

  2. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapally, Tarun Reddy; Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-03-27

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform's conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global positioning system and accelerometer) data

  3. The SMART Study, a Mobile Health and Citizen Science Methodological Platform for Active Living Surveillance, Integrated Knowledge Translation, and Policy Interventions: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Leatherdale, Scott T; Ferguson, Leah; Longo, Justin; Rainham, Daniel; Larouche, Richard; Osgood, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)–enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). Objective The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let’s move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions. This methodology paper enumerates the SMART Study platform’s conceptualization, design, implementation, data collection procedures, analytical strategies, and potential for informing policy interventions. Methods This longitudinal investigation was designed to engage participants (ie, citizen scientists) in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, in four different seasons across 3 years. In spring 2017, pilot data collection was conducted, where 317 adult citizen scientists (≥18 years) were recruited in person and online. Citizen scientists used a custom-built smartphone app, Ethica (Ethica Data Services Inc), for 8 consecutive days to provide a complex series of objective and subjective data. Citizen scientists answered a succession of validated surveys that were assigned different smartphone triggering mechanisms (eg, user-triggered and schedule-triggered). The validated surveys captured physical activity (PA), SB, motivation, perception of outdoor and indoor environment, and eudaimonic well-being. Ecological momentary assessments were employed on each day to capture not only PA but also physical and social contexts along with barriers and facilitators of PA, as relayed by citizen scientists using geo-coded pictures and audio files. To obtain a comprehensive objective picture of participant location, motion, and compliance, 6 types of sensor-based (eg, global

  4. Situationally-sensitive knowledge translation and relational decision making in hyperacute stroke: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine J Murtagh

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Early treatment of acute ischaemic stroke with rtPA reduces the risk of longer term dependency but carries an increased risk of causing immediate bleeding complications. To understand the challenges of knowledge translation and decision making about treatment with rtPA in hyperacute stroke and hence to inform development of appropriate decision support we interviewed patients, their family and health professionals. The emergency setting and the symptomatic effects of hyper-acute stroke shaped the form, content and manner of knowledge translation to support decision making. Decision making about rtPA in hyperacute stroke presented three conundrums for patients, family and clinicians. 1 How to allow time for reflection in a severely time-limited setting. 2 How to facilitate knowledge translation regarding important treatment risks and benefits when patient and family capacity is blunted by the effects and shock of stroke. 3 How to ensure patient and family views are taken into account when the situation produces reliance on the expertise of clinicians. Strategies adopted to meet these conundrums were fourfold: face to face communication; shaping decisions; incremental provision of information; and communication tailored to the individual patient. Relational forms of interaction were understood to engender trust and allay anxiety. Shaping decisions with patients was understood as an expression of confidence by clinicians that helped alleviate anxiety and offered hope and reassurance to patients and their family experiencing the shock of the stroke event. Neutral presentations of information and treatment options promoted uncertainty and contributed to anxiety. 'Drip feeding' information created moments for reflection: clinicians literally made time. Tailoring information to the particular patient and family situation allowed clinicians to account for social and emotional contexts. The principal responses to

  5. Situationally-sensitive knowledge translation and relational decision making in hyperacute stroke: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Burges Watson, Duika L; Jenkings, K Neil; Lie, Mabel L S; Mackintosh, Joan E; Ford, Gary A; Thomson, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Early treatment of acute ischaemic stroke with rtPA reduces the risk of longer term dependency but carries an increased risk of causing immediate bleeding complications. To understand the challenges of knowledge translation and decision making about treatment with rtPA in hyperacute stroke and hence to inform development of appropriate decision support we interviewed patients, their family and health professionals. The emergency setting and the symptomatic effects of hyper-acute stroke shaped the form, content and manner of knowledge translation to support decision making. Decision making about rtPA in hyperacute stroke presented three conundrums for patients, family and clinicians. 1) How to allow time for reflection in a severely time-limited setting. 2) How to facilitate knowledge translation regarding important treatment risks and benefits when patient and family capacity is blunted by the effects and shock of stroke. 3) How to ensure patient and family views are taken into account when the situation produces reliance on the expertise of clinicians. Strategies adopted to meet these conundrums were fourfold: face to face communication; shaping decisions; incremental provision of information; and communication tailored to the individual patient. Relational forms of interaction were understood to engender trust and allay anxiety. Shaping decisions with patients was understood as an expression of confidence by clinicians that helped alleviate anxiety and offered hope and reassurance to patients and their family experiencing the shock of the stroke event. Neutral presentations of information and treatment options promoted uncertainty and contributed to anxiety. 'Drip feeding' information created moments for reflection: clinicians literally made time. Tailoring information to the particular patient and family situation allowed clinicians to account for social and emotional contexts. The principal responses to the challenges of

  6. Knowledge Translation and Patient Safety: The Canadian Adverse Events Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, G. Ross; Norton, Peter; Flintoft, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Adverse Events Study was the first national study of adverse events in Canadian hospitals. Learning from the controversy surrounding similar studies in other countries, the team engaged in extensive knowledge translation activities throughout the life of the project. Using meetings, Web-based communication and other tools, the team successfully prepared most Canadian stakeholders for the study’s release, allowing them to develop anticipatory patient safety initiatives. However, u...

  7. The usefulness of science knowledge for parents of hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauli, Sophie; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2018-04-01

    Hearing-impaired children's chances of integrating into hearing society largely depend on their parents, who need to learn vast amounts of science knowledge in the field of hearing. This study characterized the role played by science knowledge in the lives of nonscientists faced with science-related decisions by examining the interactions between general science knowledge, contextual science knowledge in the field of hearing, and parents' advocacy knowledge and attitudes. Based on six semi-structured interviews and 115 questionnaires completed by parents of hearing-impaired children, contextual science knowledge emerged as the only predictor for having slightly better advocacy attitudes and knowledge (5.5% explained variance). Although general science knowledge was the best predictor of contextual knowledge (14% of explained variance), it was not a direct predictor of advocacy knowledge and attitudes. Science knowledge plays some role in the lives of hearing-impaired families, even if they do not list it as a resource for successful rehabilitation.

  8. Validation of the Danish translation of the Medicine Knowledge Questionnaire among elementary school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzan, Sara; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of instruments which can be used to quantitatively assess school children's knowledge about medicine in different countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate the Danish translation of a school children's medicine knowledge questionnaire developed...... regression model was run for correct knowledge scores, and it significantly explained 9.2% of variance (R square 0.092, P questionnaire showed a fair test-retest and inter...

  9. Sustainability of knowledge translation interventions in healthcare decision-making: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Cogo, Elise; Ashoor, Huda; Perrier, Laure; McKibbon, K Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-05-14

    Knowledge translation (KT also known as research utilisation, translational medicine and implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. After the implementation of KT interventions, their impact on relevant outcomes should be monitored. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) conduct a systematic search of the literature to identify the impact on healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year, or beyond the termination of funding of the initiative of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management for end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers; (2) identify factors that influence sustainability of effective KT interventions; (3) identify how sustained change from KT interventions should be measured; and (4) develop a framework for assessing sustainability of KT interventions. Comprehensive searches of relevant electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), websites of funding agencies and websites of healthcare provider organisations will be conducted to identify relevant material. We will include experimental, quasi-experimental and observational studies providing information on the sustainability of KT interventions targeting chronic disease management in adults and focusing on end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers and policy-makers. Two reviewers will pilot-test the screening criteria and data abstraction form. They will then screen all citations, full articles and abstract data in duplicate independently. The results of the scoping review will be synthesised descriptively and used to develop a framework to assess the sustainability of KT interventions. Our results will help inform end-users (ie, patients, clinicians, public health officials, health services managers

  10. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Eleanor Jane; Tsoti, Sandra Maria; Howgate, Daniel James; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health.

  11. A Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation (KT) in Pediatric Pain: Focus on Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Hampton, Amy J D; Stinson, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Pain is inadequately managed in pediatric populations across health care settings. Although training programs to improve health care provider knowledge and skills have been developed and evaluated, clinical practices have not always kept pace with advancing knowledge. Consequently, the goal of this review was to systematically examine the pediatric pain literature of knowledge translation (KT) programs targeting health care providers. Systematic searches of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were undertaken. KT initiatives directed toward health care providers and in which the primary focus was on pediatric pain were included. Primary outcomes, intervention characteristics, and risk of bias were examined across studies. Study outcomes were conceptually organized and a narrative synthesis of results was conducted. A total of 15,191 abstracts were screened for inclusion with 98 articles retained on the basis of predetermined criteria. Across studies, KT approaches varied widely in format and focus. Knowledge-level changes and self-reported increases in comfort or confidence in skills/knowledge were consistently achieved. Practice-level changes were achieved in many areas with varying success. Design and reporting issues were identified in the majority of studies. Examination of patient-related outcomes and of the long-term impact of pediatric pain KT programs was limited across studies. KT programs vary in quality and impact. Although several successful programs have been developed, many studies include a high risk of bias due to study quality. Evidence-based KT program implementation and a focus on sustainability of outcomes must be given greater consideration in the field of pediatric pain.

  12. Translating Current Science into Materials for High School via a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie C.; Bokor, Julie R.; Crippen, Kent J.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique form of professional development that can assist teachers in translating current science into classroom instruction by involving them in meaningful collaborations with university researchers. However, few reported models aim to directly alter science teachers' practices by supporting them in the…

  13. Science parks as knowledge organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    gained agrowing importance in the new economy. If we shift focus to organizationtheory discussions on new knowledge and innovation has specialized in relationto the process of creation, managing, organizing, sharing, transferring etc. ofknowledge. The evaluation of science parks has to relate......Recent studies of the impact of science parks have questioned traditionalassumption about the effect of the parks on innovation and economic growth.Most studies tend to measure the effect by rather traditional measures, revenue,survival of new firms, without taking into account, that knowledge has...... to the changed role ofknowledge in the creation of economic growth. With the help of the concept ofthe ba from Nonanka, the article discuss if or how traditional organized scienceparks can become central actors in the new knowledge production or has to beviewed as an outdated institution from the industrial...

  14. New infrastructures for knowledge production understanding e-science

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Christine

    2006-01-01

    New Infrastructures for Knowledge Production: Understanding E-Science offers a distinctive understanding of new infrastructures for knowledge production based in science and technology studies. This field offers a unique potential to assess systematically the prospects for new modes of science enabled by information and communication technologies. The authors use varied methodological approaches, reviewing the origins of initiatives to develop e-science infrastructures, exploring the diversity of the various solutions and the scientific cultures which use them, and assessing the prospects for wholesale change in scientific structures and practices. New Infrastructures for Knowledge Production: Understanding E-Science contains practical advice for the design of appropriate technological solutions, and long range assessments of the prospects for change useful both to policy makers and those implementing institutional infrastructures. Readers interested in understanding contemporary science will gain a rich pict...

  15. Developing "My Asthma Diary": a process exemplar of a patient-driven arts-based knowledge translation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Mandy M; Hartling, Lisa; Ali, Samina; Caine, Vera; Scott, Shannon D

    2018-06-05

    Although it is well established that family-centered education is critical to managing childhood asthma, the information needs of parents of children with asthma are not being met through current educational approaches. Patient-driven educational materials that leverage the power of the storytelling and the arts show promise in communicating health information and assisting in illness self-management. However, such arts-based knowledge translation approaches are in their infancy, and little is known about how to develop such tools for parents. This paper reports on the development of "My Asthma Diary" - an innovative knowledge translation tool based on rigorous research evidence and tailored to parents' asthma-related information needs. We used a multi-stage process to develop four eBook prototypes of "My Asthma Diary." We conducted formative research on parents' information needs and identified high quality research evidence on childhood asthma, and used these data to inform the development of the asthma eBooks. We established interdisciplinary consulting teams with health researchers, practitioners, and artists to help iteratively create the knowledge translation tools. We describe the iterative, transdisciplinary process of developing asthma eBooks which incorporates: (I) parents' preferences and information needs on childhood asthma, (II) quality evidence on childhood asthma and its management, and (III) the engaging and informative powers of storytelling and visual art as methods to communicate complex health information to parents. We identified four dominant methodological and procedural challenges encountered during this process: (I) working within an inter-disciplinary team, (II) quantity and ordering of information, (III) creating a composite narrative, and (IV) balancing actual and ideal management scenarios. We describe a replicable and rigorous multi-staged approach to developing a patient-driven, creative knowledge translation tool, which can be

  16. Implementing stakeholder-informed research in the substance abuse treatment sector: strategies used by Connections, a Canadian knowledge translation and exchange project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Dobbins, Maureen

    2014-05-29

    Researcher-stakeholder collaboration has been identified as critical to bridging research and health system change. While collaboration models vary, meaningful stakeholder involvement over time ("integrated knowledge translation") is advocated to improve the relevance of research to knowledge users. This short report describes the integrated knowledge translation efforts of Connections, a knowledge translation and exchange project to improve services for women with substance abuse problems and their children, and implementation barriers and facilitators. Strategies of varying intensities were used to engage diverse stakeholders, including policy makers and people with lived experience, and executive directors, program managers, and service providers from Canadian addiction agencies serving women. Barriers to participation included individual (e.g., interest), organizational (e.g., funding), and system level (e.g., lack of centralized stakeholder database) barriers. Similarly, facilitators included individual (e.g., perceived relevance) and organizational (e.g., support) facilitators, as well as initiative characteristics (e.g., multiple involvement opportunities). Despite barriers, Connections' stakeholder-informed research efforts proved essential for developing clinically relevant and feasible processes, measures, and implementation strategies. Stakeholder-researcher collaboration is possible and robust integrated knowledge translation efforts can be productive. Future work should emphasize developing and evaluating a range of strategies to address stakeholders' knowledge translation needs and to facilitate sustained and meaningful involvement in research.

  17. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  18. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  19. Knowledge translation in health care: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddam, Homeira; Mehrdad, Neda; Peyrovi, Hamid; Kitson, Alison L; Schultz, Timothy J; Athlin, Asa Muntlin

    2014-01-01

    Although knowledge translation is one of the most widely used concepts in health and medical literature, there is a sense of ambiguity and confusion over its definition. The aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of KT. This will assist the theoretical development of it and shape its implementation into the health care system Methods: Walker and Avant's framework was used to analyze the concept and the related literature published between 2000 and 2010 was reviewed. A total of 112 papers were analyzed. Review of the literature showed that "KT is a process" and "implementing refined knowledge into a participatory context through a set of challenging activities" are the characteristics of KT. Moreover, to occur successfully, KT needs some necessary antecedents like an integrated source of knowledge, a receptive context, and preparedness. The main consequence of successful process is a change in four fields of healthcare, i.e. quality of patient care, professional practice, health system, and community. In addition, this study revealed some empirical referents which are helpful to evaluate the process. By aiming to portray a clear picture of KT, we highlighted its attributes, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents. Identifying the characteristics of this concept may resolve the existing ambiguities in its definition and boundaries thereby facilitate distinction from similar concepts. In addition, these findings can be used as a knowledge infrastructure for developing the KT-related models, theories, or tools.

  20. Metaphor and knowledge the challenges of writing science

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing the power of metaphor in the rhetoric of science, this book examines the use of words to express complex scientific concepts. Metaphor and Knowledge offers a sweeping history of rhetoric and metaphor in science, delving into questions about how language constitutes knowledge. Weaving together insights from a group of scientists at the Santa Fe Institute as they shape the new interdisciplinary field of complexity science, Ken Baake shows the difficulty of writing science when word meanings are unsettled, and he analyzes the power of metaphor in science.

  1. A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainty, Katie N; Scales, Damon C; Brooks, Steve C; Needham, Dale M; Dorian, Paul; Ferguson, Niall; Rubenfeld, Gordon; Wax, Randy; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Thorpe, Kevin; Morrison, Laurie J

    2011-01-14

    Advances in resuscitation science have dramatically improved survival rates following cardiac arrest. However, about 60% of adults that regain spontaneous circulation die before leaving the hospital. Recently it has been shown that inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival in hospital can dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity of this intervention, recent surveys show that therapeutic hypothermia is delivered inconsistently, incompletely, and often with delay. This study will evaluate a multi-faceted knowledge translation strategy designed to increase the utilization rate of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest across a network of 37 hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The study is designed as a stepped wedge randomized trial lasting two years. Individual hospitals will be randomly assigned to four different wedges that will receive the active knowledge translation strategy according to a sequential rollout over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all hospitals will have received the intervention. The primary aim is to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted knowledge translation plan involving education, reminders, and audit-feedback for improving the use of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest presenting to the emergency department. The primary outcome is the proportion of eligible OHCA patients that are cooled to a body temperature of 32 to 34°C within six hours of arrival in the hospital. Secondary outcomes will include process of care measures and clinical outcomes. Inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival to hospital has been shown to dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. However, this lifesaving treatment is frequently not applied in practice. If this trial is positive, our results

  2. Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project

    OpenAIRE

    Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. T...

  3. Assessing the Science Knowledge of University Students: Perils, Pitfalls and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Science content knowledge is internationally regarded as a fundamentally important learning outcome for graduates of bachelor level science degrees: the Science Threshold Learning Outcomes (TLOs) recently adopted in Australia as a nationally agreed framework include "Science Knowledge" as TLO 2. Science knowledge is commonly assessed…

  4. Indigenous Elementary Students' Science Instruction in Taiwan: Indigenous Knowledge and Western Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huei; Yen, Chiung-Fen; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    2012-12-01

    This preliminary ethnographic investigation focused on how Indigenous traditional wisdom can be incorporated into school science and what students learned as a result. Participants included community elders and knowledge keepers, as well as 4th grade (10-year-old) students, all of Amis ancestry, an Indigenous tribe in Taiwan. The students' non-Indigenous teacher played a central role in developing a science module `Measuring Time' that combined Amis knowledge and Western science knowledge. The study identified two cultural worldview perspectives on time; for example, the place-based cyclical time held by the Amis, and the universal rectilinear time presupposed by scientists. Students' pre-instructional fragmented concepts from both knowledge systems became more informed and refined through their engagement in `Measuring Time'. Students' increased interest and pride in their Amis culture were noted.

  5. Analyzing Subject Disciplines of Knowledge Originality and Knowledge Generality for Library & Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Hsuan Huang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used bibliometric methods to analyze subject disciplines of knowledge originality and knowledge generality for Library and Information Science (LIS by using citing and cited documents from 1997 to 2006. We found that the major subject disciplines of knowledge originality and generality are still LIS, and computer science and LIS interact and influence each other closely. It is evident that number of subject disciplines of knowledge originality is higher than that of knowledge generality. The interdisciplinary characteristics of LIS are illustrated by variety areas of knowledge originality and knowledge generality. Because the number of received subject disciplines is higher than that of given subject disciplines, it suggests that LIS is an application-oriented research area. [Article content in Chinese

  6. A community translational research pilot grants program to facilitate community--academic partnerships: lessons from Colorado's clinical translational science awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Deborah S; Felzien, Maret C; Magid, David J; Calonge, B Ned; O'Brien, Ruth A; Kempe, Allison; Nearing, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    National growth in translational research has increased the need for practical tools to improve how academic institutions engage communities in research. One used by the Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI) to target investments in community-based translational research on health disparities is a Community Engagement (CE) Pilot Grants program. Innovative in design, the program accepts proposals from either community or academic applicants, requires that at least half of requested grant funds go to the community partner, and offers two funding tracks: One to develop new community-academic partnerships (up to $10,000), the other to strengthen existing partnerships through community translational research projects (up to $30,000). We have seen early success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $272,742 in our first cycle led to over $2.8 million dollars in additional grant funding, with grantees reporting strengthening capacity of their community- academic partnerships and the rigor and relevance of their research.

  7. Knowledge acquisition process as an issue in information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of some problems of information science which are explicitly portrayed in literature. It covers the following issues: information explosion, information flood and data deluge, information retrieval and relevance of information, and finally, the problem of scientific communication. The purpose of this paper is to explain why knowledge acquisition, can be considered as an issue in information sciences. The existing theoretical foundation within the information sciences, i.e. the DIKW hierarchy and its key concepts - data, information, knowledge and wisdom, is recognized as a symbolic representation as well as the theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process. Moreover, it seems that the relationship between the DIKW hierarchy and the knowledge acquisition process is essential for a stronger foundation of information sciences in the 'body' of the overall human knowledge. In addition, the history of both the human and machine knowledge acquisition has been considered, as well as a proposal that the DIKW hierarchy take place as a symbol of general knowledge acquisition process, which could equally relate to both human and machine knowledge acquisition. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to modify the existing concept of the DIKW hierarchy. The appropriate modification of the DIKW hierarchy (one of which is presented in this paper could result in a much more solid theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process and information sciences as a whole. The theoretical assumptions on which the knowledge acquisition process may be established as a problem of information science are presented at the end of the paper. The knowledge acquisition process does not necessarily have to be the subject of epistemology. It may establish a stronger link between the concepts of data and knowledge; furthermore, it can be used in the context of scientific research, but on the more primitive level than conducting

  8. Integrating social science knowledge into natural resource management public involvement practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    This PhD study explores the long-recognized challenge of integrating social science knowledge into NRM public involvement practice theoretically and empirically. Theoretically, the study draws on research from adult learning, continuing rofessional education and professional knowledge development...... to better understand how social science knowledge can benefit NRM public involvement practice. Empirically, the study explores the potential of NRM continuing professional education as a means for introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. The study finds social science knowledge can...... be of value to NRM public involvement prospectively and retrospectively; and that continuing professional education can be an effective means to introducing social science knowledge to public NRM professionals. In the design of NRM continuing professional education focused on social science knowledge...

  9. Science.Gov - A single gateway to the deep web knowledge of U.S. science agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitson, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of science and technology on our daily lives is easily demonstrated. From new drug discoveries, to new and more efficient energy sources, to the incorporation of new technologies into business and industry, the productive applications of R and D are innumerable. The possibility of creating such applications depends most heavily on the availability of one resource: knowledge. Knowledge must be shared for scientific progress to occur. In the past, the ability to share knowledge electronically has been limited by the 'deep Web' nature of scientific databases and the lack of technology to simultaneously search disparate and decentralized information collections. U.S. science agencies invest billions of dollars each year on basic and applied research and development projects. To make the collective knowledge from this R and D more easily accessible and searchable, 12 science agencies collaborated to develop Science.gov - a single, searchable gateway to the deep Web knowledge of U.S. science agencies. This paper will describe Science.gov and its contribution to nuclear knowledge management. (author)

  10. Fundamental care and knowledge interests: Implications for nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Mateo-Aguilar, Ester; Aranda-Torres, Cayetano; Román-López, Pablo; Hernández-Padilla, José Manuel

    2017-11-09

    To characterise the intratheoretical interests of knowledge in nursing science as an epistemological framework for fundamental care. For Jürgen Habermas, theory does not separate knowledge interests from life. All knowledge, understanding and human research is always interested. Habermas formulated the knowledge interests in empirical-analytical, historical-hermeneutic and critical social sciences; but said nothing about health sciences and nursing science. Discursive paper. The article is organised into five sections that develop our argument about the implications of the Habermasian intratheoretical interests in nursing science and fundamental care: the persistence of a technical interest, the predominance of a practical interest, the importance of an emancipatory interest, "being there" to understand individuals' experience and an "existential crisis" that uncovers the individual's subjectivity. The nursing discipline can take on practical and emancipatory interests (together with a technical interest) as its fundamental knowledge interests. Nurses' privileged position in the delivery of fundamental care gives them the opportunity to gain a deep understanding of the patient's experience and illness process through physical contact and empathic communication. In clinical, academic and research environments, nurses should highlight the importance of fundamental care, showcasing the value of practical and emancipatory knowledge. This process could help to improve nursing science's leadership, social visibility and idiosyncrasy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparing three knowledge communication strategies - Diffusion, Dissemination and Translation - through randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Stone, Vathsala I

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of three randomized controlled case studies comparing the effectiveness of three strategies for communicating new research-based knowledge (Diffusion, Dissemination, Translation), to different Assistive Technology (AT) stakeholder groups. Pre and post intervention measures for level of knowledge use (unaware, aware, interested, using) via the LOKUS instrument, assessed the relative effectiveness of the three strategies. The latter two approaches were both more effective than diffusion but also equally effective. The results question the value added by tailoring research findings to specific audiences, and instead supports the critical yet neglected role for relevance in determining knowledge use by stakeholders.

  12. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  13. The NutriChip project--translating technology into nutritional knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergères, Guy; Bogicevic, Biljana; Buri, Caroline; Carrara, Sandro; Chollet, Magali; Corbino-Giunta, Linda; Egger, Lotti; Gille, Doreen; Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin; Laederach, Kurt; Portmann, Reto; Ramadan, Qasem; Ramsden, Jeremy; Schwander, Flurina; Silacci, Paolo; Walther, Barbara; Gijs, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Advances in food transformation have dramatically increased the diversity of products on the market and, consequently, exposed consumers to a complex spectrum of bioactive nutrients whose potential risks and benefits have mostly not been confidently demonstrated. Therefore, tools are needed to efficiently screen products for selected physiological properties before they enter the market. NutriChip is an interdisciplinary modular project funded by the Swiss programme Nano-Tera, which groups scientists from several areas of research with the aim of developing analytical strategies that will enable functional screening of foods. The project focuses on postprandial inflammatory stress, which potentially contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The first module of the NutriChip project is composed of three in vitro biochemical steps that mimic the digestion process, intestinal absorption, and subsequent modulation of immune cells by the bioavailable nutrients. The second module is a miniaturised form of the first module (gut-on-a-chip) that integrates a microfluidic-based cell co-culture system and super-resolution imaging technologies to provide a physiologically relevant fluid flow environment and allows sensitive real-time analysis of the products screened in vitro. The third module aims at validating the in vitro screening model by assessing the nutritional properties of selected food products in humans. Because of the immunomodulatory properties of milk as well as its amenability to technological transformation, dairy products have been selected as model foods. The NutriChip project reflects the opening of food and nutrition sciences to state-of-the-art technologies, a key step in the translation of transdisciplinary knowledge into nutritional advice.

  14. A systematic review of instruments to assess organizational readiness for knowledge translation in health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Gagnon

    Full Text Available The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT. However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments.We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc. up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments.We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69% of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University -ORC (TCU-ORC scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University - Director version (TCU-ORC-D, reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19% instruments.Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could provide more knowledge on its

  15. Systematic review of knowledge translation strategies in the allied health professions

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; O?Leary, Kathy; Ball, Geoff DC; Hartling, Lisa; Hofmeyer, Anne; Jones, C Allyson; Klassen, Terry P; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Newton, Amanda S; Thompson, David; Dryden, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. Methods A hea...

  16. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.

  17. Combining patient journey modelling and visual multi-agent computer simulation: a framework to improving knowledge translation in a healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Joanne; Fitzgerald, Anneke; Prodan, Ante; Dadich, Ann; Sloan, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on a framework that will investigate the integration of two disparate methodologies: patient journey modelling and visual multi-agent simulation, and its impact on the speed and quality of knowledge translation to healthcare stakeholders. Literature describes patient journey modelling and visual simulation as discrete activities. This paper suggests that their combination and their impact on translating knowledge to practitioners are greater than the sum of the two technologies. The test-bed is ambulatory care and the goal is to determine if this approach can improve health services delivery, workflow, and patient outcomes and satisfaction. The multidisciplinary research team is comprised of expertise in patient journey modelling, simulation, and knowledge translation.

  18. Using a knowledge translation framework to implement asthma clinical practice guidelines in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ±24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (Pabsenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ±7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1 PMID:22893665

  19. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.

  20. Knowing Patients: Turning Patient Knowledge into Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    Science and technology studies concerned with the study of lay influence on the sciences usually analyze either the political or the normative epistemological consequences of lay interference. Here I frame the relation between patients, knowledge, and the sciences by opening up the question: How can

  1. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  2. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Translating Economics Textbooks: A Case Study of Epistemicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnedi

    2015-01-01

    As part of discourse in the social sciences, economics textbooks written in English in which knowledge has been transferred to other languages through translation have brought a certain impact on both the target language and the target culture. In terms of ideology, this article argues about the hegemonic status of the dominant language or culture…

  4. Cooperative research and knowledge flow in the marine commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Johnson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration of fishers’ knowledge into scientific-based fisheries management is difficult due to a history of distrust between fishers and scientists and institutional constraints that limit management to only the best scientific information available. A recent response to the Northeast U.S. fisheries crisis has been to include fishers in scientific research. Cooperative research, where fishers and scientists collaborate to produce knowledge for fisheries management, aims improve the knowledge base of fisheries management and integrate fishers and their knowledge into the science policy process, which together is expected to generate broader acceptance of scientific-based management. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in the Northeast U.S., this paper discusses the value of cooperative research as a tool for managing the commons. Specifically, it focuses on the flow of knowledge and expertise between fishers and scientists. The flow of knowledge from fishers to science involves a process of translation, where fishers’ knowledge is transformed (proven, verified, etc. into scientific knowledge. This process enables the flow of fishers’ knowledge into the science policy process. Knowledge and expertise also flow from scientists to fishers, where fishers gain understandings of the scientific research process. With this new expertise, fishers develop a greater capacity to participate in science and management discussions. The paper argues that 2-way knowledge flow between fishers and scientists, in particular flow that results in capacity building, can improve commons management through communication, translation, and conflict resolution. Finally, boundary spanners are identified as being critical to success in cooperative research.

  5. Examining Science Teachers' Development of Interdisciplinary Science Inquiry Pedagogical Knowledge and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Bhawna; Liu, Xiufeng; Yerrick, Randy; Smith, Erica; Grant, Brooke

    2014-12-01

    The current literature relates to how teachers develop knowledge and practice of science inquiry, but little has been reported on how teachers develop interdisciplinary science inquiry (ISI) knowledge and practice. This study examines the effect of university research experiences, ongoing professional development, and in-school support on teachers' development of ISI pedagogical knowledge and practices. It centers on documenting diverse teachers' journeys of experiencing ISI as well as developing knowledge of ISI. It was found that there was variation in ISI understanding and practice among the teachers as a result of the combination of teachers' experiences, beliefs, and participation. Thus, in order to help teachers develop ISI knowledge and pedagogy, barriers to ISI knowledge development and implementation must also be addressed. Professional developers must articulate clear program goals to all stakeholders including an explicit definition of ISI and the ability to recognize ISI attributes during research experiences as well as during classroom implementation. Teachers must also be held accountable for participation and reflection in all aspects of professional development. Program developers must also take into consideration teachers' needs, attitudes, and beliefs toward their students when expecting changes in teachers' cognition and behavior to teach inquiry-rich challenging science.

  6. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  7. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  8. Knowledge translation tools for parents on child health topics: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2017-09-29

    theoretical underpinnings (n = 14), end-user engagement (n = 13), and preliminary research (n = 9) to inform the current effectiveness evaluation. A number of child health-related knowledge translation tools have been developed for parents/caregivers. However, numerous outcomes were used to assess impact and there is limited evidence demonstrating their effectiveness. Moreover, the methodological rigor and reporting of effectiveness studies is limited. Careful tool development involving end-users and preliminary research, including usability testing and mixed methods, prior to large-scale studies may be important to advance the science of KT for health consumers.

  9. New burns and trauma journal celebrating translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Gullo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the journal of Burns & Trauma launched in 2013 and published by the prestigious Wolters Kluwer Health. We are grateful to promote a cultural challenge toward a new horizon in the field of translational research (TR. We enjoy to work together with the common objective to perform continuous medical education programs, exploring the methods in research, designing study, and to improve multidisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration in the basic sciences and in the clinical trials. Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure and what are its limits? More broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry as defined and revisiting at the beginning of the last decades. Translational medicine (TM should meet the demands to maintain or expanding the biomedical workforce and education programs that attract and retain young people in the translational and biomedical sciences. With this present contributes, we invite the members of the editorial board of Burns & Trauma to encourage submitting, in a special section, their personal experience about the philosophy of "Translation research." If this has a chance, welcome to the researchers, clinicians, and the allied people for their decisive contributions to strengthen the importance of a common way about the principles and methods of basic and clinical research. TR and TM represent a dynamic entity making a link, a sort of bridge, "from bench to bedside", or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. Epistemological pluralism is a critical point for conducting innovative, collaborative research which can lead to more successful integrated and successfully study

  10. Protocol for a systematic review of the use of narrative storytelling and visual-arts-based approaches as knowledge translation tools in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The arts are powerful, accessible forms of communication that have the potential to impart knowledge by attracting interest and developing meaningful connections. Knowledge translation aims to reduce the ‘evidence-practice’ gap by developing, implementing and evaluating strategies designed to enhance awareness and promote behavior change congruent with research evidence. Increasingly, innovative approaches such as narrative storytelling and other arts-based interventions are being investigated to bridge the growing gap between practice and research. This study is the first to systematically identify and synthesize current research on narrative storytelling and visual art to translate and disseminate health research. Methods A health research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify relevant evidence. Studies will be included if they are primary research employing narrative storytelling and/or visual art as a knowledge translation strategy in healthcare. Two reviewers will independently perform study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data will be grouped and analyzed by research design, type of knowledge translation strategy (that is, a narrative or visual-arts-based approach), and target audience. An overall synthesis across all studies will be conducted. Discussion The findings from this research project will describe the ‘state of the science’ regarding the use of narrative storytelling and visual art as knowledge translation strategies. This systematic review will provide critical information for: (1) researchers conducting knowledge translation intervention studies; (2) nursing, medicine, and allied healthcare professionals; (3) healthcare consumers, including patients and families; and (4) decision makers and knowledge users who are charged to increase use of the latest research in

  11. Health Extension and Clinical and Translational Science: An Innovative Strategy for Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Rhyne, Robert L; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Nixon, Marnie; Mishra, Shiraz; Poola, Charlene; Page-Reeves, Janet; Nkouaga, Carolina; Cordova, Carla; Larson, Richard S

    Health Extension Regional Officers (HEROs) through the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNMHSC) help to facilitate university-community engagement throughout New Mexico. HEROs, based in communities across the state, link priority community health needs with university resources in education, service, and research. Researchers' studies are usually aligned with federal funding priorities rather than with health priorities expressed by communities. To help overcome this misalignment, the UNM Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) provides partial funding for HEROs to bridge the divide between research priorities of UNMHSC and health priorities of the state's communities. A bidirectional partnership between HEROs and CTSC researchers was established, which led to: 1) increased community engaged studies through the CTSC, 2) the HERO model itself as a subject of research, 3) a HERO-driven increase in local capacity in scholarship and grant writing, and 4) development of training modules for investigators and community stakeholders on community-engaged research. As a result, 5 grants were submitted, 4 of which were funded, totaling $7,409,002.00, and 3 research articles were published. Health extension can serve as a university-funded, community-based bridge between community health needs and Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) research capacity, opening avenues for translational research. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  12. Translating Knowledge on Poverty to Humanize Care: Benefits and Synergies of Community Engagement with the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Martine Cécile; Dupéré, Sophie; Morin, Nathalie; Côté, Johanne; Roberge, Nancy; Laurin, Isabelle; Charbonneau, Anne; Loignon, Christine; Bedos, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge translation movement in health has led to the production of vast amounts of knowledge tools aimed at broadening clinicians' evidence base and improving the quality and efficacy of their practices. However important, these tools, largely oriented towards biomedical and technological aspects of care, are of limited potential for…

  13. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  14. Evaluation of a nurse-led dementia education and knowledge translation programme in primary care: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; He, Guo-Ping; De Bellis, Anita

    2017-02-01

    The lack of dementia education programmes for health professionals in primary care is one of the major factors contributing to the unmet demand for dementia care services. To determine the effectiveness of a nurse-led dementia education and knowledge translation programme for health professionals in primary care; participants' satisfaction with the programme; and to understand participants' perceptions of and experiences in the programme. A cluster randomized controlled trial was used as the main methodology to evaluate health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and care approach. Focus groups were used at the end of the project to understand health professionals' perceptions of and experiences in the programme. Fourteen community health service centres in a province in China participated in the study. Seven centres were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group respectively and 85 health professionals in each group completed the programme. A train-the-trainer model was used to implement a dementia education and knowledge translation programme. Outcome variables were measured at baseline, on the completion of the programme and at 3-month follow-up. A mixed effect linear regression model was applied to compare the significant differences of outcome measures over time between the two groups. Focus groups were guided by four semi-structured questions and analysed using content analysis. Findings revealed significant effects of the education and knowledge translation programme on participants' knowledge, attitudes and a person-centred care approach. Focus groups confirmed that the programme had a positive impact on dementia care practice. A dementia education and knowledge translation programme for health professionals in primary care has positive effects on their knowledge, attitudes, care approach and care practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Science Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-10-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. Research suggests high-quality science coursework has the potential to shape preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate changes in preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge and the relationship between the two variables as they co-evolve in a specialized science content course. Results from pre- and post-course administrations of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (Bleicher, 2004) and a physical science concept test along with semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and artifacts served as data sources for the study. The 18 participants belonged to three groups representing low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs and science conceptual understandings. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between gains in science conceptual understandings and gains in personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and they credited their experiences in the course as sources of new levels of confidence to teach science. The study includes implications for preservice teacher education programs, science teacher education, and research.

  16. Reading for meaning: The foundational knowledge every teacher of science should have

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Alexis; Roman, Diego; Friend, Michelle; Osborne, Jonathan; Donovan, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Reading is fundamental to science and not an adjunct to its practice. In other words, understanding the meaning of the various forms of written discourse employed in the creation, discussion, and communication of scientific knowledge is inherent to how science works. The language used in science, however, sets up a barrier, that in order to be overcome requires all students to have a clear understanding of the features of the multimodal informational texts employed in science and the strategies they can use to decode the scientific concepts communicated in informational texts. We argue that all teachers of science must develop a functional understanding of reading comprehension as part of their professional knowledge and skill. After describing our rationale for including knowledge about reading as a professional knowledge base every teacher of science should have, we outline the knowledge about language teachers must develop, the knowledge about the challenges that reading comprehension of science texts poses for students, and the knowledge about instructional strategies science teachers should know to support their students' reading comprehension of science texts. Implications regarding the essential role that knowledge about reading should play in the preparation of science teachers are also discussed here.

  17. Assessing Statistical Competencies in Clinical and Translational Science Education: One Size Does Not Fit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsell, Christopher J.; Welty, Leah J.; Mazumdar, Madhu; Thurston, Sally W.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Carter, Rickey E.; Pollock, Bradley H.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Enders, Felicity T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Statistics is an essential training component for a career in clinical and translational science (CTS). Given the increasing complexity of statistics, learners may have difficulty selecting appropriate courses. Our question was: what depth of statistical knowledge do different CTS learners require? Methods For three types of CTS learners (principal investigator, co‐investigator, informed reader of the literature), each with different backgrounds in research (no previous research experience, reader of the research literature, previous research experience), 18 experts in biostatistics, epidemiology, and research design proposed levels for 21 statistical competencies. Results Statistical competencies were categorized as fundamental, intermediate, or specialized. CTS learners who intend to become independent principal investigators require more specialized training, while those intending to become informed consumers of the medical literature require more fundamental education. For most competencies, less training was proposed for those with more research background. Discussion When selecting statistical coursework, the learner's research background and career goal should guide the decision. Some statistical competencies are considered to be more important than others. Baseline knowledge assessments may help learners identify appropriate coursework. Conclusion Rather than one size fits all, tailoring education to baseline knowledge, learner background, and future goals increases learning potential while minimizing classroom time. PMID:25212569

  18. Using a knowledge translation framework to implement asthma clinical practice guidelines in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd; Ong, Michael; Paolatto, Lisa; Nicoletti, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Quality problem International guidelines establish evidence-based standards for asthma care; however, recommendations are often not implemented and many patients do not meet control targets. Initial assessment Regional pilot data demonstrated a knowledge-to-practice gap. Choice of solutions We engineered health system change in a multi-step approach described by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation framework. Implementation Knowledge translation occurred at multiple levels: patient, practice and local health system. A regional administrative infrastructure and inter-disciplinary care teams were developed. The key project deliverable was a guideline-based interdisciplinary asthma management program. Six community organizations, 33 primary care physicians and 519 patients participated. The program operating cost was $290/patient. Evaluation Six guideline-based care elements were implemented, including spirometry measurement, asthma controller therapy, a written self-management action plan and general asthma education, including the inhaler device technique, role of medications and environmental control strategies in 93, 95, 86, 100, 97 and 87% of patients, respectively. Of the total patients 66% were adults, 61% were female, the mean age was 35.7 (SD = ± 24.2) years. At baseline 42% had two or more symptoms beyond acceptable limits vs. 17% (P< 0.001) post-intervention; 71% reported urgent/emergent healthcare visits at baseline (2.94 visits/year) vs. 45% (1.45 visits/year) (P< 0.001); 39% reported absenteeism (5.0 days/year) vs. 19% (3.0 days/year) (P< 0.001). The mean follow-up interval was 22 (SD = ± 7) months. Lessons learned A knowledge-translation framework can guide multi-level organizational change, facilitate asthma guideline implementation, and improve health outcomes in community primary care practices. Program costs are similar to those of diabetes programs. Program savings offset costs in a ratio of 2.1:1.

  19. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned.

  20. Exploring arts-based knowledge translation: sharing research findings through performing the patterns, rehearsing the results, staging the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra; Schultz, Annette S H

    2014-04-01

    Cultivation of knowledge translation (KT) strategies that actively engage health professionals in critical reflection of their practice and research-based evidence are imperative to address the research-practice gap. While research-based evidence is exponentially growing, our ability to facilitate uptake by nurses and other health professionals has not kept pace. Innovative approaches that extend epistemological bias beyond a singular standpoint of postpositivism, such as the utilization of arts-based methods, expand the possibility to address the complexities of context, engage audience members, promote dissemination within communities of practice, and foster new audiences interested in research findings. In this paper, we address the importance of adopting a social constructivist epistemological stance to facilitate knowledge translation to diverse audiences, explore various arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) strategies, and open a dialogue concerning evaluative tenets of ABKT. ABKT utilizes various art forms to disseminate research knowledge to diverse audiences and promote evidence-informed practice. ABKT initiatives translate knowledge not based upon a linear model, which views knowledge as an objective entity, but rather operate from the premise that knowledge is socially situated, which demands acknowledging and engaging the learner within their context. Theatre, dance, photography, and poetry are art forms that are commonly used to communicate research findings to diverse audiences. Given the emerging interest and importance of utilizing this KT strategy situated within a social constructivist epistemology, potential challenges and plausible evaluative criteria specific to ABKT are presented. ABKT is an emerging KT strategy that is grounded in social constructivist epistemological tenets, and holds potential for meaningfully sharing new research knowledge with diverse audiences. ABKT is an innovative and synergistic approach to traditional

  1. Thinking science with thinking machines: The multiple realities of basic and applied knowledge in a research border zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steve G

    2015-04-01

    Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course.

  2. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  3. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  4. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-10

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  5. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  6. Knowledge Translation Interventions to Improve the Timing of Dialysis Initiation: Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Elaine M T; Manns, Braden J; Garg, Amit X; Sood, Manish M; Kim, S Joseph; Naimark, David; Nesrallah, Gihad E; Soroka, Steven D; Beaulieu, Monica; Dixon, Stephanie; Alam, Ahsan; Tangri, Navdeep

    2016-01-01

    Early initiation of chronic dialysis (starting dialysis with higher vs lower kidney function) has risen rapidly in the past 2 decades in Canada and internationally, despite absence of established health benefits and higher costs. In 2014, a Canadian guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation, recommending an intent-to-defer approach, was published. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a knowledge translation intervention to promote the intent-to-defer approach in clinical practice. This study is a multicenter, 2-arm parallel, cluster randomized trial. The study involves 55 advanced chronic kidney disease clinics across Canada. Patients older than 18 years who are managed by nephrologists for more than 3 months, and initiate dialysis in the follow-up period are included in the study. Outcomes will be measured at the patient-level and enumerated within a cluster. Data on characteristics of each dialysis start will be determined by linkages with the Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Primary outcomes include the proportion of patients who start dialysis early with an estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 10.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and start dialysis in hospital as inpatients or in an emergency room setting. Secondary outcomes include the rate of change in early dialysis starts; rates of hospitalizations, deaths, and cost of predialysis care (wherever available); quarterly proportion of new starts; and acceptability of the knowledge translation materials. We randomized 55 multidisciplinary chronic disease clinics (clusters) in Canada to receive either an active knowledge translation intervention or no intervention for the uptake of the guideline on the timing of dialysis initiation. The active knowledge translation intervention consists of audit and feedback as well as patient- and provider-directed educational tools delivered at a comprehensive in-person medical detailing visit. Control clinics are only exposed to guideline

  7. Evaluation of a Sleep Knowledge Translation Strategy for Occupational Therapists Working with Persons who have Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura LeBerge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deficiency is a significant, largely overlooked issue for persons with dementia (PWD, and is associated with physical and mental health problems, increased caregiver burden, and increased likelihood of institutionalization. Despite the high prevalence of sleep deficiency in PWD, most health care professionals lack knowledge of the relationship between sleep problems and dementia. This project aimed to determine the feasibility of an archived online presentation, a knowledge translation (KT strategy to increase therapists’ understanding of the impact of blue-spectrum light on sleep in PWD. Method: Therapists who participated in a previous sleep and dementia survey were recruited via email. Participants completed a pre-knowledge test, accessed an online presentation regarding the relationship between sleep and light, and completed a post-test. Results: On average there was a 22% improvement in knowledge scores and participants were positive about the KT strategy being accessible, applicable, and evidence based. Conclusion: For a sample of therapists self-identified as specializing in geriatric rehabilitation, online audio-visual resources appear to be a feasible KT strategy to disseminate information and increase occupational therapists’ knowledge regarding the evidence-based relationship between blue-spectrum light and sleep in PWD. Further study is required to determine if this increased knowledge translates to practice settings.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Knowledge Translation Interventions for Chronic Noncancer Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B Ospina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.

  9. Promoting Translational Research Among Movement Science, Occupational Science, and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainburg, Robert L; Liew, Sook-Lei; Frey, Scott H; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors. Given both fields' mutual interest in the study of movement as it relates to health and disease, the authors posit that combining OS and OT theories and principles with the theories and methods in movement science may lead to new, impactful, and clinically relevant knowledge. The first step is to ensure that individuals with OS or OT backgrounds are academically prepared to pursue advanced study in movement science. In this article, the authors propose 2 strategies to address this need.

  10. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: Use the entire menu of constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT, an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Discussion Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a ‘menu of constructs’ approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. Summary The ‘menu of constructs’ notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  11. Science Literacy and Prior Knowledge of Astronomy MOOC Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David; Buxner, Sanlyn; Wenger, Matthew; Formanek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Many of science classes offered on Coursera fall into fall into the category of general education or general interest classes for lifelong learners, including our own, Astronomy: Exploring Time and Space. Very little is known about the backgrounds and prior knowledge of these students. In this talk we present the results of a survey of our Astronomy MOOC students. We also compare these results to our previous work on undergraduate students in introductory astronomy courses. Survey questions examined student demographics and motivations as well as their science and information literacy (including basic science knowledge, interest, attitudes and beliefs, and where they get their information about science). We found that our MOOC students are different than the undergraduate students in more ways than demographics. Many MOOC students demonstrated high levels of science and information literacy. With a more comprehensive understanding of our students’ motivations and prior knowledge about science and how they get their information about science, we will be able to develop more tailored learning experiences for these lifelong learners.

  12. Self-Directed Learning to Improve Science Content Knowledge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Garderen, Delinda; Hanuscin, Deborah; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Stormont, Melissa; Lee, Eun J.

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities often struggle in science and underperform in this important content area when compared to their typical peers. Unfortunately, many special educators have had little preparation to develop science content knowledge or skills in methods for teaching science. Despite their lack of content knowledge, special educators are…

  13. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  14. Best practice recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of online knowledge translation resources in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Glegg, Stephanie M N; Camden, Chantal; Rivard, Lisa M; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge-to-practice gap in rehabilitation has spurred knowledge translation (KT) initiatives aimed at promoting clinician behavior change and improving patient care. Online KT resources for physical therapists and other rehabilitation clinicians are appealing because of their potential to reach large numbers of individuals through self-paced, self-directed learning. This article proposes best practice recommendations for developing online KT resources that are designed to translate evidence into practice. Four recommendations are proposed with specific steps in the development, implementation, and evaluation process: (1) develop evidence-based, user-centered content; (2) tailor content to online format; (3) evaluate impact; and (4) share results and disseminate knowledge. Based on KT evidence and instructional design principles, concrete examples are provided along with insights gained from experiences in creating and evaluating online KT resources for physical therapists. In proposing these recommendations, the next steps for research are suggested, and others are invited to contribute to the discussion. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  16. Moving knowledge into action for more effective practice, programmes and policy: protocol for a research programme on integrated knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D; Kothari, Anita; McCutcheon, Chris

    2018-02-02

    Health research is conducted with the expectation that it advances knowledge and eventually translates into improved health systems and population health. However, research findings are often caught in the know-do gap: they are not acted upon in a timely way or not applied at all. Integrated knowledge translation (IKT) is advanced as a way to increase the relevance, applicability and impact of research. With IKT, knowledge users work with researchers throughout the research process, starting with identification of the research question. Knowledge users represent those who would be able to use research results to inform their decisions (e.g. clinicians, managers, policy makers, patients/families and others). Stakeholders are increasingly interested in the idea that IKT generates greater and faster societal impact. Stakeholders are all those who are interested in the use of research results but may not necessarily use them for their own decision-making (e.g. governments, funders, researchers, health system managers and policy makers, patients and clinicians). Although IKT is broadly accepted, the actual research supporting it is limited and there is uncertainty about how best to conduct and support IKT. This paper presents a protocol for a programme of research testing the assumption that engaging the users of research in phases of its production leads to (a) greater appreciation of and capacity to use research; (b) the production of more relevant, useful and applicable research that results in greater impact; and (c) conditions under which it is more likely that research results will influence policy, managerial and clinical decision-making. The research programme will adopt an interdisciplinary, international, cross-sector approach, using multiple and mixed methods to reflect the complex and social nature of research partnerships. We will use ongoing and future natural IKT experiments as multiple cases to study IKT in depth, and we will take advantage of the team

  17. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  18. Multidirectional Translation of Environmental Health Science in Community Settings: The Case of Oxidative Stress Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Natalie R; Tetteh, Myra M; Schulz, Amy J; Ramirez, Erminia; Wilkins, Donele; de Majo, Ricardo; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Translation of environmental health science in vulnerable communities is particularly important to promote public health and reduce health inequities. We describe a structured, multidirectional process used to develop a suite of health promotion tools (e.g., fact sheets, video, maps) documenting patterning of local air pollution sources and availability of antioxidant-rich foods in Detroit, Michigan as factors that jointly affect oxidative stress (OS). OS underlies many pathological processes associated with air pollution, including asthma, metabolic syndrome, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This translational effort involved a 2-year dialogue among representatives from community-based and environmental organizations, health service providers, and academic researchers. This dialogue led to development of tools, as well as new opportunities to inform related policies and research. Through this example, we highlight how collaborative partnerships can enhance multidirectional dialogue to inform translation of environmental health science by promoting consideration of multilevel risk factors, local priorities and context, and diverse audiences.

  19. An Expert System toward Buiding An Earth Science Knowledge Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.

  20. Facilitating knowledge translation in the "real world" of community psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Catherine L; Malchy, Leslie; Johnson, Joy L

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco use disproportionately affects the well-being of individuals with mental illness. In community psychiatric settings, there are culturally embedded attitudes and behaviors regarding smoking that enable practitioners to remain ambivalent about their clients' tobacco use. Given these cultural norms, the authors aimed to introduce evidence-informed smoking cessation interventions to a variety of interdisciplinary mental health care providers by using an innovative approach to knowledge translation. The authors used a case study design in which six community psychiatric settings were targeted. The organizational culture related to smoking was examined at each site before tailored tobacco reduction interventions were delivered. The study design was guided by the knowledge-to-action (KTA) process and two supplementary approaches to change: motivational interviewing (MI) and appreciative inquiry (AI). The principles of the KTA process, MI, and AI helped the authors to meaningfully engage with practice groups and change the organizational culture surrounding tobacco use in several community psychiatric settings.

  1. Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions for clinical encounters: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardi, Anna R.; L?gar?, France; Brouwers, Melissa C.; Webster, Fiona; Badley, Elizabeth; Straus, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions engage patients in their own health care. Insight on which PKT interventions are effective is lacking. We sought to describe the type and impact of PKT interventions. Methods We performed a systematic review of PKT interventions, defined as strategies that inform, educate and engage patients in their own health care. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 2005 to 2014 for English language studies that eva...

  2. ACCOUNTING AS BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Manoel Raimundo Santana; Martins, Gilberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the accounting as branch of knowledge in three different fields: science, technology and practice. Through theoretical essay, we was argued that, although distinct, these fields interact, in that, as epistemology that justified the analysis here undertaken, the practical activities may be technology subject matter and that to be effective if based on one or more sciences. The difference between science and technology is given by the nature of knowledg...

  3. A Systematic Review of Instruments to Assess Organizational Readiness for Knowledge Translation in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Attieh, Randa; Ghandour, El Kebir; Légaré, France; Ouimet, Mathieu; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC) is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT). However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments. Methods We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc.) up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments. Findings We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69%) of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University –ORC (TCU-ORC) scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University – Director version (TCU-ORC-D), reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19%) instruments. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could

  4. Translational Environmental Research: Improving the Usefulness and Usability of Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, requests for proposals more frequently emphasize outreach to stakeholder communities, decision support, and science that serves societal needs. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and Western States Water Council emphasize the need for science translation and outreach, in order to address societal concerns with climate extremes, such as drought, the use of climate predictions, and the growing challenges of climate change. In the 1990s, the NOAA Climate Program Office developed its Regional Integrated Sciences and Asssessments program to help bridge the gap between climate science (notably, seasonal predictions) and society, to improve the flow of information to stakeholders, and to increase the relevance of climate science to inform decisions. During the same time period, the National Science Foundation initiated multi-year Science and Technology Centers and Decision Making Under Uncertainty Centers, with similar goals, but different metrics of success. Moreover, the combination of population growth, climate change, and environmental degradation has prompted numerous research initiatives on linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. This presentation reviews various models and methodologies for translating science results from field, lab, or modeling work to use by society. Lessons and approaches from cooperative extension, boundary organizations, co-production of science and policy, and medical translational research are examined. In particular, multi-step translation as practiced within the health care community is examined. For example, so- called "T1" (translation 1) research moves insights from basic science to clinical research; T2 research evaluates the effectiveness of clinical practice, who benefits from promising care regimens, and develops tools for clinicians, patients, and policy makers. T3 activities test the implementation, delivery, and spread of research results and clinical practices in order to foster

  5. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching Science to Improve Student Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Robert L.

    The majority of Grade 5 students demonstrate limited science knowledge on state assessments. This trend has been documented since 2010 with no evidence of improvement. Because state accountability formulas include proficiency scores and carry sanctions against districts that fail to meet proficiency thresholds, improved student performance in science is an important issue to school districts. The purpose of this study was to explore elementary teachers' perceptions about their students' science knowledge, the strategies used to teach science, the barriers affecting science teaching, and the self-efficacy beliefs teachers maintain for teaching science. This study, guided by Vygotsky's social constructivist theory and Bandura's concept of self-efficacy, was a bounded instrumental case study in which 15 participants, required to be teaching K-5 elementary science in the county, were interviewed. An analytic technique was used to review the qualitative interview data through open coding, clustering, and analytical coding resulting in identified categorical themes that addressed the research questions. Key findings reflect students' limited content knowledge in earth and physical science. Teachers identified barriers including limited science instructional time, poor curricular resources, few professional learning opportunities, concern about new state standards, and a lack of teaching confidence. To improve student content knowledge, teachers identified the need for professional development. The project is a professional development series provided by a regional education service agency for K-5 teachers to experience science and engineering 3-dimensional learning. Area students will demonstrate deeper science content knowledge and benefit from improved science instructional practice and learning opportunities to become science problem solvers and innovative contributors to society.

  6. Knowledge Translation Tools are Emerging to Move Neck Pain Research into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Joy C; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita R

    2013-01-01

    Development or synthesis of the best clinical research is in itself insufficient to change practice. Knowledge translation (KT) is an emerging field focused on moving knowledge into practice, which is a non-linear, dynamic process that involves knowledge synthesis, transfer, adoption, implementation, and sustained use. Successful implementation requires using KT strategies based on theory, evidence, and best practice, including tools and processes that engage knowledge developers and knowledge users. Tools can provide instrumental help in implementing evidence. A variety of theoretical frameworks underlie KT and provide guidance on how tools should be developed or implemented. A taxonomy that outlines different purposes for engaging in KT and target audiences can also be useful in developing or implementing tools. Theoretical frameworks that underlie KT typically take different perspectives on KT with differential focus on the characteristics of the knowledge, knowledge users, context/environment, or the cognitive and social processes that are involved in change. Knowledge users include consumers, clinicians, and policymakers. A variety of KT tools have supporting evidence, including: clinical practice guidelines, patient decision aids, and evidence summaries or toolkits. Exemplars are provided of two KT tools to implement best practice in management of neck pain-a clinician implementation guide (toolkit) and a patient decision aid. KT frameworks, taxonomies, clinical expertise, and evidence must be integrated to develop clinical tools that implement best evidence in the management of neck pain.

  7. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  8. [Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Salt Knowledge Questionnaire to the Spanish language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros-Reyes, C; Marcionelli-Sandhaus, T; Mayta-Tristán, P

    2017-11-03

    In order to reduce salt consumption in Spanish speaking countries it is necessary to know the level of salt knowledge in the population. However, there are no tools in Spanish to measure salt knowledge, but the only valid tool of measurement is the 'Salt Knowledge Questionnaire' (SKQ) developed in Australia, in English. A validation study was conducted in three phases: (Phase1) Translation of the original Australian version into Spanish; (Phase2) Cultural adaptation based on a Spanish-speaking population such as Peru and following criteria used in the development of the original questionnaire which was evaluated by a panel of experts; (Phase3) Construct validity by comparing the scores of three groups (experts, medical students and non-experts) and reliability by performing a test retest. The translation of the SKQ into Spanish maintained a semantic equivalence with the original questionnaire and a panel of experts accepted the cultural adaptation. The SKQ enables discrimination between those who know and those who do not because differences of scores were found between the group of experts, students and non-experts (P.05). The SKQ questionnaire in Spanish is valid, reliable and is a suitable first tool to measure knowledge about salt in the Spanish language. It is considered possible to adapt it culturally to the Spanish-speaking country that wishes to use it. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Knowledge Brokers in International Ocean Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, H.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of the 'boundary' between science and policy has been used as a tool to separate and protect the credibility of both parties - the scientist and the policy maker. While this separation is important, it also results in frustration by both sides, a reduction in efficiency and ultimately establishes policy that has the potential to be more effective. Many now agree that the process of knowledge generation and transmission to decision makers, and eventually into effective policy, should not be a one-way, linear push of information, but a multi-party dialogue in which decision makers, scientists and intermediaries work together to increase the effectiveness of the scientific information for the policy process. These intermediaries, or knowledge brokers, are described as persons or organizations that actively facilitate the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge. This work discusses the reasons for the boundary between science and policy and the inherent challenges in bridging the boundary. It examines the role and activities of knowledge brokers and illuminates the process by which scientific and technical knowledge is translated from knowledge generators (i.e. scientists) to knowledge users (i.e. policy makers) in international environmental governance. The study then considers the role of knowledge brokers in practice, through a case study of the ongoing effort to establish marine protected areas in the high seas. Specifically, this study examines who the knowledge brokers are working on this topic, their activities, and what lessons their experiences hold for the effective translation of scientific information to policy makers in other international issues. The study concludes that 1) knowledge brokers and boundary organizations are an essential part of the effective translation of scientific knowledge to policy makers in international environmental governance and 2) both knowledge generators and knowledge users would benefit by recognizing the role of

  10. The impact of a curriculum course on pre-service primary teachers' science content knowledge and attitudes towards teaching science

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Clíona; Smith, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Many primary school teachers have insufficient content and pedagogical knowledge of science. This lack of knowledge can often lead to a lack of confidence and competence in teaching science. This article explores the impact of a year-long science methodology (curriculum science) course on second year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students' conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of science and on their attitudes towards teaching science in the primary classroom. A questionnaire, containing closed ...

  11. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  12. Lost in Translation: The Gap in Scientific Advancements and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eFernandez-Moure

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of medicine and medical technology hinges on the successful translation of basic science research from the bench to clinical implementation at the bedside. Born out of the increasing need to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to patients, translational research has emerged. Significant leaps in improving global health such as antibiotics, vaccinations, and cancer therapies have all seen successes under this paradigm yet today it has become increasingly difficult to realize this ideal scenario. As hospital revenue demand increase, and financial support declines, clinician protected research time has been limited. Researchers, likewise, have been forced to abandon time and resource consuming translational research to focus on publication generating work to maintain funding and professional advancement. Compared to the surge in scientific innovation and new fields of science have surged, realization of transformational scientific findings in device development and materials sciences has significantly lagged behind. Herein, we describe: how the current scientific paradigm struggles in the new health-care landscape; the obstacles met by translational researchers; and solutions, both public and private, to overcoming those obstacles. We must rethink the old dogma of academia and reinvent the traditional pathways of research in order to truly impact the health-care arena and ultimately those that matter most: the patient.

  13. Opinions and knowledge about climate change science in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education.

  14. Integrated Knowledge Translation and Grant Development: Addressing the Research Practice Gap through Stakeholder-informed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Rosenkranz, Susan; Chaim, Gloria; Beitchman, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We describe our stakeholder engagement process for grant application development that occurred as part of our integrated knowledge translation plan and make recommendations for researchers. In phase 1, a stakeholder consultation group was developed. In phase 2, surveys regarding knowledge gathering, research agenda, and research collaboration preferences were sent to 333 cross-sectoral youth-serving organizations in Ontario, including family and consumer organizations. In phase 1, 28 stakeholders from six sectors participated in the consultation group and provided input on multiple aspects of the proposal. Through this process, 19 stakeholders adopted formal roles within the project. In phase 2, 206 surveys were received (response rate = 62%). Survey responses supported the grant focus (concurrent youth mental health and substance use problems). Respondents also prioritized project goals and provided specific feedback on research and knowledge translation. Finally, although some stakeholders chose greater involvement, most survey respondents indicated a preference for a moderate level of participation in research rather than full team membership. Despite short timelines and feasibility challenges, stakeholders can be meaningfully engaged in and contribute to the grant proposal development process. Consideration is needed for the practical challenges that stakeholder organizations face in supporting and participating in research.

  15. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  16. Implementation of multidimensional knowledge translation strategies to improve procedural pain in hospitalized children

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Harrison, Denise; Victor, J Charles

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A multifaceted KT intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), that included tailored KT strategies was effective in improving ...

  17. DISSEMINATING MULTICULTURALISM THROUGH THE TEACHING OF TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arido Laksono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Students are expected to change the world. Their perspectives represent the way they view the world and its phenomena. The broader knowledge they possess, the more tolerance they have in interpreting life. In the global era, students should understand the importance of having good knowledge in multiculturalism. They will involve in an inter-cultural encounter since sources of information are widely offered. The willingness to have such an open mind is required in order to develop a better place to live and work. One way to disseminate multiculturalism values is using text containing information about culture and social values. The text written in English or Bahasa Indonesia for the class designed in disseminating multiculturalism is Translation. Here, students are taught to interpret the messages conveyed and translate the information from the source language to the target language correctly. Teacher must have good and creative technique in delivering the material so that students really enjoy the class and deeply understand the topic. The teaching and learning process in Translation class, therefore, is an effective medium to achieve the expected purpose as stated above. Theory of translation will not be the one and only theory to do the translation job, but it also needs comprehensive knowledge on other social sciences. Hence, translation class will not only discuss lines of words in a paragraph, but also reciprocal discussion among the members of the class. At the end, students will have the ability to translate such information in a text correctly and to establish civic society with more open comprehension over society and its culture. Keywords: theory of translation, multiculturalism, teaching-learning process, globalization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0

  18. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  19. Science knowledge and cognitive strategy use among culturally and linguistically diverse students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Fradd, Sandra H.; Sutman, Frank X.

    Science performance is determined, to a large extent, by what students already know about science (i.e., science knowledge) and what techniques or methods students use in performing science tasks (i.e., cognitive strategies). This study describes and compares science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use among four diverse groups of elementary students: (a) monolingual English Caucasian, (b) African-American, (c) bilingual Spanish, and (d) bilingual Haitian Creole. To facilitate science performance in culturally and linguistically congruent settings, the study included student dyads and teachers of the same language, culture, and gender. Science performance was observed using three science tasks: weather phenomena, simple machines, and buoyancy. Data analysis involved a range of qualitative methods focusing on major themes and patterns, and quantitative methods using coding systems to summarize frequencies and total scores. The findings reveal distinct patterns of science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use among the four language and culture groups. The findings also indicate relationships among science knowledge, science vocabulary, and cognitive strategy use. These findings raise important issues about science instruction for culturally and linguistically diverse groups of students.Received: 3 January 1995;

  20. (Mis)Perceptions of Continuing Education: Insights from Knowledge Translation, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Simon C.; Bell, Mary; Goldman, Joanne; Peller, Jennifer; Silver, Ivan; Sargeant, Joan; Reeves, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Minimal attention has been given to the intersection and potential collaboration among the domains of continuing education (CE), knowledge translation (KT), quality improvement (QI), and patient safety (PS), despite their overlapping objectives. A study was undertaken to examine leaders' perspectives of these 4 domains and their…

  1. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Menon, Anita; Boruff, Jill; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ahmed, Sara

    2014-05-06

    Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 - May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. This scoping review was the first to examine

  2. Research on the improving strategy of business English translation talents knowledge level%商务英语翻译人才知识水平提高策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛金祥

    2013-01-01

      The development of translation industry in China makes the translator team expand ceaselessly, but unqualified translator is not in the minority. In order to ensure the quality of the translators, on the one hand, the occupational translator should constantly improve their own level, on the other hand, the quality of the translation of business English personnel training need improve. A qualified translator must have a wealth of knowledge and a solid cultural foundation. Knowledge is the prerequisite of the qualified translator, the translator needs long-term training, and constantly improve the level of knowledge in the language knowledge, cultural knowledge, professional knowledge, the knowledge of translation, industry knowledge and computer and network knowledge, thus becoming the business English translation talents of high quality.%  我国翻译产业化的发展使得译者队伍不断扩大,然而不合格的翻译也不在少数。为了保证译者队伍质量,一方面职业译者要不断提高自身水平;另一方面高校商务英语翻译人才培养要提高质量。一个合格的译者必须具备丰富的相关知识和坚实的语言文化功底。知识储备是成为合格译者的前提条件,译者需要长期的训练,在语言知识、文化知识、专业知识、翻译知识、行业知识和电脑及网络知识等方面不断提高知识水平,从而成为高素质的商务英语翻译人才。

  3. Knowledge as a Cultural Product: From the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge to the Cultural Studies of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rabbani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic (feature of the sociology of knowledge and science is its emphasis on the culture and cultural analysis within the scientific and technological research. This study concerns with the study of two research fields in which new sociologists of science and technology have presented their cultural analysis. These two fields include: sociology of scientific knowledge and cultural studies of science.Sociology of scientific knowledge is the first school of thought which makes the content of scientific knowledge inclined to and compliant with the cultural and sociological analysis. In SSK, the main presupposition is that “the scientific knowledge is totally arbitrary.” Accordingly, the design and evaluation of scientific theories and claims are the consequence of social interests and cultural inclinations (trends, in a way that the scientific theories become a tool for the justification, legitimating, encouragement and contentment.At the early 1990s, with the rise of crisis (chaos within the explanations of sociology of scientific knowledge and a flood of criticism against it, the whole subjectivity of the field came to a standstill (reached an impasse and the initiatives in scientific research were replaced by different theoretical orientations like cultural studies. In contrast to the sociology of scientific knowledge, the cultural studies of science concerns with the rejection of “explanation” and, instead, focuses on the “meaning” and “understanding”. In other words, it has come back to an old dispute between explanatory and hermeneutic approaches and those  which pursue the regulative (legalistic comprehensiveness along the more positivistic lines.This emerging field emphasizes the issue that the uncertainty, instability, ambiguity (vagueness and difference must be given a more important role in sciences. Cultural studies of science gave rise to a change from the sociology of scientific knowledge to a new

  4. Opinions and Knowledge About Climate Change Science in High School Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harker-Schuch, Inez; Henriksen, Christian Bugge

    2013-01-01

    in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans......This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students...... are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage...

  5. Student science publishing: an exploratory study of undergraduate science research journals and popular science magazines in the US and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Tatalovic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Science magazines have an important role in disseminating scientific knowledge into the public sphere and in discussing the broader scope affected by scientific research such as technology, ethics and politics. Student-run science magazines afford opportunities for future scientists, communicators, politicians and others to practice communicating science. The ability to translate ‘scientese’ into a jargon-free discussion is rarely easy: it requires practice, and student magazines may provide good practice ground for undergraduate and graduate science students wishing to improve their communication skills.

  6. Synthesis maps: visual knowledge translation for the CanIMPACT clinical system and patient cancer journeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P H; Shakdher, S; Singh, P

    2017-04-01

    Salient findings and interpretations from the canimpact clinical cancer research study are visually represented in two synthesis maps for the purpose of communicating an integrated presentation of the study to clinical cancer researchers and policymakers. Synthesis maps integrate evidence and expertise into a visual narrative for knowledge translation and communication. A clinical system synthesis map represents the current Canadian primary care and cancer practice systems, proposed as a visual knowledge translation from the mixed-methods canimpact study to inform Canadian clinical research, policy, and practice discourses. Two synthesis maps, drawn together from multiple canimpact investigations and sources, were required to articulate critical differences between the clinical system and patient perspectives. The synthesis map of Canada-wide clinical cancer systems illustrates the relationships between primary care and the full cancer continuum. A patient-centred map was developed to represent the cancer (and primary care) journeys as experienced by breast and colorectal cancer patients.

  7. Do e-mail alerts of new research increase knowledge translation? A "Nephrology Now" randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Gemini V; Sood, Manish M; Schiff, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Daniel; Naimark, David M

    2011-01-01

    As the volume of medical literature increases exponentially, maintaining current clinical practice is becoming more difficult. Multiple, Internet-based journal clubs and alert services have recently emerged. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of the e-mail alert service, Nephrology Now, increases knowledge translation regarding current nephrology literature. Nephrology Now is a nonprofit, monthly e-mail alert service that highlights clinically relevant articles in nephrology. In 2007-2008, the authors randomized 1,683 subscribers into two different groups receiving select intervention articles, and then they used an online survey to assess both groups on their familiarity with the articles and their acquisition of knowledge. Of the randomized subscribers, 803 (47.7%) completed surveys, and the two groups had a similar number of responses (401 and 402, respectively). The authors noted no differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Familiarity increased as a result of the Nephrology Now alerts (0.23 ± 0.087 units on a familiarity scale; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.41; P = .007) especially in physicians (multivariate odds ratio 1.83; P = .0002). No detectable improvement in knowledge occurred (0.03 ± 0.083 units on a knowledge scale; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.20; P = .687). An e-mail alert service of new literature improved a component of knowledge translation--familiarity--but not knowledge acquisition in a large, randomized, international population.

  8. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  9. Protocol: developing a conceptual framework of patient mediated knowledge translation, systematic review using a realist approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wiljer David; Webster Fiona; Brouwers Melissa C; Légaré France; Gagliardi Anna R; Badley Elizabeth; Straus Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient involvement in healthcare represents the means by which to achieve a healthcare system that is responsive to patient needs and values. Characterization and evaluation of strategies for involving patients in their healthcare may benefit from a knowledge translation (KT) approach. The purpose of this knowledge synthesis is to develop a conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interventions. Methods A preliminary conceptual framework for patient-mediated KT interv...

  10. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  11. The prevention and management of chronic disease in primary care: recommendations from a knowledge translation meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Ware, Patrick; Visca, Regina; Bareil, Celine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Desforges, Johanne; Finlayson, Roderick; Fortin, Martin; Gauthier, Josée; Grimard, Dominique; Guay, Maryse; Hudon, Catherine; Lalonde, Lyne; Lévesque, Lise; Michaud, Cecile; Provost, Sylvie; Sutton, Tim; Tousignant, Pierre; Travers, Stella; Ware, Mark; Gogovor, Amede

    2015-10-15

    Seven chronic disease prevention and management programs were implemented across Quebec with funding support from a provincial-private industry funding initiative. Given the complexity of implementing integrated primary care chronic disease management programs, a knowledge transfer meeting was held to share experiences across programs and synthesize common challenges and success factors for implementation. The knowledge translation meeting was held in February 2014 in Montreal, Canada. Seventy-five participants consisting of 15 clinicians, 14 researchers, 31 knowledge users, and 15 representatives from the funding agencies were broken up into groups of 10 or 11 and conducted a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis on either the implementation or the evaluation of these chronic disease management programs. Results were reported back to the larger group during a plenary and recorded. Audiotapes were transcribed and summarized using pragmatic thematic analysis. Strengths to leverage for the implementation of the seven programs include: (1) synergy between clinical and research teams; (2) stakeholders working together; (3) motivation of clinicians; and (4) the fact that the programs are evidence-based. Weaknesses to address include: (1) insufficient resources; (2) organizational change within the clinical sites; (3) lack of referrals from primary care physicians; and (4) lack of access to programs. Strengths to leverage for the evaluation of these programs include: (1) engagement of stakeholders and (2) sharing of knowledge between clinical sites. Weaknesses to address include: (1) lack of referrals; (2) difficulties with data collection; and (3) difficulties in identifying indicators and control groups. Opportunities for both themes include: (1) fostering new and existing partnerships and stakeholder relations; (2) seizing funding opportunities; (3) knowledge transfer; (4) supporting the transformation of professional roles; (5) expand the use of

  12. [An introduction of the Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC) of the Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigooka, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Neuropsychopharmacology (NP) has established a Translational Medical Science Committee (TMSC), which is introduced in this article. In this century, the Japanese Government has made great effort to establish highly organized supporting systems for translational research (TR); however, clinical developments for psychotropic drugs in Japan are facing stagnation. TMSC will provide advisory activities from an academic point of view in this field, which will be result in the improvement of people's health.

  13. Using social media for knowledge translation, promotion of evidence-based medicine and high-quality information on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljak, Livia

    2016-02-02

    Knowledge translation activities may be targeted towards all participants in healthcare practices, including patients, consumers, and policy makers. Hereby, use of social media, namely social network Facebook, as a tool for knowledge translation, promotion of evidence-based medicine and high-quality information on health is described. In March 2013, a Facebook page of the Croatian Cochrane Branch was created and its main content are translated plain language summaries (PLS) of the systematic reviews produced by The Cochrane Collaboration. Since the page was created it has gained 1441 followers, mostly from Croatia and neighboring countries with similar language. Most of the page followers are women aged 25 to 44 and the most popular content is related to pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Page followers are lay persons, health professionals and journalists, who further disseminate the page content. In summary, social media enables multiple possibilities to engage with target audience and to disseminate the evidence-based medicine content. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. High-School Students' Epistemic Knowledge of Science and Its Relation to Learner Factors in Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Liu, Shiang-Yao; Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Chiou, Guo-Li; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Wu, Ying-Tien; Chen, Sufen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Lee, Silvia W.-Y.; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lin, Che-Li; Chu, Regina Juchun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an online contextualized test for assessing students' understanding of epistemic knowledge of science. In addition, how students' understanding of epistemic knowledge of science interacts with learner factors, including time spent on science learning, interest, self-efficacy, and gender, was…

  15. Strengthening the career development of clinical translational scientist trainees: a consensus statement of the Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Education and Career Development Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Frederick J; Begg, Melissa D; Fleming, Michael; Merchant, Carol

    2012-04-01

    The challenges for scholars committed to successful careers in clinical and translational science are increasingly well recognized. The Education and Career Development (EdCD) of the national Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium gathered thought leaders to propose sustainable solutions and an agenda for future studies that would strengthen the infrastructure across the spectrum of pre- and postdoctoral, MD and PhD, scholars. Six consensus statements were prepared that include: (1) the requirement for career development of a qualitatively different investigator; (2) the implications of interdisciplinary science for career advancement including institutional promotion and tenure actions that were developed for discipline-specific accomplishments; (3) the need for long-term commitment of institutions to scholars; (4) discipline-specific curricula are still required but curricula designed to promote team work and interdisciplinary training will promote innovation; (5) PhD trainees have many pathways to career satisfaction and success; and (6) a centralized infrastructure to enhance and reward mentoring is required. Several themes cut across all of the recommendations including team science, innovation, and sustained institutional commitment. Implied themes include an effective and diverse job force and the requirement for a well-crafted public policy that supports continued investments in science education. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  17. Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication: Information Professionals Unlocking Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Kroth; Holly E. Phillips; Jonathan D. Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    The Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC) was held March 11-12, 2010 in Albuquerque, NM. The conference addressed the perceived gap in knowledge and training for scholarly communication principles in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Program. The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and...

  18. Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

    2011-12-01

    Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated

  19. Timelines of translational science: From technology initiation to FDA approval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McNamee

    Full Text Available While timelines for clinical development have been extensively studied, there is little data on the broader path from initiation of research on novel drug targets, to approval of drugs based on this research. We examined timelines of translational science for 138 drugs and biologicals approved by the FDA from 2010-2014 using an analytical model of technology maturation. Research on targets for 102 products exhibited a characteristic (S-curve maturation pattern with exponential growth between statistically defined technology initiation and established points. The median initiation was 1974, with a median of 25 years to the established point, 28 years to first clinical trials, and 36 years to FDA approval. No products were approved before the established point, and development timelines were significantly longer when the clinical trials began before this point (11.5 vs 8.5 years, p<0.0005. Technological maturation represents the longest stage of translation, and significantly impacts the efficiency of drug development.

  20. Balancing exploration and exploitation in transferring research into practice: a comparison of five knowledge translation entity archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Prince, Karl; Racko, Girts

    2013-09-05

    Translating knowledge from research into clinical practice has emerged as a practice of increasing importance. This has led to the creation of new organizational entities designed to bridge knowledge between research and practice. Within the UK, the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) have been introduced to ensure that emphasis is placed in ensuring research is more effectively translated and implemented in clinical practice. Knowledge translation (KT) can be accomplished in various ways and is affected by the structures, activities, and coordination practices of organizations. We draw on concepts in the innovation literature--namely exploration, exploitation, and ambidexterity--to examine these structures and activities as well as the ensuing tensions between research and implementation. Using a qualitative research approach, the study was based on 106 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with the directors, theme leads and managers, key professionals involved in research and implementation in nine CLAHRCs. Data was also collected from intensive focus group workshops. In this article we develop five archetypes for organizing KT. The results show how the various CLAHRC entities work through partnerships to create explorative research and deliver exploitative implementation. The different archetypes highlight a range of structures that can achieve ambidextrous balance as they organize activity and coordinate practice on a continuum of exploration and exploitation. This work suggests that KT entities aim to reach their goals through a balance between exploration and exploitation in the support of generating new research and ensuring knowledge implementation. We highlight different organizational archetypes that support various ways to maintain ambidexterity, where both exploration and exploitation are supported in an attempt to narrow the knowledge gaps. The KT entity archetypes offer insights on strategies in structuring

  1. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  2. [Geography of science makes a difference: an appeal for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a perspective for analyzing the relationship between geographic space and scientific practice and the possible contribution by the geography of science to understanding and developing strategies in favor of public health. Contributions by the field of social studies of science, specifically from the Actor-Network Theory and its concept of translation, and the geography of Milton Santos, form the theoretical framework that allows exploring the spatial dimensions of the production and circulation of scientific knowledge. The article discusses how this approach both enriches and challenges the recent international policies in favor of knowledge translation. The article identifies a possible contribution by the field of Information Science to favor the movement of knowledge, aiming to help minimize the imbalance between what is known in theory and what is applied in practice in health, or the so-called 'know-do gap'.

  3. Open Science as a Knowledge Transfer strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Dalmeier-Thiessen, Suenje

    2015-04-01

    Beyond providing basic understanding of how our Blue Planet functions, flows and breathes, the collection of Earth & Marine Research disciplines are of major service to most of today's Societal Challenges: from Food Security and Sustainable Resource Management, to Renewable Energies, Climate Mitigation & Ecosystem Services and Hazards. Natural Resources are a key commodity in the long-term strategy of the EU Innovation Union(1), and better understanding of the natural process governing them, as well as science-based management are seen as a key area for stimulating future economic growth. Such potential places responsibility on research project managers to devise innovative methods to ensure effective transfer of new research to public and private sector users, and society at large. Open Science is about removing all barriers to full sphere basic research knowledge and outputs, not just the publishable part of research but also the data, the software code, and failed experiments. The concept is central to EU's Responsible Research and Innovation philosophy(2), and removing barriers to basic research measurably contributes to the EU's Blue Growth Agenda(3). Despite the potential of the internet age to deliver on that promise, only 50% of today's basic research is freely available(4). The talk will demonstrate how and why Open Science can be a first, passive but effective strategy for any research project to transfer knowledge to society by allowing access and dicoverability to the full sphere of new knowledge, not just the published outputs. Apart from contributing to economic growth, Open Science can also optimize collaboration, within academia, assist with better engagement of citizen scientists into the research process and co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as providing a solid ground for more sophisticated communication strategies and Ocean/Earth Literacy initiatives targeting policy makers and the public at large. (1)EC Digital Agenda

  4. Actionable nuggets: knowledge translation tool for the needs of patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets' effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Forty-nine primary care physicians. Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants' opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. With Actionable Nuggets, participants' knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians' practices was 72%. Participants' awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian Medical Association to approximately 50,000 primary care physicians in Canada, in both

  5. Capturing and portraying science student teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through CoRe construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongnoppakun, Warangkana; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is an essential kind of knowledge that teacher have for teaching particular content to particular students for enhance students' understanding, therefore, teachers with adequate PCK can give content to their students in an understandable way rather than transfer subject matter knowledge to learner. This study explored science student teachers' PCK for teaching science using Content representation base methodology. Research participants were 68 4th year science student teachers from department of General Science, faculty of Education, Phuket Rajabhat University. PCK conceptualization for teaching science by Magnusson et al. (1999) was applied as a theoretical framework in this study. In this study, Content representation (CoRe) by Loughran et al. (2004) was employed as research methodology in the lesson preparation process. In addition, CoRe consisted of eight questions (CoRe prompts) that designed to elicit and portray teacher's PCK for teaching science. Data were collected from science student teachers' CoRes design for teaching a given topic and student grade. Science student teachers asked to create CoRes design for teaching in topic `Motion in one direction' for 7th grade student and further class discussion. Science student teachers mostly created a same group of science concepts according to subunits of school science textbook rather than planned and arranged content to support students' understanding. Furthermore, they described about the effect of student's prior knowledge and learning difficulties such as students' knowledge of Scalar and Vector quantity; and calculating skill. These responses portrayed science student teacher's knowledge of students' understanding of science and their content knowledge. However, they still have inadequate knowledge of instructional strategies and activities for enhance student learning. In summary, CoRes design can represented holistic overviews of science student teachers' PCK related

  6. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  7. MANAGING THE TRANSLATION OF ECONOMIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria Mirabela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, translation may pass as science; practically, it seems closer to art. Translation is a challenging activity requiring a set of abilities and posing few difficulties that appear during the translation process. This paper investigates the extent to which sub-technical vocabulary can constitute a problem to Romanian students of economics reading in English, by looking at the translations produced as independent or pair work during English classes and analyzing the various errors which may appeared. The exigencies required by the efficient business communication have increased in the past few decades because of rising international trade, increased migration, globalization, the recognition of linguistic minorities, and the expansion of the mass media and technology. All these led us to approach the topic of translation which is actually a job that requires skills, stages of research necessary for disclosure of transfer characteristic into the target language, training, experience and a good sense of languages. The paper defines the theoretical issues and terminology: translation, types of translation, economic texts and then focuses on the presentation of the practical work carried out throughout the academic year of second year students. Considering that only 28% of the entire European population can read English, and even less people in South America and Asia can, it is obvious that an effective communication of business matters relies on an accurate understanding of terminology. Economics is a field of knowledge in accelerated scientific and technological development. As there is a permanent and ever increasing need to quickly update their knowledge, economists read and learn directly in the original language of the publication and stick to it in daily usage, including conferences, scientific events and articles written in Romanian. Besides researching properly the markets, finding distribution channels, and dealing with legal

  8. Making On-line Science Course Materials Easily Translatable and Accessible Worldwide: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy K.; Alhadlaq, Hisham; Malley, Christopher V.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Olson, Jonathan; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Wieman, Carl E.

    2012-02-01

    The PhET Interactive Simulations Project partnered with the Excellence Research Center of Science and Mathematics Education at King Saud University with the joint goal of making simulations useable worldwide. One of the main challenges of this partnership is to make PhET simulations and the website easily translatable into any language. The PhET project team overcame this challenge by creating the Translation Utility. This tool allows a person fluent in both English and another language to easily translate any of the PhET simulations and requires minimal computer expertise. In this paper we discuss the technical issues involved in this software solution, as well as the issues involved in obtaining accurate translations. We share our solutions to many of the unexpected problems we encountered that would apply generally to making on-line scientific course materials available in many different languages, including working with: languages written right-to-left, different character sets, and different conventions for expressing equations, variables, units and scientific notation.

  9. Developing pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge by using training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkan, Watinee; Suwannoi, Paisan

    2018-01-01

    A training program was developed for enhancing pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The pre-service science teachers are able to: understand science curriculum, knowledge of assessment in science, knowledge of students' understanding of science, instructional strategies and orientations towards science teaching, which is conceptualized as PCK [5]. This study examined the preservice science teachers' understandings and their practices which include five pre-service science teachers' PCK. In this study, the participants demonstrated their PCK through the process of the training program by writing content representations (CoRes), preparing the lesson plans, micro-teaching, and actual teaching respectively. All pre-service science teachers' performs were collected by classroom observations. Then, they were interviewed. The results showed that the pre-service science teachers progressively developed knowledge components of PCK. Micro-teaching is the key activities for developing PCK. However, they had some difficulties in their classroom teaching. They required of sufficient ability to design appropriate instructional strategies and assessment activities for teaching. Blending content and pedagogy is also a matter of great concern. The implication of this study was that science educators can enhance pre-service science teachers' PCK by fostering their better understandings of the instructional strategies, assessment activities and blending between content and pedagogy in their classroom.

  10. Translational science by public biotechnology companies in the IPO "class of 2000": the impact of technological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Laura; Ledley, Fred

    2013-01-01

    The biotechnology industry plays a central role in the translation of nascent biomedical science into both products that offer material health benefits and creating capital growth. This study examines the relationship between the maturity of technologies in a characteristic life cycle and value creation by biotechnology companies. We examined the core technology, product development pipelines, and capitalization for a cohort of biotechnology companies that completed an IPO in 2000. Each of these companies was well financed and had core technologies on the leading edge of biological science. We found that companies with the least mature technologies had significantly higher valuations at IPO, but failed to develop products based on these technologies over the ensuing decade, and created less capital growth than companies with more mature technologies at IPO. The observation that this cohort of recently public biotechnology companies was not effective in creating value from nascent science suggests the need for new, evidence-based business strategies for translational science.

  11. Incorporating Indonesian Students' "Funds of Knowledge" into Teaching Science to Sustain Their Interest in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Md Zain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of incorporating students’ funds of knowledge in the teaching of science in sustaining Indonesian students’ interest in science. The researchers employed mixed method approach in this study. This study took place within two suburban secondary schools in Indonesia. Two teachers and a total of 173 students (94 males and 79 females participated in this study. The findings revealed that initially, most students expected that the teaching process would mainly include science experiments or other hands-on activities. Their preferences revealed a critical problem related to science learning: a lack of meaningful science-related activities in the classroom. The findings showed that incorporating students’ funds of knowledge into science learning processes -and thus establishing students’ culture as an important and valued aspect of science learning was effective in not only sustaining but also improving students’ attitudes and increasing their interest in science.

  12. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudinal instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zometa, Carlos S; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D; Westhoff, Wayne; Siri, Rodrigo Simán; Debaldo, Ann

    2007-06-01

    An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated for use with Spanish-speaking high school students in El Salvador. A back-translation of the English version was cross-culturally adapted using two different review panels and pilot-tested with Salvadorian students. An expert panel established content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for construct validity. Results indicated that the methodology was successful in cross-culturally adapting the instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. The psychometric properties of the knowledge section were acceptable and there was partial support for the four-factor attitudinal model underlying the CDC instrument and the two-factor model underlying the Basen-Engquist et al. instrument. Additional studies with Spanish-speaking populations (either in the United States or Latin America) are needed to evaluate the generalizability of the present results.

  13. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  14. Developing Evidence for Public Health Policy and Practice: The Implementation of a Knowledge Translation Approach in a Staged, Multi-Methods Study in England, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Cattan, Mima

    2014-01-01

    Effective knowledge translation processes are critical for the development of evidence-based public health policy and practice. This paper reports on the design and implementation of an innovative approach to knowledge translation within a mixed methods study on lay involvement in public health programme delivery. The study design drew on…

  15. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Evergreen Challenge for Translators – The Translation of Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating idioms has always been a challenging decision-making process for translators mainly because not all idioms have direct equivalents in the target language. Translators usually and ideally have a solid knowledge of the target language and its cultural aspects, but even so they cannot match the ability of a native speaker in deciding when – i.e. in what context and text type – an idiom would or would not be appropriate. This study aims to explore the main characteristics of idioms and the difficulties which might occur when translating them. A needs analysis will also be presented, where the various solutions which a group of translator trainees chose while translating certain idioms from the novel “A Game of Thrones” by George R. R. Martin into Hungarian are examined. Their strategies and the appropriateness of their choices are analysed and compared with the options of the experienced literary translator (Tamás Pétersz. We consider this an important endeavour because, based on our experience, we believe that the topic of the translation of idioms should be included into the curriculum and appropriate materials and tasks should be designed to develop the translator trainees’ knowledge and skills in this domain. Therefore, the aim of this analysis is to obtain a clearer view of the difficulties they are dealing with and bear them in mind when designing teaching materials for them.

  17. A normative analysis of nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses the question of normative analysis of the value-based aspects of nursing. In our perspective, values in science may be distinguished into (i) epistemic when related to the goals of truth and objectivity and (ii) non-epistemic when related to social, cultural or political aspects. Furthermore, values can be called constitutive when necessary for a scientific enterprise, or contextual when contingently associated with science. Analysis of the roles of the various forms of values and models of knowledge translation provides the ground to understand the specific role of values in nursing. A conceptual framework has been built to classify some of the classical perspectives on nursing knowledge and to examine the relationships between values and different forms of knowledge in nursing. It follows that adopting a normative perspective in the analysis of nursing knowledge provides key elements to identify its proper dimension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Diabetes knowledge translation status in developing countries: A mixed method study among diabetes researchers in case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Valinejadi; Farahnaz Sadoughi; Masoud Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods...

  19. The Impact of a Curriculum Course on Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Science Content Knowledge and Attitudes towards Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cliona; Smith, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Many primary school teachers have insufficient content and pedagogical knowledge of science. This lack of knowledge can often lead to a lack of confidence and competence in teaching science. This article explores the impact of a year-long science methodology (curriculum science) course on second year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students'…

  20. Maximizing the Impact of Systematic Reviews in Health Care Decision Making: A Systematic Scoping Review of Knowledge-Translation Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Duncan; Wilson, Paul M; Thompson, Carl A; Hanbury, Andria; Farley, Katherine; Light, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Context: Barriers to the use of systematic reviews by policymakers may be overcome by resources that adapt and present the findings in formats more directly tailored to their needs. We performed a systematic scoping review to identify such knowledge-translation resources and evaluations of them. Methods: Resources were eligible for inclusion in this study if they were based exclusively or primarily on systematic reviews and were aimed at health care policymakers at the national or local level. Resources were identified by screening the websites of health technology assessment agencies and systematic review producers, supplemented by an email survey. Electronic databases and proceedings of the Cochrane Colloquium and HTA International were searched as well for published and unpublished evaluations of knowledge-translation resources. Resources were classified as summaries, overviews, or policy briefs using a previously published classification. Findings: Twenty knowledge-translation resources were identified, of which eleven were classified as summaries, six as overviews, and three as policy briefs. Resources added value to systematic reviews by, for example, evaluating their methodological quality or assessing the reliability of their conclusions or their generalizability to particular settings. The literature search found four published evaluation studies of knowledge-translation resources, and the screening of abstracts and contact with authors found three more unpublished studies. The majority of studies reported on the perceived usefulness of the service, although there were some examples of review-based resources being used to assist actual decision making. Conclusions: Systematic review producers provide a variety of resources to help policymakers, of which focused summaries are the most common. More evaluations of these resources are required to ensure users’ needs are being met, to demonstrate their impact, and to justify their funding. PMID:21418315

  1. Supporting Students' Knowledge Transfer in Modeling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…

  2. The WHISK (Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge) Pilot Project: Recognizing Sex and Gender Differences in Women's Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorece V; Dennis, Sabriya; Weaks, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Women's health encompasses a continuum of biological, psychological, and social challenges that differ considerably from those of men. Despite the remarkable advances in science, women's health and sex differences research is slowly gaining recognition and acceptance. It is important that women's health gain attention as women are usually the gatekeepers of care for the family. Women's health and health outcomes are strongly influenced by sex and gender differences as well as geography. Around the world, the interplay of biology and culture brings about differences in men's and women's health, which have been largely overlooked. The Women's Health: Increasing the Awareness of Science and Knowledge (WHISK) Pilot Project was a multidisciplinary project aimed to increase the awareness of sex and gender differences in women's health and research among healthcare professionals. Theater expression and creative art were used to translate knowledge, enhance understanding, and increase the awareness of sex differences. Findings from this project clearly showed an apparent increase in knowledge and cultivation of new insights.

  3. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  4. Enhancing Life Sciences Teachers' Biodiversity Knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides insights into how Life Sciences teachers in the Eastern Cape ..... Even simulations, in most cases they are quite artificial in the sense that the ... explain the concept of human impacts on biodiversity; and field activities were .... integrated and applied knowledge required for quality teaching (disciplinary, ...

  5. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation

    OpenAIRE

    McNamee, Laura M.; Ledley, Fred D.

    2017-01-01

    This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded ...

  6. Prospective Science Teachers' Subject-Matter Knowledge about Overflow Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Eser

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospective science teachers' subject-matter knowledge (SMK) about overflow container. This study was carried out in the form of a case study in spring term of the academic year of 2013-2014 with seven sophomore prospective science teachers who were studying at Elementary Science Teaching Department in…

  7. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  8. Knowledge about Science in Science Education Research from the Perspective of Ludwik Fleck's Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André Ferrer Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The importance of knowledge about science is well established, and it has a long history in the area of science education. More recently, the specialized literature has highlighted the search for consensus in relation to what should be taught in this regard, that is, what should compose the science curricula of elementary and high school levels.…

  9. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Methods Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 – May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Results Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. Conclusions This

  10. Translational Medicine - doing it backwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schechter Alan N

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years the concept of "translational medicine" has been advanced in an attempt to catalyze the medical applications of basic biomedical research. However, there has been little discussion about the readiness of scientists themselves to respond to what we believe is a required new approach to scientific discovery if this new concept is to bear fruit. The present paradigm of hypothesis-driven research poorly suits the needs of biomedical research unless efforts are spent in identifying clinically relevant hypotheses. The dominant funding system favors hypotheses born from model systems and not humans, bypassing the Baconian principle of relevant observations and experimentation before hypotheses. Here, we argue that that this attitude has born two unfortunate results: lack of sufficient rigor in selecting hypotheses relevant to human disease and limitations of most clinical studies to certain outcome parameters rather than expanding knowledge of human pathophysiology; an illogical approach to translational medicine. If we wish to remain true to our responsibility and duty of performing research relevant to human disease, we must begin to think about fundamental new approaches. NIH is the nation's medical research agency - making important medical discoveries that improve health and save lives. NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. Its mission is science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability 1.

  11. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  12. The task of the HIV translator: transforming global AIDS knowledge in an awareness workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of standardized knowledge about HIV and AIDS depends in part on local AIDS awareness educators who receive training from national and international organizations and then, ideally, disseminate what they have learned. In this article I analyze textual and observational data from a five-day introductory AIDS awareness workshop in rural Papua New Guinea. Although the instructor adhered to the handbook provided by the National AIDS Council for much of the information, she departed from it significantly when informing participants about the "root causes" of HIV's spread and in giving them advice about prevention. I explicate where her extratextual knowledge came from as well as its overall message to target audiences. I suggest that textual silences in AIDS awareness handbooks can motivate local HIV translators to embark on a kind of semiosis-the ongoing production of new, hybrid knowledge about HIV.

  13. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  14. Habermasian knowledge interests: epistemological implications for health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero-Molina, José; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Muñoz Terrón, José María; Aranda Torres, Cayetano

    2015-04-01

    The Habermasian concept of 'interest' has had a profound effect on the characterization of scientific disciplines. Going beyond issues unrelated to the theory itself, intra-theoretical interest characterizes the specific ways of approaching any science-related discipline, defining research topics and methodologies. This approach was developed by Jürgen Habermas in relation to empirical-analytical sciences, historical-hermeneutics sciences, and critical sciences; however, he did not make any specific references to health sciences. This article aims to contribute to shaping a general epistemological framework for health sciences, as well as its specific implications for the medical and nursing areas, via an analysis of the basic knowledge interests developed by Habermas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. van Eijck and Roth's utilitarian science education: why the recalibration of science and traditional ecological knowledge invokes multiple perspectives to protect science education from being exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Tippins, Deborah J.

    2010-12-01

    This article is a philosophical analysis of van Eijck and Roth's (2007) claim that science and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) should be recalibrated because they are incommensurate, particular to the local contexts in which they are practical. In this view, science maintains an incommensurate status as if it is a "fundamental" basis for the relative comparison of other cultural knowledges, which reduces traditional knowledge to a status of in relation to the prioritized (higher)-status of natural sciences. van Eijck and Roth reject epistemological Truth as a way of thinking about sciences in science education. Rather they adopt a utilitarian perspective of cultural-historical activity theory to demonstrate when traditional knowledge is considered science and when it is not considered science, for the purposes of evaluating what should be included in U.S. science education curricula. There are several challenges for evaluating what should be included in science education when traditional knowledges and sciences are considered in light of a utilitarian analysis. Science as diverse, either practically local or theoretically abstract, is highly uncertain, which provides opportunities for multiple perspectives to enlarge and protect the natural sciences from exclusivity. In this response to van Eijck and Roth, we make the case for considering dialectical relationships between science and TEK in order to ensure cultural diversity in science education, as a paradigm. We also emphasize the need to (re)dissolve the hierarchies and dualisms that may emerge when science is elevated in status in comparison with other knowledges. We conclude with a modification to van Eijck and Roth's perspective by recommending a guiding principle of cultural diversity in science education as a way to make curriculum choices. We envision this principle can be applied when evaluating science curricula worldwide.

  16. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies used in public health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRocca Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature related to the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT strategies used in public health is lacking. The capacity to seek, analyze, and synthesize evidence-based information in public health is linked to greater success in making policy choices that have the best potential to yield positive outcomes for populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of KT strategies used to promote evidence-informed decision making (EIDM among public health decision makers. Methods A search strategy was developed to identify primary studies published between 2000–2010. Studies were obtained from multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Searches were supplemented by hand searching and checking the reference lists of included articles. Two independent review authors screened studies for relevance, assessed methodological quality of relevant studies, and extracted data from studies using standardized tools. Results After removal of duplicates, the search identified 64, 391 titles related to KT strategies. Following title and abstract review, 346 publications were deemed potentially relevant, of which 5 met all relevance criteria on full text screen. The included publications were of moderate quality and consisted of five primary studies (four randomized controlled trials and one interrupted time series analysis. Results were synthesized narratively. Simple or single KT strategies were shown in some circumstances to be as effective as complex, multifaceted ones when changing practice including tailored and targeted messaging. Multifaceted KT strategies led to changes in knowledge but not practice. Knowledge translation strategies shown to be less effective were passive and included access to registries of pre-processed research evidence or print materials. While knowledge brokering did not have a significant effect generally

  17. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Public's Knowledge of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pew Research Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The public's knowledge of science and technology varies widely across a range of questions on current topics and basic scientific concepts, according to a new quiz by the Pew Research Center and "Smithsonian" magazine. About eight-in-ten Americans (83%) identify ultraviolet as the type of radiation that sunscreen protects against. Nearly…

  19. Knowledge about Sport and Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Acácia Gonçalves Ferreira; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Gentil, Paulo; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Campos, Mário Hebling; Andrade, Marilia Santos; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to assess the knowledge on sport and exercise science held by a sample of Brazilian physiotherapists, nutritionists and physical educators. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was used. The answers given by 1,147 professionals (300 physiotherapists, 705 physical educators and 142…

  20. Ayahuasca, psychedelic studies and health sciences: the politics of knowledge and inquiry into an Amazonian plant brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W; Labate, Beatriz C

    2014-01-01

    This article offers critical sociological and philosophical reflections on ayahuasca and other psychedelics as objects of research in medicine, health and human sciences. It situates 21st century scientific inquiry on ayahuasca in the broader context of how early modern European social trends and intellectual pursuits translated into new forms of empiricism and experimental philosophy, but later evolved into a form of dogmatism that convenienced the political suppression of academic inquiry into psychedelics. Applying ideas from the field of science and technology studies, we consider how ayahuasca's myriad ontological representations in the 21st century--for example, plant teacher, traditional medicine, religious sacrament, material commodity, cognitive tool, illicit drug--influence our understanding of it as an object of inquiry. We then explore epistemological issues related to ayahuasca studies, including how the indigenous and mestizo concept of "plant teacher" or the more instrumental notion of psychedelics as "cognitive tools" may impact understanding of knowledge. This leads to questions about whether scientists engaged in ayahuasca research should be expected to have personal experiences with the brew, and how these may be perceived to help or hinder the objectivity of their pursuits. We conclude with some brief reflections on the politics of psychedelic research and impediments to academic knowledge production in the field of psychedelic studies.

  1. Translating knowledge directly to childbearing women: a study of Canadian women's preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A; Bandsmer, Judy C; Gregg, Kathy; Ebbehoj, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge translation has relied on research products that take years to disseminate, losing relevance for intended users. We used a mixed-methods approach to determine women's preferences for research results and format, intention to share results, and potential benefits. We sampled healthy, pregnant women who completed survey data during their third trimesters and wanted access to results. Mothers preferred results about sleep, fears, and anxieties during later pregnancy to benefit from reassurance that their experiences were shared. Women mostly intended to share results with their social networks. Organizational contacts increased dissemination of the women's preferred information to nonstudy participants.

  2. The Influencing Factors of Cultural Knowledge in Translating Cultural Specific Concepts from Arabic into the English at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ali Almubark

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out to explore and evaluate the importance of having mastered the cultural knowledge throughout the process of depicting the culture-specific concepts involving two languages namely Arabic and English. In doing so, the participants sampled in this study were a group of final year Bachelor’s degree students majoring in Translation in ALAradha College at the Jazan University. The findings of the study method employed in this study statistically confirmed that the students of the Translation at AL AlAradh college- Saudi Arabia faced considerable difficulties throughout the process of translating cultural concepts owing to inadequate mastery of knowledge in relation to the culture involved. Among the measures which can be taken in addressing the issues in this context are training the learners by means of exposure to real cases involving culture-specific concepts which may help them deal with such difficulties in the translation process.

  3. KNOWLEDGE SCIENCES AND NANATSUDAKI: A NEW MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE CREATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej P.WIERZBICKI; Yoshiteru NAKAMORI

    2007-01-01

    The paper starts from a discussion of the concepts of knowledge management versus technology management,and the emergence of knowledge sciences.This is followed be a summary of recent results in the theory of knowledge creation.Most of them concern diverse spirals of creative interplay between rational (explicit) and intuitive or emotional (tacit) aspects of knowledge.Some of them concentrate on organizational (market or purpose-oriented) knowledge creation,other describe academic (research-oriented) knowledge creation.The problem addressed in this paper is how to integrate diverse spirals of knowledge creation into a prescriptive or exemplar model that would help to overcome the differences between organizational (market-oriented) and normal academic knowledge creation.As such prescriptive approach,the JAIST Nanatsudaki Model of knowledge creation is proposed.It consists of seven spirals,known from other studies,but integrated in a sequence resulting from the experience of authors in practical management of research activities.Not all of these spirals have to be fully utilized,depending on a particular application,but all of them relate to some essential aspects of either academic or organizational knowledge creation.The paper presents Nanatsudaki Model in detail with comments on consecutive spirals.The results of a survey of opinions about creativity conditions at JAIST indicate the importance of many spirals constituting the Nanatsudaki Model.Directions of further testing the Nanatsudaki Model are indicated.

  4. Thinking on the development of nuclear science and technology information in knowledge economy time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue

    2010-01-01

    The arrival of knowledge-based economy has brought the opportunities and challenges for the development of nuclear science and technology information. In the knowledge economy environment, knowledge becomes the new driving force for economic development, and people's demand for nuclear science and technology expertise will significantly increase. So the role of nuclear science and technology intelligence services will become even more and more prominent. Meanwhile, with the rapid development of modem information technology, the informatization of human society is towards the development of digital and intelligent. This also will raise new demands for nuclear science and technology information work. Discusses the status of nuclear science and technology information work of own units under the knowledge-based economy condition, and puts forward some thought and suggestions on development of nuclear science and technology information work under the knowledge economy environment. (author)

  5. A critical narrative review of transfer of basic science knowledge in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jean-Marie; Park, Yoon Soo; Harris, Ilene; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Sood, Lonika; Clark, Maureen D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Brydges, Ryan; Norman, Geoffrey; Woods, Nicole

    2018-02-08

    'Transfer' is the application of a previously learned concept to solve a new problem in another context. Transfer is essential for basic science education because, to be valuable, basic science knowledge must be transferred to clinical problem solving. Therefore, better understanding of interventions that enhance the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is essential. This review systematically identifies interventions described in the health professions education (HPE) literature that document the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning, and considers teaching and assessment strategies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. Articles related to basic science teaching at the undergraduate level in HPE were analysed using a 'transfer out'/'transfer in' conceptual framework. 'Transfer out' refers to the application of knowledge developed in one learning situation to the solving of a new problem. 'Transfer in' refers to the use of previously acquired knowledge to learn from new problems or learning situations. Of 9803 articles initially identified, 627 studies were retrieved for full text evaluation; 15 were included in the literature review. A total of 93% explored 'transfer out' to clinical reasoning and 7% (one article) explored 'transfer in'. Measures of 'transfer out' fostered by basic science knowledge included diagnostic accuracy over time and in new clinical cases. Basic science knowledge supported learning - 'transfer in' - of new related content and ultimately the 'transfer out' to diagnostic reasoning. Successful teaching strategies included the making of connections between basic and clinical sciences, the use of commonsense analogies, and the study of multiple clinical problems in multiple contexts. Performance on recall tests did not reflect the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning. Transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is an essential component of HPE that

  6. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  7. Modeling timelines for translational science in cancer; the impact of technological maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McNamee

    Full Text Available This work examines translational science in cancer based on theories of innovation that posit a relationship between the maturation of technologies and their capacity to generate successful products. We examined the growth of technologies associated with 138 anticancer drugs using an analytical model that identifies the point of initiation of exponential growth and the point at which growth slows as the technology becomes established. Approval of targeted and biological products corresponded with technological maturation, with first approval averaging 14 years after the established point and 44 years after initiation of associated technologies. The lag in cancer drug approvals after the increases in cancer funding and dramatic scientific advances of the 1970s thus reflects predictable timelines of technology maturation. Analytical models of technological maturation may be used for technological forecasting to guide more efficient translation of scientific discoveries into cures.

  8. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  9. Youth Mental Health, Family Practice, and Knowledge Translation Video Games about Psychosis: Family Physicians' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie

    2017-01-01

    Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians' perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth's mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings.

  10. The Interface of Clinical Decision-Making With Study Protocols for Knowledge Translation From a Walking Recovery Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberg, Julie A; Rose, Dorian K; Tilson, Julie K; Brutsch, Bettina; Correa, Anita; Gallichio, Joann; McLeod, Molly; Moore, Craig; Wu, Sam; Duncan, Pamela W; Behrman, Andrea L

    2017-01-01

    Despite efforts to translate knowledge into clinical practice, barriers often arise in adapting the strict protocols of a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) to the individual patient. The Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) RCT demonstrated equal effectiveness of 2 intervention protocols for walking recovery poststroke; both protocols were more effective than usual care physical therapy. The purpose of this article was to provide knowledge-translation tools to facilitate implementation of the LEAPS RCT protocols into clinical practice. Participants from 2 of the trial's intervention arms: (1) early Locomotor Training Program (LTP) and (2) Home Exercise Program (HEP) were chosen for case presentation. The two cases illustrate how the protocols are used in synergy with individual patient presentations and clinical expertise. Decision algorithms and guidelines for progression represent the interface between implementation of an RCT standardized intervention protocol and clinical decision-making. In each case, the participant presents with a distinct clinical challenge that the therapist addresses by integrating the participant's unique presentation with the therapist's expertise while maintaining fidelity to the LEAPS protocol. Both participants progressed through an increasingly challenging intervention despite their own unique presentation. Decision algorithms and exercise progression for the LTP and HEP protocols facilitate translation of the RCT protocol to the real world of clinical practice. The two case examples to facilitate translation of the LEAPS RCT into clinical practice by enhancing understanding of the protocols, their progression, and their application to individual participants.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A147).

  11. A description of a knowledge broker role implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating three knowledge translation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mara Linda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A knowledge broker (KB is a popular knowledge translation and exchange (KTE strategy emerging in Canada to promote interaction between researchers and end users, as well as to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. A KB provides a link between research producers and end users by developing a mutual understanding of goals and cultures, collaborates with end users to identify issues and problems for which solutions are required, and facilitates the identification, access, assessment, interpretation, and translation of research evidence into local policy and practice. Knowledge-brokering can be carried out by individuals, groups and/or organizations, as well as entire countries. In each case, the KB is linked with a group of end users and focuses on promoting the integration of the best available evidence into policy and practice-related decisions. Methods A KB intervention comprised one of three KTE interventions evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Results KB activities were classified into the following categories: initial and ongoing needs assessments; scanning the horizon; knowledge management; KTE; network development, maintenance, and facilitation; facilitation of individual capacity development in evidence informed decision making; and g facilitation of and support for organizational change. Conclusion As the KB role developed during this study, central themes that emerged as particularly important included relationship development, ongoing support, customized approaches, and opportunities for individual and organizational capacity development. The novelty of the KB role in public health provides a unique opportunity to assess the need for and reaction to the role and its associated activities. Future research should include studies to evaluate the effectiveness of KBs in different settings and among different health care professionals, and to explore the optimal preparation and training of KBs

  12. D1-3: Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS): An Online Reference for Clinical and Translational Science Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Joe; Ray, William; Kadolph, Chris; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Ye, Zhan; Jacqueline, Bohne; Tachinardi, Umberto; Mendonça, Eneida; Finnegan, Brian; Bartkowiak, Barbara; Weichelt, Bryan; Lin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims New terms are rapidly appearing in the literature and practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To catalog real-world usage of medical terms, we report the first construction of an online dictionary of clinical and translational medicinal terms, which are computationally generated in near real-time using a big data approach. This project is NIH CTSA-funded and developed by the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation in conjunction with University of Wisconsin - Madison. Currently titled Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS), this application is a Google-like word search tool. By entering a term into the search bar, MD-CTS will display that term’s definition, usage examples, contextual terms, related images, and ontological information. A prototype is available for public viewing at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. Methods We programmatically derived the lexicon for MD-CTS from scholarly communications by parsing through 15,156,745 MEDLINE abstracts and extracting all of the unique words found therein. We then ran this list through several filters in order to remove words that were not relevant for searching, such as common English words and numeric expressions. We then loaded the resulting 1,795,769 terms into SQL tables. Each term is cross-referenced with every occurrence in all abstracts in which it was found. Additional information is aggregated from Wiktionary, Bioportal, and Wikipedia in real-time and displayed on-screen. From this lexicon we created a supplemental dictionary resource (updated quarterly) to be used in Microsoft Office® products. Results We evaluated the utility of MD-CTS by creating a list of 100 words derived from recent clinical and translational medicine publications in the week of July 22, 2013. We then performed comparative searches for each term with Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Medical

  13. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffries, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  14. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  15. The Registry of Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools: a resource to support evidence-informed public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirson, Leslea; Catallo, Cristina; Chera, Sunita

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the development of a globally accessible online Registry of Knowledge Translation Methods and Tools to support evidence-informed public health. A search strategy, screening and data extraction tools, and writing template were developed to find, assess, and summarize relevant methods and tools. An interactive website and searchable database were designed to house the registry. Formative evaluation was undertaken to inform refinements. Over 43,000 citations were screened; almost 700 were full-text reviewed, 140 of which were included. By November 2012, 133 summaries were available. Between January 1 and November 30, 2012 over 32,945 visitors from more than 190 countries accessed the registry. Results from 286 surveys and 19 interviews indicated the registry is valued and useful, but would benefit from a more intuitive indexing system and refinements to the summaries. User stories and promotional activities help expand the reach and uptake of knowledge translation methods and tools in public health contexts. The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools' Registry of Methods and Tools is a unique and practical resource for public health decision makers worldwide.

  16. Knowledge translation regarding financial abuse and dementia for the banking sector: the development and testing of an education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle; Bhatia, Sangita; Macnab, Jenna; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Financial abuse is the most common form of elder abuse. Capacity Australia, established to promote education regarding capacity and abuse prevention across health, legal and financial sectors, was awarded a grant by the Dementia Collaborative Research Centre to educate the banking sector on financial abuse and dementia. We aimed to develop a knowledge translation tool for bank staff on this issue. The banking sector across Australia was engaged and consulted to develop a tailored education tool based on Australian Banking Association's Guidelines on Financial Abuse Prevention, supplemented by information related to dementia, financial capacity and supported decision-making. The tool was tested on 69 banking staff across Australia from two major banks. An online education tool using adaptive learning was developed, comprising a pretest of 15 multiple choice questions, followed by a learning module tailored to the individual's performance on the pretest, and a post-test to assess knowledge translation. A significant increase in scores was demonstrated when baseline scores were compared with post-course scores (mean difference in scores = 3.5; SD = 1.94; t = 15.1; df = 68; p tool took approximately 10-20 min to complete depending on the knowledge of participant and continuity of completion. The Australian banking industry was amenable to assist in the development of a tailored education tool on dementia, abuse and financial capacity. This online e-tool provides an effective medium for knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Knowledge Translation Interventions for Chronic Noncancer Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina, Maria B; Taenzer, Paul; Rashiq, Saifee; MacDermid, Joy C; Carr, Eloise; Chojecki, Dagmara; Harstall, Christa; Henry, James L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT) interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice.OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of KT interventions for chronic noncancer pain management.METHODS: Comprehensive searches of electronic databases, the gray literature and manual searches of journals were undertaken. Ra...

  18. How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-07-13

    Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT

  19. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  20. Doing Science: A Theoretical Exposition of a Dualized Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doing Science: A Theoretical Exposition of a Dualized Knowledge Platform and the New University Entrant. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... And for core students of Science and Technology, the problematic of grasping the idea of the “other science” has been a daunting task.

  1. 78 FR 28601 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; Request for Comment on Proposed Methods for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for... resources that leverage basic research in support of translational science; and by developing partnerships...-newsletter, distribution of emails to NCATS stakeholder listservs, and announcements on NCATS Facebook page...

  2. Interaction between Science Teaching Orientation and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdögen, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of how preservice science teachers' science teaching orientations, viewed as an interrelated set of beliefs, interact with the other components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Eight preservice science teachers participated in the study. Qualitative data were collected in the…

  3. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.

  4. Knowledge systems and the colonial legacies in African science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, John R.; Lehner, Edward

    2017-10-01

    This review surveys Femi Otulaja and Meshach Ogunniyi's, Handbook of research in science education in sub-Saharan Africa, Sense, Rotterdam, 2017, noting the significance of the theoretically rich content and how this book contributes to the field of education as well as to the humanities more broadly. The volume usefully outlines the ways in which science education and scholarship in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be impacted by the region's colonial history. Several of the chapters also enumerate proposals for teaching and learning science and strengthening academic exchange. Concerns that recur across many of the chapters include inadequate implementation of reforms; a lack of resources, such as for classroom materials and teacher training; and the continued and detrimental linguistic, financial, and ideological domination of African science education by the West. After a brief overview of the work and its central issues, this review closely examines two salient chapters that focus on scholarly communications and culturally responsive pedagogy. The scholarly communication section addresses the ways in which African science education research may in fact be too closely mirroring Western knowledge constructions without fully integrating indigenous knowledge systems in the research process. The chapter on pedagogy makes a similar argument for integrating Western and indigenous knowledge systems into teaching approaches.

  5. Program Officer, Knowledge Translation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Key tasks include the translation of evidence generated for policy makers and practitioners, ... Designs, drafts and commissions user-friendly summative documents and ... Prepares and coordinates written, graphic, visual materials, web site content and other ... Follow us; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In · RSS Feed.

  6. COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublin, Robin; Sigman, Marilyn; Anderson, Andrea; Barnhardt, Ray; Topkok, Sean Asiqluq

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the traditional science fair format into an ocean science fair model that promoted the integration of Western science and Alaska Native traditional knowledge in student projects focused on the ocean, aquatic environments, and climate change. The typical science fair judging criteria for the validity and presentation of the…

  7. Evidence Translation in a Youth Mental Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Bailey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An evidence–practice gap is well established in the mental health field, and knowledge translation is identified as a key strategy to bridge the gap. This study outlines a knowledge translation strategy, which aims to support clinicians in using evidence in their practice within a youth mental health service (headspace. We aim to evaluate the strategy by exploring clinicians’ experiences and preferences. The translation strategy includes the creation and dissemination of evidence translation resources that summarize the best available evidence and practice guidelines relating to the management of young people with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 youth mental health clinicians covering three topics: experiences with evidence translation resources, preferences for evidence presentation, and suggestions regarding future translation efforts. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes were both predetermined by interview topic and identified freely from the data. Clinicians described their experiences with the evidence translation resources as informing decision making, providing a knowledge base, and instilling clinical confidence. Clinicians expressed a preference for brief, plain language summaries and for involvement and consultation during the creation and dissemination of resources. Suggestions to improve the dissemination strategy and the development of new areas for evidence resources were identified. The knowledge translation efforts described support clinicians in the provision of mental health services for young people. The preferences and experiences described have valuable implications for services implementing knowledge translation strategies.

  8. Synthesis maps: visual knowledge translation for the CanIMPACT clinical system and patient cancer journeys

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, P.H.; Shakdher, S.; Singh, P.

    2017-01-01

    Salient findings and interpretations from the canimpact clinical cancer research study are visually represented in two synthesis maps for the purpose of communicating an integrated presentation of the study to clinical cancer researchers and policymakers. Synthesis maps integrate evidence and expertise into a visual narrative for knowledge translation and communication. A clinical system synthesis map represents the current Canadian primary care and cancer practice systems, proposed as a visu...

  9. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  10. Translation of overlay models of student knowledge for relative domains based on domain ontology mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovsky, Sergey; Dolog, Peter; Henze, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of an adaptive educational system in many respects depends on the precision of modeling assumptions it makes about a student. One of the well-known challenges in student modeling is to adequately assess the initial level of student's knowledge when s/he starts working...... with a system. Sometimes potentially handful data are available as a part of user model from a system used by the student before. The usage of external user modeling information is troublesome because of differences in system architecture, knowledge representation, modeling constraints, etc. In this paper, we...... argue that the implementation of underlying knowledge models in a sharable format, as domain ontologies - along with application of automatic ontology mapping techniques for model alignment - can help to overcome the "new-user" problem and will greatly widen opportunities for student model translation...

  11. Parents' Metacognitive Knowledge: Influences on Parent-Child Interactions in a Science Museum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory P.; Anderson, David

    2013-06-01

    Despite science learning in settings such as science museums being recognized as important and given increasing attention in science education circles, the investigation of parents' and their children's metacognition in such settings is still in its infancy. This is despite an individual's metacognition being acknowledged as an important influence on their learning within and across contexts. This research investigated parents' metacognitive procedural and conditional knowledge, a key element of their metacognition, related to (a) what they knew about how they and their children thought and learned, and (b) whether this metacognitive knowledge influenced their interactions with their children during their interaction with a moderately complex simulation in a science museum. Parents reported metacognitive procedural and conditional knowledge regarding their own and their children's thinking and learning processes. Further, parents were aware that this metacognitive knowledge influenced their interactions with their children, seeing this as appropriate pedagogical action for them within the context of the particular exhibit and its task requirements at the science museum, and for the child involved. These findings have implications for exhibit and activity development within science museum settings.

  12. Is Information Science an Anomalous State of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    1980-01-01

    it is not necessary for sciences which concern themselves with behavioral phenomena which have a prior description in natural language. It is further argued that information science should be more interested in uncertainty than in information, and it is shown how the Anomalous State of Knowledge (ASK) paradigm may......This paper looks at some of the problems in information science from the experience with similar problems in psycho logy. The apparent need for a set of rigorous definitions of the basic concepts is discussed, and it is argued that although this is necessary for the natural sciences...... be used to describe itself, hence also informa tion science. It is finally concluded that by turning to problems of uncertainty and lack of information, rather than information, information science may avoid many of the mistakes made by psychology....

  13. Ribogenomics: the Science and Knowledge of RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayan Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleic acid (RNA deserves not only a dedicated field of biological research — a discipline or branch of knowledge — but also explicit definitions of its roles in cellular processes and molecular mechanisms. Ribogenomics is to study the biology of cellular RNAs, including their origin, biogenesis, structure and function. On the informational track, messenger RNAs (mRNAs are the major component of ribogenomes, which encode proteins and serve as one of the four major components of the translation machinery and whose expression is regulated at multiple levels by other operational RNAs. On the operational track, there are several diverse types of RNAs — their length distribution is perhaps the most simplistic stratification — involving in major cellular activities, such as chromosomal structure and organization, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional/post-transcriptional regulation, RNA processing and routing, translation and cellular energy/metabolism regulation. An all-out effort exceeding the magnitude of the Human Genome Project is of essence to construct just mammalian transcriptomes in multiple contexts including embryonic development, circadian and seasonal rhythms, defined life-span stages, pathological conditions and anatomy-driven tissue/organ/cell types.

  14. Changing practice in the assessment and treatment of somatosensory loss in stroke survivors: protocol for a knowledge translation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Liana S; Lannin, Natasha A; Mak-Yuen, Yvonne Y K; Turville, Megan L; Carey, Leeanne M

    2018-01-23

    The treatment of somatosensory loss in the upper limb after stroke has been historically overshadowed by therapy focused on motor recovery. A double-blind randomized controlled trial has demonstrated the effectiveness of SENSe (Study of the Effectiveness of Neurorehabilitation on Sensation) therapy to retrain somatosensory discrimination after stroke. Given the acknowledged prevalence of upper limb sensory loss after stroke and the evidence-practice gap that exists in this area, effort is required to translate the published research to clinical practice. The aim of this study is to determine whether evidence-based knowledge translation strategies change the practice of occupational therapists and physiotherapists in the assessment and treatment of sensory loss of the upper limb after stroke to improve patient outcomes. A pragmatic, before-after study design involving eight (n = 8) Australian health organizations, specifically sub-acute and community rehabilitation facilities. Stroke survivors (n = 144) and occupational therapists and physiotherapists (~10 per site, ~n = 80) will be involved in the study. Stroke survivors will be provided with SENSe therapy or usual care. Occupational therapists and physiotherapists will be provided with a multi-component approach to knowledge translation including i) tailoring of the implementation intervention to site-specific barriers and enablers, ii) interactive group training workshops, iii) establishing and fostering champion therapists and iv) provision of written educational materials and online resources. Outcome measures for occupational therapists and physiotherapists will be pre- and post-implementation questionnaires and audits of medical records. The primary outcome for stroke survivors will be change in upper limb somatosensory function, measured using a standardized composite measure. This study will provide evidence and a template for knowledge translation in clinical, organizational and policy contexts

  15. Measuring organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Labarthe, Jenni; Légaré, France; Ouimet, Mathieu; Estabrooks, Carole A; Roch, Geneviève; Ghandour, El Kebir; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-07-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is an imperative in order to implement research-based and contextualized practices that can answer the numerous challenges of complex health problems. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) provides a conceptual framework to guide the implementation process in chronic care. Yet, organizations aiming to improve chronic care require an adequate level of organizational readiness (OR) for KT. Available instruments on organizational readiness for change (ORC) have shown limited validity, and are not tailored or adapted to specific phases of the knowledge-to-action (KTA) process. We aim to develop an evidence-based, comprehensive, and valid instrument to measure OR for KT in healthcare. The OR for KT instrument will be based on core concepts retrieved from existing literature and validated by a Delphi study. We will specifically test the instrument in chronic care that is of an increasing importance for the health system. Phase one: We will conduct a systematic review of the theories and instruments assessing ORC in healthcare. The retained theoretical information will be synthesized in a conceptual map. A bibliography and database of ORC instruments will be prepared after appraisal of their psychometric properties according to the standards for educational and psychological testing. An online Delphi study will be carried out among decision makers and knowledge users across Canada to assess the importance of these concepts and measures at different steps in the KTA process in chronic care.Phase two: A final OR for KT instrument will be developed and validated both in French and in English and tested in chronic disease management to measure OR for KT regarding the adoption of comprehensive, patient-centered, and system-based CCMs. This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge on explanatory models and instruments assessing OR for KT. Moreover, this project aims to create more consensus on the theoretical underpinnings and the

  16. Measuring organizational readiness for knowledge translation in chronic care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouimet Mathieu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT is an imperative in order to implement research-based and contextualized practices that can answer the numerous challenges of complex health problems. The Chronic Care Model (CCM provides a conceptual framework to guide the implementation process in chronic care. Yet, organizations aiming to improve chronic care require an adequate level of organizational readiness (OR for KT. Available instruments on organizational readiness for change (ORC have shown limited validity, and are not tailored or adapted to specific phases of the knowledge-to-action (KTA process. We aim to develop an evidence-based, comprehensive, and valid instrument to measure OR for KT in healthcare. The OR for KT instrument will be based on core concepts retrieved from existing literature and validated by a Delphi study. We will specifically test the instrument in chronic care that is of an increasing importance for the health system. Methods Phase one: We will conduct a systematic review of the theories and instruments assessing ORC in healthcare. The retained theoretical information will be synthesized in a conceptual map. A bibliography and database of ORC instruments will be prepared after appraisal of their psychometric properties according to the standards for educational and psychological testing. An online Delphi study will be carried out among decision makers and knowledge users across Canada to assess the importance of these concepts and measures at different steps in the KTA process in chronic care. Phase two: A final OR for KT instrument will be developed and validated both in French and in English and tested in chronic disease management to measure OR for KT regarding the adoption of comprehensive, patient-centered, and system-based CCMs. Discussion This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge on explanatory models and instruments assessing OR for KT. Moreover, this project aims to create more

  17. Designing Course An Initial Approach To Translation Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswani Siregar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the human history translation is the sustainable communication tool among the cultures to preserve this knowledge from generation to generations. Undoubtedly both translation plays a very important role in an increasingly globalized world and translators have the prominent roles in the development of countries. Many translators really enjoy their work but hesitated to teach a course due to their lack of pedagogical knowledge and believe that the translation skill is gained by personal experiences and talents. Thus this paper attempt to promote the translation teaching in classroom by set the preliminary approach to teach translation. The sequences of teaching design are described by propose the brief definition to the nature of translation the importance translation teaching the translator competence and design of translation course. This paper is the preliminary approach to translation teaching for beginners in university setting.

  18. Youth Mental Health, Family Practice, and Knowledge Translation Video Games about Psychosis: Family Physicians’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie

    2017-01-01

    Objective Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians’ perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. Method As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Results Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Conclusions Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth’s mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings. PMID:29056980

  19. A GRAMMATICAL ADJUSTMENT ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION METHOD USED BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE COMPARED TO HUMAN TRANSLATION IN TRANSLATING ENGLISH TEXT TO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pujianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Google translate is a program which provides fast, free and effortless translating service. This service uses a unique method to translate. The system is called ―Statistical Machine Translation‖, the newest method in automatic translation. Machine translation (MT is an area of many kinds of different subjects of study and technique from linguistics, computers science, artificial intelligent (AI, translation theory, and statistics. SMT works by using statistical methods and mathematics to process the training data. The training data is corpus-based. It is a compilation of sentences and words of the languages (SL and TL from translation done by human. By using this method, Google let their machine discovers the rules for themselves. They do this by analyzing millions of documents that have already been translated by human translators and then generate the result based on the corpus/training data. However, questions arise when the results of the automatic translation prove to be unreliable in some extent. This paper questions the dependability of Google translate in comparison with grammatical adjustment that naturally characterizes human translators' specific advantage. The attempt is manifested through the analysis of the TL of some texts translated by the SMT. It is expected that by using the sample of TL produced by SMT we can learn the potential flaws of the translation. If such exists, the partial of more substantial undependability of SMT may open more windows to the debates of whether this service may suffice the users‘ need.

  20. Very long-term retention of basic science knowledge in doctors after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Eugène J F M; Ten Cate, Olle T J

    2011-04-01

    Despite frequent complaints that biomedical knowledge is quickly forgotten after it has been learned, few investigations of actual long-term retention of basic science knowledge have been conducted in the medical domain. Our aim was to illuminate the long-term retention of basic science knowledge, particularly of unrehearsed knowledge. Using a cross-sectional study design, medical students and doctors in the Netherlands were tested for retention of basic science knowledge. Relationships between retention interval and proportion of correct answers on a knowledge test were investigated. The popular notion that most of basic science knowledge is forgotten shortly after graduation is not supported by our findings. With respect to the full test scores, which reflect a composite of unrehearsed and rehearsed knowledge, performance decreased from approximately 40% correct answers for students still in medical school, to 25-30% correct answers for doctors after many years of practice. When rehearsal during the retention interval is controlled for, it appears that little knowledge is lost for 1.5-2 years after it was last used; from then on, retention is best described by a negatively accelerated (logarithmic) forgetting curve. After ≥ 25 years, retention levels were in the range of 15-20%. Conclusions about the forgetting of unrehearsed knowledge in this study are in line with findings reported in other domains: it proceeds in accordance with the Ebbinghaus curve for meaningful material, except that in our findings the 'downward' part appears to start later than in most other studies. The limitations of the study are discussed and possible ramifications for medical education are proposed. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  1. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time.

  2. College Students Constructing Collective Knowledge of Natural Science History in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…

  3. Gaps in Science Content Knowledge Encountered during Teaching Practice: A Study of Early-Career Middle-School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Brian Edward

    2013-01-01

    Subject-specific content knowledge is crucial for effective science teaching, yet many teachers are entering the field not fully equipped with all the science content knowledge they need to effectively teach the subject. Learning from practice is one approach to bridging the gap between what practicing teachers know and what they need to know.…

  4. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  5. An Examination of Science Teachers' Knowledge Structures towards Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilici, Sedef Canbazoglu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine science teachers' knowledge structures on technology, who participated in a TPACK-based Professional Development (PD) program. The PD program was executed in the summer of 2015-2016 academic year with 24 science teachers. Data was collected with the Word Association Test (WAT). A holistic case study approach…

  6. Evaluating social science and humanities knowledge production: An exploratory analysis of dynamics in science systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, P.P.; Nijkamp, P.; Verbraak, J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge is gaining increasing importance in modern-day society as a factor of production and, ultimately, growth. This article explores the dynamics in university knowledge production and its effect on the state of university-industry-policy exchange in the Netherlands. Science systems are said to

  7. Leadership in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2015-04-01

    In this article, there is a leadership discussion related to the development of leaders in nursing science-a topic rarely discussed. Given the recent dramatic shifts in funding as well as changes in methods of inquiry and data models, there is a clear need for individuals in nursing science who can not only negotiate the turbulent waters of funding but can also lead teams of others, and the discipline, to generate and translate knowledge that will truly be useful to providers, patients, and families. This requires leaders in science who can challenge the prevailing views and traditional paths to excellence held sacred by some. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Science for Society Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K [ORNL; Bjornstad, David J [ORNL; Lenhardt, W Christopher [ORNL; Shumpert, Barry L [ORNL; Wang, Stephanie [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    Science for Society, a workshop held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 27, 20111, explored ways to move Laboratory science toward use. It sought actionable recommendations. Thus the workshop focused on: (1) current practices that promote and inhibit the translation of science into use, (2) principles that could lead to improving ORNL's translational knowledge and technology transfer efforts, and (3) specific recommendations for making these principles operational. This highly interactive workshop struck a positive chord with participants, a group of 26 ORNL staff members from diverse arenas of science and technology (S and T), technology transfer, and external laboratory relations, who represented all levels of science, technology, and management. Recognizing that the transformation of fundamental principles into operational practices often follows a jagged path, the workshop sought to identify key choices that could lead to a smoother journey along this path, as well as choices that created roadblocks and bottlenecks. The workshop emphasized a portion of this pathway, largely excluding the marketplace. Participants noted that research translation includes linkages between fundamental and applied research and development (R and D), and is not restricted to uptake by manufacturers, consumers, or end users. Three crosscutting ideas encapsulate workshop participants observations: (1) ORNL should take more action to usher the translation of its S and T products toward use, so as to make a positive national and global impact and to enhance its own competitiveness in the future; (2) ORNL (and external entities such as DOE and Congress) conveys inconsistent messages with regard to the importance of research translation and application, which (a) creates confusion, (b) poses disincentives to pursue research translation, (c) imposes barriers that inhibit cross-fertilization and collaboration, and (d) diminishes the effectiveness of both the

  9. Education in health research methodology: use of a wiki for knowledge translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P Hamm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A research-practice gap exists between what is known about conducting methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs and what is done. Evidence consistently shows that pediatric RCTs are susceptible to high risk of bias; therefore novel methods of influencing the design and conduct of trials are required. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a wiki designed to educate pediatric trialists and trainees in the principles involved in minimizing risk of bias in RCTs. The focus was on preliminary usability testing of the wiki. METHODS: The wiki was developed through adaptation of existing knowledge translation strategies and through tailoring the site to the identified needs of the end-users. The wiki was evaluated for usability and user preferences regarding the content and formatting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trialists and systematic reviewers, representing varying levels of experience with risk of bias or the conduct of trials. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Participants found the wiki to be well organized, easy to use, and straightforward to navigate. Suggestions for improvement tended to focus on clarification of the text or on esthetics, rather than on the content or format. Participants liked the additional features of the site that were supplementary to the text, such as the interactive examples, and the components that focused on practical applications, adding relevance to the theory presented. While the site could be used by both trialists and systematic reviewers, the lack of a clearly defined target audience caused some confusion among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were supportive of using a wiki as a novel educational tool. The results of this pilot test will be used to refine the risk of bias wiki, which holds promise as a knowledge translation intervention for education in medical research methodology.

  10. Positioning Continuing Education: Boundaries and Intersections between the Domains Continuing Education, Knowledge Translation, Patient Safety and Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitto, Simon; Bell, Mary; Peller, Jennifer; Sargeant, Joan; Etchells, Edward; Reeves, Scott; Silver, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Public and professional concern about health care quality, safety and efficiency is growing. Continuing education, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality improvement have made concerted efforts to address these issues. However, a coordinated and integrated effort across these domains is lacking. This article explores and discusses the…

  11. Improvements in Pain Outcomes in a Canadian Pediatric Teaching Hospital Following Implementation of a Multifaceted, Knowledge Translation Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous audit performed at a tertiary/quaternary pediatric hospital in Toronto, Ontario, demonstrated suboptimal assessment and treatment of children’s pain. Knowledge translation (KT initiatives (education, reminders, audit and feedback were implemented to address identified care gaps; however, the impact is unknown.

  12. The gap in scientific knowledge and role of science communication in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Sei-Hill; Kang, Myung-Hyun; Shim, Jae Chul; Ma, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of South Koreans, this study explores the role of science communication in enhancing three different forms of scientific knowledge ( factual, procedural, and subjective). We first assess learning effects, looking at the extent to which citizens learn science from different channels of communication (interpersonal discussions, traditional newspapers, television, online newspapers, and social media). We then look into the knowledge gap hypothesis, investigating how different communication channels can either widen or narrow the gap in knowledge between social classes. Television was found to function as a "knowledge leveler," narrowing the gap between highly and less educated South Koreans. The role of online newspapers in science learning is pronounced in our research. Reading newspapers online indicated a positive relationship to all three measures of knowledge. Contrary to the knowledge-leveling effect of television viewing, reading online newspapers was found to increase, rather than decrease, the gap in knowledge. Implications of our findings are discussed in detail.

  13. Sustainability of knowledge translation interventions in healthcare decision-making: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Ashoor, Huda M; Cardoso, Roberta; MacDonald, Heather; Cogo, Elise; Kastner, Monika; Perrier, Laure; McKibbon, Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-04-21

    Knowledge translation (KT, also known as research utilization, and sometimes referring to implementation science) is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health. A KT intervention is one which facilitates the uptake of research. The long-term sustainability of KT interventions is unclear. We aimed to characterize KT interventions to manage chronic diseases that have been used for healthcare outcomes beyond 1 year or beyond the termination of initial grant funding. We conducted a scoping review by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Campbell from inception until February 2013. We included experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies providing information on the sustainability of KT interventions for managing chronic diseases in adults and focusing on end-users including patients, clinicians, public health officials, health service managers, and policy-makers. Articles were screened and abstracted by two reviewers, independently. The data were charted and results described narratively. We included 62 studies reported in 103 publications (total 260,688 patients) plus 41 companion reports after screening 12,328 titles and abstracts and 464 full-text articles. More than half of the studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The duration of the KT intervention ranged from 61 to 522 weeks. Nine chronic conditions were examined across the studies, such as diabetes (34 %), cardiovascular disease (28 %), and hypertension (16 %). Thirteen KT interventions were reported across the studies. Patient education was the most commonly examined (20 %), followed by self-management (17 %). Most studies (61 %) focused on patient-level outcomes (e.g. disease severity), while 31 % included system-level outcomes (e.g. number of eye examinations

  14. Knowledge transfer within EU-funded marine science research - a viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss-Brown, Georgia; Cheallachaín, Cliona Ní

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge transfer, in its most inherent form, can be tracked back to the earliest phase of the Neolithic Revolution, 10,000 years ago, at a time when innovators shared their thoughts on crop cultivation and livestock farming (Bellwood, 2004). Not to be mistaken for science transfer - the export of modern science to non-scientific audiences - it was in the 1960s, that modern knowledge transfer was initiated, when reporting research achievements shifted towards having institutional and political agendas (Lipphardt & Ludwig, 2011). Albeit that the economic contribution of scientific research has been scrutinised for decades; today, there is a pronounced need for the evaluation of its social, cultural and ecological impact. To have impact, it is essential that scientific knowledge is clear and accessible, as well as robust and credible, so that it can be successfully transferred and applied by those identifying solutions for today's societal and environmental challenges. This phenomenon is receiving growing academic interest, where publications including "knowledge transfer" in the title have increased near exponentially for 60 years. Furthermore, we are seeing a definite shift towards embedding a mission of knowledge transfer in Public Research Organisations. This new approach is rewarding researchers whom deliver on all three institutional missions: teaching, research and knowledge transfer. In addition, the European Commission (2008) recommends that "knowledge transfer between universities and industry is made a permanent political and operational priority" and that "sufficient resources and incentives [be] available to public research organisations and their staff to engage in knowledge transfer activities". It is also anticipated that funding agencies will soon make pathways-to-impact statements, also known as knowledge transfer plans, a mandatory requirement of all project proposals. AquaTT is a leader in scientific knowledge management, including knowledge

  15. Multi-Dimensional Impact of the Public-Private Center for Translational Molecular Medicine (CTMM) in the Netherlands: Understanding New 21(st) Century Institutional Designs to Support Innovation-in-Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuten, Lotte M

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge translation is at the epicenter of 21st century life sciences and integrative biology. Several innovative institutional designs have been formulated to cultivate knowledge translation. One of these organizational innovations has been the Center for Translational Molecular Medicine (CTMM), a multi-million public-private partnership in the Netherlands. The CTMM aims to accelerate molecular diagnostics and imaging technologies to forecast disease susceptibilities in healthy populations and early diagnosis and personalized treatment of patients. This research evaluated CTMM's impact on scientific, translational, clinical, and economic dimensions. A pragmatic, operationally-defined process indicators approach was used. Data were gathered from CTMM administrations, through a CTMM-wide survey (n = 167) and group interviews. We found that the CTMM focused on disease areas with high human, clinical, and economic burden to society (i.e., oncology, cardiovascular, neurologic, infection, and immunity diseases). CTMM displayed a robust scientific impact that rests 15%-80% above international reference values regarding publication volume and impact. Technology translation to the clinic was accelerated, with >50% of projects progressing from pre-clinical development to clinical testing within 5 years. Furthermore, CTMM has generated nearly 1500 Full Time Equivalent (FTE) of translational R&D capacity. Its positive impact on translational, (future) clinical, and economic aspects is recognized across all surveyed stakeholders. As organizational innovation is increasingly considered critical to forge linkages between life sciences discoveries and innovation-in-society, lessons learned from this study may inform other institutions with similar objectives such as the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States.

  16. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice After a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the course of this study. The primary data sources were (a) assessment of the elementary teachers' NOS views before and after the graduate level NOS course using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire Version B (VNOS-B) (Lederman et al., 2002) coupled with interviews, and (b) a classroom observation and videotaped recording of the elementary teachers' best NOS lessons coupled with interview. We identified three distinct but related factors that mediated the translation of NOS views into classroom practice: the teachers' perspectives about the developmental appropriateness of the NOS aspect, the teachers' selection of target NOS aspects, and the relative importance placed by teachers on each NOS aspect.

  17. Effective knowledge translation approaches and practices in Indigenous health research: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody E. Morton Ninomiya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective knowledge translation (KT is critical to implementing program and policy changes that require shared understandings of knowledge systems, assumptions, and practices. Within mainstream research institutions and funding agencies, systemic and insidious inequities, privileges, and power relationships inhibit Indigenous peoples’ control, input, and benefits over research. This systematic review will examine literature on KT initiatives in Indigenous health research to help identify wise and promising Indigenous KT practices and language in Canada and abroad. Methods Indexed databases including Aboriginal Health Abstract Database, Bibliography of Native North Americans, CINAHL, Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database, Dissertation Abstracts, First Nations Periodical Index, Medline, National Indigenous Studies Portal, ProQuest Conference Papers Index, PsycInfo, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Web of Science will be searched. A comprehensive list of non-indexed and grey literature sources will also be searched. For inclusion, documents must be published in English; linked to Indigenous health and wellbeing; focused on Indigenous people; document KT goals, activities, and rationale; and include an evaluation of their KT strategy. Identified quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods’ studies that meet the inclusion criteria will then be appraised using a quality appraisal tool for research with Indigenous people. Studies that score 6 or higher on the quality appraisal tool will be included for analysis. Discussion This unique systematic review involves robust Indigenous community engagement strategies throughout the life of the project, starting with the development of the review protocol. The review is being guided by senior Indigenous researchers who will purposefully include literature sources characterized by Indigenous authorship, community engagement, and representation; screen and

  18. Addressing the common pathway underlying hypertension and diabetes in people who are obese by maximizing health: the ultimate knowledge translation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-03-06

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  19. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  20. Assessment on the Dissemination and Knowledge Translation of Medical Students and PhD Students’ Theses in the Year 2006-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramezan Ghorbani Nahid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The importance of research and its fundamental role in the country’s growth and development is vital. Connecting research to knowledge translation is an essential component of research process and its production, management, and the maintenance of this process is the reason behind the survival of the national health research system. Knowledge translation is the process of disseminating knowledge into actual use, or simply application of knowledge. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 418 university students enrolled in medical universities throughout the country during the period from September 2006 to 2013. Results: About 42.5% of respondents have expressed that results of dissertations will benefit the health care providers while 2.2% of respondents have expressed that research results can benefit the industrial sector, they further expressed that 11.4% of researchers and 32.2% of the general population can benefit from these researches. Furthermore, in order that results of students’ dissertations will become useful to others 71.7% of the students have expressed that research results be published as an article in international indexed journals. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that majority of students have selected the title of their research project based on their personal interest and then decided based on the opinion of their thesis mentor. The principles of accurate and relevant data management must be implemented in order that researches will be directed toward being more practical rather than theoretical. Hence, by performing more extensive researches, barriers as well as factors that promote researches will be identified and by emphasizing on knowledge translation a cultural environment aiming at presenting research results to users will be achieved and researches and dissertations that resulted to the solution of the problems of the community will be promoted.

  1. Challenges in knowledge translation: the early years of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, G P

    2012-02-01

    Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) was formalized in 1997 to produce clinical practice guidelines for cancer management for the Province of Ontario. At the time, the gap between guideline development and implementation was beginning to be acknowledged. The Program implemented strategies to promote use of guidelines. The program had to overcome numerous social challenges to survive. Prospective strategies useful to practitioners-including participation, transparent communication, a methodological vision, and methodology skills development offerings-were used to create a culture of research-informed oncology practice within a broad community of practitioners.Reactive strategies ensured the survival of the program in the early years, when some within the influential academic community and among decision-makers were skeptical about the feasibility of a rigorous methodologic approach meeting the fast turnaround times necessary for policy. The paper details the pebc strategies within the context of what was known about knowledge translation (kt) at the time, and it tries to identify key success factors. Many of the barriers faced in the implementation of kt-and the strategies for overcoming them-are unavailable in the public domain because the relevant reporting does not fit the traditional paradigm for publication. Telling the "stories behind the story" should be encouraged to enhance the practice of kt beyond the science.

  2. Conceptual dissonance: evaluating the efficacy of natural language processing techniques for validating translational knowledge constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara B

    2009-03-01

    The conduct of large-scale translational studies presents significant challenges related to the storage, management and analysis of integrative data sets. Ideally, the application of methodologies such as conceptual knowledge discovery in databases (CKDD) provides a means for moving beyond intuitive hypothesis discovery and testing in such data sets, and towards the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complex bio-molecular and phenotypic variables. However, the induction of such high-throughput hypotheses is non-trivial, and requires correspondingly high-throughput validation methodologies. In this manuscript, we describe an evaluation of the efficacy of a natural language processing-based approach to validating such hypotheses. As part of this evaluation, we will examine a phenomenon that we have labeled as "Conceptual Dissonance" in which conceptual knowledge derived from two or more sources of comparable scope and granularity cannot be readily integrated or compared using conventional methods and automated tools.

  3. Effect of the science teaching advancement through modeling physical science professional development workshop on teachers' attitudes, beliefs and content knowledge and students' content knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura

    The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.

  4. Translator-computer interaction in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Kristine; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2016-01-01

    perspective, this paper investigates the relationship between machines and humans in the field of translation, analysing a CAT process in which machine-translation (MT) technology was integrated into a translation-memory (TM) suite. After a review of empirical research into the impact of CAT tools......Though we lack empirically-based knowledge of the impact of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools on translation processes, it is generally agreed that all professional translators are now involved in some kind of translator-computer interaction (TCI), using O’Brien’s (2012) term. Taking a TCI......, the study indicates that the tool helps the translator conform to project and customer requirements....

  5. LATIN AND SCIENCE: PERSPECTIVES ON TRANSLATION OF THE NEO-LATIN ON SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Kaltner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in a study of interdisciplinary perspectives that arise in the translation of scientific texts, from the Translation Studies, Linguistics, Textlinguistik (Text Linguistic and Latin Language. Here is the translation of an excerpt from Historia Naturalis Palmarum (Natural History of Palms, written in the nineteenth century by the botanist Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868, a pioneer in the description of the Brazilian flora.

  6. Case Series of a Knowledge Translation Intervention to Increase Upper Limb Exercise in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise A; McMahon, Naoimh E; Tyson, Sarah F; Watkins, Caroline L; Eng, Janice J

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention. A participatory action research approach was used in 3 stroke rehabilitation units in the United Kingdom. The intervention aimed to change 4 therapist-level behaviors: (1) screening patients for suitability for supplementary self-directed arm exercise, (2) provision of exercises, (3) involving family and caregivers in assisting with exercises, and (4) monitoring and progressing exercises. Data on changes in practice were collected by therapy teams using a bespoke audit tool. Utility of the intervention was explored in qualitative interviews with patients and staff. Components of the intervention were successfully embedded in 2 of the 3 stroke units. At these sites, almost all admitted patients were screened for suitability for supplementary self-directed exercise. Exercises were provided to 77%, 70%, and 88% of suitable patients across the 3 sites. Involving family and caregivers and monitoring and progressing exercises were not performed consistently. This case series is an example of how a rigorous research-informed knowledge translation process resulted in practice change. Research is needed to demonstrate that these changes can translate into increased intensity of upper limb exercise and affect patient outcomes. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. Different People in Different Places - Secondary School Students' Knowledge About History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Haira Emanuela

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study of students' knowledge about scientists and countries' contributions to science, aiming at answering two research questions: "In which ways are students aware of the history of scientific development carried out by different people in different places of the world? What can be influencing and shaping their awareness?" Thus, this study aimed at depicting students' knowledge about History of Science (HOS), focusing on what they know about science being done by people and communities from different parts of the world and on how this knowledge is constructed through their engagement with school science. An exploratory research was carried out at two multicultural state secondary schools in London, UK, involving 200 students aged 12-15 (58.5% girls, 41.5% boys) and five science teachers. The method involved an initial exploration of students' knowledge about HOS through an open-ended survey, followed by classroom-based observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. Results showed a disconnection between remembering scientists and knowing about their work and background, hinting at an emphasis on illustrative and decontextualised approaches towards HOS. Additionally, there was a lack of diversity in these students' answers in terms of gender and ethnicity when talking about scientists and countries in science. These findings were further analysed in relation to their implications for school science and for the fields of HOS, science education and public perception of science.

  8. Science concept learning by English as second language junior secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pui-Kwong; Lucas, Keith B.; Burke, Ed V.

    1995-03-01

    Recent Chinese migrant students from Taiwan studying science in two Australian secondary schools were found to explain the meanings of selected science concept labels in English by translating from Chinese. The research strategy involved interviewing the students concerning their recognition and comprehension of the science concept labels firstly in Chinese and then in English. Mean recognition and comprehension scores were higher in Chinese than in English, with indications that Chinese language and science knowledge learnt in Chinese deteriorated with increasing time of residence in Australia. Rudimentary signs of the students being able to switch between Chinese and English knowledge bases in science were also found. Implications for teaching science to ESL students and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  9. Linguistic Levels of Translation: A Generic Exploration of Translation Difficulties in Literary Textual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Madkour

    2016-11-01

    Social Sciences (SPSS, and qualitative data depended on the software NVivo. The results of data analysis indicated a correlation between using cognitive teaching methodology and students’ performance in literary translation. The themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis referred to topics related to causes of  translation problems, including lack of experience in the field of literary translation; weakness in literary translation skills; and challenges in interpreting literary devices and eloquence. Data analysis revealed that these problems were due to using traditional teaching methods that were based on giving lectures and direct instructions, and rote learning. The emergent themes concerning ways of resolving these problems include the importance of employing cognitive methods to stimulate students’ creative abilities, and motivate them to improve their analytical and critical thinking.  The discussions, presented in the literature review of the present study, focus on five issues: the linguistics levels of literary translation; the characteristics of literary texts; the problems of translating literary texts; the main principles of the cognitive method which makes it appropriate for teaching literary translation; and the relationship between literary translation theories, cognition, and creativity. The research recommendations highlight the importance of bridging the gap between translation theory and practice to provide strategies for solving the problems of translating literary texts. The recommendations also include the procedures for integrating Newmark’s translation theory into cognitive taxonomies to enhance students’ knowledge, and help them acquire refined skills for translating literary texts efficiently.

  10. An engineering paradigm in the biomedical sciences: Knowledge as epistemic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    In order to deal with the complexity of biological systems and attempts to generate applicable results, current biomedical sciences are adopting concepts and methods from the engineering sciences. Philosophers of science have interpreted this as the emergence of an engineering paradigm, in particular in systems biology and synthetic biology. This article aims at the articulation of the supposed engineering paradigm by contrast with the physics paradigm that supported the rise of biochemistry and molecular biology. This articulation starts from Kuhn's notion of a disciplinary matrix, which indicates what constitutes a paradigm. It is argued that the core of the physics paradigm is its metaphysical and ontological presuppositions, whereas the core of the engineering paradigm is the epistemic aim of producing useful knowledge for solving problems external to the scientific practice. Therefore, the two paradigms involve distinct notions of knowledge. Whereas the physics paradigm entails a representational notion of knowledge, the engineering paradigm involves the notion of 'knowledge as epistemic tool'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of 3D Printing Project-based Learning on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Attitudes, Science Content Knowledge, and Anxiety About Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Elena; Wisdom, Sonya

    2018-05-01

    3D printing technology is a powerful educational tool that can promote integrative STEM education by connecting engineering, technology, and applications of science concepts. Yet, research on the integration of 3D printing technology in formal educational contexts is extremely limited. This study engaged preservice elementary teachers (N = 42) in a 3D Printing Science Project that modeled a science experiment in the elementary classroom on why things float or sink using 3D printed boats. The goal was to explore how collaborative 3D printing inquiry-based learning experiences affected preservice teachers' science teaching self-efficacy beliefs, anxiety toward teaching science, interest in science, perceived competence in K-3 technology and engineering science standards, and science content knowledge. The 3D printing project intervention significantly decreased participants' science teaching anxiety and improved their science teaching efficacy, science interest, and perceived competence in K-3 technological and engineering design science standards. Moreover, an analysis of students' project reflections and boat designs provided an insight into their collaborative 3D modeling design experiences. The study makes a contribution to the scarce body of knowledge on how teacher preparation programs can utilize 3D printing technology as a means of preparing prospective teachers to implement the recently adopted engineering and technology standards in K-12 science education.

  12. ESIP's Earth Science Knowledge Graph (ESKG) Testbed Project: An Automatic Approach to Building Interdisciplinary Earth Science Knowledge Graphs to Improve Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Jiang, Y.; Burgess, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Big Earth observation data have been produced, archived and made available online, but discovering the right data in a manner that precisely and efficiently satisfies user needs presents a significant challenge to the Earth Science (ES) community. An emerging trend in information retrieval community is to utilize knowledge graphs to assist users in quickly finding desired information from across knowledge sources. This is particularly prevalent within the fields of social media and complex multimodal information processing to name but a few, however building a domain-specific knowledge graph is labour-intensive and hard to keep up-to-date. In this work, we update our progress on the Earth Science Knowledge Graph (ESKG) project; an ESIP-funded testbed project which provides an automatic approach to building a dynamic knowledge graph for ES to improve interdisciplinary data discovery by leveraging implicit, latent existing knowledge present within across several U.S Federal Agencies e.g. NASA, NOAA and USGS. ESKG strengthens ties between observations and user communities by: 1) developing a knowledge graph derived from various sources e.g. Web pages, Web Services, etc. via natural language processing and knowledge extraction techniques; 2) allowing users to traverse, explore, query, reason and navigate ES data via knowledge graph interaction. ESKG has the potential to revolutionize the way in which ES communities interact with ES data in the open world through the entity, spatial and temporal linkages and characteristics that make it up. This project enables the advancement of ESIP collaboration areas including both Discovery and Semantic Technologies by putting graph information right at our fingertips in an interactive, modern manner and reducing the efforts to constructing ontology. To demonstrate the ESKG concept, we will demonstrate use of our framework across NASA JPL's PO.DAAC, NOAA's Earth Observation Requirements Evaluation System (EORES) and various USGS

  13. Action-research and the elaboration of teaching knowledge in sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nizete de Azevedo

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the way in which a training process, in which the methodological option approaches an action-research in teacher education, contributes with the elaboration of teaching knowledge in sciences by a group of teachers of the initial school years. In colaborative situations of teaching knowledge, those teachers elect education problems, for which they seek for solutions through planned, developed and reflected actions. We explored data obtained from a wide research, realized in a public school which took as basis this formative process. The results analysed under a qualitative approach show that the action-research contributes with the elaboration of the teaching knowledge, creating situations of learning necessary to the organization and development of education. We identified important knowledge related to indicating elements of learning about teaching, such as self-organization and formation, the disposition to study and to research, a way to teach sciences through investigative activities, the construction of cooperative practice at school, the articulation of science teaching with the alphabetization process in the native language, the consideration of the school's social and cultural context in its teaching plans, among others. Those results take us to reinforce the potential of action-research on teacher’s formation and on the improvement of the practiced teaching.

  14. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  15. Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In her presidential address, N. J. Kaslow (see record 2015-33530-002) argued that psychologists have a responsibility to translate psychological science to the public and identifies various platforms for doing so. In this comment on her article, I advocate that psychology as a field immediately heed her call in the area of psychological science highlighting the media's contribution to contagion in mass shootings. I point out the psychological science documenting media contagion for suicide and mass shootings, the World Health Organization's (2008) guidelines for media in reporting suicide deaths to prevent that contagion, and discuss ways-based on Dr. Kaslow's suggestions-that psychologists can disseminate psychological science to prevent similar tragedies in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Optimize knowledge uptake - employ a knowledge management system to drive principles to practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeYoe, D.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' All too often the R&D community questions why good results based on sound science are not readily adopted by decision makers. We publish, hold conferences, even conduct workshops to engage policy developers and practitioners,who rarely show up. A closer look uncovers a common fault - although we may target decision makers we design information and tools to suit our interests, needs and/or standards then wonder why we end up always preaching to the converted. Are we missing the boat? In a word - yes! Employing the principles of knowledge transfer to infuse critical adaptive and/or mitigative strategies into policy and practice requires the right attitude, the right approach, the right tools and the right audience. The knowledge management cycle provides a framework that focuses on transfer of science principles or innovation into practice. It embodies the array of critical functions and activities inherent in a cycle that integrates knowledge generation, exchange and application. Knowledge exchange specialists play a pivotal role by helping translate technical knowledge into an appropriate suite of facts and figures well suited for consumption by decision makers. More importantly, they can facilitate adoption and the mainstream use of information and tools through collaborative efforts with knowledge application specialists in target organizations. This relationship can enable a knowledge management cycle that stimulates innovation and fosters informed decision making. Examples will be presented that describe what can happen when partners either fail to use, or succeed in using, a knowledge exchange system to manage projects in a manner that helps ensure inter-organizational collaboration. Examples include: a) a pilot study to demonstrate an emerging technology, b) striving for perfection in the face of ill-fated decisions, c) development of science-based policy and d) extension messaging at its best. (author)

  17. Visualizing the nuclear science and technology knowledge domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Bruno Mattos Souza de Souza; Honaiser, Eduardo H.R. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: brunomelo@ieee.org; ehonaiser@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, a knowledge domain visualization approach is applied to the nuclear science and technology fields. A so-called concept density map based on the abstracts of the papers presented at the ICONE 14 is constructed. The concept map provides an overview of the nuclear science and technology fields by visualizing the associations between their main concepts. To analyze recent developments the concept map is compared with a concept map based on abstracts of earlier ICONE meetings. The analysis presented in the paper provides insight into the structure of the nuclear science and technology fields and into the most significant developments carried out during the last few years. (author)

  18. Assessment of and Response to Data Needs of Clinical and Translational Science Researchers and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah F. Norton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Setting: As universities and libraries grapple with data management and “big data,” the need for data management solutions across disciplines is particularly relevant in clinical and translational science (CTS research, which is designed to traverse disciplinary and institutional boundaries. At the University of Florida Health Science Center Library, a team of librarians undertook an assessment of the research data management needs of CTS researchers, including an online assessment and follow-up one-on-one interviews. Design and Methods: The 20-question online assessment was distributed to all investigators affiliated with UF’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI and 59 investigators responded. Follow-up in-depth interviews were conducted with nine faculty and staff members. Results: Results indicate that UF’s CTS researchers have diverse data management needs that are often specific to their discipline or current research project and span the data lifecycle. A common theme in responses was the need for consistent data management training, particularly for graduate students; this led to localized training within the Health Science Center and CTSI, as well as campus-wide training. Another campus-wide outcome was the creation of an action-oriented Data Management/Curation Task Force, led by the libraries and with participation from Research Computing and the Office of Research. Conclusions: Initiating conversations with affected stakeholders and campus leadership about best practices in data management and implications for institutional policy shows the library’s proactive leadership and furthers our goal to provide concrete guidance to our users in this area.

  19. Knowledge of Medical Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences Regarding Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people’s ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  20. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  1. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-07-13

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard.

  2. Perspectives of the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: a study of Education Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Meglhioratti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Science Teaching emphasizes the importance of researches in Epistemology and History of Science and also covers social aspects of the scientific construction, there are still relatively very few studies which are systematically based on perspectives from the Sociology of Science or from the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge. In this article, it has been outlined a brief history of the sociological perspectives of scientific knowledge, characterizing them as differentiationist, antidifferentiationist and tranversalist. Then, a bibliographical study was developed in journals Qualis A1 and A2 in the area of “Teaching” of CAPES, with emphasis in Science Teaching, from 2007 to 2016, aiming to understand how the sociological perspectives are present in science education. The search for articles which articulate sociological aspects and Science Education was done through use of search engines emerging from the accomplished historic, among them: Sociology of Science, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge, Ethnography, Laboratory Studies, Strong Program, Scientific Fields, Scientific Ethos, Actor-Network Theory, Social and Technical Networks, Latour, Bloor, Merton and Bourdieu. Through this research, we have identified 46 articles which have approaches with the subject. The articles were investigated by Content Analysis and were organized in the units of analysis: 1 Foundations of the sociology of knowledge; 2 Scientific Ethos; 3 Science Working System; 4 Sociogenesis of knowledge; 5 Strong Program of Sociology of Knowledge; 6 Laboratory studies and scientific practice; 7 Actor-Network Theory; 8 Bourdieusian Rationale; 9 Non-Bourdieusian tranversalist approaches; 10 Notes regarding the Sociology of Science. The units of analysis with the greatest number of articles were "Laboratory Studies and Scientific Practice" and "Actor-Network Theory", both closer to an antidifferentiationist perspective of the sociology of science, in which

  3. Translating DVD Subtitles English-German, English-Japanese, Using Example-based Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Caffrey, Colm; Flanagan, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Due to limited budgets and an ever-diminishing time-frame for the production of subtitles for movies released in cinema and DVD, there is a compelling case for a technology-based translation solution for subtitles. In this paper we describe how an Example-Based Machine Translation (EBMT) approach...... to the translation of English DVD subtitles into German and Japanese can aid the subtitler. Our research focuses on an EBMT tool that produces fully automated translations, which in turn can be edited if required. To our knowledge this is the first time that any EBMT approach has been used with DVD subtitle...

  4. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  5. From science to action: Principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanovic, C; McDonald, J; Hobday, A J

    2016-12-01

    Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management

  6. Knowledge Levels of Pre-Service Science Teachers on Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Molu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the knowledge levels of pre-service science teachers about radioactivity. A knowledge test was administered to 56 pre-service science teachers participated in the General Chemistry I course in the fall semester of 2014-15 academic year. Papers derived from the pre-service science teachers were read and evaluated, and the responses were classified as “accurate", "misconception", "wrong" and "empty" categories for open-ended questions and the responses to the multiple-choice questions were classified as "right" and "wrong". The pre-service science teachers’ correct response rates were between 9 % (definition of “nuclear radiation” concept, question 15 and 86 % (radioactivity uses, question 14 in open-ended questions whereas in multiple choice questions the ratio of correct answers ranged from 5 % (concept definition and nuclear reactions, questions 21, 23 and 33 to 98 % (sample of concept, question 20. Students hold misconceptions on the radioactivity, warning picture, nuclear power plant (questions 1, 13, and 16; isotopes (question 4; natural and artificial nucleus reaction (question 6; age of the rocks (question 8; atomic bomb (question 10; hydrogen bomb (question 11 and core irradiation (question 15.

  7. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  8. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  9. Science teachers' knowledge development in the context of educational innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henze-Rietveld, Francina Adriana

    2006-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis is concerned with the knowledge development of a small sample of experienced science teachers in the context of a broad innovation in Dutch secondary education, including the introduction of a new syllabus on Public Understanding of Science. The aim of the study

  10. Ethnodrama: An Innovative Knowledge Translation Tool in the Management of Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Quinlan, Elizabeth; McMullen, Linda; Thomas, Roanne; Fichtner, Pam; Block, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Lymphedema can cause significant physical impairment and quality-of-life issues. Yet there is a gap in knowledge about lymphedema among breast cancer survivors (BCS), and health care professionals (HCP). Ethnodrama is an innovative knowledge translation strategy that uses theatrical performances for dissemination of research results. We evaluated the impact of live ethnodrama on HCP' and BCS' awareness and attitudes in relation to impact of lymphedema on BCS' lives. Ethnodrama performances were developed by script writers and a theatre director in collaboration with the investigators and BCS using data from published research and pre-performances workshops. Six interactive live performances were given to audiences of BCS, HCP, and community members in four cities across Canada. After watching these live performances, members of the audiences were asked to complete a paper-based questionnaire regarding their knowledge of lymphedema, and their attitudes and practices toward lymphedema. Of 238 audience members who participated in the survey, 55 (23%) were BCS and 85 (37.5%) were HCP. Most members rated the performances as very effective in changing their (84%) or other people's (93%) understanding of lymphedema; 96% reported being motivated to seek additional information on lymphedema, and 72% of HCP anticipated changes in their practices related to lymphedema screening. Overall no significant differences were noted in responses to ethnodrama between BCS and HCP. Open-ended responses were supportive of the findings from the closed-ended questions. Our results indicate that ethnodrama performances effectively convey information and positively affecting changes in HCP' and BCS' attitudes toward lymphedema.

  11. The use of social science knowledge in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the use of social science knowledge by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), a division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The use of social science is examined both generally and in relation to a body of knowledge most relevant to the program, the social science risk literature. The study is restricted to the use by headquarters staff in relation to the largest repository and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) projects. The literature on knowledge utilization and the Sabatier framework on knowledge use and policy learning provide the theoretical framework for the study. The research adopts a multistrategy approach, collecting data from two sources: (1) program documents, policy guidance, and meeting records; and (2) interviews with OCRWM officials. The constructs knowledge and use are conceptualized in different ways, each of which forms the basis for a different analytic approach. The research findings showed a very limited use of social science, more especially by the first repository program. Two reasons are advanced. First, the agency has viewed social science knowledge through technical lens and has applied an approach suited to technical problems to its structuring of waste management policy problems. Second, the degree of societal conflict over nuclear power and nuclear waste has prevented a constructive dialogue among the parties and thus reduced the possibility of policy learning

  12. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…

  13. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzbach, Andrea; Marschall, Joachim; Rahnke, Marion; Otto, Lukas; Maier, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  14. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  15. Translational Research 2.0: a framework for accelerating collaborative discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakiewicz, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The world wide web has revolutionized the conduct of global, cross-disciplinary research. In the life sciences, interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving and collaboration are becoming increasingly important in facilitating knowledge discovery and integration. Web 2.0 technologies promise to have a profound impact - enabling reproducibility, aiding in discovery, and accelerating and transforming medical and healthcare research across the healthcare ecosystem. However, knowledge integration and discovery require a consistent foundation upon which to operate. A foundation should be capable of addressing some of the critical issues associated with how research is conducted within the ecosystem today and how it should be conducted for the future. This article will discuss a framework for enhancing collaborative knowledge discovery across the medical and healthcare research ecosystem. A framework that could serve as a foundation upon which ecosystem stakeholders can enhance the way data, information and knowledge is created, shared and used to accelerate the translation of knowledge from one area of the ecosystem to another.

  16. Using Linguistic Knowledge in Statistical Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    reproduced in (Belnap and Haeri, 1997)), a sociolinguistic phenomenon where the literary standard differs considerably from the vernacular varieties...Machine Translation Summit (MT-Summit). N. Haeri. 2000. Form and ideology: Arabic sociolinguistics and beyond. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29. D. Hakkani

  17. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  18. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

  19. Co-production of knowledge: An Inuit Indigenous Knowledge perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R.; Behe, C.

    2017-12-01

    A "co-production of knowledge" approach brings together different knowledge systems while building equitable and collaborative partnerships from `different ways of knowing.' Inuit Indigenous Knowledge is a systematic way of thinking applied to phenomena across biological, physical, cultural and spiritual systems; rooted with a holistic understanding of ecosystems (ICC Alaska 2016). A holistic image of Arctic environmental change is attained by bringing Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holders and scientists together through a co-production of knowledge framework. Experts from IK and scie