WorldWideScience

Sample records for knowledge bok carbon

  1. Players' and coaches' knowledge and awareness of the BokSmart Safe Six injury prevention programme: an ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Brown, James

    2017-11-03

    Rugby has a high injury incidence and therefore BokSmart introduced the Safe Six injury prevention programme in 2014 in an attempt to decrease this incidence. In 2015, BokSmart used a 'targeted marketing approach' to increase the awareness and knowledge of the Safe Six . Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the change in the knowledge of coaches and players of the Safe Six programme, compared with the launch year, following a 'targeted marketing approach'. Ecological cross-sectional questionnaire study SETTING: The 2014-2016 South African rugby union youth week tournaments. Questionnaires were completed by 4502 players and coaches who attended any of the four youth week tournaments during 2014-2016. Logistic regression (adjusted OR, 95% CI) was performed in comparison to year prior to targeted marketing, separately for coaches and players, for changes in awareness and knowledge. The awareness of the Safe Six increased significantly for players in 2015 (1.74 times (95% CI 1.49 to 2.04)) and in 2016 (1.54 times (95% CI 1.29 to 1.84)). Similarly for coaches, there was a 3.55 times (95% CI 1.23 to 9.99) increase in 2015 and a 10.11 times (95% CI 2.43 to 42.08) increase in 2016 compared with 2014. Furthermore, a player was significantly more likely to be aware of the Safe Six if his coach was aware of the programme (psocial media were the largest contributors to knowledge in coaches and players. While the 'targeted marketing approach' was associated with an increase in awareness, future studies should determine if this translates into behavioural change. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Process versus Product: What Ethic Does the FCS-BOK Uphold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubanis, Jody L.

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental moral implications for professional practice inherent to the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) are revealed by using paradigms conventional to normative ethics. A product-oriented teleological ethic is linked to the FCS-BOK core concepts: basic human needs, individual well-being, family strengths, and community…

  3. Nuclear emergency preparedness. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-1. The BOK-1 project, “Nuclear Emergency Preparedness”, was carried out in 1998-2001 with participants from the Nordic and Baltic Sea regions. The project consists of six sub-projects:Laboratory measurements and quality assurance (BOK-1.......1); Mobile measurements and measurement strategies (BOK-1.2); Field measurements and data assimilation (BOK-1.3); Countermeasures in agriculture and forestry (BOK-1.4); Emergency monitoring in theNordic and Baltic Sea countries (BOK-1.5); and Nuclear exercises (BOK-1.6). For each sub-project, the project...

  4. BoKS 1.0. : Een voorstel voor een body of knowlegde & skills van de communicatieve competentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Els van der Pool; Monique van Wijk; Cecilia van Dongen

    2010-01-01

    Sinds 2008 bestaat er een landelijke Body of Knowledge & Skills voor vijf domeinen binnen het hoger onderwijs, te weten Business Administration, Commerce, Communications, Economics en Laws (Hbo-raad 2008). De term Body of Knowledge & Skills (BoKS) staat voor het geheel van kennis, vaardigheden en

  5. Nuclear emergency preparedness. Final report of the Nordic nuclear safety research project BOK-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, Bent [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-02-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-1. The BOK-1 project, 'Nuclear Emergency Preparedness', was carried out in 1998-2001 with participants from the Nordic and Baltic Sea regions. The project consists of six sub-projects: Laboratory measurements and quality assurance (BOK-1.1); Mobile measurements and measurement strategies (BOK-1.2); Field measurement and data assimilation (BOK-1.3); Countermeasures in agriculture and forestry (BOK-1.4); Emergency monitoring in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries (BOK-1.5); and Nuclear exercises (BOK-1.6). For each sub-project, the project outline, objectives and organization are described and main results presented. (au)

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness. Final report of the Nordic nuclear safety research project BOK-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, Bent

    2002-02-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-1. The BOK-1 project, 'Nuclear Emergency Preparedness', was carried out in 1998-2001 with participants from the Nordic and Baltic Sea regions. The project consists of six sub-projects: Laboratory measurements and quality assurance (BOK-1.1); Mobile measurements and measurement strategies (BOK-1.2); Field measurement and data assimilation (BOK-1.3); Countermeasures in agriculture and forestry (BOK-1.4); Emergency monitoring in the Nordic and Baltic Sea countries (BOK-1.5); and Nuclear exercises (BOK-1.6). For each sub-project, the project outline, objectives and organization are described and main results presented. (au)

  7. Derek Bok after 20 Years at Harvard's Helm: An Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The interview with Derek Bok addresses his reasons for stepping down from the Harvard presidency; cost-cutting efforts at Harvard; "selective excellence" as a planning principle; current needs of Harvard; corruption of higher education by corporate ties; the changing college presidency; and the role of ethical considerations in decision…

  8. BokSmart: medical management of suspected serious acute spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although risk and injury cannot be totally avoided in a contact sport, it does appear that there are deficits in the management of this risk and subsequent injury. SA Rugby has introduced an educational programme (BokSmart) to increase the level of understanding by players and support staff. This article was prepared for ...

  9. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications. An evaluation of copper wire bond technology for applicability to spaceflight hardware may be warranted along with concurrently compiling a comprehensive understanding of the failure mechanisms involved with copper wire bonded semiconductor devices.

  10. SCAMPI Lead Appraiser (Service Mark) Body of Knowledge (SLA BOK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    University. 34 | CMU/SEI-2007-TR-019 CC 3 Project Planning and Management Moeller, Robert R. COSO Enterprise Risk Management : Understanding the...appraisal participants) to specific amounts of time when the sponsor agrees to having the appraisal. CMP 3.1.2 Employing risk management techniques...contingency and management reserves appropriately • Ensuring the risk management strategy accounts for the OU’s process improvement history • Assessing

  11. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  12. Relationships between soil properties and toxicity of copper and nickel to bok choy and tomato in Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to bok choy and tomato shoot growth was investigated in a wide range of Chinese soils with and without leaching with artificial rainwater. The results showed that the variations of Ni toxicity induced by soil properties were wider than those of Cu toxicity to both tomato and bok choy plant growth. Leaching generally decreased the toxicity of Cu and Ni added to soils, which also depended on soils, metals, and test plant species. Soil factors controlling metal phytotoxicity were found to be soil pH and soil organic carbon content for Cu, and soil pH for Ni. It was also found that soil pH had stronger effects on Ni toxicity than on Cu toxicity. Predictive toxicity models based on these soil factors were developed. These toxicity models for Cu and Ni toxicity to tomato plant growth were validated using an independent data set for European soils. These models could be applied to predict the Cu and Ni phytotoxicity in not only Chinese soils but also European soils. © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Ground penetrating radar survey across the Bok Bak fault, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuniarti Ulfa; Nur Fathin Mohd Jamel; Mardiana Samsuardi

    2013-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was done across the Bok Bak Fault zone in Baling, Kedah in order to investigate the shallow subsurface geology of the Bok Bak fault zone, its extension and associated weak zones within the study area. GPR data acquisition was compared with visual inspection on the slope of the outcrop. Ten GPR profiles were acquired using 250 MHz GPR frequency. Basic data processing and filtering to reduce some noise and unwanted signal was done using MALA RAMAC Ground Vision software. The data penetrate around 2 meters in depth for all survey lines. In most lines shows clear images of shallowest Bok Bak Fault (NW trending) as detected at distance of 28 m horizontal marker. It also exhibits several sets of faults as a result of Bok Bak Fault deformation, including the conjugate NE trending fault (Lubok Merbau Fault). Active seismicity encompasses the Malay-Thai Peninsular trigger the changes of Bok Bak Fault dipping direction, steeper dips of conjugate faults and faults or fractures rotational movement. (author)

  14. Radiological and environmental consequences. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    2002-11-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. This report focuses on the project itself and gives a general summary of the studies undertaken. A separate technical report summarises the work done by each research group and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. The topics in BOK-2 included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. (au)

  15. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J. [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wensveen, Felix M. [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M. [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eldering, Eric [Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spaargaren, Marcel [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pals, Steven T., E-mail: s.t.pals@amc.uva.nl [Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. {yields} Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc{sup Min/+} mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. {yields} APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. {yields} Blocking of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or {beta}-catenin causes constitutively active {beta}-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc{sup Min/+} mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which

  16. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. → Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc Min/+ mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. → APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. → Blocking of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin causes constitutively active β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc Min/+ mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in the

  17. Semantically-enabled Knowledge Discovery in the Deep Carbon Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X.; Erickson, J. S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a decadal effort aimed at transforming scientific and public understanding of carbon in the complex deep earth system from the perspectives of Deep Energy, Deep Life, Extreme Physics and Chemistry, and Reservoirs and Fluxes. Over the course of the decade DCO scientific activities will generate a massive volume of data across a variety of disciplines, presenting significant challenges in terms of data integration, management, analysis and visualization, and ultimately limiting the ability of scientists across disciplines to make insights and unlock new knowledge. The DCO Data Science Team (DCO-DS) is applying Semantic Web methodologies to construct a knowledge representation focused on the DCO Earth science disciplines, and use it together with other technologies (e.g. natural language processing and data mining) to create a more expressive representation of the distributed corpus of DCO artifacts including datasets, metadata, instruments, sensors, platforms, deployments, researchers, organizations, funding agencies, grants and various awards. The embodiment of this knowledge representation is the DCO Data Science Infrastructure, in which unique entities within the DCO domain and the relations between them are recognized and explicitly identified. The DCO-DS Infrastructure will serve as a platform for more efficient and reliable searching, discovery, access, and publication of information and knowledge for the DCO scientific community and beyond.

  18. Brown carbon in the cryosphere: Current knowledge and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the light-absorbing organic carbon, i.e., brown carbon (BrC, has received an increasing attention, because they could significantly absorb the solar radiation in the range of short wavelengths rather than the purely scattering effect. BrC is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It could undergo long range transport within the atmospheric circulation. After the deposition on the surface of snow or ice in the cryospheric region, as the major light absorbing impurities with black carbon and dust, BrC could reduce the snow albedo and accelerate the glacier melting. In this context, this paper summarized the current knowledge of BrC (in aerosols and snow in the cryospheric regions including the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpines. Although some works have been conducted in those region, the current dataset on the optical properties of BrC like Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE and Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE is still limited, which hampers stimulating an accurate evaluation of its climate effects. Especially in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where very limited information concerning BrC is available. Considering biomass burning as a dominant source of BrC, a large amount of emissions from biomass burning in South Asia could reach the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where the climate effect of BrC merits more investigation in the future.

  19. Weaving a knowledge network for Deep Carbon Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; West, Patrick; Zednik, Stephan; Erickson, John; Eleish, Ahmed; Chen, Yu; Wang, Han; Zhong, Hao; Fox, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Geoscience researchers are increasingly dependent on informatics and the Web to conduct their research. Geoscience is one of the first domains that take lead in initiatives such as open data, open code, open access, and open collections, which comprise key topics of Open Science in academia. The meaning of being open can be understood at two levels. The lower level is to make data, code, sample collections and publications, etc. freely accessible online and allow reuse, modification and sharing. The higher level is the annotation and connection between those resources to establish a network for collaborative scientific research. In the data science component of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO), we have leveraged state-of-the-art information technologies and existing online resources to deploy a web portal for the over 1000 researchers in the DCO community. An initial aim of the portal is to keep track of all research and outputs related to the DCO community. Further, we intend for the portal to establish a knowledge network, which supports various stages of an open scientific process within and beyond the DCO community. Annotation and linking are the key characteristics of the knowledge network. Not only are key assets, including DCO data and methods, published in an open and inter-linked fashion, but the people, organizations, groups, grants, projects, samples, field sites, instruments, software programs, activities, meetings, etc. are recorded and connected to each other through relationships based on well-defined, formal conceptual models. The network promotes collaboration among DCO participants, improves the openness and reproducibility of carbon-related research, facilitates accreditation to resource contributors, and eventually stimulates new ideas and findings in deep carbon-related studies.

  20. Weaving a Knowledge Network for Deep Carbon Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Geoscience researchers are increasingly dependent on informatics and the Web to conduct their research. Geoscience is one of the first domains that take lead in initiatives such as open data, open code, open access, and open collections, which comprise key topics of Open Science in academia. The meaning of being open can be understood at two levels. The lower level is to make data, code, sample collections, and publications, etc., freely accessible online and allow reuse, modification, and sharing. The higher level is the annotation and connection between those resources to establish a network for collaborative scientific research. In the data science component of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO, we have leveraged state-of-the-art information technologies and existing online resources to deploy a web portal for the over 1,000 researchers in the DCO community. An initial aim of the portal is to keep track of all research and outputs related to the DCO community. Further, we intend for the portal to establish a knowledge network, which supports various stages of an open scientific process within and beyond the DCO community. Annotation and linking are the key characteristics of the knowledge network. Not only are key assets, including DCO data and methods, published in an open and inter-linked fashion, but the people, organizations, groups, grants, projects, samples, field sites, instruments, software programs, activities, meetings, etc., are recorded and connected to each other through relationships based on well-defined, formal conceptual models. The network promotes collaboration among DCO participants, improves the openness and reproducibility of carbon-related research, facilitates accreditation to resource contributors, and eventually stimulates new ideas and findings in deep carbon-related studies.

  1. Ei lita bok biter seg fast. Wanny Woldstads fangstmannsberetning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Anne Hauan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A little book bites stuck. A trapper biography of Wanny Woldstad.Wanny Woldstad, who still is a well-known polar hero and made more and more famous the last decades through theater plays, songs and writings, wintered over at Svalbard as a trapper and hunter from 1932-37. She left her job as a taxi driver in Tromsø for a tiny little hut and a hunter’s life in Hornsund together with a man she just met. Nearly 20 years after returning to the civilization she wrote a book about her polar experience. Wintering as trappers and hunters seems to have also in a literary project and a lot of trappers have told them polar stories between book covers.Woldstad writes mainly about her first wintering. She is able to share that she in this first year was overwhelmed by her new surroundings; she was thrilled by the opportunity to hunt birds, foxes and polar bears. She describes enthusiastically nature and the hunting situations. Even everyday activities as making food, celebrating Christmas and writing diary are topics. In her book she gives credit to her partner as a teacher and mentor in the field of hunting and trapping. But through her writing she brings her own competence and capabilities in focus.  Her book gives a profound knowledge of a year in on hunting station on Svalbard. It is written as a true story – an autobiography although retrospective, but has its elements of fiction.

  2. NASA 2009 Body of Knowledge (BoK) Through-Slicon Via Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, David

    2009-01-01

    Through-silicon via (TSV) is the latest in a progression of technologies for stacking silicon devices in three dimensions (3D). Driven by the need for improved performance, methods to use short vertical interconnects to replace the long interconnects found in 2D structures have been developed. The industry is moving past the feasibility (research and development [R and D]) phase for TSV technology into the commercialization phase where economic realities will determine which technologies are adopted. Low-cost fine via hole formation and highly reliable via filling technologies have been demonstrated; process equipment and materials are available. Even though design, thermal, and test issues remain, much progress has been made.

  3. A survey of northern Bok globules for H-alpha emission stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Katsuo; Hasegawa, Tatsuhiko.

    1983-01-01

    Northern globules in the catalog of Bok and Cordwell (1973) have been surveyed for Hα-emission stars of T Tau type by using the Kiso Schmidt telescope with an objective prism. The results for 15 globules are presented here. A total of 60 emission-line stars, of which 80 % are new, and 17 suspected ones have been discovered. Some of them are known T Tau stars; one star shows Ca 2 H and K lines in emission on objective-prism plates in the blue-violet and presumably is a new T Tau star. The celestial coordinates and rough estimates of magnitude and color are given for all of the objects. (author)

  4. Fundamentals of civil engineering an introduction to the ASCE body of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    McCuen, Richard H; Wong, Melanie K

    2011-01-01

    While the ASCE Body of Knowledge (BOK2) is the codified source for all technical and non-technical information necessary for those seeking to attain licensure in civil engineering, recent graduates have notoriously been lacking in the non-technical aspects even as they excel in the technical. Fundamentals of Civil Engineering: An Introduction to the ASCE Body of Knowledge addresses this shortfall and helps budding engineers develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes suggested and implied by the BOK2. Written as a resource for all of the non-technical outcomes not specifically covered in the

  5. Heart of the FCS Body of Knowledge: Relational Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubanis, Jody L.

    2016-01-01

    The Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) provides an ideological stance that is universal to all practitioners of the profession, and it has major implications for the normative ethics that guide professional practice. The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework to reveal the relational ethic inherent in…

  6. Summaries of studies carried out in the NKS/BOK-2 project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    2002-12-01

    Summaries of studies carried out in the NKSBOK-2 project, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The structure of the project as such is described in NKS-64, Radiological and Environmental Consequences - Final Report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-2. That report also includes compilations based on the summaries presented in this report. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. The topics included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. This report is a compilation of summaries from each research group, 32 papers in all, and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. Some of the studies have been described previously, at least to some degree, in NKS-70, Proceedings of the 8 th Nordic Seminar on Radioecology, 25-28 February 2001, Rovaniemi, Finland. (au)

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-04-25

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource.

  8. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  9. The BokSmart intervention programme is associated with improvements in injury prevention behaviours of rugby union players: an ecological cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Gardner-Lubbe, S.; Lambert, M.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Participants of rugby union (‘rugby’) have an above-average risk of injury compared with other popular sports. Thus, BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention programme for rugby, was introduced in South Africa in 2009. Improvements in injurypreventing behaviour of players are critical

  10. Challenges ahead : where knowledge can make a difference in forest and carbon management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Saint-Foy, PQ (Canada). Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre

    2005-02-01

    This paper questioned whether or not carbon stocks in Canadian forests are increasing or decreasing and presented several options for determining and measuring the interactions between climate change and carbon stocks. A carbon accounting model was presented for displaying changes in carbon forest stocks, as well as a timeline for forest carbon dynamics from 1920. The role of fire in direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions was examined. Information developed from flux towers in response to climate at the ecosystem level was presented, as well as statistics from various studies. Changes at the landscape level were examined from satellite photographs, with data presented from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (AVHRR-NDVI). Gaps in knowledge were identified and included an understanding of the scales of losses at tree level, stand level and landscape level. A model was presented to measure tree-level carbon losses in autotrophic respiration. Benefits of the model included better capacity to model productivity from remote sensing and better capacity to predict productivity under changed climate. In addition, a new model to sample stand level carbon losses in mortality and decay was presented, providing estimates of long-term carbon balances from satellite models along with estimates of climate impact. At the landscape level, information needed to measure carbon losses in disturbances included an improvement in quantification of current regimes; an improvement in quantification of effects; and stronger linkages with climate. Benefits of such a model include improved estimates of climate change impact on regional and national carbon budgets. The development and validation of satellite-driven models was reviewed, with reference to multi-scale field validation and the Big Foot project. A description of developing test regions was provided. Uncertainties in scaling up certain processes such as temporal and spatial

  11. LOOKING INTO THE HEARTS OF BOK GLOBULES: MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM IMAGES OF ISOLATED STAR-FORMING CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launhardt, R.; Henning, Th.; Khanzadyan, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Wolf, S.; Nutter, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bourke, T. L.; Zylka, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter continuum emission study of isolated low-mass star-forming cores in 32 Bok globules, with the aim to investigate the process of star formation in these regions. The submillimeter and millimeter dust continuum emission maps together with the spectral energy distributions are used to model and derive the physical properties of the star-forming cores, such as luminosities, sizes, masses, densities, etc. Comparisons with ground-based near-infrared and space-based mid- and far-infrared images from Spitzer are used to reveal the stellar content of the Bok globules, association of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) with the submillimeter dust cores, and the evolutionary stages of the individual sources. Submillimeter dust continuum emission was detected in 26 out of the 32 globule cores observed. For 18 globules with detected (sub)millimeter cores, we derive evolutionary stages and physical parameters of the embedded sources. We identify nine starless cores, most of which are presumably prestellar, nine Class 0 protostars, and twelve Class I YSOs. Specific source properties like bolometric temperature, core size, and central densities are discussed as a function of evolutionary stage. We find that at least two thirds (16 out of 24) of the star-forming globules studied here show evidence of forming multiple stars on scales between 1000 and 50,000 AU. However, we also find that most of these small prototstar and star groups are comprised of sources with different evolutionary stages, suggesting a picture of slow and sequential star formation in isolated globules.

  12. Examining a knowledge domain: Interactive visualization of the Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Marilyn Ruth

    This research compared the effectiveness and performance of interactive visualizations of the GIS&T Body of Knowledge 1. The visualizations were created using Processing, and display the structure and content of the Body of Knowledge using various spatial layout methods: the Indented List, Tree Graph, treemap and Similarity Graph. The first three methods utilize the existing hierarchical structure of the BoK text, while the fourth method (Similarity Graph) serves as a jumping off point for exploring content-based visualizations of the BoK. The following questions have guided the framework of this research: (1) Which of the spatial layouts is most effective for completing tasks related to the GIS&T; BoK overall? How do they compare to each other in terms of performance? (2) Is one spatial layout significantly more or less effective than others for completing a particular cognitive task? (3) Is the user able to utilize the BoK as a basemap or reference system and make inferences based on BoK scorecard overlays? (4) Which design aspects of the interface assist in carrying out the survey objectives? Which design aspects of the application detract from fulfilling the objectives? To answer these questions, human subjects were recruited to participate in a survey, during which they were assigned a random spatial layout and were asked questions about the BoK based on their interaction with the visualization tool. 75 users were tested, 25 for each spatial layout. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between means for overall accuracy when comparing the three visualizations. In looking at individual questions, Tree Graph and Indented List yielded statistically significant higher scores for questions regarding the structure of the Body of Knowledge, as compared to the treemap. There was a significant strong positive correlation between the time taken to complete the survey and the final survey score. This correlation was

  13. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF CONSUMPTION OF CARBONATED BEVERAGES: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Mufeed Siddiqui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A soft drink or a carbonated drink is a non-alcoholic drink that commonly contains water, a sweetener, carbon dioxide, acidulants, colorings, preservatives, antioxidants, and/or foaming agents, and a flavoring agent. A total of 200 adult patients of low socioeconomic status, aged 18-35 years, were selected to participate in the study. A questionnaire with 26 closed ended questions was designed for the present study which consists of questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of consumption of sweetened carbonated beverages. One hundred and ninety nine (99.5% of the subjects enjoyed drinking soft drinks. Out of 200 subjects only 8 (4% responded that they will stop drinking soft drinks. The present study results showed that all the target population heard about soft drinks but very few of them were aware of the ill effects on general health and on teeth. So there is a need to spread awareness among people about the adverse effects of the carbonated beverages consumption and thus there is a need to plan health education programs.

  14. Summaries of studies carried out in the NKS/BOK-2 project. Technical report[Radiological and environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S E [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2002-12-01

    Summaries of studies carried out in the NKSBOK-2 project, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The structure of the project as such is described in NKS-64, Radiological and Environmental Consequences - Final Report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-2. That report also includes compilations based on the summaries presented in this report. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. The topics included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. This report is a compilation of summaries from each research group, 32 papers in all, and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. Some of the studies have been described previously, at least to some degree, in NKS-70, Proceedings of the 8{sup th} Nordic Seminar on Radioecology, 25-28 February 2001, Rovaniemi, Finland. (au)

  15. A Study on the Evolution of Carbon Capture and Storage Technology Based on Knowledge Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hua Qiu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a useful technical measure to deal with the problem of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS technology has been highly regarded in both theory and practice under the promotion of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Knowledge mapping is helpful for understanding the evolution in terms of research topics and emerging trends in a specific domain. In this work knowledge mapping of CCS technology was investigated using CiteSpace. Several aspects of the outputs of publications in the CCS research area were analyzed, such as annual trends, countries, and institutions. The research topics in this particular technology area were analyzed based on their co-occurring keyword networks and co-citation literature networks, while, the emerging trends and research frontiers were studied through the analysis of burst keywords and citation bursts. The results indicated that the annual number of publications in the research field of CCS technology increased rapidly after 2005. There are more CCS studies published in countries from Asia, North America, and Europe, especially in the United States and China. The Chinese Academy of Sciences not only has the largest number of publications, but also has a greater impact on the research area of CCS technology, however, there are more productive institutions located in developed countries. In the research area of CCS technology, the main research topics include carbon emissions and environmental protection, research and development activities, and social practical issues, meanwhile, the main emerging trends include emerging techniques and processes, emerging materials, evaluation of technological performance, and socioeconomic analysis.

  16. Knowledge management and leadership: the carbon emissions scandal in the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Volkswagen scandal from a KM point of view. We use a KM framework of analysis basing ourselves in the concept of Knowledge failures. We describe the VW case of management and then analyse it from the point of view of KM. We conclude that in the VW case on carbon emissions a massive operation of KM existed, that some consider to be a success, despite the consequences, and others see as a failure. We discuss the conditions that allowed it to happen and how to prevent it in the future. We also discuss the implications of the scandal to the societies it involves and in particularly to the Economies of Central Europe.

  17. Storm-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: An Investigation of Target Audience Knowledge and Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Scott A; Poehlman, Jon A; Rupert, Douglas J; Williams, Peyton N

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors-such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures-can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home-such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches-were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures.

  18. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  19. TÜRK RUS BOKS MİLLİ TAKIMLARININ BAZI FİZYOLOJİK KAPASİTE VE ANTROPOMETRİK YAPILARININ KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    ZORBA, Erdal; ZİYAGİL, M. Akif; ERDEMİR, İbrahim

    1999-01-01

    Buaraştırmanın amacı Türk ve Rus Boks Milli Takımlarının bazı fizyolojik kapasiteve antropometrik yapılarının karşılaştırılmasıdır. Çalışmaya katılan boksörlerkilolarına göre; hafif (50-60 kg), orta (60-70 kg) ve ağır (70-H2kg) sıkletolarak 3 gruba bölündüler ve Türk Milli Takımından 19, Rus Milli Takımından 17denek katıldı. Tüm deneklerin sırasıyla; yaş, vücut ağırlığı, boy, esneklik(otur-uzan), sistolik-diastolik kan basıncı, dinlenme kalp atımları, dikeysıçrama, vücut yağ yüzdeleri ve anae...

  20. Americans value happiness but block required policies. Book review of ‘‘The Politics of Happiness; what governments can learn from the new research on well-being’’ by Derek Bok, Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In his book ‘‘The Politics of Happiness’’ Derek Bok argues that happiness should be a goal in public policy. He presents an inventory of social problems in the US with negative effects on happiness, like inadequate education, chronic pain, sleep disorders, depressions, divorce,

  1. Science and Morality: Mind the Gap, Use Happiness as a Safe Bridge! Book review of ‘‘Exploring Happiness: from Aristotle to Brain Science’’ by Sissela Bok, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Ott (Jan Cornelis)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In 2002 Sissela Bok re-published her book ‘‘Common Values’’, first published in 1995, about her search for a minimal set of values to be respected all over the world. In her view such a set of values is needed to facilitate international communication and cooperation. Values

  2. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Sommers; Rachel A. Loehman; Colin C. Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for 420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant driver of ongoing climate change and the principal emissions...

  3. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. McKinley; Michael G. Ryan; Richard A. Birdsey; Christian P. Giardina; Mark E. Harmon; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Robert B. Jackson; James F. Morrison; Brian C. Murray; Diane E. Pataki; Kenneth E. Skog

    2011-01-01

    Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in...

  4. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C; Ryan, Michael G; Birdsey, Richard A; Giardina, Christian P; Harmon, Mark E; Heath, Linda S; Houghton, Richard A; Jackson, Robert B; Morrison, James F; Murray, Brian C; Patakl, Diane E; Skog, Kenneth E

    2011-09-01

    Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in existing forests; and (3) the use of wood as biomass energy, in place of other building materials, or in wood products for carbon storage. We found that many strategies can increase forest sector carbon mitigation above the current 162-256 Tg C/yr, and that many strategies have co-benefits such as biodiversity, water, and economic opportunities. Each strategy also has trade-offs, risks, and uncertainties including possible leakage, permanence, disturbances, and climate change effects. Because approximately 60% of the carbon lost through deforestation and harvesting from 1700 to 1935 has not yet been recovered and because some strategies store carbon in forest products or use biomass energy, the biological potential for forest sector carbon mitigation is large. Several studies suggest that using these strategies could offset as much as 10-20% of current U.S. fossil fuel emissions. To obtain such large offsets in the United States would require a combination of afforesting up to one-third of cropland or pastureland, using the equivalent of about one-half of the gross annual forest growth for biomass energy, or implementing more intensive management to increase forest growth on one-third of forestland. Such large offsets would require substantial trade-offs, such as lower agricultural production and non-carbon ecosystem services from forests. The effectiveness of activities could be diluted by negative leakage effects and increasing disturbance regimes. Because forest carbon loss contributes to increasing climate risk and because climate change may impede regeneration following disturbance, avoiding

  5. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    research alliance “Enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society” during 2010-2013. The aim of this alliance is to conceptualize the dynamics of transition processes towards a low carbon society by involving the diverse set of actors from consumers to governmental agencies, companies...... and organizations. Transition of the path-dependent, socio-technical regimes in the energy system is a governance challenge, since transitions need to occur simultaneously in different arenas without necessarily having a specific „centre‟ of co-ordination. Changes of regimes require innovative breakthroughs......, companies, cities, and national and international policy. Theoretically the research alliance builds upon a combination of theories including social practice theory, innovation economy, institutional theory, actor-network theory and governance theory. Through a combination of historical analysis, case...

  6. Black (pyrogenic carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon (C cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4, and some 1–3% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC. PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O and functional groups. The range of PyC structures is often described as a continuum from partially charred plant materials, to charcoal, soot and ultimately graphite which is formed by the combination of heat and pressure. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is largely resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC structural continuum. There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands, and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal

  7. The effect of before school physical activity on child development: A study protocol to evaluate the Build Our Kids Success (BOKS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojednic, Rachele; Peabody, Stephanie; Carson, Shelley; Kennedy, Mary; Bevans, Katherine; Phillips, Edward M

    2016-07-01

    Most childhood physical activity interventions focus on reducing childhood obesity with varying success, indicating that body mass index (BMI) may be a limited marker of health in children. To better understand overall childhood health and wellbeing, this study is investigating BOKS (Build Our Kids Success), an established ongoing before-school physical activity program, to evaluate students' physical health, mental health, cognitive capacity, and academic performance. The study is a non-randomized controlled trial with 26 elementary and middle schools in 3 Massachusetts communities, including first through eighth grade (aged 5-14) students, their parents, and teachers. Data collection is occurring during the 2015-2016 school year. Physical fitness is being assessed via 400m run and anthropometrics via height and weight measures (BMI). Psychosocial outcomes are being assessed via student, parent, and teacher survey and include nutrition, daily activities, emotional and relationship scales, bullying and victimization, vitality and energy, student engagement, stress, positive affect, self-efficacy and life satisfaction. Academic performance is reported by grades. Statistical methods include a psychometric evaluation of study measures, Pearson correlations, Student's t-tests, ANOVA/ANCOVA and multivariate linear regression including multilevel modeling analyses to account for the hierarchical organization of the data. This study is investigating a before school physical activity program on parameters of physical health, mental health, cognitive capacity, and academic performance by employing a novel triad approach, correlating the input of the child, parent, and teacher. Outcomes will evaluate the effectiveness of a before school physical activity program in elementary and middle schools and potentially provide valuable information for schools looking to institute innovative physical activity programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Earth Science Textbook Contents on High School Students' Knowledge of, Attitude toward, and Behavior of Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Yen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Shr-Jya

    2017-01-01

    As science textbooks are considered as one of the major source of climate change information of students, this study aims to examine the differences in energy saving and carbon reduction knowledge, attitude, and behavior between two groups of Taiwan's high school students using earth science textbooks of two different publishers. Some items of…

  9. The Effect of Hands-on '"Energy-Saving House" Learning Activities on Elementary School Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Regarding Energy Saving and Carbon-Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Guu, Yunn-Horng; Chang, Liang-Te; Lai, Chih-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and carbon-emissions reduction (ESCER) are widely regarded as important issues for progress towards ensuring sustainable forms of economic development. This Taiwanese study focuses on the effects of a series of educational activities about ESCER on students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Sixty fifth-grade students from two…

  10. The interconnectedness between landowner knowledge, value, belief, attitude, and willingness to act: policy implications for carbon sequestration on private rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao

    2014-02-15

    Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and

  11. Closing the Knowledge Gap: Effects of Land Use Conversion on Belowground Carbon near the 100th Meridian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, S. E.; Phillips, R. L.; Dell, R.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Native prairie of the northern Great Plains near the 100th meridian is currently under land use conversion pressure due to high commodity prices. From 2002 to 2007, approximately 303,515 hectares of prairie were converted to crop production in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) from Montana to the Dakotas. The spatiotemporal effects of land-use conversion on soil organic matter are still unclear for the PPR. Effects will vary with management, soil properties and time, making regional experiments and simulation modeling necessary. Grassland conservationists are interested in soil carbon data and soil carbon simulation models to inform potential voluntary carbon credit programs. These programs require quantification of changes in soil carbon associated with land-use conversion and management. We addressed this issue by 1) designing a regional-scale experiment, 2) collecting and analyzing soil data, and 3) interviewing producers about land management practices, as required for regional, process-based biogeochemical models. We selected farms at random within a 29,000 km2 area of interest and measured soil properties at multiple depths for native prairie and adjacent annual crop fields. The cores were processed at six different depths (between 0 and 100 cm) for bulk density, pH, texture, total carbon, inorganic carbon, and total nitrogen. We found that the largest difference in soil organic carbon occurred at the 0-10 cm depth, but the magnitude of the effect of land use varied with soil properties and land management. Results from this project, coupled with regional model simulations (Denitrification-Decomposition, DNDC) represent the baseline data needed for future voluntary carbon credit programs and long-term carbon monitoring networks. Enrollment in such programs could help ranchers and farmers realize a new income stream from maintaining their native prairie and the carbon stored beneath it.

  12. Body of Knowledge for Silicon Carbide Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kristen; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Wide band gap semiconductors, such as silicon carbide (SiC), have emerged as very promising materials for future electronic components due to the tremendous advantages they offer in terms of power capability, extreme temperature tolerance, and high frequency operation. This report documents some issues pertaining to SiC technology and its application in the area of power electronics, in particular those geared for space missions. It also serves as a body of knowledge (BOK) in reference to the development and status of this technology obtained via literature and industry survey as well as providing a listing of the major manufacturers and their capabilities. Finally, issues relevant to the reliability of SiC-based electronic parts are addressed and limitations affecting the full utilization of this technology are identified.

  13. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude, Frequency and Level of Consumption Regarding Non-alcoholic Carbonated Soft Drinks among Students from Two High Schools in Hanoi, Vietnam in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Ha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article aims to describe the knowledge, attitude, frequency and level of consumption regarding non-alcoholic carbonated soft drinks (NCSD among students from two high schools in Hanoi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey including a semi-quantitative food frequency were conducted with 620 students from two high schools, one in the urban area and the other in the rural area of Hanoi city. Results: Data on knowledge of health risk associated with the consumption of NCSD showed neagtive results (only 11.9% of the students were able to identify all the contents of NCSD correctly, and 2.7% knew all eight health risks due to consumption of NCSD. Besides, 31.4% of all students did not have the intention to quit NCSD despite being aware of health risks associated with the consumption of NCSD. Students who reported consuming NCSD within one month prior to the study constituted 83.1%, and those who consumed NCSD 1–2 times/week accounted for the highest proportion, being 21.3%. On average, each student consumed 2,094 ml NCSD within one month prior to the study. Suburban students and male students consumed more than urban and female ones, respectively (p < 0.01. Recommendations: Students should be equipped with information about NCSD related health risks and encouraged to consume less NCSD.

  15. Study of the Effects on Student Knowledge and Perceptions of Activities Related to Submetering the 6th Grade Wing of a Middle School, to Displaying the Carbon Footprint, and to Efforts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Rick

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects upon student knowledge and perceptions regarding greenhouse gas emissions as a result of an intervention relying upon the submetering the 6th grade wing of a Middle School, displaying the information regarding electrical consumption and carbon footprint, and reducing the electrical consumption…

  16. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  17. The Knowledge Attitude and Behaviorus of Nursery Students about Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aslan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed in order to determine the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of nursery students about breast cancer. The study was performed between September 2006-November 2006. 100 nursery students of college out of 102 (98,0% participation rate were included in this study. A questionnaire was used to gather the data. Source of information was newspaper-tv in 47%, medical boks in 32% and internet in 32%. The answer to the question what the most common syptom was in breast cancer was growth in the breast in 54,6%, pain in the breast in 24,1% and nipple retraction in 12,8%. Of the students %63 performed self breast examination (SBE. Of the students who perform SBE 29 (46% perform it as they remember, 26 (41,3% perform it once a month and 6 (9,5% perform it once a week. SBE was learnt from school in 41.3% (26, from a doctor in 22,2% (14, from a nurse/midwife in 20,6% and from medical boks in 9,5% (6. Their answer to the question about the reason not to perform SBE was not having enough information in 51,4%(19, inattention in 24,3%(9, fear of finding a growth in 8,1%(3, not having any complaints about their breasts in 8,1% (3 and thinking that it is not essential in 8,1% (3. Of the students 95% had never had clinical breast examinayion (CBE. The reason not to have CBE was inattention in 53,7% (51, not having enough information in 18,9% (18, and thinking that it is not essential in 8,4% (8. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 193-198

  18. The Knowledge Attitude and Behaviorus of Nursery Students about Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aslan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed in order to determine the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of nursery students about breast cancer. The study was performed between September 2006-November 2006. 100 nursery students of college out of 102 (98,0% participation rate were included in this study. A questionnaire was used to gather the data. Source of information was newspaper-tv in 47%, medical boks in 32% and internet in 32%. The answer to the question what the most common syptom was in breast cancer was growth in the breast in 54,6%, pain in the breast in 24,1% and nipple retraction in 12,8%. Of the students %63 performed self breast examination (SBE. Of the students who perform SBE 29 (46% perform it as they remember, 26 (41,3% perform it once a month and 6 (9,5% perform it once a week. SBE was learnt from school in 41.3% (26, from a doctor in 22,2% (14, from a nurse/midwife in 20,6% and from medical boks in 9,5% (6. Their answer to the question about the reason not to perform SBE was not having enough information in 51,4%(19, inattention in 24,3%(9, fear of finding a growth in 8,1%(3, not having any complaints about their breasts in 8,1% (3 and thinking that it is not essential in 8,1% (3. Of the students 95% had never had clinical breast examinayion (CBE. The reason not to have CBE was inattention in 53,7% (51, not having enough information in 18,9% (18, and thinking that it is not essential in 8,4% (8. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 193-198

  19. Review of carbon flux estimates and other greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm cultivation on Tropical peatlands - Identifying the gaps in Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.C.; Meer, van der P.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an independent review that clarifies current confusion on carbon dioxide emissions resulting from oil palm cultivation on tropical peatlands in Malaysia, that was brought about by two recent publications. It describes the processes of carbon flow in forests, degraded forests and

  20. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...

  1. Using a Regional Cluster of AmeriFlux Sites in Central California to Advance Our Knowledge on Decadal-Scale Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldocchi, Dennis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Continuous eddy convariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat were measured continuously between an oak savanna and an annual grassland in California over a 4 year period. These systems serve as representative sites for biomes in Mediterranean climates and experience much seasonal and inter-annual variability in temperature and precipitation. These sites hence serve as natural laboratories for how whole ecosystem will respond to warmer and drier conditions. The savanna proved to be a moderate sink of carbon, taking up about 150 gC m-2y-1 compared to the annual grassland, which tended to be carbon neutral and often a source during drier years. But this carbon sink by the savanna came at a cost. This ecosystem used about 100 mm more water per year than the grassland. And because the savanna was darker and rougher its air temperature was about 0.5 C warmer. In addition to our flux measurements, we collected vast amounts of ancillary data to interpret the site and fluxes, making this site a key site for model validation and parameterization. Datasets consist of terrestrial and airborne lidar for determining canopy structure, ground penetrating radar data on root distribution, phenology cameras monitoring leaf area index and its seasonality, predawn water potential, soil moisture, stem diameter and physiological capacity of photosynthesis.

  2. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  3. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  4. Managing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Niall

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...

  5. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  6. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  7. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  8. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  9. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  10. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  11. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  12. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  13. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  14. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  15. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  16. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  17. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    ; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case......Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world...

  18. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  19. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  20. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  1. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  2. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning: Medical students' knowledge towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and poisonous gas produced by incomplete combustion of organic materials. It is particularly dangerous as it cannot be detected by man's natural sense organs. There is hardly a month without one or two newspaper reports of death ...

  4. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    -organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...

  5. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  6. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  7. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...... for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework....

  8. Energy knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [Lancaster Univ., Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    James Thurber`s grandmother `lived the latter years of her life in the horrible suspicion that electricity was dripping invisibly all over the house`. The idea that electricity might leak from empty light sockets is both bizarre and at the same time strangely plausible. Delivered in a variety of forms, gas, electricity, oil, coal, wood etc.; energy permits countless services and is embodied in almost everything we find around us. Both everywhere, and nowhere, it remains a mysterious if not magical feature of everyday life. So the image of leaking light sockets is appealing not just because it is a quaintly ridiculous idea conjured up by a confused old lady but because it precisely articulates lingering uncertainty about the intangible qualities of this most pervasive resource. Taking the invisibility of energy as a point of departure, this paper explores the different kind of knowledge we have of energy use. Although the technologies of domestic energy measurement are familiar enough, we know what a meter looks like and we all get energy bills, it still requires an act of faith to believe in the `reality` of energy consumption. Those who have learned the official languages of energy efficiency have access to richer vocabularies of revealing terminology and can talk more confidently in terms of kilowatts, U values and the rest. But how do these different knowledge relate, and how do different ways of knowing energy influence perceptions of the possibilities and problems of energy conservation? In exploring these issues, the paper re-examines theories of energy and knowledge implicit in energy policy and energy related research. (au) 22 refs.

  9. Radiolytic carbon gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shennan, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    A vast body of knowledge has been accumulated over the past thirty years related to the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator in carbon dioxide cooled Reactors. In the last ten years the dominance of the internal pore structure of the graphite in controlling the rate of carbon gasification has been steadily revealed. The object of this paper is to sift the large body of evidence and show how internal gas composition and hence carbon gasification is controlled by the virgin pore structure and the changes in pore structure brought about by progressive radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  10. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  11. Fallible Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério P. de Andrade

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a natureza do conhecimento em um ambiente sócio-econômico caracterizado por incerteza genuína. O ponto de partida é considerar que ambientes incertos tornam o conhecimento falível e contingente. O conhecimento é falível tanto em virtude de interações no espaço que acontecem ao mesmo tempo (complexidade, como devido à passagem do tempo. O artigo enfatiza dois tipos de conhecimento: “knowledge how” e “knowledge that”. O primeiro consiste em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do modo como fazemos algo e o segundo em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do porque fazemos algo. Uma forma que os agentes encontram para lidar com a condição de conhecimento falível é recorrer a convenções (Keynes e regras (Hayek. Convenções e regras são uma espécie de reservatório de uma forma de conhecimento social e intersubjetiva que os agentes podem adquirir, armazenar e comunicar uns com os outros. Elas fornecem em parte a informação necessária para o desempenho de suas atividades cotidianas.

  12. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  13. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  14. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  15. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  16. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  17. Carbon 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Carbon 14 is one of the most abundant radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in the environment. The aim of this conference day organized by the French society of radioprotection (SFRP) was to take stock of our knowledge about this radionuclide (origins, production, measurement, management, effects on health..): state-of-the-art of 14 C metrology; dating use of 14 C; 14 C management and monitoring of the Hague site environment; Electricite de France (EdF) and 14 C; radiological and sanitary impact of 14 C contamination at the Ganagobie site (Haute-Provence, France); metabolism and biological effects of 14 C; 14 C behaviour in the marine environment near Cogema-La Hague plant; distribution of 14 C activities in waters, mud and sediments of the Loire river estuary; dynamical modeling of transfers in the aquatic and terrestrial environment of 14 C released by nuclear power plants in normal operation: human dose calculation using the Calvados model and application to the Loire river; 14 C distribution in continents; modeling of 14 C transfers in the terrestrial environment from atmospheric sources. (J.S.)

  18. Polarization measurements of the Bok globule B361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I P; Vedi, K [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK); Griffiths, W K [Leeds Univ. (UK); Bhatt, H C; Kulkarni, P V; Ashok, N M [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India); Wallis, R E [Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the first measurements of the polarization of light from background stars passing through B361 are described. Nearly all the stars show that the direction of the polarized light is approximately north-south. If the polarization is caused by aligned grains within the globule then a magnetic field of the order of 50-100 ..mu..G is required. Both polarimetry and photometry confirm that two of the stars studied are very distant background stars while three of these stars were found to be foreground stars. The analysis indicates that the globule is not further away than 650 pc, but can only establish an approximate upper limit.

  19. Allemaal op de bok : Naar de implementatie van nieuw waterveiligheidsbeleid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhans, B.; Correlje, A.F.; Van Ast, J.

    2010-01-01

    De Nederlandse burger heeft veel vertrouwen in de waterkeringen en maakt zich weinig zorgen. Maar hoe klein de kans ook is, een overstroming is nooit geheel uit te sluiten. Er is dan ook een groeiende aandacht voor het beperken van de gevolgen van een overstroming. Het nieuwe waterveiligheidsbeleid

  20. Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, E.; Bouillon, S.; Dittmar, T.; Marchand, C.

    2008-01-01

    Our current knowledge on production, composition, transport, pathways and transformations of organic carbon in tropical mangrove environments is reviewed and discussed. Organic carbon entering mangrove foodwebs is either produced autochthonously or imported by tides and/or rivers. Mangrove litter

  1. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  2. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  3. Knowledge management: organizing nursing care knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.

  4. Technical Knowledge Creation: Enabling Tacit Knowledge Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates knowledge creation in nascent technical industries, a somewhat neglected empirical setting concerning knowledge creation. Frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation assume that knowledge creation depends on language creation and neglect the benefits involved...... by allowing elements of new product and process ideas to mature in a tacit form, whereas cognitive neuroscience data suggests that technical knowledge creation is largely nonlinguistic. The four case studies point to excessive reliance on group discussion, a need for more trial and error and that field tests...... and prototypes generate new learnings that save time and lowers subsequent risks. Technical knowledge creation in nascent high tech industries requires opportunities to work with and further develop knowledge in its tacit form. The paper refines frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge creation...

  5. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  6. Carbon/carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, J.; Orly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites are singular materials from their components, their manufacturing process as well as their characteristics. This paper gives a global overview of these particularities and applications which make them now daily used composites. (authors)

  7. Board Level Proton Testing Book of Knowledge for NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This book of knowledge (BoK) provides a critical review of the benefits and difficulties associated with using proton irradiation as a means of exploring the radiation hardness of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) systems. This work was developed for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Board Level Testing for the COTS task. The fundamental findings of this BoK are the following. The board-level test method can reduce the worst case estimate for a board's single-event effect (SEE) sensitivity compared to the case of no test data, but only by a factor of ten. The estimated worst case rate of failure for untested boards is about 0.1 SEE/board-day. By employing the use of protons with energies near or above 200 MeV, this rate can be safely reduced to 0.01 SEE/board-day, with only those SEEs with deep charge collection mechanisms rising this high. For general SEEs, such as static random-access memory (SRAM) upsets, single-event transients (SETs), single-event gate ruptures (SEGRs), and similar cases where the relevant charge collection depth is less than 10 µm, the worst case rate for SEE is below 0.001 SEE/board-day. Note that these bounds assume that no SEEs are observed during testing. When SEEs are observed during testing, the board-level test method can establish a reliable event rate in some orbits, though all established rates will be at or above 0.001 SEE/board-day. The board-level test approach we explore has picked up support as a radiation hardness assurance technique over the last twenty years. The approach originally was used to provide a very limited verification of the suitability of low cost assemblies to be used in the very benign environment of the International Space Station (ISS), in limited reliability applications. Recently the method has been gaining popularity as a way to establish a minimum level of SEE performance of systems that require somewhat higher reliability performance than previous applications. This sort of application of

  8. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...

  9. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, focus has been on the utilisation of research-based knowledge and evidence in social work policy and practice in order to make it more effective. A part of this process has been the launch of knowledge portals to make use of knowledge from research. In this article, we investigate...... how knowledge portals about vulnerable children and youth present knowledge and evidence, and how they try to work as ?knowledge brokers? or intermediaries of evidence. We argue that knowledge portals are not merely channels for dissemination of knowledge. Knowledge portals could be considered as part...... of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however...

  10. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  11. Knowledge and environment in South African schooling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in education systems and national development plans. .... modern science and highlights the social origins of abstract thinking (Young, 2008). ... of discipline knowledge suggests that because 'the actual universe is deeply alien to our default .... the carbon cycle, solar energy and ozone (Summers, Kruger & Childs, 2001).

  12. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different....... The dataset of the dissertation consists of six conversations of six creative startups. In addition one case from a large Danish food production company was studied. All seven groups were taken through the same process. First they built three buildings in toy bricks of the brand LEGO Serious Play...... cognitive process rather than a number of individual processes. The dissertation is a compilation of four contributions in addition to an introductory part on theory and methodology and a concluding part. The four contributions are: 1. A book chapter for Handbook of Language and Metaphor to be published...

  13. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  14. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Ebola Virus Disease at the End of a National Epidemic - Guinea, August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed F; Robinson, Susan J; Corker, Jamaica; Li, Wenshu; Irwin, Kathleen; Barry, Alpha M; Ntuba, Paulyne Ngalame; Diallo, Alpha A; Jalloh, Mohammad B; Nyuma, James; Sellu, Musa; VanSteelandt, Amanda; Ramsden, Megan; Tracy, LaRee; Raghunathan, Pratima L; Redd, John T; Martel, Lise; Marston, Barbara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-10-20

    Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré). Nearly all participants (92%) were aware of Ebola prevention measures, but 27% believed that Ebola could be transmitted by ambient air, and 49% believed they could protect themselves from Ebola by avoiding mosquito bites. Of the participants, 95% reported taking actions to avoid getting Ebola, especially more frequent handwashing (93%). Nearly all participants (91%) indicated they would send relatives with suspected Ebola to Ebola treatment centers, and 89% said they would engage special Ebola burial teams to remove corpses with suspected Ebola from homes. Of the participants, 66% said they would prefer to observe an Ebola-affected corpse from a safe distance at burials rather than practice traditional funeral rites involving corpse contact. The findings were used to guide the ongoing epidemic response and recovery efforts, including health communication, social mobilization, and planning, to prevent and respond to future outbreaks or sporadic cases of Ebola.

  16. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  17. Carbon Nanotubes and Modern Nanoagriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2015-01-27

    Since their discovery, carbon nanotubes have been prominent members of the nanomaterial family. Owing to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes have been proven to be a useful tool in the field of plant science. They were frequently perceived to bring about valuable biotechnological and agricultural applications that still remain beyond experimental realization. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated the ability of carbon nanotubes to traverse different plant cell barriers. These studies, also, assessed the toxicity and environmental impacts of these nanomaterials. The knowledge provided by these studies is of practical and fundamental importance for diverse applications including intracellular labeling and imaging, genetic transformation, and for enhancing our knowledge of plant cell biology. Although different types of nanoparticles have been found to activate physiological processes in plants, carbon nanotubes received particular interest. Following addition to germination medium, carbon nanotubes enhanced root growth and elongation of some plants such as onion, cucumber and rye-grass. They, also, modulated the expression of some genes that are essential for cell division and plant development. In addition, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were evidenced to penetrate thick seed coats, stimulate germination, and to enhance growth of young tomato seedlings. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can penetrate deeply into the root system and further distribute into the leaves and the fruits. In recent studies, carbon nanotubes were reported to be chemically entrapped into the structure of plant tracheary elements. This should activate studies in the fields of plant defense and wood engineering. Although, all of these effects on plant physiology and plant developmental biology have not been fully understood, the valuable findings promises more research activity in the near future toward complete scientific understanding of

  18. How Knowledge Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how children's knowledge can be measured/described, knowledge patterns across diverse concepts, interaction of knowledge/learning, and ways children construct more advanced problem-solving rules to replace less adequate ones. Evidence, drawn from studies on children's acquisition of knowledge about balance beams, suggests that knowledge…

  19. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  20. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  1. Knowledge base mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H

    1982-01-01

    One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.

  2. Knowledge, indigenous knowledge, peace and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to understand the nature of knowledge, introduce the concept of indigenous knowledge, provide some idea of the status of Indigenous ... African professionals, scholars, researchers, policy makers and activists attempting to understand or promote IK run the risk of a cool reception, ridicule or even outright ...

  3. Tacit Knowledge: Revisiting the Epistemology of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…

  4. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  5. Carbon-On-Carbon Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Buchanan, Larry (Inventor); Banzon, Jr., Jose T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The presently disclosed technology relates to carbon-on-carbon (C/C) manufacturing techniques and the resulting C/C products. One aspect of the manufacturing techniques disclosed herein utilizes two distinct curing operations that occur at different times and/or using different temperatures. The resulting C/C products are substantially non-porous, even though the curing operation(s) substantially gasify a liquid carbon-entrained filler material that saturates a carbon fabric that makes up the C/C products.

  6. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and ...

  7. Carbon photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  8. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  9. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  10. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Ghitescu, Petre

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  12. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  13. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  14. Carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document identifies the main sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in the general outdoor atmosphere, describes methods of measuring and monitoring its concentration levels in the United Kingdom, and discusses the effects of carbon monoxide on human health. Following its review, the Panel has put forward a recommendation for an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom of 10 ppm, measured as a running 8-hour average. The document includes tables and graphs of emissions of CO, in total and by emission source, and on the increase in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin with continuing exposure to CO. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Ontologies, Knowledge Bases and Knowledge Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalupsky, Hans

    2002-01-01

    ...) an application called Strategy Development Assistant (SDA) that uses that ontology. The JFACC ontology served as a basis for knowledge sharing among several applications in the domain of air campaign planning...

  16. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  17. Collaborative Knowledge Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... collaboration of knowledge. The organizational structures and ... enables organizations to see the collective knowledge as a base element of ..... requirements for communication across different equipment and applications by ...

  18. Knowledge dissemination: Determining impact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molapo, D

    2007-07-17

    Full Text Available , efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability may be used respectively. Techniques of analyzing applied knowledge data abound. Two techniques of applied knowledge analysis which are used in the CSIR namely, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Cost...

  19. Evolution of knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Branislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of business and management is changing rapidly, and changes are expected to continue. Emerging concepts and paradigms are being introduced and applied to organizational life. Knowledge management (KM is not new but rather newly structured concept. Although the concept was not popularized until the last two decades of the 20th century, transmitting and managing knowledge stretch back into distant history. The aim of this paper is to analyse knowledge management evolutionary history and to investigate the use of knowledge management as management tool in organizations. This paper is focused on systematic review of literature on knowledge management. Emphasis is placed on correlation between knowledge management and information and communication technology and advent and use of new tools and techniques; change in the way knowledge has been conceptualized; social context of KM, big data and analytics, artificial intelligence. The importance of knowledge itself was not questioned, as it is recognized as highly valuable resource.

  20. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link......This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  1. Bacterium oxidizing carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, A

    1953-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the microbiological oxidation of carbon monoxide is based on doubtful observations and imperfect experimental procedures. By making use of shake cultures in contact with gas mixtures containing high concentrations of CO and by employing liquid enrichment media with a low content of organic matter and solid media of the same composition with not more than 1.2% agar, it proved possible to isolate a co-oxidizing bacterium of the genus hydrogenomonas from sewage sludge. For the first time irrefutable proof has been given of the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a pure culture of a bacterium, both in growing cultures and in resting cell suspensions. 12 references.

  2. Assessing the readiness of contractors in implementing low carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the implementation of low carbon construction in our construction industry, the contractors need to be ready and have knowledge to adopt low carbon construction ... A checklist was established by summarizing the highest low carbon activities from each category which were sustainable site planning and management, ...

  3. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  4. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  5. Accessing vs Sourcing Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2015-01-01

    to get on par with industry leaders. An in-depth comparison of knowledge flows reveals that within AMNEs, headquarters often serves the primary source of knowledge for R&D subsidiaries. In contrast, within EMNEs, headquarters accesses knowledge from R&D subsidiaries in advanced economies for innovation...

  6. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  7. KNOWLEDGE WORKERS’ MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TODERICIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the organizations that rely mostly on knowledgeable workforce. The findings of the research represent an important factor in developing future efficient human resources strategies and practices regarding workers that fuel the knowledge economy.

  8. Knowledge Transfers in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Chansoo; Vertinsky, Ilan; Minbaeva, Dana

    firms to their international joint ventures (IJVs) in South Korea. We developed a theoretical model that examines the impacts of the knowledge senders¡¯ disseminative capacities on knowledge transfer to IJVs. We tested our theory with data from 199 IJVs in South Korea. We found that the willingness...... of parent firms to share knowledge is manifested in an increased capacity to articulate and codify knowledge and create opportunities to transfer this knowledge. Mediated by the effective use of organizational communication channels, articulation and codification capabilities have a significant impact...

  9. Knowledge Management at CNAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callosada, C. de la

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge management at CNAT (Almaraz & Trillo NPPs) representsa significant part of our safety-oriented management system. The purpose is to generate for the stations useful knowledge, which should be then preserved and made easily accessible for everyone in the organization. The aim is to promote knowledge usage for ensuring safe plant operation and facilitating the required generational change-over. In fact, knowledge management is considered one of the main policies at CNAT, with everyone in the organization being expected to collaborate in it. Similarly, some general behavioral expectations at CNAT are directly or indirectly related to knowledge management (i.e. qualification, teamwork, learning and continuous improvement). (Author)

  10. Stop the Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    knowledge protection intensity. In addition, technological cluster regions in the host country can be expected to provide opportunities for knowledge sourcing and MNC subsidiaries may be willing to protect knowledge less intensively to participate in cluster networks. We test our hypotheses using a dataset...... of knowledge protection intensity of MNC subsidiaries. We argue that knowledge protection intensity is determined by MNC subsidiary mandates and by opportunities and risks originating from the host region. We hypothesize that not just competence-creating but also competence-exploiting mandates increase...

  11. Knowledge and luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John; Buckwalter, Wesley; Blouw, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all success is due to some mix of ability and luck. But some successes we attribute to the agent's ability, whereas others we attribute to luck. To better understand the criteria distinguishing credit from luck, we conducted a series of four studies on knowledge attributions. Knowledge is an achievement that involves reaching the truth. But many factors affecting the truth are beyond our control, and reaching the truth is often partly due to luck. Which sorts of luck are compatible with knowledge? We found that knowledge attributions are highly sensitive to lucky events that change the explanation for why a belief is true. By contrast, knowledge attributions are surprisingly insensitive to lucky events that threaten, but ultimately fail to change the explanation for why a belief is true. These results shed light on our concept of knowledge, help explain apparent inconsistencies in prior work on knowledge attributions, and constitute progress toward a general understanding of the relation between success and luck.

  12. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge mobilization is not only a new expression in a Danish context. It is also an interesting concept to introduce and discuss. For doesn’t knowledge mobilization have more – or, at least, as much – to do with politics as with education research or education in itself? Doesn’t modern knowledge...... mobilization have to do with a new political will to mobilize the population by creating a connection between education research and education? On the basis of this report on the Danish efforts with respect to ’knowledge mobilization’, these questions can be answered affirmatively; the extent of knowledge...... competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge...

  13. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...... with the role of knowledge in the context of economic organization prompts a reevaluation of a number of the fundamental assumptions that are often used to guide theory-building in the economics of organization (e.g., Bayesian and game theoretical foundations)....

  14. Reviewing the environmental and human health knowledge base of carbon nanotubes Revisão sobre a base de conhecimento de saúde ambiental e humana dos nanotubos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasgeir Helland

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are one of the most promising materials in nanotechnology. The various synthesis, purification and postprocessing methods produce CNTs with diverse physical characteristics, appliable in many fields. Their extensive projected use makes it important to understand their potential harmful effects. Besides showing a notable range of results of some toxicology studies, this review concluded that: a there are different types of CNTs; thus, they cannot be considered a uniform group of substances; and b in environmental compartments, CNTs can be bioavailable to organisms. Their properties suggest a possible accumulation along the food chain and high persistence. In organisms, CNT absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity depend on the inherent physical and chemical characteristics (e.g., functionalization, coating, length and agglomeration state, influenced by external environmental conditions during CNT production, use, and disposal. Thus, characterized exposure scenarios could be useful in toxicology studies. However, upon reaching the lungs in enough quantity, CNTs produce a toxic response (time and dose-dependent. The risks to human health and environment should be identified for a successful introduction of CNTs in future applications.Os nanotubos de carbono(CNTsão um dos materiais mais promissores da nanotecnologia. Os métodos de síntese, purificação e pós-processamento produzem CNT com diversas características físicas e uso em várias áreas. A projeção de uso abrangente do CNT urge a compreensão de seus possíveis efeitos nocivos. Essa revisão mostra um leque de resultados de estudos toxicológicos e concluiu que: a há diferentes tipos de CNT; portanto, não pode ser considerado um grupo uniforme de substâncias; e b em compartimentos ambientais,o CNT pode ser biodisponível aos organismos. Suas propriedades sugerem possível acúmulo na cadeia alimentar e alta persistência. Em organismos

  15. Methodology for estimating soil carbon for the forest carbon budget model of the United States, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. S. Heath; R. A. Birdsey; D. W. Williams

    2002-01-01

    The largest carbon (C) pool in United States forests is the soil C pool. We present methodology and soil C pool estimates used in the FORCARB model, which estimates and projects forest carbon budgets for the United States. The methodology balances knowledge, uncertainties, and ease of use. The estimates are calculated using the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  16. Carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  17. Knowledge Loss: Managing Local Knowledge in Rural Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Caleb; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge loss is not a remote phenomenon, unique to one knowledge system. Rather we argue that the loss of knowledge is an issue for other knowledge systems as well. Knowledge loss is certainly a concern for anthropologists working on indigenous knowledge, fearful of ‘losing’ indigenous knowledge entirely as a result of modernisation (cf. Cox, 2000). Equally, staff movements within the corporate world probably lead to a large amount of knowledge displacement, yet staff (and thus knowledge) r...

  18. Knowledge management in creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Is it possible to predetermine what kind of ideas that comes out of creativity by using knowledge management? Is it possible to decide beforehand what ideas we want to generate and the direction in which an idea takes in the further development? This paper deals with knowledge management in creat......Is it possible to predetermine what kind of ideas that comes out of creativity by using knowledge management? Is it possible to decide beforehand what ideas we want to generate and the direction in which an idea takes in the further development? This paper deals with knowledge management...... in creativity. The point of departure is taken in the connection between knowledge in a cognitive sense, and creativity focussing on ideas. The paper gives a perspective on how knowledge management can be part of creativity. It develops a concept of horizontal thinking and combines it with the fuzzy set theory...

  19. Knowledge Representation and Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Stephan

    Knowledge representation and reasoning aims at designing computer systems that reason about a machine-interpretable representation of the world. Knowledge-based systems have a computational model of some domain of interest in which symbols serve as surrogates for real world domain artefacts, such as physical objects, events, relationships, etc. [1]. The domain of interest can cover any part of the real world or any hypothetical system about which one desires to represent knowledge for com-putational purposes. A knowledge-based system maintains a knowledge base, which stores the symbols of the computational model in the form of statements about the domain, and it performs reasoning by manipulating these symbols. Applications can base their decisions on answers to domain-relevant questions posed to a knowledge base.

  20. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    young, single-site firms search for distant sources of complementary competences. The discussion is positioned within a comprehensive framework that allows a systematic investigation of the approaches available to firms engaged in globally extended learning. By utilizing the distinction between problem...... awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  1. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  2. Practical knowledge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Richard

    1991-01-01

    This book provides knowledge engineers with practical methods for initiating, designing, building, managing, and demonstrating successful commercial expert systems. It is a record of what actually works (and does not work) in the construction of expert systems, drawn from the author's decade of experience in building expert systems in all major areas of application for American, European, and Japanese organizations.The book features:* knowledge engineering programming techniques* useful skills for demonstrating expert systems * practical costing and metrics* guidelines for using knowledge repr

  3. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  4. Managing customer knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Phil. (Information Management) Customer relationship management has been exposed as a strategic failure, unveiling only customer dissatisfaction. A new method for managing customers is consequently required. The effect of the knowledge economy has brought about a change in global orientation, in the focus on customer wants and needs to increase satisfaction. There was then a shift in focus from information to knowledge. In such an economy, the customer knowledge management strategy, as ...

  5. EMOTIONAL KNOWLEDGE DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin BRÃTIANU

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the place and role of emotional knowledge in the structure of the organizational intellectual capital. Western culture put the emphasis on the rational, cognitive knowledge and ignored almost completely emotional knowledge from science and decision making. According to Descartes, Cogito ergo sum! That means the preeminence of mind over the body, and the acceptance of the dualism of mind and body. By contrast, the Eastern culture put the emphasis on the ...

  6. Knowledge and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge and Inference discusses an important problem for software systems: How do we treat knowledge and ideas on a computer and how do we use inference to solve problems on a computer? The book talks about the problems of knowledge and inference for the purpose of merging artificial intelligence and library science. The book begins by clarifying the concept of """"knowledge"""" from many points of view, followed by a chapter on the current state of library science and the place of artificial intelligence in library science. Subsequent chapters cover central topics in the artificial intellig

  7. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A. [South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society, South African Nuclear Energy Cooperation, National Nuclear Regulator, P O Box 7106, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  8. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  9. Representations of commonsense knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Representations of Commonsense Knowledge provides a rich language for expressing commonsense knowledge and inference techniques for carrying out commonsense knowledge. This book provides a survey of the research on commonsense knowledge.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basic ideas on artificial intelligence commonsense reasoning. This text then examines the structure of logic, which is roughly analogous to that of a programming language. Other chapters describe how rules of universal validity can be applied to facts known with absolute certainty to deduce ot

  10. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-01

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  11. Knowledge Management and Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennanye, D.M.; Thugwane, S.J.; Rasweswe, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management has become an important concept in the nuclear industry globally. This has been driven by the fact that new reactors are commissioned and some are decommissioned. Since most old experts are near retirement then there is a need to capture the nuclear knowledge and expertise and transfer it to the new generation. Knowledge transfer is one of the important building blocks of knowledge management. Processes and strategies need to be developed in order to transfer this knowledge. South African Young Nuclear Professionals Society (SAYNPS) has established a document to address strategies that can be used to close the knowledge gap between the young less experienced and experts in the field. This action will help the young generation to participate in knowledge management. The major challenges will be the willingness of the experts to share and making sure that all knowledge is captured, stored and kept up to date. The paper presents the SAYNPS point of view with regard to knowledge transfer. (authors)

  12. Knowledge management for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Forrestal, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Libraries are creating dynamic knowledge bases to capture both tacit and explicit knowledge and subject expertise for use within and beyond their organizations. In this book, readers will learn to move policies and procedures manuals online using a wiki, get the most out of Microsoft SharePoint with custom portals and Web Parts, and build an FAQ knowledge base from reference management applications such as LibAnswers. Knowledge Management for Libraries guides readers through the process of planning, developing, and launching th

  13. The NASA Carbon Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emission inventories, forest carbon sequestration programs (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+), cap-and-trade systems, self-reporting programs, and their associated monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) frameworks depend upon data that are accurate, systematic, practical, and transparent. A sustained, observationally-driven carbon monitoring system using remote sensing data has the potential to significantly improve the relevant carbon cycle information base for the U.S. and world. Initiated in 2010, NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) project is prototyping and conducting pilot studies to evaluate technological approaches and methodologies to meet carbon monitoring and reporting requirements for multiple users and over multiple scales of interest. NASA's approach emphasizes exploitation of the satellite remote sensing resources, computational capabilities, scientific knowledge, airborne science capabilities, and end-to-end system expertise that are major strengths of the NASA Earth Science program. Through user engagement activities, the NASA CMS project is taking specific actions to be responsive to the needs of stakeholders working to improve carbon MRV frameworks. The first phase of NASA CMS projects focused on developing products for U.S. biomass/carbon stocks and global carbon fluxes, and on scoping studies to identify stakeholders and explore other potential carbon products. The second phase built upon these initial efforts, with a large expansion in prototyping activities across a diversity of systems, scales, and regions, including research focused on prototype MRV systems and utilization of COTS technologies. Priorities for the future include: 1) utilizing future satellite sensors, 2) prototyping with commercial off-the-shelf technology, 3) expanding the range of prototyping activities, 4) rigorous evaluation, uncertainty quantification, and error characterization, 5) stakeholder

  14. Carbon dioxide and future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J M

    1977-03-01

    The addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to burning fossil fuel is discussed. The release rate of carbon dioxide has been growing since at least 1950 at an average rate of 4.3% per year. If all known fossil fuel reserves in the world are consumed, a total of between 5 and 14 times the present amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be released. The oceans would then be unlikely to withdraw the proportion of perhaps 40% which they are believed to have withdrawn up to the present. The increase in the atmosphere would be in excess of 3 times or conceivably ten times the present amount. If the reserves are used up within a few hundred years, more than half the excess carbon dioxide would remain in the atmosphere after a thousand years. The ''greenhouse'' effect of carbon dioxide is explained. The simulation with numerical models of the effects of carbon dioxide on atmospheric radiation fluxes is discussed. An estimated increase in the average annual temperature of the earth of 2.4 to 2.9C is given for doubling the carbon dioxide content; also a 7% increase in global average precipitation. The effect of increasing carbon dioxide on global mean temperature is viewed in the perspective of the glacial-interglacial cycles. The warming effect of carbon dioxide may induce a ''super-interglacial'' on the present interglacial which is expected to decline toward a new ice age in the next several thousand years. Finally it is proposed that it may be necessary to phase out the use of fossil fuels before all the knowledge is acquired which would necessitate such an action.

  15. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: Implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.C. Donato; J.B. Kauffman; R.A. Mackenzie; A. Ainsworth; A.Z. Pfleeger

    2012-01-01

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced...

  16. Representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R; Strijker, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    The representation and integration of sociological knowledge using knowledge graphs, a specific kind of semantic network, is discussed. Knowledge it systematically searched this reveals. inconsistencies, reducing superfluous research and knowledge, and showing gaps in a theory. This representation

  17. Bilan CarboneR - Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Aurelie

    2015-01-01

    Bilan Carbone TM , a method for calculating greenhouse gas emissions, was developed to help companies and territorial authorities estimate emissions from their activities or on their territories. After validating the audit perimeter and determining the emission categories to be taken into account, activity data is collected and greenhouse gas emissions are calculated using the tool. Besides accounting greenhouse gas emissions at any given time, the inventory evaluates impact on climate and energy dependence. This helps organizations deal with their emissions by classifying them, implementing action plans to reduce emissions and starting a dynamic process taking into account carbon in their strategic decisions

  18. Knowledge is power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, J.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management appears to be difficult to realise in the institute. Although their is a possibility to learn from other people's experiences, and the general access to the internet to learn about others skills, the knowledge system is hard to organize

  19. Knowledge Communities in fives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern knowledge intensive organisations rely on knowledge sharing communities, often called ‘communities of practice. These communities can be found in many organisations, but their forms and functions appear to be quite diverse. This implies that questions concerning the functioning of

  20. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  1. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering differe...

  2. The knowledge reengineering bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge engineering upholds a longstanding tradition that emphasises methodological issues associated with the acquisition and representation of knowledge in some (formal) language. This focus on methodology implies an ex ante approach: "think before you act". The rapid increase of linked data

  3. The Knowledge Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Shorter learning cycles for workers are a strategic advantage for most companies. Companies that complement product cycles with knowledge often employ four strategies: (1) early involvement in training, (2) conducive organizational structure, (3) innovative knowledge delivery, and (4) breadth of content. (JOW)

  4. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  5. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  6. Essays on Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    For many firms, particularly those operating in high technology and competitive markets, knowledge is cited as the most important strategic asset to the firm, which significantly drives its survival and success (Grant 1996, Webber 1993). Knowledge management (KM) impacts the firm's ability to develop process features that reduce manufacturing…

  7. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes kno...

  8. Is Knowledge Like Love?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saussois, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The label "knowledge management" is a source of ambiguity within the education community. In fact, the role played by knowledge within economics has an impact on the education sector, especially on the nature of the teacher's job. Compared to other sectors such as engineering and health, research and development investment is still weak.…

  9. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3).

  10. Building Sustainable Knowledge Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Considerations: • An integrated framework must fully respect and honour: • intellecual property rights and commercial interests; • national regulation, priorities and views. • Note: ''managing knowledge'' can be ''sharing'' or ''restricting''. • The framework should be: • available to stakeholders; • non-prescriptive; • flexible: sharing, restricting, generating, transmitting and preserving knowledge

  11. [Knowledge management (I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Cruz Martín Delgado, M

    2001-09-01

    Beyond to be in fashion, the knowledge management (KM) is by itself a powerful strategic weapon for managing organizations. In a first part, the authors analyze strategic concepts related to management, emphasizing the attachment between KM and competitive advantage. Finally, the authors tie the KM to learning process ("tacit knowledge", "socialization", "externalization", "combination", and "internationalization").

  12. Knowledge Development in Internship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...

  13. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    . The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...... for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...

  14. Vision, knowledge, and assertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John

    2016-04-01

    I report two experiments studying the relationship among explicit judgments about what people see, know, and should assert. When an object of interest was surrounded by visibly similar items, it diminished people's willingness to judge that an agent sees, knows, and should tell others that it is present. This supports the claim, made by many philosophers, that inhabiting a misleading environment intuitively decreases our willingness to attribute perception and knowledge. However, contrary to stronger claims made by some philosophers, inhabiting a misleading environment does not lead to the opposite pattern whereby people deny perception and knowledge. Causal modeling suggests a specific psychological model of how explicit judgments about perception, knowledge, and assertability are made: knowledge attributions cause perception attributions, which in turn cause assertability attributions. These findings advance understanding of how these three important judgments are made, provide new evidence that knowledge is the norm of assertion, and highlight some important subtleties in folk epistemology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  16. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2016-01-01

    today is that knowledge about health and health care is generated from a multitude of sources and circulated rapidly across professional and Karin Knorr Cetina (2006, 2007) stresses that to understand knowledge management practices we need to magnify the space of knowledge in action and consider......This work-in-progress focuses on the management of knowledge management and its socio-material implications. More specifically, it focuses on the management of epistemic objects and objectives in professional health care organisations. One of the main characteristics of professional health care...... the presentation and circulation of epistemic objects in extended contexts. In other words, we need to consider that the routes from research to practice – and the relation between knowledge and management – is not straightforward. First epistemic objects and objectives may lead to contrasting results...

  17. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    ) and colleagues, who stresses that to understand knowledge management practices we need to magnify the space of knowledge in action and consider the presentation and circulation of epistemic objects in extended contexts. In other words, we need to consider that the routes from research to practice......The work-in-progress that I would like to present and discuss in the workshop focuses on the management of knowledge management and its socio-material implications. More specifically, my work focuses on how epistemic objects and objectives are managed in professional health care organisations. One...... of the characteristics of professional health care today is that knowledge is generated from a multitude of sources and circulated rapidly across organizational boundaries. This derives not only from a growth in knowledge production within many organizations, but also from the emergence of agencies that specialize...

  18. Managing Distributed Knowledge Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Gelbuda, Modestas

    2005-01-01

    . This paper contributes to the research on organizations as distributed knowledge systems by addressing two weaknesses of the social practice literature. Firstly, it downplays the importance of formal structure and organizational design and intervention efforts by key organizational members. Secondly, it does......The article argues that the growth of de novo knowledge-based organization depends on managing and coordinating increasingly growing and, therefore, distributed knowledge. Moreover, the growth in knowledge is often accompanied by an increasing organizational complexity, which is a result...... of integrating new people, building new units and adding activities to the existing organization. It is argued that knowledge is not a stable capacity that belongs to any actor alone, but that it is rather an ongoing social accomplishment, which is created and recreated as actors engage in mutual activities...

  19. Highways of Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Katja Strøm; Højmark, Jeppe; Nielsen, Christian

    The objective of this paper is to discuss mechanisms, enablers and barriers for knowledge transfer in university - industry collaboration projects. The underlying question is how to acquire the right kind of knowledge to stay innovative and competitive in today’s fast changing society. The study......, such as student-industry cooperation or collaboration projects between researchers and businesses. This research shows that to secure real value adding through knowledge transfer in university - in-dustry collaboration projects, it is important that the involved parties view each other as equal part......-ners. Allowing for curiosity, mutual sharing and experimentation might lead to unforeseeable, valu-able knowledge creation in contrast to secrecy and holding back information. Another key finding in this paper is that the level of reciprocal knowledge transfer is perceived as lower in student - business...

  20. Technical knowledge creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to amend shortcomings of existing theory concerning organizational learning and knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews and refines existing theory. Findings - Findings from cognitive neuroscience suggest that technical knowledge...... domains essential for product development are largely nonlinguistic. Operations management/strategy tools enable the use of tacit knowledge in its tacit form and discourage premature standardization. Similarly, language use introduces standardization, which if introduced prematurely, causes incrementalism...... in line with findings from product development research. However, frameworks on organizational learning and knowledge management focus on language development and neglect use of tacit knowledge and the benefits involved with allowing elements of new product ideas to mature in a tacit form. Originality...

  1. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  2. Knowledge management in international networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, de A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Networks and knowledge are intimately connected. Networks are believed to be innovative because of the smooth transfer, combination and creation of knowledge that can take place in them. Interestingly however, knowledge management research has hardly studied knowledge management techniques in

  3. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  4. Carbonizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-22

    In the downward distillation of coal, shale, lignite, or the like, the heat is generated by the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel above the charge the zone of carbonization thus initiated travelling downwards through the charge. The combustible gases employed are preferably those resulting from the process but gases such as natural gas may be employed. The charge is in a moistened and pervious state the lower parts being maintained at a temperature not above 212/sup 0/F until influenced by contact with the carbonization zone and steam may be admitted to increase the yield of ammonia. The combustible gases may be supplied with insufficient air so as to impart to them a reducing effect.

  5. Priority knowledge needs. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the knowledge needs identified during the work on the scientific basis for the management plan. The overview includes knowledge needs identified in: the impact assessments for various sectors; the reports on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas; proposed indicators for a monitoring system; cumulative environmental effects; conflicting interests and the need for coordination; and the report on analysis of population and, economic activity and ecosystem services. In addition, the working group has identified several additional knowledge needs. The present report summarises the 2010 status report and describes new developments since its publication.(Author)

  6. Knowledge management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, T. [CANDU Owners' Group, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    To capture and retain the CANDU experience from a wider CANDU base and transfer knowledge and experience to our members, supplier participants and universities in a cost effective manner. Major focus area of the program is knowledge management joint projects, generic training delivery, inter-utilities mentoring and technical support, public education programs. The path forward is execution of transition of OPG NPDS Program as an ongoing program in COG with member funding, pursue opportunities to provide member utilities with additional leadership and train-the-trainer training and grow the knowledge management activities by 20% per year based on 2013/2014 results.

  7. Knowledge management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, T.

    2013-01-01

    To capture and retain the CANDU experience from a wider CANDU base and transfer knowledge and experience to our members, supplier participants and universities in a cost effective manner. Major focus area of the program is knowledge management joint projects, generic training delivery, inter-utilities mentoring and technical support, public education programs. The path forward is execution of transition of OPG NPDS Program as an ongoing program in COG with member funding, pursue opportunities to provide member utilities with additional leadership and train-the-trainer training and grow the knowledge management activities by 20% per year based on 2013/2014 results.

  8. Interaction, activity and knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans; Ilgenayeva, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the knowledge-power-relation essential for transformational and governmental processes in knowledge-societies. The dialectics between the rationalization of power and the politicization of knowledge are visible in the techniques used in social engineering and political administration. Social...... research on trans-disciplinary methodologies and designs should be emphasized. Social implications – Identifying the common grounds of social transformation where socio-cultural activities are considered as co-cooperation, social relation and communication – as co-cognition. This implies that a...

  9. Priority knowledge needs. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the knowledge needs identified during the work on the scientific basis for the management plan. The overview includes knowledge needs identified in: the impact assessments for various sectors; the reports on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas; proposed indicators for a monitoring system; cumulative environmental effects; conflicting interests and the need for coordination; and the report on analysis of population and, economic activity and ecosystem services. In addition, the working group has identified several additional knowledge needs. The present report summarises the 2010 status report and describes new developments since its publication.(Author)

  10. Beyond unidirectional knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Neergaard, Helle; Bjerregaard, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Using theory on technology transfer and on trust and an indepth study of nine university departments and nineteen science-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the authors explore the nature and direction of knowledge flows during university-industry R&D collaboration. More specifically......, they examine the nature and direction of R&D technological knowledge transfer in collaborations between universities and science-based SMEs and the primary mechanisms regulating such collaborations. The findings suggest that these collaborations are highly recursive processes of technological knowledge...

  11. Advances in Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Phillips-Wren, Gloria; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter briefly overviews the evolution of KM from a historical perspective and discusses core concepts associated with the management of knowledge, projects and networks. We introduce theoretical perspectives that are used in the KM literature, discuss the concept of a networked-centric col......This chapter briefly overviews the evolution of KM from a historical perspective and discusses core concepts associated with the management of knowledge, projects and networks. We introduce theoretical perspectives that are used in the KM literature, discuss the concept of a networked......-centric collaborative organization, and present future technologies in KM including the management of knowledge using social media and intelligent techniques....

  12. Knowledge Map of Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Jensen, Per Anker; Lindahl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    both the research community and FM-practitioners can develop new models for identifying knowledge needs and gaps and to improve knowledge sharing and knowledge flow and thus the fulfilment of their mission and goals. Knowledge maps can also help in organizing research activities and analysing......Purpose This paper aims to draft a knowledge map of the fragmented and multidisciplinary research of and relevant to FM. Facilities management knowledge map is a tool for presenting what relevant data and knowledge, a.k.a. knowledge, resides in different disciplines. Knowledge mapping is a step...... in creating an inventory of knowledge (i.e. the knowledge base) and developing/improving the processes of knowledge sharing in research, education and practice. Theory Knowledge mapping is discussed in terms of knowledge management. The research is connected to knowledge mapping in the facilities management...

  13. Carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon-Fabry, S.; Achard, P.

    2003-06-01

    The carbon aerogel is a nano-porous material at open porosity, electrical conductor. The aerogels morphology is variable in function of the different synthesis parameters. This characteristic offers to the aerogels a better adaptability to many applications: electrodes (super condensers, fuel cells). The author presents the materials elaboration and their applications. It provides also the research programs: fundamental research, realization of super-condenser electrodes, fuel cells electrodes, gas storage materials and opaque materials for thermal insulation. (A.L.B.)

  14. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H; Frees, G; Peric, Z [Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Institute of Materials and Solid State Research, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1980-05-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  15. The foil equilibration method for carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.; Frees, G.; Peric, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Among the non-metallic impurities in sodium, carbon plays an important role since at high temperatures the structural materials exposed to sodium are subject to carburization and decarburization depending on the carbon activity of the sodium. Carburization of austenitic stainless steels leads to reduction in ductility and fatigue properties whereas decarburization results in a decrease in the high temperature creep strength. A knowledge of the carbon activities in sodium will help understanding of the carbon transfer phenomena in operating sodium systems of the fast reactors, and also carbon diffusion, microstructural stability and mechanical behaviour of materials under different service conditions. An understanding of the carbon behaviour in sodium becomes difficult in view of the complexities of the different species present as elemental carbon, carbide, acetylide, carbonate, and cyanide. Carbon estimation techniques for sodium presently in use are: chemical analytical methods, on-line carbon monitors, and oil equilibration method. Various chemical methods have been developed for the estimation of different species like acetylide, cyanide, carbonate, elemental carbon, and total carbon in sodium. All these methods are time consuming and subject to various errors. The on-line monitors developed for carbon in sodium are able to give continuous indication of carbon activities and have higher sensitivity than the chemical methods. A still more simple method for the determination of carbon activities is by the foil equilibration first published by Natesan et al. Because of its simplicity like the vanadium wire equilibration for oxygen it is being used widely for the estimation of carbon activities in sodium systems. Carbon concentrations in operating sodium systems estimated by this procedure by applying solubility relation to carbon activities have yielded very low values of carbon, lower than the sensitivity limits of the chemical estimation methods. Foil

  16. Knowledge Management Design Using Collaborative Knowledge Retrieval Function

    OpenAIRE

    Suryadi, Kadarsah; Sigit Pramudyo, Cahyono

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is a key word in the information age. Organizational knowledge provides businesses with a way to compete effectively and efficiently in the market. The performance of many organizations is determined more by their knowledge than their physical assets. Capturing and representing knowledge is critical in knowledge management. The spread of organizational knowledge has made a difficulty in sharing knowledge. This problem creates a longer learning cycle. This research proposes a web bas...

  17. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  18. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  19. Carbon cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  20. Knowledge Management: A Skeptic's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation discussing knowledge management is shown. The topics include: 1) What is Knowledge Management? 2) Why Manage Knowledge? The Presenting Problems; 3) What Gets Called Knowledge Management? 4) Attempts to Rethink Assumptions about Knowledgs; 5) What is Knowledge? 6) Knowledge Management and INstitutional Memory; 7) Knowledge Management and Culture; 8) To solve a social problem, it's easier to call for cultural rather than organizational change; 9) Will the Knowledge Management Effort Succeed? and 10) Backup: Metrics for Valuing Intellectural Capital i.e. Knowledge.

  1. Mathematical knowledge in teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This book examines issues of considerable significance in addressing global aspirations to raise standards of teaching and learning in mathematics by developing approaches to characterizing, assessing and developing mathematical knowledge for teaching.

  2. Physiotherapists' knowledge of pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the pain knowledge of sports and orthopaedic manipulative physiotherapists ... may enable more effective treatment and management of clinical ... A person may have severe pain, but appear calm and rational at the same time.

  3. The Knowledge Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Information on various courses, as well as personal data of employees and training records from The Knowledge Portal (TKP), a web-based training portal used for the...

  4. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups ...

  5. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  6. Knowledge Based Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we assess the underlying properties of a global knowledge hub to examine the extent to which the Norwegian health industry constitutes such a hub. We begin with a general discussion of the industry before we examine the underlying properties of global knowledge hubs: cluster attractiveness, educational attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics. We conclude by providin...

  7. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  8. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  9. Knowledge Pipeline: A Task Oriented Way to Implement Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    Concept of knowledge pipeline: There are many pipelines named by tasks or business processes in an organization. Knowledge contributors put knowledge to its corresponding pipelines. A maintenance team could keep the knowledge in pipelines clear and valid. Users could get knowledge just like opening a faucet in terms of their tasks or business processes

  10. Carbons and carbon supported catalysts in hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2009-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive summary of recent research in the field and covers all areas of carbons and carbon materials. The potential application of carbon supports, particularly those of carbon black (CB) and activated carbon (AC) in hydroprocessing catalysis are covered. Novel carbon materials such as carbon fibers and carbon nano tubes (CNT) are also covered, including the more recent developments in the use of fullerenes in hydroprocessing applications. Although the primary focus of this book is on carbons and carbon supported catalysts, it also identifies the difference in the effect of carbon supports compared with the oxidic supports, particularly that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference in catalyst activity and stability was estimated using both model compounds and real feeds under variable conditions. The conditions applied during the preparation of carbon supported catalysts are also comprehensively covered and include various methods of pretreatment of carbon supports to enhance catalyst performance. The model compounds results consistently show higher hydrodesulfurization and hydrodeoxygenation activities of carbon supported catalysts than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts. Also, the deactivation of the former catalysts by coke deposition was much less evident. Chapter 6.3.1.3 is on carbon-supported catalysts: coal-derived liquids.

  11. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over...... a period of 13 months, this paper provides an exploration of three cases of enacting classification. Drawing on ANT, we problematise the silencing of a range of possible modalities of consumption facts and point to the ontological ethics involved in such performances. In a context of global warming...

  12. Carbon Footprints

    OpenAIRE

    Rahel Aichele; Gabriel Felbermayr

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich der Beitrag eines Landes zum weltweiten Klimaschutz an der Veränderung seines CO2-Ausstoßes messen, wie es im Kyoto-Abkommen implizit unterstellt wird? Oder ist aufgrund der Bedeutung des internationalen Güterhandels der Carbon Footprint – der alle CO2-Emissionen erfasst, die durch die Absorption (d.h. Konsum und Investitionen) eines Landes entstehen – das bessere Maß? Die Autoren erstellen eine Datenbank mit den Footprints von 40 Ländern für den Zeitraum 1995–2007. Die deskriptive...

  13. Distributed Knowledge Management in Extranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Kühn; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge management exchange schemes based on symmetric incentives are rarely found in the literature. The distributed knowledge model relies upon a double loop knowledge conversion decision support system with symmetric incentives in an extranet. The model merges specific knowledge with knowledge...... chains and networks like replacement, maintenance and services industries....

  14. Implicit, explicit and speculative knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ditmarsch, H.; French, T.; Velázquez-Quesada, F.R.; Wáng, Y.N.

    We compare different epistemic notions in the presence of awareness of propositional variables: the logic of implicit knowledge (in which explicit knowledge is definable), the logic of explicit knowledge, and the logic of speculative knowledge. Speculative knowledge is a novel epistemic notion that

  15. A Structural Knowledge Representation Approach in Emergency Knowledge Reorganization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qingquan; Rong, Lili

    2007-01-01

    Facing complicate problems in emergency responses, decision makers should acquire sufficient background knowledge for efficient decision-making. Emergency knowledge acquired can be a kind of special product that is transferred among emergency decision makers and functional departments. The processing of knowledge product motivates the emergency knowledge decomposition and event-oriented knowledge integration, i.e. knowledge reorganization. Supported by the semantic power of category theory, t...

  16. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos CRISTEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to present the existent relation between knowledge society and knowledge based economy. We will identify the main pillars of knowledge society and present their importance for the development of knowledge societies. Further, we will present two perspectives over knowledge societies, respectively science and learning perspectives, that directly affects knowledge based economies. At the end, we will conclude by identifying some important questions that must be answered regarding this new social paradigm.

  17. Carbon dioxide and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  18. Creation of Auditing Knowledge:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liempd, Dennis van

      Even though auditing research could play a role in understanding the many challenges that are threatening the profession, and in providing possible solutions, it seems to have failed in adequately doing so. This is for a major part because of a lack of research into auditing's basic assumptions......, and a too one-sided view on the creation of auditing knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to call for more (diverse) research in this area. Earlier calls have been few and far between, and have not resulted in a lot of research. Within the last two decades though, the auditing universe has changed so...... much that high-quality auditing research never has been needed more. By reviewing available literature challenges to the auditing profession are explored, and the creation of knowledge in general and auditing knowledge in particular are discussed with respect to methodological approaches and operative...

  19. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  20. Knowledge based maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, A. [Hamburgische Electacitaets-Werke AG Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The establishment of maintenance strategies is of crucial significance for the reliability of a plant and the economic efficiency of maintenance measures. Knowledge about the condition of components and plants from the technical and business management point of view therefore becomes one of the fundamental questions and the key to efficient management and maintenance. A new way to determine the maintenance strategy can be called: Knowledge Based Maintenance. A simple method for determining strategies while taking the technical condition of the components of the production process into account to the greatest possible degree which can be shown. A software with an algorithm for Knowledge Based Maintenance leads the user during complex work to the determination of maintenance strategies for this complex plant components. (orig.)

  1. Urban Knowledge Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schmeidler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available COST Action C20 – Urban Knowledge Arena is research programme supported by European Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research. It is co-ordinated by COST Office and European Science Foundation. The main objective of this Action is to explore and develop a European Arena for cross boundary, integrated knowledge and Know-how on complex urban problems, which is termed Urban Knowledge Arena. The COST Domain Transport and Urban Development aims at fostering international research networking activities of scientist and experts dealing with transport systems and infrastructures, spatial planning, urban land use and development, urban design, architecture and design and civil engineering issues. The focus is on multi and interdisciplinary approaches and the aim is to cover both basic and applied research activities and their changeovers that are relevant to policy and decision making processes. A significant concern is devoted to activities exploring new research needs and developments.

  2. Intergenerational Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Institutions of higher education and universities have been at the forefront of intergenerational knowledge transfer. Their role has gone through evolution and several ideas of the university co-exist. Factors like the squeeze on public funding of higher education across nations, exhortation by governments to value work-based learning as a part of higher education and demand for graduates ready to start working immediately on joining a workplace, are making it necessary to further evolve the classical approach towards intergenerational knowledge transfer. The paper presents a framework that has been evolved in India to meet the requirements of intergenerational knowledge transfer. It essentially integrates a workplace and a university in a single entity similar to the practice in medical education. (author

  3. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-09-01

    Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking. Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies.

  4. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  5. Carbon dioxide effects research and assessment program: flux of organic carbon by rivers to the oceans. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 papers presented in this workshop report. The state of knowledge about the role of rivers in the transport, storage and oxidation of carbon is the subject of this report. (KRM)

  6. Knowledge based Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll, John

    This book is dedicated enterprising people with a technical or a scientific background who consider commercializing ideas and inventions within their field of expertise via a new business activity or a new company. It aims at distilling experiences from many successful and not so successful start......-up ventures from the Technical University of Denmark, 1988 – 2008 into practical, portable knowledge that can be used by future knowledge-based entrepreneurs to set up new companies efficiently or to stay away from it; to do what’s needed and avoid the pitfalls....

  7. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  8. Technology, Innovation and Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Dasi, Angels; Mudambi, Ram

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of ideas is at the core of the IB field and has been captured in concepts like technology, innovation and knowledge. While these concepts have evolved over the last decades, the point that the ideas and the international connectivity are central for IB remains genuine. This paper...... is an attempt to take stock of the evolution of the concepts technology, innovation and knowledge in IB literature along the past five decades with a particular focus on the role of the Columbia Journal of World Business (CJWB) and the Journal of World Business (JWB) in this evolution. Likewise, our objective...

  9. LIS Professionals as Knowledge Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of library and information science professionals as knowledge engineers. Highlights include knowledge acquisition, including personal experience, interviews, protocol analysis, observation, multidimensional sorting, printed sources, and machine learning; knowledge representation, including production rules and semantic nets;…

  10. development of ontological knowledge representation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. This paper presents the development of an ontological knowledge organization and .... intelligence in order to facilitate knowledge sharing and reuse of acquired knowledge (15). Soon, ..... Water Chemistry, AJCE, 1(2), 50-58. 25.

  11. Knowledge integration by thinking along

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.; Debackere, K.; Garud, R.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.

    2004-01-01

    Organizing depends on the integration of specialized knowledge that lies distributed across individuals. There are benefits from specialization, and, yet, the integration of knowledge across boundaries is critical for organizational vitality. How do organizations benefit from knowledge that lies in

  12. Nuclear Knowledge Management Programmes for Young Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, John

    2017-01-01

    The Future of Nuclear Energy: Today’s Challenges - •Climate change •Investment in renewables •Societal acceptance of nuclear energy •Nuclear R&D declining •Aging reactor fleets •Phase-outs •Pace of new builds •Future uncertainties. Future Opportunities - •Shift to smart energy grids •Carbon tax and “cap and trade” systems •Possible need for new nuclear energy solutions: –high temperature reactors –hybrids → steam reforming –smaller plants needed –minimized nuclear waste –inherently safe designs. Supporting TC’s “Strategic Capacity Building Approach” (SCBA) by Strengthening Sustainable National Nuclear Education Systems: Knowledge sharing & eLearning platforms (e.g. CLP4NET) and supporting tools → Regional Nuclear Education Networks; → National Nuclear Education Networks; → Stakeholder Networking for Human Resource and Knowledge Development

  13. Aquatic carbon cycling in the conterminous United States and implications for terrestrial carbon accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, David; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stets, Edward; McDonald, Cory P; Clow, David W; Striegl, Robert G

    2016-01-05

    Inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon. However, the transport of carbon through aquatic environments has not been quantitatively integrated in the context of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present the first integrated assessment, to our knowledge, of freshwater carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, where 106 (range: 71-149) teragrams of carbon per year (TgC⋅y(-1)) is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 21 (range: 9-65) TgC⋅y(-1) in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant flux at 69 (range: 36-110) TgC⋅y(-1) or 65% of the total aquatic carbon flux for the conterminous United States. Comparing our results with the output of a suite of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), we suggest that within the current modeling framework, calculations of net ecosystem production (NEP) defined as terrestrial only may be overestimated by as much as 27%. However, the internal production and mineralization of carbon in freshwaters remain to be quantified and would reduce the effect of including aquatic carbon fluxes within calculations of terrestrial NEP. Reconciliation of carbon mass-flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional research and modeling capacity.

  14. Aquatic carbon cycling in the conterminous United States and implications for terrestrial carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, David; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stets, Edward; McDonald, Cory P.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon. However, the transport of carbon through aquatic environments has not been quantitatively integrated in the context of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present the first integrated assessment, to our knowledge, of freshwater carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, where 106 (range: 71–149) teragrams of carbon per year (TgC⋅y−1) is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 21 (range: 9–65) TgC⋅y−1 in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant flux at 69 (range: 36–110) TgC⋅y−1 or 65% of the total aquatic carbon flux for the conterminous United States. Comparing our results with the output of a suite of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), we suggest that within the current modeling framework, calculations of net ecosystem production (NEP) defined as terrestrial only may be overestimated by as much as 27%. However, the internal production and mineralization of carbon in freshwaters remain to be quantified and would reduce the effect of including aquatic carbon fluxes within calculations of terrestrial NEP. Reconciliation of carbon mass–flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional research and modeling capacity. PMID:26699473

  15. National Knowledge Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitroda, Sam

    2007-04-01

    India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

  16. Knowledge and precaution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Oelofse, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Organic farming is under constant pressure to reinvent itself by adopting new technologies. This article examines the role of precaution in organic farmers' assessments of new technologies, and asks how their assessments draw on different types of knowledge. The article further explores how knowl...

  17. Recovering biodiversity knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, G.W.; Smolders, H.; Sours, S.; Pou, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cambodian¿s civil wars have seriously affected the country¿s agro-biodiversity and the farmers¿ traditional knowledge in this field. The PEDIGREA project aims at conserving on-farm agro-biodiversity conservation and in Cambodia it focuses on vegetable diversity. It tries to link the preservation of

  18. Knowledge and the University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Ronald; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    for the university and the university’s place in the world. However, that presupposition has taken a battering recently from many directions. With the incorporation of the university more fully into the world, knowledge is no longer seen as valuable in-itself but now is viewed only instrumentally, and has to have...

  19. Knowledge into Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup

    In the 1970s, most Western nations began to shift the emphasis of health care provision from treatment to prevention. While originally motivated by the rise of lifestyle diseases, the emergence of the new public health policy mainly involves a new way to understand and structure the relationship ...... in the production and circulation of health knowledge, which attempts to replace the usual 'ifs, buts and maybes' of medical science with an action-minded public health knowledge just telling people what to do.......In the 1970s, most Western nations began to shift the emphasis of health care provision from treatment to prevention. While originally motivated by the rise of lifestyle diseases, the emergence of the new public health policy mainly involves a new way to understand and structure the relationship...... between health knowledge and individual action. The book investigates what political rationality characterizes this new ambition in public health policies to put knowledge into action in the hands of individual citizens and how these policies adapt to the continuous experience that citizens often do...

  20. Redesigning a knowledge portal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mike de Kreek; Josephine Lappia; Eleonore ten Thij

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design process that took place while creating social software for Amsterdam University of Professional Education (AUPE) and the interactive knowledge platform, called ‘Theme-sites’. Themesites are used collaboratively by nine universities bound by a consortium, Digital

  1. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  2. Patterns of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge construction patterns in a local learning community. Observation, documents, and semistructured interviews were employed to collect data. Twenty learners were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively using the constant comparative method. Five major patterns--radiation, circulation,…

  3. Harvesting Cultural Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a year-long course called Outdoor Science taught at an American Indian reservation high school that demonstrates to students the connection between traditional tribal knowledge and western science to spark student interest in science. Presents a list that contains references on the subject of ethnobotany. Includes specific references for…

  4. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  6. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the " ...

  8. Nuclear Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanamitsu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge is a strategic asset in every business. It should be actively managed by creating, acquiring, sharing, transferring and retaining among workers. Leaders and managers have to understand the significance of knowledge management (KM), recognise the risks of knowledge loss and gaps, and its impact on their working environment. Nuclear industry appears to be behind other industries in KM. This is firstly attributed to the nature of business which deals with sensitive data on nuclear materials and prioritises safety and security over information sharing. Second, it faces strong competition over the operational life-cycle, which discourages to exchange know-how and experiences. Third, nuclear industry is highly technology-oriented with homogeneous form, which misleads people to believe that KM has been already in place. Those factors could be barriers to establish nuclear KM culture on the basis of corporate core value and safety culture. Practical example of KM in business includes codification of particular skills into knowledge repository such as manual, handbook and database, and implicit knowledge transfer from experts to successors through apprenticeship and mentoring programmes. The examples suggest that KM applications closely link to information technology (IT) and human resource development (HRD) strategies, which results in effective integration of all available resources: people, process, and technology. Globalization and diversity is another dimension where KM can contribute to the solution. Global companies have to achieve a common goal beyond cultural, racial and gender differences. KM helps reduce the gaps, identify the core competence, and increase flexibility in workplace. Working women have been developing their professional career while adapting to situational changes in their lives. It might be easier for them to understand the importance of KM and develop KM practices in the organizations. KM will help nuclear industry to respond to the

  9. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A striking feature of the knowledge management (KM literature is that the standard list of KM processes either subsumes or overlooks the process of knowledge seeking. Knowledge seeking is manifestly under-theorised, making the need to address this gap in KM theory and practice clear and urgent.Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking.Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies.Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing.Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies. 

  10. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  11. Knowledge Acquisition Using Linguistic-Based Knowledge Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Most knowledge-based system developmentefforts include acquiring knowledge from one or more sources. difficulties associated with this knowledge acquisition task are readily acknowledged by most researchers. While a variety of knowledge acquisition methods have been reported, little has been done to organize those different methods and to suggest how to apply them...

  12. Creating Illusions of Knowledge: Learning Errors that Contradict Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Barber, Sarah J.; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks…

  13. Standard model of knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  14. Knowledge Transfer in Collaborative Knowledge Management: A Semiotic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Jastroch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Codification and transfer of knowledge is essential in the practice of knowledge management. Theoretical knowledge, like scientific theories and models, by nature comes in coded representation for the explicit purpose of transfer. Practical knowledge, as involved frequently in engineering or business operations, however, is a priori uncoded, making transfer for further use or the generation of new knowledge difficult. A great deal of systems engineering effort in recent years has been focused on resolving issues related to this sort of knowledge transfer. Semantic technologies play a major role in here, along with the development of ontologies. This paper presents a semiotic perspective on transfer of knowledge within collaborations.

  15. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept

  17. Knowledge Resources - A Knowledge Management Approach for Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Thomas; Eder, Raimund; Heistracher, Thomas

    The paper at hand presents an innovative approach for the conception and implementation of knowledge management in Digital Ecosystems. Based on a reflection of Digital Ecosystem research of the past years, an architecture is outlined which utilizes Knowledge Resources as the central and simplest entities of knowledge transfer. After the discussion of the related conception, the result of a first prototypical implementation is described that helps the transformation of implicit knowledge to explicit knowledge for wide use.

  18. Typical calculation and analysis of carbon emissions in thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Zhi-jie; Zhao, Jian-gang; Zhang, Gang

    2018-03-01

    On December 19, 2017, the national development and reform commission issued the national carbon emissions trading market construction plan (power generation industry), which officially launched the construction process of the carbon emissions trading market. The plan promotes a phased advance in carbon market construction, taking the power industry with a large carbon footprint as a breakthrough, so it is extremely urgent for power generation plants to master their carbon emissions. Taking a coal power plant as an example, the paper introduces the calculation process of carbon emissions, and comes to the fuel activity level, fuel emissions factor and carbon emissions data of the power plant. Power plants can master their carbon emissions according to this paper, increase knowledge in the field of carbon reserves, and make the plant be familiar with calculation method based on the power industry carbon emissions data, which can help power plants positioning accurately in the upcoming carbon emissions trading market.

  19. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, E; Eswaran, H; Reich, P F

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO2, CH4, and N2O have an anthropic source and of these CO2 is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m(-2) m(-1)), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10-15 kg m(-2) m(-1)). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m(-2) m(-1). Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does knowledge have borders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Hanne

    International education is often promoted through discourses of openness, cross-cultural relationship-building and global understanding. But how inclusive is the kind of knowledge offered in the so-called “global” learning environments? The paper explores possible limits to knowledge production a...... and represented within their course and academic discipline. We will present in the paper the preliminary findings of our research, pointing to some of the visible and invisible borders that one finds within the field of global education....... system embedded in a specific national and institutional environment, and from this research follows that certain frames of reference, or contexts, are taken for granted by local staff and students. With internationalization, however, comes a change in the make-up of the student cohort, including...

  1. Knowledge and Architectural Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2017-01-01

    of the level of research methods and will explain that the research methods and processes in creative practice research are very similar to grounded theory which is an established research method in the social sciences. Finally, an argument will be made for a more explicit research attitude in architectural......This paper focuses on the specific knowledge residing in architectural practice. It is based on the research of 35 PhD fellows in the ADAPT-r (Architecture, Design and Art Practice Training-research) project. The ADAPT-r project innovates architectural research in combining expertise from academia...... and from practice in order to highlight and extract the specific kind of knowledge which resides and is developed in architectural practice (creative practice research). The paper will discuss three ongoing and completed PhD projects and focusses on the outcomes and their contribution to the field...

  2. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....

  3. Collaborative Knowledge Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the conditions for working with collaborative research in current academic settings. On the basis of reflections on goals, challenges and results of earlier projects, the author looks into how economic and political shifts and transformations in work have...... changed the conditions for shared knowledge production with the institutionalization of neo-liberal discourse of the knowledge economy as managerial regimes. She questions if context-specific enactments of the discourse of participation can be handled, when neoliberal managerial regimes guide research...... activities and other working practices and the identities of academics and other professionals who are inscribed as subjects in these regimes. The conclusion is, that we have to look for cracks in the wall and insist on collaborative research because it is it the process of “being in relation that forms...

  4. Enhancement and knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Talamo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many issues related to enhancement strategies emerge nowadays both from the scenario offered by public real estates and from the current processes of conveyance of public assets to local authorities. On one hand it is still difficult, from a strategic point of view, to approach in the medium-long term the chronic problems of the public estates due to deterioration, obsolescence and organizational inadequacy. On the other hand there is the risk that inadequate levels of knowledge lead on one side to a prevalence of the binomial enhancement-alienation and on the other side to a lack of full comprehension of the actual potentialities of the existing assets. In this direction it is possible to analyze the topic of enhancement through, among many, the key of knowledge during the lifecycle of a building.

  5. Test your troubleshooting knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, E

    2001-01-01

    While troubleshooting and repairing medical instrumentation may be all that BMETs would like to do, it's just too limited in scope to perform the job effectively. Flattened organizations can require greater responsibility for BMETs--and lead to greater ambiguity. Besides electronic troubleshooting skills, mechanical ability, and the knowledge of how medical equipment normally operates, additional skills are required of the BMET to effectively facilitate a repair--such as knowledge of pertinent codes and standards, job safety laws and guidelines, politeness, and empathy for the equipment user. You will notice that many of these relate to interpersonal relations. The ability to interact with fellow health care workers in a non-threatening manner and to have an appreciation for their perspectives are valuable customer service skills--potentially more valuable than being able to do component-level troubleshooting!

  6. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among la...... in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed.......The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...

  7. Public knowledge of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a study of the scientific literacy of the British public a quota sample of 1033 adults over the age of 15 was interviewed by Market and Opinion Research International (MORI) in 80 constituency sampling points in Britain. All interviews were conducted face to face between 21 June and 1 July 1986. The questions asked included a series of knowledge questions pitched at about the Grade 4 level of the English Certificate of Secondary Education examination, the level intended to represent the attainment of an average person. In addition to these general questions, there were two concerned with the knowledge that respondents had of radioactivity, as well as three concerned with their views about issues related to nuclear power generation. (author)

  8. Knowledge sharing in industrial research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the field of organization studies has increasingly focused on knowledge and knowledge processes in organizations. This thesis describes a study of one of those processes, knowledge sharing, in the context of industrial research. Though the attention for knowledge in

  9. Making sense of Knowledge Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2010-01-01

    In the knowledge economy knowledge productivity is the main source of competitive advantage and thus the biggest management challenge. Based on a review of the concept from two distinct perspectives, knowledge productivity is defined as the process of knowledge-creation that leads to incremental and

  10. Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Sajna; Verghis, Alie Molly

    2015-01-01

    In today's competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Constructivism holds that learners learn actively…

  11. Investigating the Knowledge Management Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Vasso; Savva, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) efforts aim at leveraging an organization into a knowledge organization thereby presenting knowledge employees with a very powerful tool; organized valuable knowledge accessible when and where needed in flexible, technologically-enhanced modes. The attainment of this aim, i.e., the transformation into a knowledge…

  12. Unveiling the Knowledge Sharing Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that organisation culture affects how knowledge processes such as knowledge-sharing evolve. Despite the growing attention to the aspects of culture, the knowledge management debate has not paid systematic attention to the assessment or measurement of a knowledge-sharing

  13. Threads of common knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  14. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  15. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  16. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  17. Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrys, Bogdan; Musial-Gabrys, Katarzyna; Roach, Jim; Innovation through Knowledge Transfer InnovationKT-2012

    2013-01-01

    Across the world there is growing awareness of the importance of innovation and knowledge transfer.  Innovation in the sense of generating new knowledge and making better use of existing knowledge, coupled with knowledge transfer and sharing paradigms, have never been more relevant to the universities, industry, commerce and the third sector.  This volume represents the proceedings of the Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012 Conference which formed an excellent opportunity to disseminate, share and discuss the impact of innovation, knowledge sharing, enterprise and entrepreneurship.  The volume contains papers presented at a Workshop on ‘The Meta Transfer of Knowledge: Challenges in the Transfer of Knowledge in Industry’, others from thematic sessions on ‘Next-Practice in University Based Open Innovation’,  ‘Social Innovation and Related Paradigms’, ‘Engagement with Industry and Commerce’ and ‘Knowledge Exchange’.  All papers were thoroughly reviewed by referees knowledgeable in...

  18. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find...... the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI...... that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when...

  19. Carbon Nanomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2017-03-01

    This chapter describes the formation and properties of one nanometer thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs), made by electron induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The cross-linked SAMs are robust enough to be released from the surface and placed on solid support or over holes as free-standing membranes. Annealing at 1000K transforms CNMs into graphene accompanied by a change of mechanical stiffness and electrical resistance. The developed fabrication approach is scalable and provides molecular level control over thickness and homogeneity of the produced CNMs. The mechanisms of electron-induced cross-linking process are discussed in details. A variety of polyaromatic thiols: oligophenyls as well as small and extended condensed polycyclic hydrocarbons have been successfully employed, demonstrating that the structural and functional properties of the resulting nanomembranes are strongly determined by the structure of molecular monolayers. The mechanical properties of CNMs (Young's modulus, tensile strength and prestress) are characterized by bulge testing. The interpretation of the bulge test data relates the Young's modulus to the properties of single molecules and to the structure of the pristine SAMs. The gas transport through the CNM is measured onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - thin film composite membrane. The established relationship of permeance and molecular size determines the molecular sieving mechanism of permeation through this ultrathin sheet.

  20. Afforestation effects on soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bárcena, Teresa G

    Understanding carbon (C) dynamics has become increasingly important due to the major role of C in global warming. Soils store the largest amount of organic C in the biosphere; therefore, changes in this compartment can have a large impact on the C storage of an ecosystem. Land-use change is a main...... driver of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools worldwide. In Europe, afforestation (i.e. the establishment of new forest on non-forested land), is a major land-use change driven by economic and environmental interests due to its role as a C sequestration tool following the ratification of the Kyoto...... Protocol. Despite research efforts on the quantification of SOC stock change and soil C fluxes following this land-use change, knowledge is still scarce in regions where afforestation currently is and has been widespread, like Denmark and the rest of Northern Europe. This PhD thesis explored three main...

  1. Reliability of Carbon Stock Estimates in Imperata Grassland (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), Using Georeferenced Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassir, I.; Putten, van B.; Buurman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of total carbon is important for understanding the impact of regional land use change on the global carbon cycle. We studied spatial total carbon variability using transect sampling in an Imperata grassland area. Spatial variability was modeled following an

  2. Assessing Students' Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Understanding of Global Carbon Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hye Sun; Marshall, Jill A.; Delgado, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Global carbon cycling describes the movement of carbon through atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere; it lies at the heart of climate change and sustainability. To understand the global carbon cycle, students will require "interdisciplinary knowledge." While standards documents in science education have long promoted…

  3. Creating illusions of knowledge: learning errors that contradict prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Barber, Sarah J; Rajaram, Suparna; Ornstein, Peter A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-02-01

    Most people know that the Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth and that Edison invented the light bulb. Our question is whether this knowledge is stable, or if people will incorporate errors into their knowledge bases, even if they have the correct knowledge stored in memory. To test this, we asked participants general-knowledge questions 2 weeks before they read stories that contained errors (e.g., "Franklin invented the light bulb"). On a later general-knowledge test, participants reproduced story errors despite previously answering the questions correctly. This misinformation effect was found even for questions that were answered correctly on the initial test with the highest level of confidence. Furthermore, prior knowledge offered no protection against errors entering the knowledge base; the misinformation effect was equivalent for previously known and unknown facts. Errors can enter the knowledge base even when learners have the knowledge necessary to catch the errors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Radiation damage in carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.; Eartherly, W.P.; Nelson, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Graphite and carbon-carbon composite materials are widely used in plasma facing applications in current Tokamak devices such as TFTR and DIIID in the USA, JET, Tore Supra and TEXTOR in Europe, and JT-60U in Japan. Carbon-carbon composites are attractive choices for Tokamak limiters and diverters because of their low atomic number, high thermal shock resistance, high melting point, and high thermal conductivity. Next generation machines such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will utilize carbon-carbon composites in their first wall and diverter. ITER will be an ignition machine and thus will produce substantial neutron fluences from the D-T fusion reaction. The resultant high energy neutrons will cause carbon atom displacements in the plasma facing materials which will markedly affect their structure and physical properties. The effect of neutron damage on graphite has been studied for over forty years. Recently the effects of neutron irradiation on the fusion relevant graphite GraphNOL N3M was reviewed. In contrast to graphite, relatively little work has been performed to elucidate the effects of neutron irradiation on carbon-carbon composites. The results of our previous irradiation experiments have been published elsewhere. Here the irradiation induced dimensional changes in 1D, 2D, and 3D carbon-carbon composites are reported for fluences up to 4.7 dpa at an irradiation temperature of 600 degree C

  5. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  6. Acid-base characteristics of powdered-activated-carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown (United States)); Jensen, J.N.; Matsumoto, M.R. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    Adsorption of heavy metals onto activated carbon has been described using the surface-complex-formation (SCF) model, a chemical equilibrium model. The SCF model requires a knowledge of the amphoteric nature of activated carbon prior to metal adsorption modeling. In the past, a single-diprotic-acid-site model had been employed to describe the amphoteric nature of activated-carbon surfaces. During this study, the amphoteric nature of two powdered activated carbons were investigated, and a three-monoprotic site surface model was found to be a plausible alternative. The single-diprotic-acid-site and two-monoprotic-site models did not describe the acid-base behavior of the two carbons studied adequately. The two-diprotic site was acceptable for only one of the study carbons. The acid-base behavior of activated carbon surfaces seem to be best modeled as a series of weak monoprotic acids.

  7. Assessing the risk of carbon dioxide emissions from blue carbon ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-05-15

    "Blue carbon" ecosystems, which include tidal marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows, have large stocks of organic carbon (C) in their soils. These carbon stocks are vulnerable to decomposition and - if degraded - can be released to the atmosphere in the form of CO. We present a framework to help assess the relative risk of CO emissions from degraded soils, thereby supporting inclusion of soil C into blue carbon projects and establishing a means to prioritize management for their carbon values. Assessing the risk of CO emissions after various kinds of disturbances can be accomplished through knowledge of both the size of the soil C stock at a site and the likelihood that the soil C will decompose to CO.

  8. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  9. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  10. Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita R; Bickford, Julia J; Edwards, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen J; Meyer, Mechthild

    2011-08-18

    All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation

  11. Sensitive method for dosing carboxylic functions of carbons and its application to the study of thermally processed carbon blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, Jacques

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a sensitive method for the dosing of carboxylic functions present at the surface of carbon blacks, and the use of this method to study the evolution of a carbon black during heat treatments. After a brief description of modes of fabrication of carbon blacks and of their structure, the author proposes an overview of knowledge on their oxidation and functional analysis. After having outlined that existing methods do not allow the measurement of function quantities less than ten micro-equivalent per gram of carbon, the author reports the development of a method which allows such measurements. By using this method, the author shows that carboxylic groups of a carbon black, oxidized by air or not, decompose during degassing by forming carbon dioxide, and that, reciprocally, the released carbon dioxide is exclusively produced by the decomposition of carboxylic groups [fr

  12. Mesoporous carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  13. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  14. The knowledge base of journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svith, Flemming

    In this paper I propose the knowledge base as a fruitful way to apprehend journalism. With the claim that the majority of practice is anchored in knowledge – understood as 9 categories of rationales, forms and levels – this knowledge base appears as a contextual look at journalists’ knowledge......, and place. As an analytical framework, the knowledge base is limited to understand the practice of newspaper journalists, but, conversely, the knowledge base encompasses more general beginnings through the inclusion of overall structural relationships in the media and journalism and general theories...... on practice and knowledge. As the result of an abductive reasoning is a theory proposal, there is a need for more deductive approaches to test the validity of this knowledge base claim. It is thus relevant to investigate which rationales are included in the knowledge base of journalism, as the dimension does...

  15. General engineering knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Mcgeorge, H D

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the general engineering knowledge required by candidates for the Department of Transport's Certificates of Competency in Marine Engineering, Class One and Class Two. The text is updated throughout in this third edition, and new chapters have been added on production of fresh water and on noise and vibration. Reference is also provided to up-to-date papers and official publications on specialized topics. These updates ensure that this little volume will continue to be a useful pre-examination and revision text. - Marine Engineers Review, January 1992

  16. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...... shows that these terms should not be considered synonyms because each of the terms IO, OI, IA and KO produce a different set of high ranked authors, journals and papers. In many cases the terms are, however, used interchangeably (and thus indicating synonymity) and it is argued that the underlying...

  17. Knowledge and Continuous Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Caffyn, S.; Corso, M.

    1999-01-01

    proposes a model to describe and explain how companies can gain a substantive competitive advantage by extending their innovation efforts to other phases of the product life cycle and by facilitating knowledge transfer and learning both within the company and with other partner organisations. The model......Competition today is forcing companies to increase their effectiveness through exploiting synergy and learning in product innovation. Literature, however, is still mainly focused on how product development projects, seen largely as isolated efforts, should be organised and managed. This article...

  18. The knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Greco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, global investments in R&D have increased by 7% on the previous year and have reached an absolute historical peak, exceeding for the first time the threshold of 1,100 billion dollars (calculated in the hypothesis of a purchasing power parity between the currencies. The world invests in scientific research and technological development 2.1% of the wealth it produces. At the same time, there has been an increase in the exchange of high added-knowledge value goods and high tech represents now the most dynamic sector of the world economy.

  19. Knowledge management based organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Gjorgji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accomplishment of the goals set by a business organization implies implementation of knowledge management. It allows coordination of the working processes with the information technologies, with a view to adapting the organization's operations to the problems encountered. Overcoming these problems involves designing and implementation of complex business systems supported by information technology. This can be achieved by management that will monitor the business processes through clear indicators, with the purpose of accomplishing the preset strategic goals. This managerial staff must be fully devoted and committed to their work, to learning and creation of expertise that will help overcome the competition challenges.

  20. Unsupervised Knowledge Structuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel N.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual framework for learning an ontological structure of domain knowledge, which combines Jaccard similarity coefficient with the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) by (Kemp et al. 2006) and its extended model, i.e. the normal-Infinite Relational Model (n-IRM) by (Herlau et...... al. 2012). The proposed approach is applied to a dataset where legal concepts related to the Japanese educational system are defined by the Japanese authorities according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Results indicate that the proposed approach effectively...

  1. The Integration of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of knowledge demands an interdisciplinary reflection on how to integrate the different branches of the natural sciences and the humanities into a coherent picture of world, life, and mind. Insightful intellectual tools, like evolutionary Biology and Neuroscience, can facilitate this project. It is the task of Philosophy to identify those fundamental concepts whose explanatory power can illuminate the thread that leads from the most elementary realities to the most complex spheres. This article aims to explore the importance of the ideas of conservation, selection, and unification for achieving the goal.

  2. Tinkering with Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina

    Think tanks, or policy institutes, are becoming significant ‘sites of normativity’ on the global political scene. While their primary concern often is to provide knowledge, based on which decision makers can make informed choices, they also play a part in setting organizational agendas...... and priorities, and in mobilizing for political action. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in think tanks in Washington DC, the paper engages with the modes representation used by policy experts as they strive to get traction and establish credibility for their ideas. The work of policy experts can be understood...

  3. Assessing Knowledge in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strømgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko

    2013-01-01

    The Synopsis–Based Oral Examination (S–BOE) is described as deployed in international management education programs in a Danish business school. It assesses students in light of specified learning objectives through time–constrained presentation and dialogue. The format is premised on prior...... submission of a synopsis, although the synopsis has no bearing on grade assessment. Practitioner experience and student feedback suggest that students experience this type of examination as an important learning experience, in itself, in addition to testing course–related knowledge. We reviewed the current...... epistemological basis for grading, providing a critical realism corrective to enhance assessment and appropriation of this exam format....

  4. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  5. Improving Efficiency and Effectiveness of Knowledge Exchange between Knowledge Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Information technology increasingly influences the way we work and live. Contemporary businesses demonstrate significant concerns on how increasing amounts of available information can be converted into knowledge. An increasing need for new knowledge concerning the development of new services which

  6. Untangling knowledge creation and knowledge integration in enterprise wikis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Roman; Rai, Arun; Fischbach, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge organizations face is how to build, store, and maintain knowledge over time. Enterprise wikis are community-based knowledge systems situated in an organizational context. These systems have the potential to play an important role in managing knowledge within organizations......, but the motivating factors that drive individuals to contribute their knowledge to these systems is not very well understood. We theorize that enterprise wiki initiatives require two separate and distinct types of knowledge-sharing behaviors to succeed: knowledge creation (KC) and knowledge integration (KI). We...... examine a Wiki initiative at a major German bank to untangle the motivating factors behind KC and KI. Our results suggest KC and KI are indeed two distinct behaviors, reconcile inconsistent findings from past studies on the role of motivational factors for knowledge sharing to establish shared electronic...

  7. Scotland's knowledge network: a progress report on Knowledge into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Ann; Boyle, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Launched in 2012, Knowledge into Action is the national knowledge management strategy for the health and social care workforce in Scotland. It is transforming the role of the national digital knowledge service--NHS Education for Scotlands' Knowledge Network--and the NHSS librarian role to offer more active, tailored support for translating knowledge into frontline clinical practice. This includes the development of a national evidence search and summary service, help with converting knowledge into practical and usable formats for easy use at point of care and with using digital tools to share clinicians' learning, experience and expertise. Through this practical support, Knowledge into Action is contributing to quality and safety outcomes across NHS Scotland, building clinicians' capacity and capability in applying knowledge in frontline practice and service improvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Concept of Embodied Knowledge for Understanding Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu

    Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.

  9. Containers of Knowledge as a Basis for Knowledge Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dömeová Ludmila

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The heart of most knowledge management (KM strategies was and often is in technologies as data warehousing, dokument management, etc. The so called „second generation of KM“ is based on a knowledge life cycle with both demand and supply side. Many discussions of KM are on theoretical and conceptual level and that ´s why many practicioners do not consider the KM as a significant contribution to competitive advantage. I tis necessary to make the knowledge more concrete, readable and user friendly. For knowledge collection and codification we use knowledge maps – schemas or models of how we undestand the problems and how we take actions. The knowledge maps can be expressed in texts, charts, pictures, etc. The character of knowledge map is closely connected with appropriate containers of knowledge. The containers perspektive is important in the implementation strategy of organizational learning.

  10. Knowledge Management di Perguruan Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjanto Prabowo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, Knowledge Management is the organization's activities in managing knowledge as an asset, it is necessary that knowledge is properly distributed to the right people and in swift time, until they can interact, share knowledge and apply it in their daily work in order to improve organizational performance. In the study of higher education, in addition to being an element forming a sustainable competitive advantage, knowledge is also the value created by the college to be conveyed to consumers. This research discusses the understanding of knowledge management that is implemented in universities. 

  11. Conceptualising GP teachers' knowledge: a pedagogical content knowledge perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem

    2012-05-01

    Most teacher development initiatives focus on enhancing knowledge of teaching (pedagogy), whilst largely ignoring other important features of teacher knowledge such as subject matter knowledge and awareness of the learning context. Furthermore, teachers' ability to learn from faculty development interventions is limited by their existing (often implicit) pedagogical knowledge and beliefs. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) represents a model of teacher knowledge incorporating what they know about subject matter, pedagogy and context. PCK can be used to explore teachers' prior knowledge and to structure faculty development programmes so that they take account of a broader range of teachers' knowledge. We set out to examine the application of a PCK model in a general practice education setting. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to explore features of GP teachers' subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of a general practice tutorial. This paper presents data on GP teachers' pedagogical and context knowledge. There was considerable overlap between different GP teachers' knowledge and beliefs about learners and the clinical learning environment (i.e. knowledge of context). The teachers' beliefs about learners were largely based on assumptions derived from their own student experiences. There were stark differences, however, between teachers in terms of pedagogical knowledge, particularly in terms of their teaching orientations (i.e. transmission or facilitation orientation) and this was manifest in their teaching behaviours. PCK represents a useful model for conceptualising clinical teacher prior knowledge in three domains, namely subject matter, learning context and pedagogy. It can and should be used as a simple guiding framework by faculty developers to inform the design and delivery of

  12. Towards Open Knowledge : The State of World Bank Knowledge Services

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This first World Bank Knowledge Report launches what is intended as a series of World Bank Knowledge Reports. Although knowledge is a fundamental to the Bank s overall mission, and informs all of the Bank s development activities, it has not received the same degree of attention from management that has been accorded to its lending activities. By paying attention to knowledge work as a dis...

  13. Business knowledge in surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan

    2004-07-01

    Surgeons and residents in training receive little, if any, formal education in the economic side of clinical practice during medical school or residency. As medical professionals face shrinking reimbursement, loss of control over health care decisions, and limited resources, surgical specialties must reevaluate the need to teach their members business survival skills. Before designing business related-teaching modules, educators must know the exact gaps in knowledge that exist among surgeons. This article reports a survey of 133 surgeons in the Midwest who were asked to rate their knowledge base in 11 business topics relevant to the practice of medicine. The survey showed that the average surgeon perceives himself or herself to be poorly equipped to understand basic financial accounting principles, financial markets, economics of health care, tools for evaluating purchases, marketing, budgets, antitrust and fraud and abuse regulations, and risk and return on investments. Armed with this data, teaching faculty, health care systems, and medical specialty societies should design business education seminars to better position surgical specialists and trainees to communicate with insurers, hospital administrators, health care organizations, and their own personal financial advisors.

  14. Knowledge management at ELETRONUCLEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepecki, W.

    2005-01-01

    ELETRONUCLEAR, a state-owned company responsible for design, construction, ownership and operation of nuclear power plants in Brazil, is applying systematic measures to preserve its essential technological know-how. A special project called 'Determination of Technological Know-How of ELETRONUCLEAR' was established in January 2001 for this purpose. The extent and location of the existing know-how was identified and the gaps in the essential know-how were evaluated. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the project. The team interacted with experts both in Brazil and abroad to achieve a sound technical basis as far as knowledge identification and preservation techniques are concerned. The results of this know-how survey were stored in an electronic data bank, which facilitated the creation of several types of reports, according to various criteria. An in-depth analysis of the survey pointed to the gaps in essential know-how. Proposals for solutions to fill in the know-how gaps were set up, comprising both short-term, as well as long-term, solutions. This project was the first work by ELETRONUCLEAR in the field of Knowledge Management. An indirect consequence was the creation of a nucleus of personnel competent in this new discipline, which had a multiplying effect throughout ELETRONUCLEAR, allowing the execution of other new projects in KM. (author)

  15. Knowledge, consensus and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavell, M

    1999-12-01

    Some months ago the editors of this journal asked me if I would undertake a series of short entries of a general sort on philosophical topics germane to current discussions in psychoanalysis. Both authors and topics were left to my discretion. I thought the series was a good idea and gladly agreed to do it. To my surprise and pleasure, all the philosophers I invited accepted I am only sorry that the series could not be longer as there are other philosophers as well who would have been splendid participants, and other topics I would like to have addressed. The essays that will follow in subsequent issues represent by and large the tradition of analytic philosophy, though this has come in the last few decades to comprise many of the themes we used to associate with the Continental tradition. Future entries, by James Conant, Donald Davison, Pascal Engel, Dagfinn Føllesdal, James Hopkins, Ernest Le Pore, Jeffrey Malpas, Jerome Neu, Brian O'Shaughnessy, Richard Rorty and Richard Wollheim, will address the following topics: intersubjectivity, meaning and language, consciousness and perception, pragmatism, knowledge and belief, norms and nature, metaphor, hermeneutics, truth, self-deception, the emotions. The essay below on knowledge, which will also be the topic of another entry by a different author later on, is the only one in the series that I will write.

  16. Knowledge: Genuine and Bogus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2011-05-01

    Pseudoscience is error, substantive or methodological, parading as science. Obvious examples are parapsychology, "intelligent design," and homeopathy. Psychoanalysis and pop evolutionary psychology are less obvious, yet no less flawed in both method and doctrine. The fact that science can be faked to the point of deceiving science lovers suggests the need for a rigorous sifting device, one capable of revealing out the worm in the apple. This device is needed to evaluate research proposal as well as new fashions. Such a device can be designed only with the help of a correct definition of science, one attending not only to methodological aspects, such as testability and predictive power, but also to other features of scientific knowledge, such as intelligibility, corrigibility, and compatibility with the bulk of antecedent knowledge. The aim of this paper is to suggest such a criterion, to illustrate it with a handful of topical examples, and to emphasize the role of philosophy in either promoting or blocking scientific progress. This article is a revised version of a chapter in the author's forthcoming book Matter and Mind (Springer). [The Appendix on inductive logic was written at the request of the editors in order to elaborate claims made in #10 (4).

  17. Knowledge management at ELETRONUCLEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepecki, W.

    2004-01-01

    ELETRONUCLEAR, a state-owned company responsible for design, construction, ownership and operation of nuclear power plants in Brazil, is applying systematic measures to preserve its essential technological know-how. A special Project called 'Determination of Technological Know-How of ELETRONUCLEAR' was established in January 2001 for this purpose. The extent and location of the existing know-how was identified and the gaps in the essential know-how were evaluated. A multidisciplinary team was established to implement the Project. The team interacted with experts both in Brazil and abroad to achieve a sound technical basis as far as knowledge identification and preservation techniques are concerned. The results of this know-how survey were stored in an electronic data bank, which facilitated the creation of several types of reports, according to various criteria. An in-depth analysis of the survey pointed to the gaps in essential know-how. Proposals for solutions to fill in the know-how gaps were set up, comprising both short term, as well as long-term, solutions. This Project was the first work by ELETRONUCLEAR in the field of Knowledge Management. An indirect consequence was the creation of a nucleus of personnel competent in this new discipline, which had a multiplying effect throughout ELETRONUCLEAR, allowing the execution of other new projects in KM. (author)

  18. Managing heterogeneous knowledge: A Theory of External Knowledge Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge integration has been theorised at the levels of organisations and inter-organisational dyads. However, no theory exists yet of the integration of knowledge from an organisation's environment. This paper addresses this void in the literature by presenting a theory of external knowledge

  19. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  20. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  1. Trust, Knowledge Creation and Mediating Effects of Knowledge Transfer Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sankowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how organizational trust contributes to knowledge transfer processes and knowledge creation both directly and indirectly. The mediation analyses were used. The findings using cross-sectional data from Polish companies suggest a new way of thinking in respect of how crucial is trust to creation of knowledge unconnected to organizational memory.

  2. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  3. Lean approach in knowledge work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Knowledge work productivity is a key area of improvement for many organisations. Lean approach is a sustainable way to achieve operational excellence and can be applied in many areas. The purpose of this novel study is to examine the potential of using lean approach for improving knowledge work practices. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review has been carried out to study how lean approach is realised in knowledge work. The research is conceptual in nature and draws upon earlier research findings. Findings: This study shows that lean studies’ in knowledge work is an emerging research area. This study documents the methods and practices implemented in knowledge work to date, and presents a knowledge work continuum, which is an essential framework for effective lean approach deployment and to frame future research focus in knowledge work productivity. Research limitations/implications: This study structures the concept of knowledge work and outlines a concrete concept derived from earlier literature. The study summarises the literature on lean in knowledge work and highlights, which methods are used. More research is needed to understand how lean can be implemented in complex knowledge work environment and not only on the repetitive knowledge work. The limitations of this research are due to the limited availability of previous research. Practical implications: To analyse the nature of knowledge work, we implicate the areas where lean methods especially apply to improving knowledge work productivity. When applying lean in knowledge work context the focus should be using the people better and improving information flow. Originality/value: This study focuses on adapting lean methods into a knowledge work context and summarises earlier research done in this field. The study discusses the potential to improve knowledge work productivity by implementing lean methods and presents a unique knowledge work continuum to

  4. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  5. Carbon tetrachloride desorption from activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, L.A.; Sansone, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride was desorbed from a granular activated carbon subsequent to its adsorption under various vapor exposure periods. The varied conditions of exposure resulted in a range of partially saturated carbon beds which, when followed by a constant flow rate for desorption, generated different forms of the desorbing concentration versus time curve. A method of analyzing the desorption curves is presented which permits extraction of the various desorbing rates from the different desorption and to relate this to the time required for such regeneration. The Wheeler desorption kinetic equation was used to calculate the pseudo first order desorption rate constant for the carbon. The desorption rate constant was found to increase monotonically with increasing saturation of the bed, permitting the calculation of the maximum desorption rate constant for the carbon at 100% saturation. The Retentivity Index of the carbon, defined as the dimensionless ratio of the adsorption to the desorption rate constant, was found to be 681

  6. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmanabhan, E., E-mail: Eswaran_padmanabhan@petronas.com.my [Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, 31750, Perak (Malaysia); Eswaran, H.; Reich, P.F. [USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O have an anthropic source and of these CO{sub 2} is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10–15 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1 m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m{sup −2} m{sup −1}. Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. - Highlights: • Soil carbon stocks in different soils in Sarawak • In depth discussion of

  7. Soil carbon stocks in Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, E.; Eswaran, H.; Reich, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas emission and climate change has led to research to identify and manage the natural sources and sinks of the gases. CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O have an anthropic source and of these CO 2 is the least effective in trapping long wave radiation. Soil carbon sequestration can best be described as a process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and relocating into soils in a form that is not readily released back into the atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to estimate carbon stocks available under current conditions in Sarawak, Malaysia. SOC estimates are made for a standard depth of 100 cm unless the soil by definition is less than this depth, as in the case of lithic subgroups. Among the mineral soils, Inceptisols tend to generally have the highest carbon contents (about 25 kg m −2 m −1 ), while Oxisols and Ultisols rate second (about 10–15 kg m −2 m −1 ). The Oxisols store a good amount of carbon because of an appreciable time-frame to sequester carbon and possibly lower decomposition rates for the organic carbon that is found at 1 m depths. Wet soils such as peatlands tend to store significant amounts of carbon. The highest values estimated for such soils are about 114 kg m −2 m −1 . Such appreciable amounts can also be found in the Aquepts. In conclusion, it is pertinent to recognize that degradation of the carbon pool, just like desertification, is a real process and that this irreversible process must be addressed immediately. Therefore, appropriate soil management practices should be instituted to sequester large masses of soil carbon on an annual basis. This knowledge can be used effectively to formulate strategies to prevent forest fires and clearing: two processes that can quickly release sequestered carbon to the atmosphere in an almost irreversible manner. - Highlights: • Soil carbon stocks in different soils in Sarawak • In depth discussion of soil carbon pools in Histosols • Strategies

  8. Product Knowledge Modelling and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.; MacCallum, K. J.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    function-oriented design. Both Specific Product Knowledge and Product Domain Knowledge are modelled at two levels, a meta-model and an information-level.Following that, a computer-based scheme to manage the proposed product lknowledge models within a dynamically changing environment is presented.......The term, Product Knowledge is used to refer to two related but distinct concepts; the knowledge of a specific product (Specific Product Knowledge) and the knowledge of a product domain (Product Domain Knowledge). Modelling and managing Product Knowlege is an essential part of carrying out design.......A scheme is presented in this paper to model, i.e. classify, structure and formalise the product knowledge for the purpose of supporting function-oriented design. The product design specification and four types of required attributes of a specific product have been identified to form the Specific Product...

  9. Knowledge management and organizational learning

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) is a set of relatively new organizational activities. This volume presents some 20 papers organized into five sections covering basic concepts of knowledge management. The volume editor is an esteemed name in the field..

  10. Strategies for Mentoring Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental for mentoring a preservice teacher is the mentor's articulation of pedagogical knowledge, which in this research draws upon specific practices, viz.: planning, timetabling lessons, preparation, teaching strategies, content knowledge, problem solving, questioning, classroom management, implementation, assessment and viewpoints for…

  11. Education and the Knowledge Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    sea power introducing education as an additional population characteristic , a review of education philosophy, education trends, impact of education on the knowledge military, and the impact of the knowledge on the joint force.

  12. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  13. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  14. Knowledge Management - Identification of Domain Specific Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Information Technology infer substantial changes to an organisation, e.g. changes in jobs, roles of the company's employees, and the knowledge content of these jobs.This paper point out some of the knowledge management issues and challenges in the case of an implementation of an...... performed by humans. Their decisions are based on the integration of three different kinds of knowledge, i.e. uncodifiable or tacit knowledge, codifiable data from acquisition systems, and codifiable best practice from knowledge repositories....

  15. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  16. KESS: Knowledge Engineering Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Mohamed Ben; Dougherty, Nini; Anderson, Curtis; Altman, Stanley J.; Bouhaddou, Omar; Warner, Homer R.

    1987-01-01

    KESS (Knowledge Engineering Support System) is a relational information management system created at the University of Utah to document each step in the building of four expert knowledge bases. In weekly knowledge engineering sessions, groups of experts propose decision making criteria and examine information sources in the process of creating HELP knowledge frames. KESS utilizes many-to-many links with multiple files and central link files to track the different kinds of information generate...

  17. Knowledge-based Telecom Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Villeman; Nordkvelde, Marius

    2011-01-01

    BI Norwegian School of Management is conducting a national research project entitled “A knowledge-based Norway”. Thirteen major knowledge-based industries in Norway are being analyzed under the auspices of the project. This study assesses the underlying properties of a global knowledge hub to examine the extent to which the Norwegian telecom industry – which encompasses all telecom firms located in Norway regardless of ownership – constitutes a global knowledge hub. It commences with a ge...

  18. A Classification of Collaborative Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts involving multiple institutions, whether aimed at sharing resources, at product development or production, at research, or in other directions, often rely on effective knowledge generation and knowledge management. However, there are inherent new difficulties in knowledge management for such inter-institutional collaborations, arising from the need to standardize and synthesize knowledge from multiple sources, and from the need to provide adequate protections for confidential and proprietary information.

  19. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  20. Nuclear knowledge development in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Armenia has rather rich history of nuclear knowledge development. During the last several decades, depending on circumstances related with the ANPP main mile stones - construction, putting into operation, shutdown, restarting - nuclear knowledge was having its ups and downs. Though it has high level of development, there has been yet a need of preservation accumulated nuclear knowledge, and appropriate proceeding with the nuclear knowledge in Armenia. (author)

  1. Can environmental innovation facilitate carbon emissions reduction? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Yu-Lu; Ma, Chao-Qun; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental innovation has been recognized as an efficient way of addressing environmental problems. However, how environmental innovation may affect carbon emissions in China and whether the effect may differ among various environmental innovation variables remain to be investigated. Therefore, based on the panel data of China’s 30 provinces during 2000–2013, we use a system generalized method of moments (SGMM) technique to estimate the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions in China. Also, we evaluate the effect on carbon emission reduction of China’s initial carbon emissions trading (CET) scheme. Empirical results indicate that, most environmental innovation measures in China reduce carbon emissions effectively. Among the various environmental innovation factors, energy efficiency exerts the most evident effect on carbon emissions abatement in China; meanwhile, resources for innovation and knowledge innovation also play prominent roles in this regard. However, the impact of governmental environmental policies on curbing carbon emissions reduction suffers from a lag effect, which mainly occurred during 2006–2013. Finally, despite the short time of operation and incomplete market mechanism, the pilot CET in China has appeared relatively promising with regard to carbon emissions reduction. - Highlights: • The SGMM is used for the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions. • Energy efficiency proves the most effective way to reduce China’s carbon emissions. • Innovation resources and knowledge innovation are conducive for carbon reduction. • The governmental environmental policies have lag effect on carbon reduction. • The effect of China’s initial CET on carbon emissions reduction has appeared.

  2. Management of nuclear knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.; Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2008-04-01

    The IAEA Technical Meeting (TM) on the 'Role of universities in preserving and managing nuclear knowledge' was held in Vienna, Austria, 10-14 December 2007. This TM is the continuation of IAEA efforts to address future workforce demand developments, quality and quantity of nuclear higher education in member states. IAEA activities always focussed in particular on curricula, on networking universities and on internet platforms. The objective of this meeting was to provide a forum to present and discuss the status of and good practices of nuclear higher education in member states. Around twenty experts from different member states presented the status and on-going practices of nuclear education. This meeting was divided into two main sections: part A gave the status of nuclear education in the member states while part B included the best practices and recommendations. A summary of both sessions are provided in this report. (Nevyjel)

  3. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  4. Knowledge Transfer Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Simard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article décrit un modèle visant à faciliter la compréhension du processus de transfert du contenu depuis sa source jusqu’à son utilisation. Un groupe de travail de Ressources naturelles Canada a étudié la nature du transfert des savoirs à l’aide d’un modèle de services, afin de découvrir et comprendre les modèles et processus sous-jacents. Les services de savoir sont des programmes qui créent et fournissent des produits organisationnels basés sur un contenu et ayant une valeur intégrée. Ces programmes sont destinés à être utilisés en interne ou transférés pour répondre aux souhaits et besoins d’un utilisateur externe. Les critères de conception du modèle sont les suivants : indépendance par rapport au contenu, concentration sur l’organisation, évolutivité, deux pilotes et deux niveaux de résolution. Le modèle est basé sur une chaîne de valeur dans laquelle la valeur est intégrée, déplacée ou extraite. Un système de services de savoir se divise en neuf étapes : générer, transformer, gérer, utiliser en interne, transférer, ajouter de la valeur, utiliser professionnellement, utiliser personnellement et évaluer. Les services de savoir sont fournis par l’intermédiaire d’un spectre de distribution allant de complexe à accessible. À chaque région du spectre de distribution correspond une série d’attributs qui influencent la manière dont les services sont fournis.This paper describes a model intended to increase understanding of how content is transferred from its source to its use. A Natural Resources Canada task group explored the nature of knowledge transfer with a services paradigm to discover and understand underlying patterns and processes. Knowledge Services are programs that produce and pro-vide content-based organizational outputs with embedded value that are intended to be used internally or transferred to meet external user wants or needs. Model design criteria

  5. Librarians and computer knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Južnič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual library had become a well established term in librarianship and is often related to the fast Internet development and its usage. It is often discussed of virtual library as an integration of different media with Internet which may give the feeling of (virtual reality. The educational impact and new perception of knowledge and learning are also much discussed. However, Internet is a good example of service, that is directly related to number and critical mass of users.When this is reached, the growth is fast and almost limitless, We do not discuss enough about the training librarians should /will have for virtual library. This text tries also to systemize the practical experiences the author has in his professional work in two domains - librarianship and computer science.

  6. Management Of Knowledge And System - Evolution Of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Choudhury

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of knowledge is one of the most fundamental and necessary components in todays world. A claim to knowledge should be evaluated to determine whether or not it is knowledge in its real sense. To conduct this sort of evaluation understanding of what knowledge is and how much knowledge is possible is required. This paper provides an overview of the important aspects of knowledge and with the help of epistemology tries to answer the most fundamental questions of what is knowledge Moreover how do we know what we know The paper attempts to show the effect of culture on organizations and how foundational knowledge can help us develop logical decisions in a fluctuating environment. To manage an organization within evolving paradigm knowledge of variation acts as a necessary requirement. As Deming defined management as a prediction a leader must have skills to predict and adapt to its external environment. Most of the time organizations fail to observe the paradigm shift and couldnt adjust to the changing environment. The paper also discusses the effect of diverse culture and their respective interpretation of language. Thus the paper highlights the necessity of understanding human psychology attaining foundational knowledge and ability to validate the knowledge to establish a successful organization.

  7. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana Leon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly more literature mention that in the current competitive environment, knowledge have become the main source of the competitive advantages, while recent researches regarding economic growth and development have defined knowledge as being the most critical resource of the emerging countries.Therefore, the organizations interest for knowledge has increased, the latter being defined as knowledge management process in order to meet existing needs, to identify and exploit existing and/or acquired knowledge and developing new opportunities.In other words, knowledge management facilitates productive information usage, intelligence growth, storing intellectual capital, strategic planning, flexible acquisition, collection of best practices, increasing the likelihood of being successful as well as a more productive collaboration within the company.In order to benefit from all these advantages, it is required the usage of specific tools including models and systems to stimulate the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge held by each employee and the organization as a whole.

  8. Knowledge representation and knowledge base design for operator advisor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangos, K.M.; Sziano, T.; Tapolcai, L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of knowledge representation, knowledge base handling and design has been described for an Operator Advisor System in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The Operator Advisor System is to be implemented as a part of the 5th and 6th unit. The knowledge of the Operator Advisor system is described by a few elementary knowledge items (diagnostic event functions, fault graph, action trees), weighted directed graphs have been found as their common structure. List-type and relational representation of these graphs have been used for the on-line and off-line part of the knowledge base respectively. A uniform data base design and handling has been proposed which consists of a design system, a knowledge base editor and a knowledge base compiler

  9. Constructing Knowledge Graphs of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zhisheng; Yang, Jie; van Harmelen, Frank; Hu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Graphs have been shown to be useful tools for integrating multiple medical knowledge sources, and to support such tasks as medical decision making, literature retrieval, determining healthcare quality indicators, co-morbodity analysis and many others. A large number of medical knowledge

  10. Motivation in Collaborative Knowledge Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Sousa, C.A.A.; Schwartz, D.; Te'eni, D.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of motivation in knowledge management (KM) debates is now generally acknowledged. Motivation affects the overall quality of knowledge used and produced in the work situation, the willingness to contribute to KM systems, the willing engagement in knowledge sharing and many other

  11. Beliefs, acceptances and technological knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.J.; Meijers, A.W.M.; Vries, de M.J.; Hansson, S.O.; Meijers, A.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the four ways of conceptualizing technology that Carl Mitcham distinguished in his book Thinking Through Technology is technology as knowledge. His description of technology as knowledge showed that not much philosophical literature on the nature of technological knowledge was available at

  12. Knowledge management, innovation and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.

    2003-01-01

    Since five years, knowledge management stays high on the policy agenda of companies. They hope to improve their operations by introducing knowledge and innovation programs. Also, at the EU-level, knowledge management is seen as an important item for research. The European Commission has included

  13. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  14. Knowledge management in international mergers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, F.D.J.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for knowledge management in mergers and acquisitions. In mergers and acquisitions two cultures are combined, and also two systems of knowledge and insights are integrated. In order to develop and sustain competitive advantages for the knowledge-intensive firm, strategic

  15. Knowledge creation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanian, Zahra Marzieh; Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Suleiman; Hossein Gholizadeh, Rezvan; Karimi-Moonaghi, Hossein

    2014-09-28

    In today's society, knowledge is recognized as a valuable social asset and the educational system is in search of a new strategy that allows them to construct their knowledge and experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of knowledge creation in nursing education. In the present study, the grounded theory approach was used. This method provides a comprehensive approach to collecting, organizing, and analyzing data. Data were obtained through 17 semi-structured interviews with nursing faculties and nursing students. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was conducted. Based on the method of Strauss and Corbin, the data were analyzed using fragmented, deep, and constant-comparative methods. The main categories included striving for growth and reduction of ambiguity, use of knowledge resources, dynamism of mind and social factors, converting knowledge, and creating knowledge. Knowledge was converted through mind processes, individual and group reflection, praxis and research, and resulted in the creation of nursing knowledge. Discrete nursing knowledge is gained through disconformity research in order to gain more individual advantages. The consequence of this analysis was gaining new knowledge. Knowledge management must be included in the mission and strategic planning of nursing education, and it should be planned through operational planning in order to create applicable knowledge.

  16. Knowledge Diversity, Transfer and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Moreira, Solon; Markus, Arjan

    from the widely accepted view that distant, externally-developed knowledge is difficult to incorporate into the focal firm?s own production. We suggest that high levels of intrafirm network diversity, tie strength, and network density are essential for a diversity of knowledge inputs, knowledge...

  17. Machine intelligence and knowledge bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K

    1981-09-01

    The basic functions necessary in machine intelligence are a knowledge base and a logic programming language such as PROLOG using deductive reasoning. Recently inductive reasoning based on meta knowledge and default reasoning have been developed. The creative thought model of Lenit is reviewed and the concept of knowledge engineering is introduced. 17 references.

  18. Management of knowledge across generations: preventing knowledge loss, enabling knowledge readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, John A.

    2012-01-01

    J. Day argued that the preservation of records is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition to enable intelligent future decision making and management of nuclear waste. He distinguishes knowledge management from information management. Information without the potential to act on it is information for its own sake. He believes that knowledge will be a key factor for the generations that follow us. Records need knowledge, and knowledge needs records. A single representation of knowledge can be dangerous. Knowledge is multifaceted and complex, which necessitates a holistic approach. Throughout the presentation the concepts of 'knowledge readiness' and 'knowledge mothballing' (the process of knowing, forgetting and relearning) were proposed. Based on experiences at Sellafield the actions of knowledge audit mapping (including technical, societal and historical knowledge), knowledge loss risk assessing (although we would like to we cannot hold on to everything, and should thus take a risk approach, asking ourselves what is at stake if we delete certain parts of information), and knowledge retention for the long term management of a nuclear facility were presented. During the discussion, the link between knowledge and behaviour was raised. It was argued that the better informed people are, the less likely they are to make mistakes

  19. Conserving Local Knowledge in Traditional Healing through Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lah Salasiah Che

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Local knowledge (LK basically refers to the knowledge that people in a given community have developed over time, and continues to develop, through practices and based on experiences. Local beliefs pertaining to ilmu, a central concept in Malay culture that refers to knowledge, is essential among the traditional healers. The vast repository of knowledge and its relevance to locality and local situation makes the conservation of LK a necessity.However, due to the dominance of modern knowledge, diminished inter-generational knowledge transfer has led to LK being threatened with extinction. The fact that LK is practiced by only a few these days could be due to lack of knowledge transfer to the younger generations from the traditional healers who are knowledgeable in the communities. The common transfer mode of local knowledge, usually via words of mouth, may not be sustainable because the LK could vanish when knowledgeable elders die before it is transferred or during resettlements of individuals or communities. The need to conserve LK through knowledge transfer is also pertinent for the continued sustenance of their culture by recognizing, protecting and enforcing the rights of local communities to have continued access to biological resources as well as by protecting their LK, acquired over thousand of years of experimentation and experience, about the uses of these biological resources in traditional healing. Therefore, it is important to have a governance framework to effectively protect this LK of the local communities for the continued sustenance of their culture. This conceptual paper attempts to highlight the significance of conserving LK in traditional healing via effective knowledge transfer method, which should thereafter be translated into a working governance framework that protects the knowledge as well as the holders of such knowledge.

  20. Indonesia knowledge dissemination: a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The educational progress of a country or educational institution is measured through the implementation of knowledge dissemination. Evidence of knowledge dissemination has carried out be in form of the type of published document, which is based on the databases of the index of scientific publications: Scopus. This paper expresses a simple form of knowledge dissemination based on document type. Although the growth of knowledge dissemination does not have the same pattern based on the appearance of document types, the general implementation is almost the same. However, maximum effort needs to be done by PTN-bh to support Indonesia knowledge dissemination.

  1. Information systems for knowledge management

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Inès; Gargouri, Faiez

    2014-01-01

    More and more organizations are becoming aware of the importance of tacit and explicit knowledge owned by their members which corresponds to their experience and accumulated knowledge about the firm activities. However, considering the large amount of knowledge created and used in the organization, especially with the evolution of information and communications technologies, the firm must first determine the specific knowledge on which it is necessary to focus. Creating activities to enhance identification, preservation, and use of this knowledge is a powerful mean to improve the level of econ

  2. Knowledge management in production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bitkowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that companies are constantly subjected to changes creates challenges connected with constant learning and acquiring knowledge. Companies are forced to act in accordance with the generative strategy. Besides realizing the traditional tasks of production or service, companies need to acquire and process knowledge and apply it in practice. The consequence of these changes is the transformation of contemporary enterprises into knowledge-based organizations, with managers increasingly recognizing the role and importance of the concept of knowledge management in creating enterprises competitiveness. The main aim of the article is identification of knowledge management in production enterprises.

  3. Knowledge management in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Swaminathan, P.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the work that is being carried out in Knowledge Management of Fast Reactors at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) including a few examples of how the knowledge acquired because of various incidents in the initial years has been utilized for the successful operation of Fast Breeder Test Reactor. It also briefly refers to the features of the IAEA initiative on the preservation of Knowledge in the area of Fast Reactors in the form of 'Fast Reactor Knowledge Organization System' (FR-KOS), which is based on a taxonomy for storage and mining of Fast Reactor Knowledge. (author)

  4. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  5. Professional knowledge and interprofessional practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, Peter C.; Colyer, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners

  6. Emotional Knowledge: the Hidden Part of the Knowledge Iceberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Daniel Kahneman (2011, our thinking process is based on two systems: system 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little awareness of voluntary control, system2 operates slowly and constructs thoughts in a logic order. System 1 processes actually emotional knowledge using our unconscious cognitive capability. Cognitive scientists discovered that we are primarily emotional decision makers, which means that managers and leaders need to rely on their emotional knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative and quantitative research concerning the paradox of emotional knowledge. That means that on one hand most of us ignore emotional knowledge by identifying knowledge with cognitive knowledge, and on the other hand by using emotional knowledge in decision making. The qualitative research has been done by reflecting on knowledge management, strategic management and change management literature concerning emotional knowledge and emotional intelligence, while the quantitative research has been done by conceiving a questionnaire and using it in an academic environment. A total of 1200 questionnaires were distributed to the students of Bucharest University of Economic Studies, and we got a response rate of 37%. Each questionnaire contains 40 questions concerning the awareness, education, transfer, and management of emotional knowledge. The data has been processed with the help of the specialized software SPSS version 19, and AMOS version 18. Statistical analysis includes both exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis. The results of the statistical analysis reveal the main influence factors affecting our understanding of emotional knowledge, the way we learn through education about emotional knowledge, the way this knowledge is transferred, and the importance of using it by managers and leaders.

  7. Knowledge management systems in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørning, Kristian

    which has the strategy of working with knowledge in the form of "best practices" meant to boost performance. The thesis explores the situation that workers are in, since they are meant to share and develop "best practices" knowledge in a portal based Knowledge Management System (KMS). The study...... indentifies a set of problems that prevents knowledge sharing from taking place to the degree to which management was specifically aiming. It was explored whether these problems could, to some degree, be mitigated by employing persuasive design, which is a new stance towards design where the aim...... is to directly seek to change the user's behavior, i.e., persuading more knowledge sharing. The main contribution is an indication of an anomaly with regards to the strategic approach towards knowledge management, where knowledge sharing is seen as an effort by which companies can gain a competitive advantage...

  8. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices......Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... time of measurement and type of measures applied. Examination of consumer price knowledge before, during, and afterstore visit sheds light on what is measured at the individual points in time: episodic price knowledge and/or reference prices? With a between-subjects design interviewing 1...

  9. Social Media for Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    of social media as a tool for knowledge management presents an interesting addition to existing knowledge management initiatives. In this research in progress paper, social media for knowledge management is explored through investigating the research question, how can social media influence knowledge...... and show multiple opportunities and challenges for adopting these initiatives into organizational practices. In recent years social media technologies have entered the organizational spheres with the objective of connecting people and enabling them to share and build knowledge. The application and use...... management practices in organizations? The investigation builds on a theoretical reflection of the concepts of knowledge management practices and social media. The method for the theoretical investigation is based in the outline of core literature perspectives dealing with knowledge management practices...

  10. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries and the Tension Between Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries' trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we build a con...

  11. Concise review: carbon nanotechnology: perspectives in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzhkova, Marina V

    2013-05-01

    Carbon nanotechnology has developed rapidly during the last decade, and carbon allotropes, especially graphene and carbon nanotubes, have already found a wide variety of applications in industry, high-tech fields, biomedicine, and basic science. Electroconductive nanomaterials have attracted great attention from tissue engineers in the design of remotely controlled cell-substrate interfaces. Carbon nanoconstructs are also under extensive investigation by clinical scientists as potential agents in anticancer therapies. Despite the recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. However, acquired experience with and knowledge of carbon nanomaterials may be efficiently used in the development of future personalized medicine and in tissue engineering.

  12. Modeling of the global carbon cycle - isotopic data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopes are powerful tools to constrain carbon cycle models. For example, the combinations of the CO 2 and the 13 C budget allows to calculate the net-carbon fluxes between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Observations of natural and bomb-produced radiocarbon allow to estimate gross carbon exchange fluxes between different reservoirs and to deduce time scales of carbon overturning in important reservoirs. 18 O in CO 2 is potentially a tool to make the deconvolution of C fluxes within the land biosphere (assimilation vs respirations). The scope of this article is to identify gaps in our present knowledge about isotopes in the light of their use as constraint for the global carbon cycle. In the following we will present a list of some future data requirements for carbon cycle models. (authors)

  13. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Keep your community informed about the ... KB | Spanish PDF 592 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  14. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  15. Geochemistry of sedimentary carbonates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, John W; Mackenzie, Fred T

    1990-01-01

    .... The last major section is two chapters on the global cycle of carbon and human intervention, and the role of sedimentary carbonates as indicators of stability and changes in Earth's surface environment...

  16. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: Antacids (Tums, Chooz) Mineral supplements Hand lotions Vitamin and mineral supplements Other products may also contain ...

  17. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  18. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  19. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  20. Graphitization in Carbon MEMS and Carbon NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati

    Carbon MEMS (CMEMS) and Carbon NEMS (CNEMS) are an emerging class of miniaturized devices. Due to the numerous advantages such as scalable manufacturing processes, inexpensive and readily available precursor polymer materials, tunable surface properties and biocompatibility, carbon has become a preferred material for a wide variety of future sensing applications. Single suspended carbon nanowires (CNWs) integrated on CMEMS structures fabricated by electrospinning of SU8 photoresist on photolithographially patterned SU8 followed by pyrolysis are utilized for understanding the graphitization process in micro and nano carbon materials. These monolithic CNW-CMEMS structures enable the fabrication of very high aspect ratio CNWs of predefined length. The CNWs thus fabricated display core---shell structures having a graphitic shell with a glassy carbon core. The electrical conductivity of these CNWs is increased by about 100% compared to glassy carbon as a result of enhanced graphitization. We explore various tunable fabrication and pyrolysis parameters to improve graphitization in the resulting CNWs. We also suggest gas-sensing application of the thus fabricated single suspended CNW-CMEMS devices by using the CNW as a nano-hotplate for local chemical vapor deposition. In this thesis we also report on results from an optimization study of SU8 photoresist derived carbon electrodes. These electrodes were applied to the simultaneous detection of traces of Cd(II) and Pb(II) through anodic stripping voltammetry and detection limits as low as 0.7 and 0.8 microgL-1 were achieved. To further improve upon the electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes we elucidate a modified pyrolysis technique featuring an ultra-fast temperature ramp for obtaining bubbled porous carbon from lithographically patterned SU8. We conclude this dissertation by suggesting the possible future works on enhancing graphitization as well as on electrochemical applications

  1. Innovating in knowledge transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    When you ask people whether investment in basic science is worth it, the answer you get is an overwhelming ‘yes’… followed by a pause, and then a question: ‘what’s the immediate benefit?’ Of course we have answers.   Basic research at CERN expands the pool of human knowledge. It inspires the young, and provides an important impetus to scientific and technical education. Applications of CERN technology are to be found in many domains, and the results of basic science provide the seeds for applied research. All this is clear and well established, but we can always do more, and that’s why I was particularly impressed with an event that took place at CERN last week. Education and innovation are core missions for CERN, and they came together last week when 17 students from universities in Finland, Greece and Italy presented the results of their five-month challenge-based innovation course (CBI). Developed by CERN along with Aa...

  2. Knowledge Management – the Key Resource in the Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo NEVADO PEÑA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of global information and communication technology changes and globalization have transformed our society by favoring the economy and innovation as key driver of global competition. Creation and exploitation of knowledge has become key resource in the new economy. All advanced economies are technologically knowledgebased economy. Many of today's managers and their employees, still guided by the definition given by Francis Bacon (1597 “Knowledge is power” instead of “sharing and managing knowledge is power”. Knowing taken alone may not bring value if not shared before and then managed in an efficient manner. This article seeks to demonstrate what knowledge, what the knowledge management is and what are its main implications in the new economy, a knowledge-based economy.

  3. Deep knowledge and knowledge compilation for dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are viewed as knowledge-based systems which efficiently solve real-world problems based on the expertise contained in their knowledge bases elicited from domain experts. Although such expert systems that depends on heuristics of domain experts have contributed to the current success, they are known to be brittle and hard to build. This paper is concerned with research on model-based diagnosis and knowledge compilation for dynamic systems conducted by the author's group to overcome these difficulties. Firstly, we summarize the advantages and shortcomings of expert systems. Secondly, deep knowledge and knowledge compilation is discussed. Then, latest results of our research on model-based diagnosis is overviewed. The future direction of knowledge base technology research is also discussed. (author)

  4. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  5. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  6. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  7. Carbon Goes To…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  8. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  9. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  10. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  11. Communication Policies in Knowledge Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Evangelos; Varsakelis, Nikos; Antoniou, Ioannis

    2018-02-01

    Faster knowledge attainment within organizations leads to improved innovation, and therefore competitive advantage. Interventions on the organizational network may be risky or costly or time-demanding. We investigate several communication policies in knowledge networks, which reduce the knowledge attainment time without interventions. We examine the resulting knowledge dynamics for real organizational networks, as well as for artificial networks. More specifically, we investigate the dependence of knowledge dynamics on: (1) the Selection Rule of agents for knowledge acquisition, and (2) the Order of implementation of "Selection" and "Filtering". Significant decrease of the knowledge attainment time (up to -74%) can be achieved by: (1) selecting agents of both high knowledge level and high knowledge transfer efficiency, and (2) implementing "Selection" after "Filtering" in contrast to the converse, implicitly assumed, conventional prioritization. The Non-Commutativity of "Selection" and "Filtering", reveals a Non-Boolean Logic of the Network Operations. The results demonstrate that significant improvement of knowledge dynamics can be achieved by implementing "fruitful" communication policies, by raising the awareness of agents, without any intervention on the network structure.

  12. Designing Knowledge Map for Knowledge Management projects Using Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    heidar najafi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research knowledge management has been studied as an interdisciplinary area. We aim to find an answer for this question that "what are the scientific structure and knowledge map of knowledge management projects regarding these two aspect of subject areas and keywords. For this purpose, nearly 40000 scientific documents including knowledge management as one of their keywords were selected from Scopus database and were studied in various subject areas. In this research,bar charts have been drawn for each index of subject areas and keywords. Besides, using Co-occurrence matrix, adjacency graphs were drawn and then clustered using Average-Link algorithm. Bar charts and graphs were drawn using R and Excel software. The results of this research showed that among the researches on knowledge management in the world, the most relevant scientific fields to knowledge management are Computer Sciences with 32.5%, Business, Management and Accounting with 14.5%, Engineering with 13.7%, Decisive Sciences with 12.6%, Mathematics with 7.07%, and Social Sciences with 6.63%, respectively. The most keywords collocate with knowledge management in the world are Human-Computer Interaction, Information Management, Systems Management, Information Technology, Manufacturing, Acquisition of Knowledge, Semantics, Knowledge Transfer, Ontology and Information Retrieval.

  13. Knowledge society training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ionescu, Tudor Basarab; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, Cristian; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to present the results of the Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a knowledge society training system, in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning software platform and several CBT objects/courses have been implemented. The conceived solution is called CBTCenter which is a complete E-Learning and CBT system, offering a variety of teaching and learning tools and services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quizzes, grades, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBTCenter is Labour safety - code name BB-001. The implementation of the CBT technology at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which take part in the educational process; the classroom space problem has been considerably reduced; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problems will decrease with the conversion of more and more conventional courses and materials into CBT objects/courses. (authors)

  14. Problems in knowledge management: a case study of a knowledge intensive company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zolingen, S.J.; Streumer, Jan; Stooker, M.M.; Stooker, M.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge management has become an important tool in staying ahead in the competition between companies. In this article five different phases of the knowledge management process are distinguished: acquiring knowledge, codifying knowledge, disseminating knowledge, developing knowledge and applying

  15. Plant growth and physiology of vegetable plants as influenced by carbon dioxide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tadashi

    1973-01-01

    In order to obtain basic knowledge on the increased giving of carbon dioxide to vegetables, the carbon dioxide environment in growing houses was analyzed, and the physiological and ecological properties of vegetables cultivated in carbon dioxide environment were elucidated. To improve the carbon dioxide environment, giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide, air flow, ventilation, and others were examined. The concentration of carbon dioxide began to decrease when the illumination intensity on growing layer reached 1 -- 1.5 lux, owing to the photo-synthetic activity of vegetables, and decreased rapidly at 3 -- 5 lux. The lowering of carbon dioxide concentration lowered the photo-synthesis of vegetables extremely, and the transfer of synthesized carbohydrate to roots was obstructed. The effect suffered in low carbon dioxide concentration left some aftereffect even after ventilation and the recovery of carbon dioxide concentration. But this aftereffect was not observed in case of cucumber. To improve carbon dioxide environment, the air flow or ventilation required for minimizing the concentration lowering was determined, but giving increased quantity of carbon dioxide was most effective. The interaction of carbon dioxide concentration and light was examined regarding the effect on photo-synthesis, and some knowledge of practical application was obtained. The effect of giving more carbon dioxide was more remarkable as the treatment was given to younger seedlings and in the period when the capacity of absorbing assimilation products was higher. (Kako, I.)

  16. Urban Knowledge and Urban Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Atkinson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    it appears in many shapes and guises ranging from scientific and codified forms of knowledge to everyday forms; what the chapters in this book, and the wider literature show is that there is a wide range of knowledge forms that are often summarised as ‘common sense’, a kind of reasoning based on experience...... in which knowledge appears in many areas of life, including the sciences. On the other hand, formulated (or codified) knowledge is what we can discuss and exchange views about; to organise this debate some basic rules have developed over time.......As we have seen in contemporary societies, particularly in relation to the ‘knowledge-based society and economy’, the role and position of knowledge has acquired increasingly strong and positive connotations; this is an indication that reflection and careful preparation is important before action...

  17. Manufacturing Outsourcing A Knowledge Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; O'Sullivan, David

    2012-01-01

    All companies which reach a critical size are faced with outsourcing decisions that can increase the value of their products and services primarily through lower costs, greater reliability and improved efficiency. Successful outsourcing decisions have an important knowledge dimension, where the outsourcing professionals need to be supported by historical and contextual knowledge regarding their own products performance but also the performance of suppliers. Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension explains in detail how a manager can acquire, create, transfer and use knowledge that optimizes their outsourcing decisions and improves the changes of marketplace success.              Outsourcing in Manufacturing: the Knowledge Dimension gives examples of the key decisions that needs to be taken by managers regarding effective outsourcing. Decisions are divided around the structural and infrastructural aspects of outsourcing and the key knowledge that needs to be managed to support good de...

  18. Professional Knowledge and Everyday Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    their professional knowledge with regards to collective reflection and creating coherent practices and everyday lives for children and families. I propose an alternative perspective on development of professional knowledge, which takes aspects of professional knowledge and everyday practice......Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing...... and professional knowledge must involve an understanding of the importance of routines, habits and practical tasks. The analysis takes its point of departure in observations and interviews in a daycare institution with a combined nursery and preschool (age 0-6 years) In order to grasp the knowledge quality...

  19. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobben, Martin; van de Velde, Sebastiaan; Gliwa, Jana; Leda, Lucyna; Korn, Dieter; Struck, Ulrich; Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Hairapetian, Vachik; Ghaderi, Abbas; Korte, Christoph; Newton, Robert J.; Poulton, Simon W.; Wignall, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian-Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-)sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the observed signal of carbon

  20. Latest Permian carbonate carbon isotope variability traces heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation and authigenic carbonate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schobben

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk-carbonate carbon isotope ratios are a widely applied proxy for investigating the ancient biogeochemical carbon cycle. Temporal carbon isotope trends serve as a prime stratigraphic tool, with the inherent assumption that bulk micritic carbonate rock is a faithful geochemical recorder of the isotopic composition of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon. However, bulk-carbonate rock is also prone to incorporate diagenetic signals. The aim of the present study is to disentangle primary trends from diagenetic signals in carbon isotope records which traverse the Permian–Triassic boundary in the marine carbonate-bearing sequences of Iran and South China. By pooling newly produced and published carbon isotope data, we confirm that a global first-order trend towards depleted values exists. However, a large amount of scatter is superimposed on this geochemical record. In addition, we observe a temporal trend in the amplitude of this residual δ13C variability, which is reproducible for the two studied regions. We suggest that (sub-sea-floor microbial communities and their control on calcite nucleation and ambient porewater dissolved inorganic carbon δ13C pose a viable mechanism to induce bulk-rock δ13C variability. Numerical model calculations highlight that early diagenetic carbonate rock stabilization and linked carbon isotope alteration can be controlled by organic matter supply and subsequent microbial remineralization. A major biotic decline among Late Permian bottom-dwelling organisms facilitated a spatial increase in heterogeneous organic carbon accumulation. Combined with low marine sulfate, this resulted in varying degrees of carbon isotope overprinting. A simulated time series suggests that a 50 % increase in the spatial scatter of organic carbon relative to the average, in addition to an imposed increase in the likelihood of sampling cements formed by microbial calcite nucleation to 1 out of 10 samples, is sufficient to induce the

  1. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  2. An Integrated Knowledge Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a Knowledge Management System based on Fuzzy Logic (FLKMS, a real-time expert system to meet the challenges of the dynamic environment. The main feature of our integrated shell FLKMS is that it models and integrates the temporal relationships between the dynamic of the evolution of an economic process with some fuzzy inferential methods, using a knowledge model for control, embedded within the expert system’s operational knowledge base.

  3. Consumer knowledge and electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, A J.E.; Williams, D I; Crawshaw, C M

    1985-12-01

    Householders in all-electric homes were asked to rank their electrical appliances in terms of annual running cost. By comparing this with an individually calculated correct order, an assessment of their knowledge was made. On this measure overall knowledge was good, but half the sample underestimated the running costs of key high-energy using appliances (space heating, hot-water, cooking). This specific lack of knowledge is critical, and was found to be correlated with higher bills. 16 references.

  4. Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Skovvang Christensen, Karina; Mouritsen, Jan

    From various angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. New dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts emerge by focusing on knowledge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer...... new insight into the range of practical problems that can be addressed and methods that can be applied when knowledge is put on the management agenda....

  5. Knowledge Portals: Ontologies at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Staab, Steffen; Maedche, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge portals provide views onto domain-specific information on the World Wide Web, thus helping their users find relevant, domain-specific information. The construction of intelligent access and the contribution of information to knowledge portals, however, remained an ad hoc task, requiring extensive manual editing and maintenance by the knowledge portal providers. To diminish these efforts, we use ontologies as a conceptual backbone for providing, accessing, and structuring information...

  6. Knowledge, decision making, and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems depend heavily upon the ability to make decisions. Decisions require knowledge, yet there is no knowledge-based theory of decision making. To the extent that AI uses a theory of decision-making it adopts components of the traditional statistical view in which choices are made by maximizing some function of the probabilities of decision options. A knowledge-based scheme for reasoning about uncertainty is proposed, which extends the traditional framework but is compatible with it

  7. Location of knowledge about consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, knowledge about customers is the most valuable asset for any enterprise.Using it, organizations can more effectively increase customer loyalty and their value to the company. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main sources of knowledge about the client and to present the importance and possibilities of using customer knowledge to build the intellectual capital of organizations.

  8. Chemistry of organic carbon in soil with relationship to the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M. III.

    1988-01-01

    Various ecosystem disturbances alter the balances between production of organic matter and its decomposition and therefore change the amount of carbon in soil. The most severe perturbation is conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops. Conversion of natural vegetation to cultivated crops results in a lowered input of slowly decomposing material which causes a reduction in overall carbon levels. Disruption of soil matrix structure by cultivation leads to lowered physical protection of organic matter resulting in an increased net mineralization rate of soil carbon. Climate change is another perturbation that affects the amount and composition of plant production, litter inputs, and decomposition regimes but does not affect soil structure directly. Nevertheless, large changes in soil carbon storage are probable with anticipated CO 2 induced climate change, particularly in northern latitudes where anticipated climate change will be greatest (MacCracken and Luther 1985) and large amounts of soil organic matter are found. It is impossible, given the current state of knowledge of soil organic matter processes and transformations to develop detailed process models of soil carbon dynamics. Largely phenomenological models appear to be developing into predictive tools for understanding the role of soil organic matter in the global carbon cycle. In particular, these models will be useful in quantifying soil carbon changes due to human land-use and to anticipated global climate and vegetation changes. 47 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Carbon-14 waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.P.; Smith, G.M.; White, I.F

    1984-01-01

    Carbon-14 occurs in nature, but is also formed in nuclear reactors. Because of its long half-life and the biological significance of carbon, releases from nuclear facilities could have a significant radiological impact. Waste management strategies for carbon-14 are therefore of current concern. Carbon-14 is present in a variety of waste streams both at reactors and at reprocessing plants. A reliable picture of the production and release of carbon-14 from various reactor systems has been built up for the purposes of this study. A possible management strategy for carbon-14 might be the reduction of nitrogen impurity levels in core materials, since the activation of 14 N is usually the dominant source of carbon-14. The key problem in carbon-14 management is its retention of off-gas streams, particularly in the dissolver off-gas stream at reprocessing plants. Three alternative trapping processes that convert carbon dioxide into insoluble carbonates have been suggested. The results show that none of the options considered need be rejected on the grounds of potential radiation doses to individuals. All exposures should be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. If, on these grounds, retention and disposal of carbon-14 is found to be beneficial, then, subject to the limitations noted, appropriate retention, immobilization and disposal technologies have been identified

  10. Relations among conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and procedural flexibility in two samples differing in prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R

    2011-11-01

    Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of prior knowledge on the relations. To overcome these problems, we modeled the three constructs in the domain of equation solving as latent factors and tested (a) whether the predictive relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge were bidirectional, (b) whether these interrelations were moderated by prior knowledge, and (c) how both constructs contributed to procedural flexibility. We analyzed data from 2 measurement points each from two samples (Ns = 228 and 304) of middle school students who differed in prior knowledge. Conceptual and procedural knowledge had stable bidirectional relations that were not moderated by prior knowledge. Both kinds of knowledge contributed independently to procedural flexibility. The results demonstrate how changes in complex knowledge structures contribute to competence development.

  11. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  12. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  13. Knowledge typology for imprecise probabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)

    2002-01-01

    When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.

  14. Concepts, ontologies, and knowledge representation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakus, Grega; Omerovic, Sanida; Tomažic, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Recording knowledge in a common framework that would make it possible to seamlessly share global knowledge remains an important challenge for researchers. This brief examines several ideas about the representation of knowledge addressing this challenge. A widespread general agreement is followed that states uniform knowledge representation should be achievable by using ontologies populated with concepts. A separate chapter is dedicated to each of the three introduced topics, following a uniform outline: definition, organization, and use. This brief is intended for those who want to get to know

  15. Knowledge Generation as Natural Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge generation can be naturalized by adopting computational model of cognition and evolutionary approach. In this framework knowledge is seen as a result of the structuring of input data (data ? information ? knowledge by an interactive computational process going on in the agent during the adaptive interplay with the environment, which clearly presents developmental advantage by increasing agent's ability to cope with the situation dynamics. This paper addresses the mechanism of knowledge generation, a process that may be modeled as natural computation in order to be better understood and improved.

  16. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  17. Value Creation in Knowledge Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt; Pries-Heje, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge networks enable businesses to enhance their levels of innovation and market competitiveness. In this paper, we propose five principles for designing IT tools that can support the facilitation and improvement of knowledge networks. We also introduce a new value proposition that constitutes...... a nascent design theory in the domain of knowledge network improvement. The design principles are derived from an iterative process applied in three different case settings. In each case, we apply and evaluate the network nexus tool to determine whether the knowledge network provides value to its...

  18. The making of green knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    of such "green knowledge". The general argument is that, in the future, new types of interaction and new spaces for communication will need to be developed if green knowledge is not to be incorporated into the dominant culture or reduced to ineffective forms of protest.......The paper discusses some of the contributions of environmental activism to the development of knowledge. The paper contrasts some of the main forms of knowledge-making that have emerged among activists and raises a number of questions both about the political and cognitive implications...

  19. Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge, Anticoagulation Control, and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Attending an Anticoagulation Clinic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Evaluation.

  20. Re-valuing Women's Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Yerbury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Women’s knowledge has often been seen as “a whole set of knowledges that have been disqualified as inadequate to their task or insufficiently elaborated: naive knowledges, located low down on the hierarchy, beneath the required level of cognition or scientificity." (Foucault 1980, p. 82. In this description, scientific knowledges are seen to be hierarchically more important, with traditional knowledges ranged beneath them. In this hierarchy, women’s knowledges are found wanting. The purpose of this paper is to explore the assertion that women’s knowledges are inadequate and to document ways in which they are marginalised. Revaluing women’s knowledge is recognised as one of the most direct methods of changing the way a society works. A vast literature has argued that is a key factor in development and has been shown to lead to poverty alleviation, to the development of active citizens and to the creation of a more open and democratic society. Possibilities for the revaluing of women’s knowledge using information and communication technologies are considered, focussing on the concepts of open access and the information commons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v5i3.3381

  1. Highly stretchable carbon aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Xiao, Youhua; Fang, Bo; Liu, Yingjun; Gao, Weiwei; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Chao

    2018-02-28

    Carbon aerogels demonstrate wide applications for their ultralow density, rich porosity, and multifunctionalities. Their compressive elasticity has been achieved by different carbons. However, reversibly high stretchability of neat carbon aerogels is still a great challenge owing to their extremely dilute brittle interconnections and poorly ductile cells. Here we report highly stretchable neat carbon aerogels with a retractable 200% elongation through hierarchical synergistic assembly. The hierarchical buckled structures and synergistic reinforcement between graphene and carbon nanotubes enable a temperature-invariable, recoverable stretching elasticity with small energy dissipation (~0.1, 100% strain) and high fatigue resistance more than 10 6 cycles. The ultralight carbon aerogels with both stretchability and compressibility were designed as strain sensors for logic identification of sophisticated shape conversions. Our methodology paves the way to highly stretchable carbon and neat inorganic materials with extensive applications in aerospace, smart robots, and wearable devices.

  2. Trans-knowledge? Geography, mobility and knowledge in transnational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, Johanna; Leung, W.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Is there anything more mobile and less sticky than the knowledge imparted and created through transnational higher education (TNE)? Transnationalism implies an inherent mobility and fluidity—a process at ease with geographical distance and difference. By definition, the mobility of knowledge lies at

  3. Knowledge Architect : A Tool Suite for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Peng; Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris

    2009-01-01

    Management of software architecture knowledge (AK) is vital for improving an organization’s architectural capabilities. To support the architecting process within our industrial partner: Astron, the Dutch radio astronomy institute, we implemented the Knowledge Architect (KA): a tool suite for

  4. Knowledge claim evaluation : a fundamental issue for knowledge management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, K.; Maruster, L.; Jorna, R.J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to present a classification of approaches toward knowledge claim evaluation (KCE), which is the process of evaluating and testing knowledge claims in organizations, and to position KCE as a fundamental research issue for KM. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws

  5. Knowledge Management in Doctoral Education toward Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, Adamantia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and the scope of knowledge management (KM) in doctoral education, in the emerging knowledge economy (KE) context, and the recommendation of a framework for KM in doctoral education. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended literature analysis was contacted to elaborate the role and the…

  6. Knowledge-based systems programming for knowledge intensive teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Oxman, R.M.; Colajanni, B.; Pellitteri, G.

    1995-01-01

    Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered as a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge

  7. Knowledge-based systems programming for knowledge intensive teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered as a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge

  8. Knowledge is power and power affects Knowledge: Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article engages with the challenges facing genuine research collaboration and knowledge production in a North–South interaction. It maps the asymmetries in global knowledge production in general and revisits African realities in particular. Using the experiences of the Norwegian research programme NORGLOBAL ...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Subjects: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, ...

  10. A knowledge base architecture for distributed knowledge agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    A tuple space based object oriented model for knowledge base representation and interpretation is presented. An architecture for managing distributed knowledge agents is then implemented within the model. The general model is based upon a database implementation of a tuple space. Objects are then defined as an additional layer upon the database. The tuple space may or may not be distributed depending upon the database implementation. A language for representing knowledge and inference strategy is defined whose implementation takes advantage of the tuple space. The general model may then be instantiated in many different forms, each of which may be a distinct knowledge agent. Knowledge agents may communicate using tuple space mechanisms as in the LINDA model as well as using more well known message passing mechanisms. An implementation of the model is presented describing strategies used to keep inference tractable without giving up expressivity. An example applied to a power management and distribution network for Space Station Freedom is given.

  11. Diagnostic knowledge generation of nuclear power plants using knowledge compilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinji; Endou, Akira; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a method to generate diagnostic knowledge of nuclear power plants, from commonly accepted physical knowledge and design information about plant configuration. This method is based on qualitative reasoning, which is advantageous to numerical information processing in the sense that system can explain why and how directly applicable knowledge is correctly generated, and that knowledge base is highly reusable and expandable because it is independent on detailed numerical design specifications. However, reasoning ambiguity has been found as the largest problem in applying the technique to nuclear power plants. The proposed approach mainly consists of a knowledge representation scheme, reasoning algorithm, and qualitative model construction method. (author). 4 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  13. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  14. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and carbon containing alloys

  15. Hydrogen storage properties of carbon nanomaterials and carbon containing metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehlen, Jan Petter

    2003-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is structural investigations of carbon containing materials in respect to their hydrogen storage properties. This work was initially triggered by reports of extremely high hydrogen storage capacities of specific carbon nanostructures. It was decided to try to verify and understand the mechanisms in play in case of the existence of such high hydrogen densities in carbon. Two different routes towards the goal were employed; by studying selected hydrides with carbon as one of its constituents (mainly employing powder diffraction techniques in combination with hydrogen absorption and desorption measurements) and by carefully conducting hydrogen sorption experiments on what was believed to be the most ''promising'' carbon nanomaterial sample. In the latter case, a lot of effort was attributed to characterisations of different carbon nanomaterial containing samples with the aid of electron microscopy. Three different carbon-containing metal hydride systems, Y2C-H, YCoC-H and Y5SiC0.2-H, were examined. A relation between hydrogen occupation and the local arrangement of metal and carbon atoms surrounding the hydrogen sites was established. Several characteristic features of the compounds were noted in addition to solving the structure of the former unknown deuterideY5Si3C0.2D2.0 by the use of direct methods. Several carbon-nanomaterial containing samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and powder diffraction, thus gaining knowledge concerning the structural aspects of nanomaterials. Based on these investigations, a specific sample containing a large amount of open-ended single-wall carbon nanotubes was chosen for subsequent hydrogen storage experiments. The latter experiments revealed moderate hydrogen storage capacities of the nanotubes not exceeding the values obtained for more conventional forms of carbon. These two different routes in investigating the hydrogen storage properties of carbon and

  16. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 20131, 2. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production2, 3, but the natural reversal of the process—carbonation—has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondar...

  17. Deep Carbon Observatory investigates Carbon from Crust to Core: An Academic Record of the History of Deep Carbon Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon plays an unparalleled role in our lives: as the element of life, as the basis of most of society's energy, as the backbone of most new materials, and as the central focus in efforts to understand Earth's variable and uncertain climate. Yet in spite of carbon's importance, scientists remain largely ignorant of the physical, chemical, and biological behavior of many of Earth's carbon-bearing systems. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a global research program to transform our understanding of carbon in Earth. At its heart, DCO is a community of scientists, from biologists to physicists, geoscientists to chemists, and many others whose work crosses these disciplinary lines, forging a new, integrative field of deep carbon science. As a historian of science, I specialise in the history of planetary science and astronomy since 1900. This is directed toward understanding of the history of the steps on the road to discovering the internal dynamics of our planet. Within a framework that describes the historical background to the new field of Earth System Science, I present the first history of deep carbon science. This project will identifies the key discoveries of deep carbon science. It will assess the impact of new knowledge on geochemistry, geodynamics, and geobiology. The project will lead to publication, in book form in 2019, of an illuminating narrative that will highlight the engaging human stories of many remarkable scientists and natural philosophers from whom we have learned about the complexity of Earth's internal world. On this journey of discovery we will encounter not just the pioneering researchers of deep carbon science, but also their institutions, their instrumental inventiveness, and their passion for exploration. The book is organised thematically around the four communities of the Deep Carbon Observatory: Deep Life, Extreme Physics and Chemistry, Reservoirs and Fluxes, and Deep Energy. The presentation has a gallery and list of Deep Carbon

  18. Yeast Carbon Catabolite Repression†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Juana M.

    1998-01-01

    Glucose and related sugars repress the transcription of genes encoding enzymes required for the utilization of alternative carbon sources; some of these genes are also repressed by other sugars such as galactose, and the process is known as catabolite repression. The different sugars produce signals which modify the conformation of certain proteins that, in turn, directly or through a regulatory cascade affect the expression of the genes subject to catabolite repression. These genes are not all controlled by a single set of regulatory proteins, but there are different circuits of repression for different groups of genes. However, the protein kinase Snf1/Cat1 is shared by the various circuits and is therefore a central element in the regulatory process. Snf1 is not operative in the presence of glucose, and preliminary evidence suggests that Snf1 is in a dephosphorylated state under these conditions. However, the enzymes that phosphorylate and dephosphorylate Snf1 have not been identified, and it is not known how the presence of glucose may affect their activity. What has been established is that Snf1 remains active in mutants lacking either the proteins Grr1/Cat80 or Hxk2 or the Glc7 complex, which functions as a protein phosphatase. One of the main roles of Snf1 is to relieve repression by the Mig1 complex, but it is also required for the operation of transcription factors such as Adr1 and possibly other factors that are still unidentified. Although our knowledge of catabolite repression is still very incomplete, it is possible in certain cases to propose a partial model of the way in which the different elements involved in catabolite repression may be integrated. PMID:9618445

  19. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  20. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice with the ...

  1. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  2. Pursuing the Depths of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Today's state literacy standards and assessments demand deeper levels of knowledge from students. But many teachers ask, "What does depth of knowledge look like on these new, more rigorous assessments? How do we prepare students for this kind of thinking?" In this article, Nancy Boyles uses a sampling of questions from the PARCC and SBAC…

  3. Temporal Convergence for Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillip Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time and knowledge have tended to be conceptualised in conventional knowledge management systems as either ‘timeless’ recordings of procedures, or time-stamped records of past events and states. The concept of temporal convergence was previously developed to help apply knowledge-management theory to complex military processes such as commander’s intent, shared situation awareness, and self-synchronisation. This paper clarifies the concept and introduces several others in forming a framework to assist discussion and exploration of the types of knowledge required for complex endeavours, such as warfighting, characterised by opposition and uncertainty. The approach is grounded in a pragmatist philosophy and constructivist epistemology. Argument proceeds along mathematical lines from a basis that the types of knowledge most valuable to goal-directed agents in uncertain environments can be modelled as directed graph topologies. The framework is shown to be useful in describing and reasoning about the knowledge requirements and prerequisites for distributed decision-making through the sharing of situational knowledge and common intentions, with practical application to the planning and execution of operations. To the designers of knowledge management systems seeking to address this space, it presents a challenge that cannot be addressed merely by construction, storage, search and retrieval of documents and records pertaining to the past.

  4. Knowledge Management and Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Skovvang Christensen, Karina; Mouritsen, Jan

    From various angles and perspectives this book shows how knowledge management is actually practised in many different European firms. New dimensions of well-known management principles and concepts emerge by focusing on knowledge. Leading researchers and experts from European business schools offer...

  5. Nuclear Knowledge - Demand or Pride?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, S.C.; Valeca, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, the increasing energy demand and the decreasing 'classical' resources is a reality. In this context, sustainable development and economical growth is mandatory for each country. Nuclear energy becomes more and more attractive in order to solve those problems. During last years, nuclear knowledge management became an interesting topic in dedicated debates, due to the uniqueness of nuclear Industry. With five decades of operational experience in commercial power production, the nuclear power industry is mature and represents the first high technology enterprise of the twentieth century. There is a constant expectation that fission reactor technologies of today will 'soon' be superseded by more advanced designs, new concepts like Generation IV, fusion reactors, etc. Nuclear industry is highly regulated and politicized and strong anti-nuclear lobbies led to stagnation. The presentation underlines the key activity areas of the nuclear knowledge: - providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems; - facilitating knowledge creation and utilization; - implementing effective knowledge management systems; - preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; - enhancing nuclear education and training. Knowledge management in nuclear life cycle should cover all stages involved, namely: - design and engineering; - procurement; - manufacturing; - construction and commissioning; - operation and maintenance- refurbishment and decommissioning. In this context, Romania must change the Nuclear Educational System in order to face the requirements raised by Bologna Process and nuclear development. Possible solutions to attain this goal are illustrated in this presentation. (authors)

  6. Motivational Issues in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BOGDAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the place of emotions in modern theories of motivation, and the influence of the knowledge-oriented paradigm on redefining motivation and rethinking ways of rendering work, knowledge work, in particular, more efficient, in a society in which human participation and deployment of intellectual capital become key factors of success, replacing traditional, tangible-focused, factors of production.

  7. Manufacturing in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    and export. However, the character and activities of these industries are profoundly changing as they become increasingly knowledge intensive. Thus, innovation processes and knowledge production in manufacturing are much more complex than suggested by the classic division into high-, medium-and low...

  8. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  9. Organizational Learning through Knowledge Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiryany Araghy, N.; Huysman, M.H.; de Man, A.P.; Cloodt, M.; Vrontis, D.; Weber, Y.; Kaufmann, R.; Tarba, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many acquisitions in the high-tech industry are motivated by a desire to share knowledge in order to stimulate organizational learning, with the ultimate aim of innovation. However, acquiring a firm does not guarantee that valuable knowledge will be successfully shared. Recent research has in fact

  10. Some basic aspects of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abhary, K; Adriansen, H K; Begovac, F

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge processing is one of the most significant factors contributing to socioeconomic sustainability. It is therefore important to analyse hindrances that slow or even prevent the growth, communication and use of knowledge. This treatise hypothesises that the differences in interpretations of...

  11. Cofrentes NPP Knowledge management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo Gonzalez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the Knowledge Management Plan at Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant is therefore to establish the steps to be followed for distributing and sharing the existing knowledge at the Plant through collaboration and continuous learning and exchanges with internal and external groups. It is also very important that staff and organisational learning is closely in line with Plant expectations. (Author)

  12. The power of theoretical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Martha Raile

    2011-10-01

    Nursing theoretical knowledge has demonstrated powerful contributions to education, research, administration and professional practice for guiding nursing thought and action. That knowledge has shifted the primary focus of the nurse from nursing functions to the person. Theoretical views of the person raise new questions, create new approaches and instruments for nursing research, and expand nursing scholarship throughout the world.

  13. Knowledge sharing in diverse organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    the fact that organisations which can make full use of their collective knowledge and expertise could be expected to be more efficient, effective and creative. Therefore, a survey was directed towards 16 diverse academic departments in three large universities in Denmark, and 489 academics took part...... of these findings for the management of knowledge in intensive diverse organisations are discussed in detail....

  14. Knowledge Representation: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews different structures and techniques of knowledge representation: structure of database records and files, data structures in computer programming, syntatic and semantic structure of natural language, knowledge representation in artificial intelligence, and models of human memory. A prototype expert system that makes use of some of these…

  15. Eliciting teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitink, M.; Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Verplanken, L.; Braak, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper starts from the understanding that teachers' knowledge is situated, grounded in knowledge derived from formal training and from experiences in practice. Based on this understanding we examine teachers' reasoning in relation to the pedagogical choices teachers make while using ICT in

  16. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  17. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  18. Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 101-105 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management, * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  19. The KMAT: Benchmarking Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Martha

    Provides an overview of knowledge management and benchmarking, including the benefits and methods of benchmarking (e.g., competitive, cooperative, collaborative, and internal benchmarking). Arthur Andersen's KMAT (Knowledge Management Assessment Tool) is described. The KMAT is a collaborative benchmarking tool, designed to help organizations make…

  20. Knowledge Brokers, Entrepreneurs and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswill, Chris; Lyall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands the discussion of knowledge brokerage by connecting it to long-standing debates within the social sciences about the effective transmission of scientifically produced knowledge into the worlds of policy and practice. This longer-term perspective raises some different questions about intermediary roles which are then tested…

  1. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  2. Carbon dioxide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Lee, Inhee [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh A [Hilliard, OH

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  3. Understanding how individuals perceive carbon dioxide. Implications for acceptance of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaoka, K.; Saito, A. [Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Paukovic, M.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Dowd, A.M.; Jeanneret, T.; Ashworth, P.; James, M. [The Global CCS Institute, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) presents one potential technological solution for mitigating the atmospheric emission of carbon dioxide sources. However, CCS is a relatively new technology with associated uncertainties and perceived risks. For this reason, a growing body of research now focuses on public perceptions and potential for societal acceptance of CCS technology. Almost all explanations of CCS technology make reference to carbon dioxide, with an assumption that the general public understands CO2. It has become apparent that the general public’s knowledge and understanding of CO2’s properties influences how they engage with CO2 emitting industries and CCS technologies. However, surprisingly little research has investigated public perceptions, knowledge, and understanding of CO2. This investigation attempts to fill that gap. This report describes an investigation of how citizens of three countries (Japan, Australia, and the Netherlands) perceive CO2. Furthermore, it attempts to relate individual perceptions of CO2 to perceptions of CCS, and to determine how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards low carbon energy options, particularly CCS. In brief, the research had four ultimate aims. It aimed to: Explore the public’s knowledge and understanding of the properties of CO2; Examine the influence of that knowledge on their perceptions of CO2 and CCS; Investigate how information provision about the underlying properties and characteristics of CO2 influences individual attitudes towards CCS; and Identify if any differences between countries exist in relation to values and beliefs, knowledge of CO2’s properties, and CCS perceptions.

  4. The Relationship between Immediate Relevant Basic Science Knowledge and Clinical Knowledge: Physiology Knowledge and Transthoracic Echocardiography Image Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gotzsche, Ole; Sonne, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Two major views on the relationship between basic science knowledge and clinical knowledge stand out; the Two-world view seeing basic science and clinical science as two separate knowledge bases and the encapsulated knowledge view stating that basic science knowledge plays an overt role being encapsulated in the clinical knowledge. However, resent…

  5. Knowledge management: another management fad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard J. Ponzi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is a subject of a growth body of literature. While capturing the interest of practitioners and scholars in the mid-1990s, knowledge management remains a broadly defined concept with faddish characteristics. Based on annual counts of article retrieved from Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, and ABI Inform referring to three previous recognized management fad, this paper introduces empirical evidence that proposes that a typical management movement generally reveals itself as a fad in approximately five years. In applying this approach and assumption to the case of knowledge management, the findings suggest that knowledge management is at least living longer than typical fads and perhaps is in the process of establishing itself as a new aspect of management. To further the understanding of knowledge management's development, its interdisciplinary activity and breadth are reported and briefly discussed.

  6. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  7. Knowledge Sharing and National Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailova, Snejina; Hutchings, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Much of the knowledge management literature tends to assume a rather universalistunderstanding of knowledge sharing. Yet, attitudes to knowledge sharing as well as actualknowledge-sharing behaviour depend on conditions that vary across institutional and culturalenvironments. This paper contributes...... to the knowledge-sharing literature by specificallydiscussing the interplay between knowledge-sharing and national cultural factors in the context oftransition countries. The paper engages in a comparative examination of two major transitionsocieties, China and Russia, and contributes to understanding...... the complexity of differencesbetween transition economies. The paper is written as a set of theoretical arguments andpropositions that is designed to elucidate more nuanced ways of thinking about knowledgesharing in China and Russia. We argue that in the case of China and Russia, verticalindividualism...

  8. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT UNTUK CUSTOMER SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianna Sugandi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a success key in every field aspects. Along with the development in the world nowadays, where globalization is a challenge in every Indonesian human resource to face global competition. In this case, education has important part as media in developing qualified human resources and also as the place where they can be educated in their field. In the development of information technology, it came new systems in several fields including what educational field known as e-learning. Knowledge management (KM is one implementation of e-learning. There is a concept that gathers all knowledge aspects in easily accessed file or document, and also in hardly accessed as knowledge and experience.Keywords: knowledge management, human resource, education

  9. Virtual Teams and Knowledge Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Miikka; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    How does culture affect virtual teams and the knowledge communication processes in which they engage? As virtual spaces are increasingly used to support teams and establish collaboration in cross-cultural projects, the notion of cross-cultural communication can be understood as shifting from...... contextual perspective to a semiotic perspective. That is to say, although the team members are using the same vocabulary they might attach different meanings to and have different knowledge about them thus highlighting the importance of approaching virtual teams and collaboration from a semiotic perspective....... To look at how knowledge about virtual work is established in a multinational context, we interviewed members of a team that connects Finland and India. Results reveal five objects shared between the team members with varying knowledge about them. By making these differences in knowledge visible through...

  10. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT DI INSTANSI PEMERINTAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Pujadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah menyusun model manajemen pengetahuan di instansi pemerintahan. Kegiatan ini menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan menggunakan metode soft system methodology. Faktor yang mendukung keberhasilan kegiatan ini adalah tersedianya data dan informasi diberbagai instansi pemerintah dan swasta. sekaligus penguasaan metodologi dalam analisis. Persaingan internasional pada saat ini cenderung lebih ketat dan kompleks, untuk itu perlu dicari cara agar mendapatkan produk atau jasa yang diperlukan oleh masyarakat. Inovasi yang kreatif dapat meningkatkan pelayanan terhadap masyarakat yang memerlukannya. Sehingga unit-unit di pemerintahan sangat tergantung dari pengelolaan pengetahuan apakah akan terjadi siklus knowledge yaitu perpindahan dari tacit ke explicit knowledge dan ke tacit knowledge. Oleh karena itu pengelolaan knowledge (knowledge management ini menjadi penting bagi pengembangan pelayanan, karena masyarakat semakin kritis dan cerdas dan meningkatkan kemampuan sumber daya manusia bagi pemangku kepentingan.

  11. What is the Knowledge Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.

  12. Knowledge management in the firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Nielsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to innovation and illustrates how combinations of these might benefit firm performance. It also stresses the preconditions of employee involvement and participation to knowledge management and not least the importance of interaction with environmental resources. To improve performance firms should be aware......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set focus on, and discuss the concept of knowledge, and show how the interrelations between knowledge and other concepts, such as learning, have become a decisive element in managing human resources and firm performance. Design....../methodology/approach – The dimensions of knowledge management are identified and related to learning, organizational configurations, human resources management and institutional environments in order to identify and percent the most important approaches to knowledge management and the development over time. Findings – Creating...

  13. Social web and knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Kroetz, Markus; Schaffert, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge Management is the study and practice of representing, communicating, organizing, and applying knowledge in organizations. Moreover, being used by organizations, it is inherently social. The Web, as a medium, enables new forms of communications and interactions and requires new ways...... to represent knowledge assets. It is therefore obvious that the Web will influence and change Knowledge Management, but it is very unclear what the impact of these changes will be. This chapter raises questions and discusses visions in the area that connects the Social Web and Knowledge Management – an area...... of research that is only just emerging. The World Wide Web conference 2008 in Beijing hosted a workshop on that question, bringing together researchers and practitioners to gain first insights toward answering questions of that area....

  14. Improving performance with knowledge management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangchul

    2018-06-01

    People and organization are unable to easily locate their experience and knowledge, so meaningful data is usually fragmented, unstructured, not up-to-date and largely incomplete. Poor knowledge management (KM) leaves a company weak to their knowledge-base - or intellectual capital - walking out of the door each year, that is minimum estimated at 10%. Knowledge management (KM) can be defined as an emerging set of organizational design and operational principles, processes, organizational structures, applications and technologies that helps knowledge workers dramatically leverage their creativity and ability to deliver business value and to reap finally a competitive advantage. Then, this paper proposed various method and software starting with an understanding of the enterprise aspect, and gave inspiration to those who wanted to use KM.

  15. Knowledge And Knowledge Management As A Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bratić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern business environment with high turbulence and complexity, an organization’s force to create and sustain competitive advantage lies in what it knows not what it owns. Establishment of a knowledge management in organization will ensure sustainable competitive advantage because the intellectual capital has become the primary bases of core competencies and the key to superior performance. The transition from industrial to knowledge society, effective use of knowledge is one of the deciding factors in the struggle for competitiveness because it will ensure the rationality, efficiency and flexibility in operations, and only through the realization of those graphics company can gain a competitive advantage on the market.

  16. Co-production of knowledge: An Inuit Indigenous Knowledge perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R.; Behe, C.

    2017-12-01

    A "co-production of knowledge" approach brings together different knowledge systems while building equitable and collaborative partnerships from `different ways of knowing.' Inuit Indigenous Knowledge is a systematic way of thinking applied to phenomena across biological, physical, cultural and spiritual systems; rooted with a holistic understanding of ecosystems (ICC Alaska 2016). A holistic image of Arctic environmental change is attained by bringing Indigenous Knowledge (IK) holders and scientists together through a co-production of knowledge framework. Experts from IK and science should be involved together from the inception of a project. IK should be respected as its own knowledge system and should not be translated into science. A co-production of knowledge approach is important in developing adaptation policies and practices, for sustainability and to address biodiversity conservation (Daniel et al. 2016). Co-production of knowledge is increasingly being recognized by the scientific community at-large. However, in many instances the concept is being incorrectly applied. This talk will build on the important components of co-production of knowledge from an Inuit perspective and specifically IK. In this presentation we will differentiate the co-production of knowledge from a multi-disciplinary approach or multi-evidence based decision-making. We underscore the role and value of different knowledge systems with different methodologies and the need for collaborative approaches in identifying research questions. We will also provide examples from our experiences with Indigenous communities and scientists in the Arctic. References: Inuit Circumpolar Council of Alaska. 2016. Alaskan Inuit Food Security Conceptual Framework: How to Assess the Arctic From An Inuit Perspective, 201pp. Daniel, R., C. Behe, J. Raymond-Yakoubian, E. Krummel, and S. Gearhead. Arctic Observing Summit White Paper Synthesis, Theme 6: Interfacing Indigenous Knowledge, Community

  17. Identifying knowledge in decision-making processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    Managing knowledge reflects the innovation capability of a company. Mapping decision processes and links to knowledge is a way to learn more in structuring knowledge in innovation processes. Through an empirical study the paper aims to identify knowledge...

  18. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...

  19. Towards an understanding of the molecular regulation of carbon allocation in diatoms: the interaction of energy and carbon allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Fanesi, Andrea; Wilhelm, Christian

    2017-09-05

    In microalgae, the photosynthesis-driven CO 2 assimilation delivers cell building blocks that are used in different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known about how the cell regulates the subsequent carbon allocation to, for example, cell growth or for storage. However, knowledge about these regulatory mechanisms is of high biotechnological and ecological importance. In diatoms, the situation becomes even more complex because, as a consequence of their secondary endosymbiotic origin, the compartmentation of the pathways for the primary metabolic routes is different from green algae. Therefore, the mechanisms to manipulate the carbon allocation pattern cannot be adopted from the green lineage. This review describes the general pathways of cellular energy distribution from light absorption towards the final allocation of carbon into macromolecules and summarizes the current knowledge of diatom-specific allocation patterns. We further describe the (limited) knowledge of regulatory mechanisms of carbon partitioning between lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in diatoms. We present solutions to overcome the problems that hinder the identification of regulatory elements of carbon metabolism.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Creating With Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.