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Sample records for kj hts smes

  1. Development of a 600 kJ HTS SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, K.C.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.H.; Sim, K.D.; Sohn, M.H.; Lee, E.Y.; Park, S.J.; Hahn, S.Y.; Park, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an overview of development on a 600 kJ high-temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES). Our final goal will be the commercialization of MJ class HTS SMES system for the increase of power quality within 5 years. Hence, for this purpose, we have developed the research and development in 3 years. The purpose of this research is to develop a pilot system, which can protect the sensitivity loads from a momentary power interruption or a voltage sag

  2. Research of a 600 kJ HTS-SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, K.C.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.H.; Park, S.J.; Woo, M.H.; Hahn, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an overview of researches on a 600 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system in Korea. This project is scheduled to be conducted over three years from September 2004 to August 2007, supported by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE) of Korea. This project is built based on collaboration among industries, universities, and laboratories. This paper describes current status of the 600 kJ HTS-SMES system in Korea

  3. Design study on 50 kJ HTS SMES for simulated dynamic experiment of electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Taozhen; Fan Zeyang; Li Jingdong; Tang Yuejin; Cheng Shijie; Pan Yuan; Wang Jingrong

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a study in order to determine a suitable design for a 50 kJ class high temperature superconducting (HTS) SMES. Magnet size and volume are expected to be reduced by using the HTS since the HTS wire keeps better properties at high magnetic field than does LTS wire. In this paper, both the electromagnetic and mechanical design objects are considered when optimizing the magnet volume of a 50 kJ/10 kW grid model HTS-SMES system with finite element analysis method and simulated annealing algorithm. We carried out parameter surveys of the magnetic fields and circumference stress applied to the HTS-SMES magnets and studied a suitable magnet dimension with low inductance and high current. 2-3.5 T maximum magnetic field applied to the magnet and a low inductance and high current design for a 50 kJ HTS magnet are suitable for improving the dynamic response of system

  4. Thermal analysis of the conduction cooling system for HTS SMES system of 600 kJ class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Yeom, Han Kil; Park, Seong Je; Kim, Hyo Bong; Koh, Deuk Yong

    2007-01-01

    SMES systems need cryogenic cooling systems. Conduction cooling system has more effective, compact structure than cryogen. In general, 2 stage GM cryocoolers are used for conduction cooling of HTS SMES system. 1st stages of cryocoolers are used for the cooling of current leads and radiation shields, and 2nd stages of cryocoolers for HTS coil. For the effective conduction cooling of the HTS SMES system, the temperature difference between the cryocooler and HTS coil should be minimized. In this paper, a cryogenic conduction cooling system for HTS SMES is analyzed to evaluate the performance of the cooling system. The analysis is carried out for the steady state with the heat generation of the HTS coil and effects of the thermal contact resistance. The results show the effects of the heat generation and thermal contact resistance on the temperature distribution

  5. Mobile conduction-cooled HTS SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Chen, L.; Guo, F.; Fang, J.; Wen, J.

    2010-01-01

    An immovable 35 kJ/7 kW high-T c superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS SMES) system had been developed in the Electric Power System Dynamic Simulation Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2005. In order to adapt for on-site experimental conditions, the mechanical configuration of the magnet is reinforced and the SMES system is assembled in a special container to be freighted to the actual power system for the feasibility study on different applications at different sites. The mobile HTS SMES system had withstood various kinds of poor road surfaces and then arrived at the experimental site on August 18, 2009. In this paper, the reconstructed configuration and the shock absorption of the magnet are presented. The field test results show that the mobile SMES system can operate on the power network at different locations and suppress effectively power fluctuation of the generator terminal.

  6. Characterisation and Control of a Prototype HTS SMES Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, C J; Cuiuri, D; Cook, C D; Gower, S A; Beales, T P

    2006-01-01

    A 2.79 kJ prototype high transition temperature Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) device has been constructed. The coil for the prototype has been wound using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) BSCCO-2223 tape. The refrigeration system is a gaseous helium cold head cryocooler used to maintain the SMES coil at a temperature of 30 K, improving the I c characteristic of the coil by a factor of 4.7 compared to that at 77 K. The SMES device is capable of supplying a 3-phase load during power interruptions, and has been constructed during a program to develop a larger 20 kJ system aimed at industrial applications

  7. Analysis of eddy current losses during discharging period in a 600 kJ SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.J.; Kwak, S.Y.; Lee, S.Y.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.K.; Park, C.; Choi, K.; Bae, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Sim, K.D.; Seong, K.C.; Jung, H.K.; Hahn, S.

    2008-01-01

    The operation of the SMES system can be divided into three modes such as charging, operating and discharging. During the charging and the discharging modes, a magnetic field variation due to the current increase and decrease generate eddy current losses in the SMES system. The eddy current loss in discharging mode is the major factor to be considered because the operating time in the mode is fixed, whereas the charging mode has the arbitrary operating time which is not fixed. In this paper, we present the analysis results of the eddy current losses which are generated in the 600 kJ class HTS SMES system during the discharging mode

  8. Bi-2223 HTS winding in toroidal configuration for SMES coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratowicz-Kucewicz, B; Kozak, S; Kozak, J; Wojtasiewicz, G; Majka, M; Janowski, T

    2010-01-01

    Energy can be stored in the magnetic field of a coil. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is very promising as a power storage system for load levelling or power stabilizer. However, the strong electromagnetic force caused by high magnetic field and large coil current is a problem in SMES systems. A toroidal configuration would have a much less extensive external magnetic field and electromagnetic forces in winding. The paper describes the design of HTS winding for SMES coil in modular toroid configuration consist of seven Bi-2223 double-pancakes as well as numerical analysis of SMES magnet model using FLUX 3D package. As the results of analysis the paper presents the optimal coil configuration and the parameters such as radius of toroidal magnet, energy stored in magnet and magnetic field distribution.

  9. A feasibility study on HTS SMES applications for power quality enhancement through both software simulations and hardware-based experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.R.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, S. [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Park, M., E-mail: paku@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, I.K. [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, K.C. [Superconducting Device and Cryogenics Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, K. [HFLSM, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    SMES system was simulated to improve the power quality. The utility has one wind power generator and wind speed is continuously changed. Utility frequency was fluctuated due to wind speed variation. We made 10 kJ toroid-type HTS SMES for stabilization of utility frequency. We can monitor the operational characteristics of HTS SMES for power application. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which promises the efficiency of more than 95% and fast response becomes a competitive energy storage device. Because of its advantages, SMES can provide benefit as a power quality enhancement device to an utility especially in connection with renewable energy sources. In this paper, a software simulation and an experiment aiming for power quality enhancement are reported. The utility was referred to Ulleung Island in Korea which had one wind power generation system. The simulation was performed using power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) and power-hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS) was implemented to monitor the operational characteristics of SMES when it was connected to utility. This study provides a highly reliable simulation results, and the feasibility of a SMES application is discussed.

  10. A feasibility study on HTS SMES applications for power quality enhancement through both software simulations and hardware-based experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.R.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Seong, K.C.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-01-01

    SMES system was simulated to improve the power quality. The utility has one wind power generator and wind speed is continuously changed. Utility frequency was fluctuated due to wind speed variation. We made 10 kJ toroid-type HTS SMES for stabilization of utility frequency. We can monitor the operational characteristics of HTS SMES for power application. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which promises the efficiency of more than 95% and fast response becomes a competitive energy storage device. Because of its advantages, SMES can provide benefit as a power quality enhancement device to an utility especially in connection with renewable energy sources. In this paper, a software simulation and an experiment aiming for power quality enhancement are reported. The utility was referred to Ulleung Island in Korea which had one wind power generation system. The simulation was performed using power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) and power-hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS) was implemented to monitor the operational characteristics of SMES when it was connected to utility. This study provides a highly reliable simulation results, and the feasibility of a SMES application is discussed.

  11. Performance of a 10-kJ SMES model cooled by liquid hydrogen thermo-siphon flow for ASPCS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makida, Y; Shintomi, T; Hamajima, T; Tsuda, M; Miyagi, D; Ota, N; Katsura, M; Ando, K; Takao, T; Tsujigami, H; Fujikawa, S; Hirose, J; Iwaki, K; Komagome, T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new electrical power storage and stabilization system, called an Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), which consists of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and hydrogen energy storage, converged on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. A small 10- kJ SMES system, in which a BSCCO coil cooled by liquid hydrogen was installed, was developed to create an experimental model of an ASPCS. The SMES coil is conductively cooled by liquid hydrogen flow through a thermo-siphon line under a liquid hydrogen buffer tank. After fabrication of the system, cooldown tests were carried out using liquid hydrogen. The SMES coil was successfully charged up to a nominal current of 200 A. An eddy current loss, which was mainly induced in pure aluminum plates pasted onto each pancake coils for conduction cooling, was also measured. (paper)

  12. Structural design of the toroidal configuration of the HTS SMES cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, H.K.; Koh, D.Y.; Ko, J.S.; Kim, H.B.; Hong, Y.J.; Kim, S.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is working on around 30 K, because the magnet is made of high temperature superconductor. To maintain the cryogenic temperature, the superconducting coil is cooled by cryogen, helium gas or liquid neon. But there are some weak points in the cryogen cooling system. For example periodic charge of the cryogen and size is big and so on. So, we have designed the conduction cooling system for toroidal configuration HTS SMES. The toroidal type HTS SMES has some merits, so it is very small magnetic field leakage, and magnetic field applied perpendicular to the tape surface can be reduced. Our system has 28 numbers of HTS double pancake coils and they are arrayed toroidal configuration. The toroidal inner radius is 162 mm, and outer radius is 599 mm, and height is about 162 mm. In this study, we have designed the cooling structure and analyzed temperature distribution of cooling path, thermal stress and deformation of the cooling structure.

  13. Simulation of chain of quenches on toroidal HTS-SMES taking account of thermal and electromagnetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Y.; Noguchi, S.; Igarashi, H.

    When a temperature rise occurs at a local area inside a coil of toroidal HTS-SMES by any reason, a temperature hotspot which results in a thermal runaway appears at the local area. Subsequently, after appearing the local normal zone in the HTS coil, the transport current of the HTS coil decrease since the resistance of HTS coil appears and the current partially flows into a parallel-connecting shunt resistance. However, if the transport current of the normal-transitioned HTS coil is hardly changed, the temperature on the hotspot would rise more and then the normal zone would spread rapidly. It may cause a serious accident due to high stored energy. Therefore, using the numerical simulation, we have investigated the behaviors of the coil current, the critical current, and the temperature in the superconducting element coils of HTS-SMES. Consequently, the temperature of the superconducting element coils rises up extremely when a large heat is generated at a certain area of one of them by any reason. Moreover, there is a possibility that the shunt resister hardly functions for protection since the coil is burned out due to high inductances and low resistance of the superconducting element coil.

  14. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.R.; Kim, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, D.W.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Kim, S.H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  15. A study on the operation analysis of the power conditioning system with real HTS SMES coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.R.; Jung, H.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Ali, Mohd. Hasan; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Voltage sag from sudden increasing loads is one of the major problems in the utility network. In order to compensate the voltage sag problem, power compensation devices have widely been developed. In the case of voltage sag, it needs an energy source to overcome the energy caused by voltage sag. According as the SMES device is characterized by its very high response time of charge and discharge, it has widely been researched and developed for more than 20 years. However, before the installation of SMES into utility, the system analysis has to be carried out with a certain simulation tool. This paper presents a real-time simulation algorithm for the SMES system by using the miniaturized SMES model coil whose properties are same as those of real size SMES coil. With this method, researchers can easily analyse the performance of SMES connected into utility network by abstracting the properties from the real modeled SMES coil and using the virtual simulated power network in RSCAD/RTDS

  16. Electrical and thermal characteristics of Bi2212/Ag HTS coils for conduction-cooled SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, N.; Noguchi, S.; Kurupakorn, C.; Kojima, H.; Endo, F.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.; Okubo, H.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we investigated the electrical and thermal performance of conduction-cooled Bi2212/Ag HTS coils with 4K-GM cryocooler system. First, we measured the critical current Ic for different ambient temperatures T0 at 4.2 K - 40 K. Experimental results revealed that Ic increased with the decrease in T0 and was saturated at T0 account of temperature dependence of specific heat and thermal conductivity of the materials. We also measured the temperature rise of Bi2212/Ag HTS coil for different continuous current levels at T0 = 4.8 K. Experimental results revealed the criterion of thermal runaway, which was discussed in terms of heat generation and propagation in the test coil.

  17. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y., E-mail: xuyinghust@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D. [Yunnan Electric Power Research Institute, Kunming City 650217 (China); Wang, L.; Dong, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We present a model to calculate the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet. •Comparative analysis of AC loss with different operating conditions has done. •The nonuniform distribution factor “d” is proposed to estimate the inhomogeneity of a storage magnet. •The model predicts the loss distribution and crucial areas which are suffering from the high AC loss. This is significant for the conduction-cooled structure design. -- Abstract: The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  18. Electrical and thermal characteristics of Bi2212/Ag HTS coils for conduction-cooled SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, N; Noguchi, S; Kurupakorn, C; Kojima, H; Endo, F; Hirano, N; Nagaya, S; Okubo, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the electrical and thermal performance of conduction-cooled Bi2212/Ag HTS coils with 4K-GM cryocooler system. First, we measured the critical current I c for different ambient temperatures T 0 at 4.2 K - 40 K. Experimental results revealed that I c increased with the decrease in T 0 and was saturated at T 0 0 = 4.8 K. Experimental results revealed the criterion of thermal runaway, which was discussed in terms of heat generation and propagation in the test coil

  19. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  20. A novel HTS SMES application in combination with a permanent magnet synchronous generator type wind power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G. H.; Kim, A. R.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Seong, K. C.; Won, Y. J.

    2011-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is a DC current driven device and can be utilized to improve power quality particularly in connection with renewable energy sources due to higher efficiency and faster response than other devices. This paper suggests a novel connection topology of SMES which can smoothen the output power flow of the wind power generation system (WPGS). The structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a power converter in comparison with a conventional application of SMES. One more advantage of SMES in the proposed system is to improve the capability of low voltage ride through (LVRT) for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) type WPGS. The proposed system including a SMES has been modeled and analyzed by a PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the novel SMES application strategy to not only mitigate the output power of the PMSG but also improve the capability of LVRT for PMSG type WPGS.

  1. A novel HTS SMES application in combination with a permanent magnet synchronous generator type wind power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.H.; Kim, A.R.; Kim, S. [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Park, M., E-mail: paku@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, I.K. [Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, K.C. [Superconducting Device and Cryogenics Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Y.J. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Changwon 641-241 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A novel connection topology of SMES is proposed in this paper. Structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a converter. The proposed system smoothens output power of wind power generation system. Advantage of the system is to improve the low voltage ride through capability. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is a DC current driven device and can be utilized to improve power quality particularly in connection with renewable energy sources due to higher efficiency and faster response than other devices. This paper suggests a novel connection topology of SMES which can smoothen the output power flow of the wind power generation system (WPGS). The structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a power converter in comparison with a conventional application of SMES. One more advantage of SMES in the proposed system is to improve the capability of low voltage ride through (LVRT) for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) type WPGS. The proposed system including a SMES has been modeled and analyzed by a PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the novel SMES application strategy to not only mitigate the output power of the PMSG but also improve the capability of LVRT for PMSG type WPGS.

  2. A novel HTS SMES application in combination with a permanent magnet synchronous generator type wind power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.H.; Kim, A.R.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Seong, K.C.; Won, Y.J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel connection topology of SMES is proposed in this paper. Structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a converter. The proposed system smoothens output power of wind power generation system. Advantage of the system is to improve the low voltage ride through capability. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is a DC current driven device and can be utilized to improve power quality particularly in connection with renewable energy sources due to higher efficiency and faster response than other devices. This paper suggests a novel connection topology of SMES which can smoothen the output power flow of the wind power generation system (WPGS). The structure of the proposed system is cost-effective because it reduces a power converter in comparison with a conventional application of SMES. One more advantage of SMES in the proposed system is to improve the capability of low voltage ride through (LVRT) for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) type WPGS. The proposed system including a SMES has been modeled and analyzed by a PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the novel SMES application strategy to not only mitigate the output power of the PMSG but also improve the capability of LVRT for PMSG type WPGS.

  3. Prospects for HTS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, B.B.; Snitchler, G.L.; Schwall, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) wire is rapidly maturing into a working material being produced in ever larger quantities and being used in more significant demonstrations and prototypes. Conductor is now produced routinely in several hundred meter lengths with reproducible results. Current density has progressed to a level suitable for demonstration of many applications. Wire strength has improved and large prototypes fabricated or under consideration using HTS include Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES), rotating electrical machines including synchronous ac and dc homopolar motors and drives, generators and condensers, underground transmission cables, utility distribution equipment such as transformers and current limiters, commercial processing applications such as magnetic separation, and specialty magnets such as high field inserts. In this paper the requirements, progress toward these requirements, and the prospects for the future are reviewed

  4. Recent Progress in Electrical Insulation Techniques for HTS Power Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Naoki; Kojima, Hiroki; Hanai, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi

    This paper describes the electrical insulation techniques at cryogenic temperatures, i.e. Cryodielectrics, for HTS power apparatus, e.g. HTS power transmission cables, transformers, fault current limiters and SMES. Breakdown and partial discharge characteristics are discussed for different electrical insulation configurations of LN2, sub-cooled LN2, solid, vacuum and their composite insulation systems. Dynamic and static insulation performances with and without taking account of quench in HTS materials are also introduced.

  5. Minimal performances of high Tc wires for cost effective SMES compared with low Tc's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, C.; Therond, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of a 22MJ/10MVA unit without stray field, the authors determine minimal performances for High T c Superconducting (HTS) wires, in order to obtain HTS Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) competitive compared with Low T c Superconducting (LTS) ones. The cost equation mainly considers the wire volume, the fabrication process and losses. They then recommend HTS critical current densities and operating magnetic fields close to the present state of the art for short samples. A 30% gain for HTS SMES compared with LTS one could be expected

  6. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, H.R.; Kim, A.R.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    Power quality enhancement of a renewable energy source power network is performed by a real-toroidal-type SMES coil. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation. The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality. This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  7. Developmental Challenges of SMES Technology for Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Charles C.; Barnes, Paul N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews the current status of high temperature superconductor (HTS) based superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology as a developmental effort. Discussion centres on the major challenges in magnet optimization, loss reduction, cooling improvement, and new development of quench detection. The cryogenic operation for superconductivity in this technological application requires continued research and development, especially with a greater engineering effort that involves the end user. For the SMES-based technology to more fully mature, some suggestions are given for consideration and discussion.

  8. Quench simulation of SMES consisting of some superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, S.; Oga, Y.; Igarashi, H.

    2011-01-01

    A chain of quenches may be caused by a quench of one element coil when SMES is consists of many element coils. To avoid the chain of quenches, the energy stored in element coil has to be quickly discharged. The cause of the chain of the quenches is the short time constant of the decreasing current of the quenched coil. In recent years, many HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) systems are investigated and designed. They usually consist of some superconducting element coils due to storing excessively high energy. If one of them was quenched, the storage energy of the superconducting element coil quenched has to be immediately dispersed to protect the HTS-SMES system. As the result, the current of the other element coils, which do not reach to quench, increases since the magnetic coupling between the quenched element coil and the others are excessively strong. The increase of the current may cause the quench of the other element coils. If the energy dispersion of the element coil quenched was failed, the other superconducting element coil would be quenched in series. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES after quenching one or more element coils. To protect a chain of quenches, it is also important to investigate the time constant of the coils. We have developed a simulation code to investigate the behavior of the HTS-SMES. By the quench simulation, it is indicated that a chain of quenches is caused by a quench of one element coil.

  9. Simulation and experiment of a YBCO SMES prototype in voltage sag compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiahui; Yuan Weijia; Coombs, T.A.; Ming, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → YBCO conductors are used in SMES. → The SMES is successfully used to compensate voltage sag by both simulation and experiment. → A new control strategy for the power converter in the SMES. - Abstract: This paper gives a introduction of a SMES unit using 2G HTS wires. A complete SMES system including both superconducting coils and control circuit has been designed to operate at 77 K. Three single-phase H-bridge converters have been used in the control circuit. A loop control signal is sent out by using 32 fixed point Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The complete circuit has been both modelled in simulation and built experimentally. The results validate that this SMES successfully compensates a voltage sag in a power system.

  10. Simulation and experiment of a YBCO SMES prototype in voltage sag compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jiahui, E-mail: zhujiahui@epri.sgcc.com.c [China Electric Power Research Institute, No. 15 Xiaoying Rd(E), Qinghe, Beijing 100192 (China); Yuan Weijia; Coombs, T.A. [Electrical Engineering Division, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ming, Q. [China Electric Power Research Institute, No. 15 Xiaoying Rd(E), Qinghe, Beijing 100192 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} YBCO conductors are used in SMES. {yields} The SMES is successfully used to compensate voltage sag by both simulation and experiment. {yields} A new control strategy for the power converter in the SMES. - Abstract: This paper gives a introduction of a SMES unit using 2G HTS wires. A complete SMES system including both superconducting coils and control circuit has been designed to operate at 77 K. Three single-phase H-bridge converters have been used in the control circuit. A loop control signal is sent out by using 32 fixed point Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The complete circuit has been both modelled in simulation and built experimentally. The results validate that this SMES successfully compensates a voltage sag in a power system.

  11. SMES for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    copper oxide (BSCCO), Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) and Magnesium diboride (MgB 2)] is carried out. The assessed attributes include superconducting transition temperature (Tc), critical current density (Jc ), the irreversibility field (H*) and the superconducting critical field (Hc). Chapter 4 presents the design of a solenoid shaped 1MJ MgB2 SMES. This SMES is used to mitigate the problem of momentary interruptions on a wind turbine. The total length of superconducting wire required for a 1MJ solenoid is calculated to be 21km. The maximum wire lengths currently available are 6km thus we hypothesize that either wire lengths have to be increased or work has to be done on MgB2 superconducting splice technology for multifilament wire. Another design consisting of 8 solenoids storing 120 kJ each is presented. The stress analysis on the proposed coil is performed using finite element analysis exhibiting the safety of the proposed design. Chapter 5 presents the design of a toroid shaped 20MJ MgB2 SMES. This is used to mitigate the problem of sustained interruptions on a wind turbine. The toroid coil is chosen since the magnetic field could be completely contained within the coil, thus reducing stray magnetic fields. A combination of genetic algorithm and nonlinear programming is used in determining the design. In Chapter 6, the different methods of operation of the SMES are examined. The Voltage Source Convertor (VSC) based SMES topology was chosen based on its ease of switching. The VSC switching strategy is based on a sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique. EMTDC/PSCAD software was used to demonstrate the efficacy of the VSC based SMES coupled to a wind turbine. The wind generator was modeled as an induction machine feeding into a load. The simulation results established that SMES connected to wind turbines improved output quality. Although the efficacy of SMES for wind energy has been stated previously in other work, this chapter specifically demonstrates through

  12. Study on service test procedure for SMES systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L., E-mail: rl8868@126.co [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J. [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Y. [State Grid Electric Power Research Institute, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo, F.; Chen, L.; Cheng, S. [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Some superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems have been developed successfully, and the function of them was verified by experiment. Considering the impact on the system security and stability when they are connected to the power system, it is important to build a standard test procedure and propose the main experimental contents for some representative superconducting devices. Based on the experimental results of a 35 kJ/7 kW conduction-cooled high-T{sub c} SMES system, which was developed by Huazhong University of Science and Technology, the test items and methods for a conduction-cooled high-T{sub c} SMES system are studied. For performance evaluation of this high-T{sub c} SMES, three superconducting magnet performance tests, power conditioning characteristic test and dynamic experiment in a simulated power system were fulfilled.

  13. Study on service test procedure for SMES systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, L.; Tang, Y.; Li, J.; Shi, J.; Hu, Y.; Guo, F.; Chen, L.; Cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    Some superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems have been developed successfully, and the function of them was verified by experiment. Considering the impact on the system security and stability when they are connected to the power system, it is important to build a standard test procedure and propose the main experimental contents for some representative superconducting devices. Based on the experimental results of a 35 kJ/7 kW conduction-cooled high-T c SMES system, which was developed by Huazhong University of Science and Technology, the test items and methods for a conduction-cooled high-T c SMES system are studied. For performance evaluation of this high-T c SMES, three superconducting magnet performance tests, power conditioning characteristic test and dynamic experiment in a simulated power system were fulfilled.

  14. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...

  15. Islamic finance for SMES

    OpenAIRE

    ELASRAG, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) make up the bulk of the economic tissue of the economy. In developing countries, they represent the majority of employment, including female employment. Investing in SMEs is a long-term and smart strategy, with sustainable returns that multiply across regions, countries and societies. SMEs constitute the overwhelming majority of firms. Globally, SMEs make up over 95% of all firms, account for approximately 50% of GDP and 60%–70% of total employmen...

  16. Characteristics of joint resistance with different kinds of HTS tapes for heater trigger switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Yull; Park, Young Gun; Lee, Woo Seung; Jo, Hyun Chul; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Soo [Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Recently, many researches on the system of superconducting power supply and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) using high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes has been progressed. Those kinds of superconducting devices use the heater trigger switches that have a control delay problem at moments of heating up and cooling down. One way to reduce the time delay is using a different HTS tape at trigger part. For example, HTS tape having lower critical temperature can reduce time delay of heating up and heating down stage for heater trigger operation. This paper deals with resistances joint with different kinds of HTS tapes which have different properties to verify usefulness of the suggested method. Three kinds of commercial HTS tapes with different specifications are selected as samples and two kinds of solders are used for comparison. Joint is performed with temperature and pressure controllable joint machine and the joint characteristics are analyzed under the repeatable conditions.

  17. Participatory Innovation in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

    2010-01-01

    (SME) fare in this respect? Some literature is known in this context, Heiskanen et al. (2007) provide many insights on working with SMEs, especially on technology oriented SMEs. De Lille et al. (2009) gives an overview of problems designers experience when conducting user studies. Asboe (2009) provides...... an anthropologists perspective on user studies within SMEs....

  18. An HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which...... conduction compared to a shaft. The HTS machine was successfully cooled to 77K and tests have been performed. The IV curves of the HTS field winding employing 6 HTS coils indicate that two of the coils had been damaged. The maximal value of the torque during experiments of 78Nm was recorded. Loaded with 33...

  19. Søren Kjørup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Film om filosofi- og æstetikprofessoren Søren Kjørup om kunst og kommunikation, billeder og museer, semiotik og videnskabsteori, med optagelser fra hans mange virkefelter på Roskilde Universitet, i København, Norge og Paris. Fysisk medie: DVD-film med booklet ISAN: 978-87-992867-0-6...

  20. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet APAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SMEs, 99.90% of the firms operating in Turkey. On the other hand the share of employment, investment as a percentage of the total value of the share and the share of exports and SME s, has become an important player for the national economy. In contrast, the share of SMEs in total loans is lower compared to developed countries. Of foreigners to enter the Turkish banking sector to SMEs facing increasing competition and product diversit y with an increase in loans to the SMEs has been increasing interest. ISO detection research commissioned in 2013 by the economic situation; business of 47.9% has been found that there is a shortage of funding. In this context, SMEs by the end of 2013, the loans from banks by 25.9% of the amount realized. These two results, especially in SMEs financing in enterprises is an important issue reveals.

  1. Optimization of HTS superconducting magnetic energy storage magnet volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Aki; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto

    2003-08-01

    Nonlinear optimization problems in the field of electromagnetics have been successfully solved by means of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) and the finite element method (FEM). For example, the combination of SQP and FEM has been proven to be an efficient tool in the optimization of low temperature superconductors (LTS) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) magnets. The procedure can also be applied for the optimization of HTS magnets. However, due to a strongly anisotropic material and a slanted electric field, current density characteristic high temperature superconductors HTS optimization is quite different from that of the LTS. In this paper the volumes of solenoidal conduction-cooled Bi-2223/Ag SMES magnets have been optimized at the operation temperature of 20 K. In addition to the electromagnetic constraints the stress caused by the tape bending has also been taken into account. Several optimization runs with different initial geometries were performed in order to find the best possible solution for a certain energy requirement. The optimization constraints describe the steady-state operation, thus the presented coil geometries are designed for slow ramping rates. Different energy requirements were investigated in order to find the energy dependence of the design parameters of optimized solenoidal HTS coils. According to the results, these dependences can be described with polynomial expressions.

  2. Purchasing practices in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøtt-Larsen, Tage; Bagchi, Prabir K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a knowledge and understanding of purchasing practices of SMEs in Denmark. The paper is based on the results from a survey among 94 Danish SMEs, mainly within machinery, electronics and electrical, transportation equipment, and medical equipment industries....... The results are compared with a similar study encompassing 224 SMEs in Indiana, USA. First, the level of purchasing complexity is discussed. There are similarities between the two surveys in terms of purchasing's influence on product quality and productivity, and percentage of total costs. However, the degree...... on the results from the two surveys, we discuss the managerial and research implications for purchasing practices in SMEs....

  3. Coil Optimization for HTS Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    An optimization approach of HTS coils in HTS synchronous machines (SM) is presented. The optimization is aimed at high power SM suitable for direct driven wind turbines applications. The optimization process was applied to a general radial flux machine with a peak air gap flux density of ~3T...... is suitable for which coil segment is presented. Thus, the performed study gives valuable input for the coil design of HTS machines ensuring optimal usage of HTS tapes....

  4. A field experiment on power line stabilization by SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, F.; Takeo, M.; Sato, S.; Katahira, O.; Fukui, F.; Takamatsu, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper field experiments on stabilization of a hydro power plant by a SMES system are reported, where a generator having a rating of 60 kW at 3.3kV is connected to a 6.6kV power distribution line. The SMES system is composed of two 30kVA GTO convertors and a superconducting magnet system with an energy of 30kJ at 100A. Experiments of stabilization for the generator fluctuation caused by a sudden insertion of inductors in the line are successfully performed for some control modes. The value of the SMES system to compensate for a short period voltage dip is also confirmed

  5. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  6. An integrated low-voltage rated HTS DC power system with multifunctions to suit smart grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian Xun, E-mail: jxjin@uestc.edu.cn [Center of Applied Superconductivity, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Center of Applied Superconductivity and Electrical Engineering, School of Automation Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731 (China); Chen, Xiao Yuan [School of Engineering, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610101 (China); Qu, Ronghai; Fang, Hai Yang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xin, Ying [Center of Applied Superconductivity, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A novel LVDC HTS power transmission network is presented. • An integrated power system is achieved by using HTS DC cable and SMES. • DC superconducting cable is verified to achieve self-acting fault current limitation. • SMES is verified to achieve fast-response buffering effect under a power fluctuation. • SMES is verified to achieve favorable load voltage protection effect under a fault. - Abstract: A low-voltage rated DC power transmission network integrated with superconducting cables (SCs) and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) devices has been studied with analytic results presented. In addition to the properties of loss-less and high current transportation capacity, the effectively integrated system is formed with a self-acting fault current limitation feature of the SC and a buffering effect of the SMES to power fluctuations. The results obtained show that the integrated system can achieve high-quality power transmission under common power fluctuation conditions with an advanced self-protection feature under short circuit conditions, which is identified to suit especially the smart grid applications.

  7. Protection of HTS magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses protection issues for HTS magnet. For protection, the HTS magnet must rely on an active technique. Closed-form expressions of the matrix metal operating current density based on overheating and internal voltage criteria for protection, under very simplifying assumptions, are presented. Perhaps the most important conclusions of these criteria are that: (1) HTS (and LTS) magnets must be wound with composite conductor having a significant portion of its overall cross section occupied by normal metal generally of high electrical conductivity and (2) HTS windings must possess 'high' NZP velocities to make the resistive zone occupy as large a fraction of the winding volume as possible. The paper also derives an analytical expression, under another set of simplifying assumptions, to determine the minimum resistive voltage level, dictated by the maximum hot-spot temperature set at 150 K, required to initiate an active protection process. Remarkably, this minimum detection voltage is nearly independent of the matrix metal current density, I op /A m . For a set of operating parameters used in a numerical example, a computed minimum detection voltage, at I op /A m = 5 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , is ∼30 mV, which, considering it must be discerned in the presence of extraneous voltage signals likely to be present in real world operating conditions, would be non-trivial. To satisfy the overheating criterion at a level of I op /A m , which keeps the winding overall current density 'viable' and at the same time to raise the minimum detection resistive voltage, the winding volume occupied by the resistive state must be expanded. The paper concludes with discussion of challenging new areas of research for protection of HTS magnets

  8. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  9. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Lee, Ji Kwang

    2015-01-01

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work

  10. CSR in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jamali, Dima; Vives, Antonio

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for more than 90% of the world’s enterprises and 50-60% of employment. Their contribution to national and regional economic development and GDP growth is well-recognized (Morsing & Perrini 2009, Srinivasan & Bolar, Under Review). In fact, SMEs...... are thought to have enhanced local productive capacities, fostered innovation and entrepreneurship, and attracted foreign direct investment in both developed and developing countries (Raynard and Forstater 2002). However, whereas SMEs account for more than 60% of employment in developing countries...... (Fox, 2005). In fact, when it comes to their role in promoting corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries, the verdict is still out there in terms of the extent to which SMEs engage in CSR, and whether their CSR involvement makes any difference to the profitability of firms, workers...

  11. Armature reaction effects on HTS field winding in HTS machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    sensitivity to both armature reaction intensity and angular position with respect to the HTS coils. Furthermore, the characterization of the HTS feld winding has been correlated to the electromagnetic torque of the machine where the maximal Ic reduction of 21% has been observed for the maximum torque....

  12. Design of a high-temperature superconductor current lead for electric utility SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R.; Rey, C.M.; Dixon, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Current leads that rely on high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to deliver power to devices operating at liquid helium temperature have the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements to levels significantly below those achievable with conventional leads. The design of HTS current leads suitable for use in near-term superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is in progress. The SMES system has an 0.5 MWh energy capacity and a discharge power of 30 MW. Lead-design considerations include safety and reliability, electrical and thermal performance, structural integrity, manufacturability, and cost. Available details of the design, including materials, configuration, and performance predictions, are presented

  13. Low resistance splices for HTS devices and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the preparation methodology and performance evaluation of low resistance splices made of the second generation (2G) high-temperature superconductor (HTS). These splices are required in a broad spectrum of HTS devices including a large aperture, high-field solenoid built in the laboratory to demonstrate a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. Several pancake coils are assembled in the form of a nested solenoid, and each coil requires a hundred meters or more of 2G (RE)BCO tape. However, commercial availability of this superconductor with a very uniform physical properties is currently limited to shorter piece lengths. This necessitates us having splices to inter-connect the tape pieces within a pancake coil, between adjacent pancake coils, and to attach HTS current leads to the magnet assembly. As a part of the optimization and qualification of splicing process, a systematic study was undertaken to analyze the electrical performance of splices in two different configurations suitable for this magnet assembly: lap joint and spiral joint. The electrical performance is quantified in terms of the resistance of splices estimated from the current-voltage characteristics. It has been demonstrated that a careful application of this splicing technique can generate lap joints with resistance less than 1 nΩ at 77 K.

  14. CSR in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jamali, Dima; Vives, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    perspectives on CSR in developing countries, and the literature on CSR and SMEs in the developing world, we analyze the potential and limits of donor-financed management tools aimed at promoting CSR in developing country SMEs. Design/methodology/approach - Using official UN and OECD lists of all multilateral...... and bilateral donor agencies we identified 38 donors that might have produced such CSR tools. We contacted them via e-mail and/or telephone, and conductied an extensive internet search with the aim of identifying whether they had developed management tools aimed at promoting CSR in SMEs in developing countries...... aspects of CSR which have been prominently highlighted in the SME-CSR literature; and 3) the extent to which these tools accord attention to the paramount concern for poverty alleviation in developing countries. Findings - Overall, the analysis testifies to the continued predominant orientation...

  15. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  16. Innovation Leadership in Danish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Maizura Ailin; Lindgren, Peter

    2008-01-01

    to reflect upon today's developments in innovation.  For this, we propose SMEs to "lead" innovation, i.e. innovation leadership, in order to succeed in today's volatile business environment.  Innovation leadership is a strategic way of thinking and practice innovation that is applicable to all organizations......, but especially in SMEs. This is because SMEs are flexible, lightly-structured and thus can adapt to the requirements of the innovation leadership model. Unfortunately SMEs also lack multiple resources that are needed in order to lead innovation. This paper discusses the potential of innovation leadership in SMEs...

  17. Sustainability in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanshahi, Asghar Afshar; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    with their innovativeness and sustainability orientation. To accomplish this, we surveyed 40 TMTs in Iranian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) at two points in time. We ran a hierarchical multiple regression in order to test the hypotheses of the study. Building a theoretical model based on the Upper...

  18. SMEs in Europe 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); D.B. Audretsch (David); T. Kwaak; N. Bosma (Niels)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEntrepreneurship and SMEs have emerged as the engine of economic and social development throughout the world. The role of entrepreneurship has changed dramatically and fundamentally, so that it is now seen as a requisite ingredient generating employment, economic growth and international

  19. Design of an HTS motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Coombs, T A [Cambridge University engineering Department, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yj222@cam.ac.uk

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) motor. The stator of the motor consists of six air cored HTS racetrack windings, together with an iron shield. The rotor is made of 80 superconducting YBCO pucks, which can be magnetized and equates to a four-pole permanent magnet. The whole HTS motor is cooled by liquid nitrogen to 77K, and acts as a permanent magnet synchronous motor with the power rate of 15.7 kW.

  20. Cryogenics for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A wide-ranging study of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) structural and cryogenic requirements was made. Concepts and computational methods have been developed for all of the major problems in these areas. Design analyses have been made to provide more detailed information on some items and experimental work has been performed to create data bases in the areas of superfluid heat transfer, superfluid dielectric properties, heat transfer from conductors, and in the thermal and mechanical properties of materials at low temperatures. In most cases optimum solutions have not been made because of the developing nature of the overall study but methodology for optimization has been worked out for essentially all SMES cryogenic and structural elements. The selection of 1.8 K cooling and all aluminum systems in bedrock continues to be the best choice

  1. Control of SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Y.; Sugita, M.; Kiuchi, T.; Okuda, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a thyristor Graetz bridge as the interface between the 3-phase ac source and the superconducting magnet (SM) has become standard in superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). In the future, the bridge will be DDC (direct digital control) controlled by microprocessors and the higher computations, such as the strategy for economical operation of the SMES plant will be computed by a large-scale computer resulting in a hierarchical control scheme. Some of the problems of DDC control of a SM are discussed, control schemes for effective and reactive power are compared, and the control system for the sequential control of a 0.5 MJ pulsed magnet, which is under construction, is described

  2. SMEs, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli

    2004-01-01

    This Note explores the relationship between the size of the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector and economic growth and poverty reduction. A new study finds no support for the widely held belief that SMEs promote higher growth and lower pover ty. But it does provide some support for the view that the quality of the business environment facing all firms, large and small, influen...

  3. SMES, design and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengst, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    Present days' electric power supply of many countries are mature densely meshed systems delivering electric energy at nearly any place, at any time, of any amount, and at a high level of quality. As there is little energy stored intrinsically in the electric system, load variations have to be followed by control of the generation system. At present e.g. fast changes are handled through a permanent reserve of 2.5 % in the power plants. This reserve must be activated within 5 s. The system, however, may have to face more difficulties in future due to trends on either side of suppliers and consumers of electric power. The power production becomes more complex, in some countries the distances between production and consumption may grow, there will be more competition among suppliers, the acceptance of new power stations and transmission lines is uncertain, industry expands at places with insufficient infrastructure, and more industrial customers need high power quality. A way out can be offered by application of SMES, e.g. a reasonable way to keep power quality is to add more storage of energy in a rapidly and easily available and effective form. The SMES system (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage), therefore, has found renewed interest. The special features of SMES are highly attractive such as direct storage of electric energy, high power extraction out of little stored energy, capability of frequent and even deep discharges, response to demand within milliseconds, simultaneous supply of active and reactive power, long lifetime, and no environmental problems. (orig.)

  4. Sustainable innovations in Dutch SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertens, C.; Snoei, J.

    2011-11-01

    The 'Dutch Monitor Determinanten Bedrijfsprestaties in het MKB' (Determinants Company Performance Monitoring SMEs) has consulted almost 3.500 persons in SMEs on a number of questions, including on innovations. 40% of these persons perceive market opportunities for sustainable products, whereas only 25% of these businesses actually tries to capitalize on these opportunities. [nl

  5. Effective growth paths for SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, I.A.M.; van der Veen, M.; Eurlings, W.

    2015-01-01

    How firms grow forms a key question in the research on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Based on a survey amongst 1,535 SMEs, we show that the presence of growth capability factors, such as, innovation capacity, financing capacity and human capital, offers inadequate explanation for

  6. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs...... of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth....

  7. SMEs in Their Own Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the limited literatures on small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using an institutional theoretical framework, we analyzed fieldwork interviews with twenty SMEs and perspectives of 165 SME managers and workers in textiles,...

  8. SMEs and international partner search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Globalization has necessitated the internationalization on the part of SMEs. SMEs suffer from a number of handicaps when they venture overseas: the liability of size and liability of newness to the foreign markets. International cooperation is a key means for their internationalization. This thesis

  9. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  10. Supporting SMEs in creating jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs are the most dynamic sector of the economy, representing a key factor in employment growth. Although SMEs have been severely affected by the economic crisis from 2008, they continue to be a more and more important source of generating jobs, regardless of size class. Given the differentiated contribution of SMEs to job creation as a result of their heterogeneity, the article analyses the dynamics of staff in enterprises by size classes and activities of the national economy. The statistical analysis is followed by a SWOT analysis of policies and tools to support SMEs in creating jobs both with direct action - management, recruitment, training and indirectly action by addressing general business issues. Measures that support the economic growth of SMEs through internationalization, innovation and improved access to finance foster competitiveness and, implicitly, the creation of new jobs.

  11. SMEs, Institutions and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Low, Mei Peng

    2013-01-01

    for combining the resource-based theory with an institutions-based approach towards constructing a more practical and empirical oriented analytical framework. After the preliminary discussion and introduction to the different theories used, the authors then take a focus on the analytical framework used to study......This chapter addresses at the outset the topic of SMEs and economic development from an institutions perspective. The authors argue that the transaction cost theory is not helpful towards understanding the role that institutions play for SME performance for several reasons. Instead, they argue...

  12. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies is an acclaimed Open Access journal with broad coverage that promotes multidisciplinary, religious, and biblical aspects of studies in the international theological arena. The journal's publication criteria are based on high ethical standards and the rigor of the methodology and ...

  13. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  14. A novel HTS magnetic levitation dining table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiyun; Huang, Huiying

    2018-05-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk can levitate above or suspend below a permanent magnet stably. Many magnificent potential applications of HTS bulk are proposed by researchers. Until now, few reports have been found for real applications of HTS bulk. A complete set of small-scale HTS magnetic levitation table is proposed in the paper. The HTS magnetic levitation table includes an annular HTS magnetic levitation system which is composed of an annular HTS bulk array and an annular permanent magnet guideway (PMG). The annular PMG and the annular cryogenics vessel which used to maintain low temperature environment of the HTS bulk array are designed. 62 YBCO bulks are used to locate at the bottom of the annular vessel. A 3D-model finite element numerical method is used to design the HTS bulk magnetic levitation system. Equivalent magnetic levitation and guidance forces calculation rules are proposed aimed at the annular HTS magnetic levitation system stability. Based on the proposed method, levitation and guidance forces curves of the one YBCO bulk magnetic above PMG could be obtained. This method also can use to assist PMG design to check whether the designed PMG could reach the basic demand of the HTS magnetic levitation table.

  15. Rock mechanics studies for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems capable of storing thousands of MWh develop tremendous magnetically induced forces when charged. To prevent rutpure of the magnets these forces must be confined. Bedrock offers a practical and relatively inexpensive magnet containment structure. This paper examines the need for rock mechanics research in connection with the construction and use of SMES rock caverns; the unique problems related to housing superconducting magnets in bedrock; site investigations of granite, quartzite and dolomite deposits in Wisconsin; and cavern design requirements to assure cavern stability and limited deformation under the expected mechanical leads. Recommendations are made for siting SMES caverns

  16. SMEs' E-commerce Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Proposes providing an insight about factors affecting business-to-business e-commerce adoption and implementation in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting similarities and differences between Danish and Australian SMEs.    Design/methodology/approach - The research...... conducted in Danish and Australian companies. Findings - The findings both corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting SMEs' b-to-b e-commerce adoption and implementation and provide new, interesting insights. The study also finds many similarities and differences between Denmark...... and Australia.  Research limitations/implications - The main limitation relates to the difficulty of generalization of the findings to a larger population of SMEs.  To overcome this, a statistical survey is planned to be conducted in the future. Practical implications - The results of the empirical research...

  17. ERP SOLUTIONS FOR SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTUNEA MIHAELA FILOFTEIA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of activities, the business processes as well as their optimization, bring the perspective of profitable growth and create significant and competitive advantages in any company. The adoption of some ERP integrated software solutions, from SMEs’ perspective, must be considered as a very important management decision in medium and long term. ERP solutions, along with the transparent and optimized management of all internal processes, also offer an intra and inter companies collaborative platform, which allows a rapid expansion of activities towards e- business and mobile-business environments. This material introduces ERP solutions for SMEs from commercial offer and open source perspective; the results of comparative analysis of the solutions on the specific market, can be an useful aid to the management of the companies, in making the decision to integrate business processes, using ERP as a support.

  18. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. The above problems led to the development of the Second-Generation of HTS wires. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The first method invented is the Ion-Beam-Assisted-Deposition (IBAD). The second method developed was the Inclined-Substrate-Deposition (ISD). The third method invented is calle...

  19. Cryogenic cooling system for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shigeru [Taiyo Nippon Sanso, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Recently, Research and development activity of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power application is very progressive worldwide. Especially, HTS cable system and HTSFCL (HTS Fault current limiter) system are proceeding to practical stages. In such system and equipment, cryogenic cooling system, which makes HTS equipment cooled lower than critical temperature, is one of crucial components. In this article, cryogenic cooling system for HTS application, mainly cable, is reviewed. Cryogenic cooling system can be categorized into conduction cooling system and immersion cooling system. In practical HTS power application area, immersion cooling system with sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is preferred. The immersion cooling system is besides grouped into open cycle system and closed cycle system. Turbo-Brayton refrigerator is a key component for closed cycle system. Those two cooling systems are focused in this article. And, each design and component of the cooling system is explained.

  20. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  1. SMES developments at the University of Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Eyssa, Y.; Hilal, M.; Huang, X.; McIntosh, G.E.; Pfotenhauer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a long term SMES program in the Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC) in progress at the University of Wisconsin since 1970. The present principal interest in SMES stems from the US DNA-SDI program to build an engineering test model (ETM) for utility and government use. This paper is a review of SMES design highlights and of some small scale SMES studies

  2. SMEs: ERP or virtual collaboration teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Taha, Zahari

    2009-01-01

    Small firms are indeed the engines of global economic growth. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play an important role to promote economic development. SMEs in the beginning of implementing new technologies always face capital shortage and need technological assistance. Available ERP systems do not fulfil the specific requirements of Small firms. SMEs has scarce resources and manpower therefore many SMEs don?t have the possessions to buy and operate an ERP System. On the other hand competit...

  3. SMEs: ERP or Virtual Collaboration Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2009-01-01

    Small firms are indeed the engines of global economic growth. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play an important role to promote economic development. SMEs in the beginning of implementing new technologies always face capital shortage and need technological assistance. Available ERP systems do not fulfill the specific requirements of Small firms. SMEs has scarce resources and manpower therefore many SMEs don’t have the possessions to buy and operate an ERP System. On the other hand competi...

  4. Kunst og kvinner i en kjønnssensitiv kontekst

    OpenAIRE

    Soini, Lisa Jerijervi

    2014-01-01

    Master i estetiske fag Kvinner har ikke hatt de samme forutsetningene som menn i kunsten og har måtte kjempe for sin plass i institusjoner og i samfunnet. Hvordan kan kvinnelige kunstneres fremstilling av kropp og kroppslige referanser i perioden 1960 fram til i dag forstås i en kjønnssensitiv kontekst? Vi kan se en økning blant kvinnelige kunstnere fra 1960 og kroppen blir sentral. Linda Nochlin spør: ”Hvorfor har det ikke vært noen store kvinnelige kunstnere?” og setter søkelyset på det ...

  5. Access to finance and venture capital for industrial SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Heimer, Thomas; Hölscher, Luise; Werner, Matthias Ralf

    2008-01-01

    SMEs play a crucial role for European economies. The numbers show the high importance of SMEs for national economies. Accordingly, it is no surprise that the regulatory framework SMEs are imbedded in is the subject of an important political discussion. In the discussion it is frequently mentioned by representatives of SMEs as well as associations of SMEs, that the access to finance for SMEs is still inferior. Based on the importance of SMEs for national economies and the discussion on the acc...

  6. Corporate Brand Identity in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäläskä, Minna; Jones, Richard Ian

    Purpose: To study the emergence of corporate brand identity in SMEs and to develop a typology of brand identity drivers that reflects a co-creative approach to the emergence of brand identity. Design / Methodology / Approach : Existing approaches to brand identity are summarised. A narrative...... studies. The research is important since it suggests an iterative and co-creative approach to brand identity. A typology of brand identity formation for SMEs is presented: entrepreneur driven, market driven, stakeholder driven. Practical implications: The three paths to creating a strong brand identity...... challenge existing notions that brand identity is based solely on the values of the entrepreneur. This typology suggests that SMEs should be open to creating an identity that draws from their stakeholder eco-system. Originality / value: this research challenges the existing assumption that brand identity...

  7. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  8. Second-generation HTS conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Amit

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) in 1986 by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties. Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties.

  9. Archives: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 120 ... Archives: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home > Archives: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  10. Design study of a 5GWh SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Shimizu, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system (SMES) is expected to be a future electric power storage method instead of the pumped storage power generator. The authors have investigated a commercial scaled toroidal type of SMES, and compared it with solenoid type of SMES. Now, they came to the conclusion that the toroidal type was superior to the solenoid type in control of leakage mangnetic field, production of coil, maintenance and ease of installation, in spite of its 2-- times cost for the latter. Thus the toroidal type of SMES can be considered to be a match for the solenoid type of SMES

  11. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  12. The phasor type model of SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.; Chen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) compensates the dynamic power for the power system through regulating the active and reactive currents between the SMES and the power system. To analyze the influence of SMES on the operation characteristic of the power system, a second-order equivalent model of SMES is adopted in the electromagnetic transient analysis of power system, but the model makes considerable simplifications for the dynamic characteristic of SMES. This paper proposed the phasor type model of SMES. The phasor model has the following characteristics: (1) the model does not considers the switching state of the power electronic converter, which can save the computing time and improve the simulation efficiency; (2) the model considers the performance of the superconducting magnet, the converter and the DC side capacitor, which can accurately reflect the dynamic response characteristics of SMES; and (3) the model includes detailed control system of SMES, which can implement different control methods to the SMES system and evaluate the control effect. Using MATLAB SIMULINK, the dynamic characteristic of the SMES phasor model is evaluated. Then, the phasor model is introduced into the power system stability analysis to analyze the application of SMES in damping out the power system.

  13. Kjønnsforskjeller i forekomst av legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Nordeng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKvinnelig kjønn er blitt identifisert som risikofaktor for legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger både i primærhelsetjenestenog under sykehusopphold. Hyppigere forekomst av bivirkninger kan forklares delvis,men ikke fullstendig, av at kvinner som gruppe konsumerer oftere og flere legemidler. Videre har legemiddelbrukhos kvinner i mange tilfeller tilknytning til biologiske tilstander som menstruasjon, graviditetog menopause, og den øker med alderen. Det er viktig å ta i betraktning kulturelle forskjeller hoskvinner og menn som kan være med på å overestimere kjønnsforskjellene i bivirkningsforekomsten.Kvinner bruker helsevesenet hyppigere og rapporterer oftere bivirkninger. Høyere bivirkningsfrekvenshos kvinner kan også være resultat av at kvinner generelt får høyere dose per kg enn menn fordikvinner veier mindre. Kjønnsforskjeller i bivirkninger kan i tillegg være knyttet til forskjellig aktivitet ileverenzymene cytochrom P450, som metaboliserer de fleste legemidler. Strukturelle og funksjonellekjønnsforskjeller finnes også i nyrer, lunger, hjerte/kar- og mage/tarmsystemet, og påvirker i varierendegrad effekt og sikkerhet av legemidler.Nordeng H. Gender differences in the occurrence of adverse drug events.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYBoth pharmacoepidemiological and clinical studies have identified female gender as a risk factor foradverse events of drugs, both in primary care and in a hospital setting. Frequent occurrence of adverseevents can partly, but not totally, be explained by the fact that women as a group consume more drugsthan men. Women’s drug consumption can to a certain degree be related to menstruation, pregnancyand menopause, and increases with age. It is essential to take into account cultural differences that cancontribute to an overestimation of the gender effect of adverse drug events. Women use the health caresystem more frequently and report more often and more willingly adverse events. Higher

  14. Analysis and experimental validation of an HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with HTS magnetic suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianxun; Zheng Luhai; Guo Youguang; Xu Wei; Zhu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    An HTS linear synchronous propulsion prototype with an HTSLSM drive is developed. The feasibility of combining an HTSLSM with an HTS magnetic suspension system has been verified. Three different PMGs are studied by ECS method and experiment verification to obtain an optimal one. The prototype has been tested to obtain the performance and thrust characteristics of the HTSLSM. The measurement results benefit the optimal design and control scheme development for an HTSLSM. A high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear propulsion system composed of a single-sided HTS linear synchronous motor (HTSLSM) in its middle and HTS magnetic suspension sub-systems on both sides has been developed. The HTSLSM uses an HTS bulk magnet array on the moving secondary, and the field-trapped characteristics of the HTS bulk using different magnetized methods have been measured and compared to identify their magnetization capability. In order to generate a large levitation force for the system, three different types of permanent magnet guideways (PMGs) have been numerically analyzed and experimentally verified to obtain an optimal PMG. Based on comprehensive experimental prototype tests, the results show that the HTS linear propulsion system can run with stable magnetic suspension having a constant air-gap length, and the thrust characteristics versus the exciting current, working frequency and the air-gap length have also been obtained. This work forms the basis for developing a practical HTS linear propulsion system by using HTS bulks both for propulsion and suspension.

  15. SAVE ENERGY IN TEXTILE SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCALIA Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency and competitiveness in textile and clothing manufacturing sector must take into account the current and future energy challenges. Energy efficiency is a subject of critical importance for the Textile & Clothing industry, for other sectors and for the society in general. EURATEX has initiated Energy Made-to-Measure, an information campaign running until 2016 to empower over 300 textile & clothing companies, notably SMEs, to become more energy efficient. SET( Save Energy in Textile SMEs a collaborative project co-funded within the European Programme Intelligent Energy Europe II helps companies to understand their energy consumption and allows them to compare the sector benchmarks in different production processes. SET has developed the SET tool, Energy Saving and Efficiency Tool, a free of charge tool customized for textile manufacturers. The SET tool is made up of 4 elements: a stand-alone software (SET Tool for self-assessment based on an Excel application; an on-line part (SET tool Web for advanced benchmarking and comparison of the performances across years; a guiding document for the companies and overview of financial incentives and legal obligations regarding energy efficiency. Designed specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs, the SET tool enables the evaluation of energy consumption and recommends measures to reduce the consumption. Prior to modifying the company’s production processes and making investments to increase energy efficiency, textile SMEs need to get different type of information, including legal context, economic and technical peculiarities.

  16. Orchestrating Company Development in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove

    2003-01-01

    Over a period of several years many companies undergo a transformation with signifi­cant improvement in performance. We have studied such a process in seven SMEs to achieve a better understanding of how the change process was initiated and orches­trated. A rather complex picture has emerged...

  17. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji

    1998-01-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  18. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1998-07-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  19. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  20. Marketing Strategies Influences On SMEs Cluster Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Tirtayasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of larges businesses to make the economy growth is very important likewise the role of Small Business Enterprise SMEs where this industry has been believed so strong from the effect of crisis economic in Indonesia. In generaly SMEs owner are business manwoman that have minimum assets Rp. 500 million where their gathers together to make the cooperative assosiation in one area SMEs Cluster . So in this cooperative assosiation can be expected the SMEs businessman help each others with making colaboration internal or external networking to enhance their business performance. The internal networking simmilar with marketing strategies for instance strategi Promotion Distribution Production and Raw material supplay where the objectives are to enchance the SMEs performance. This study intends to examine the relationship between marketing strategies Promotion Distribution Production Raw material supplay on SMSEs performance. The marketing strategies consist of our dimentions as follows promotion distribution production and raw material supply. Meanwile SMEs business performance indicators are market share and profit margin. The sample of research is 70 SMEs businessman where spread of Medan Tembung District East Medan District and Medan Perjuangan District. This research had used questionnaires method to collect the data from SMEs businessman. The analysis method had used multiple regression and the result of the research reveals that promotion had positive and significant relationship with SMEs performance.Distribution had positive and significant relationship with SMEs performance Production has positive and significant relationship with SMEs performance.Raw material supplay had positiveve and significant relationship with SMEs performance. Furthermore Marketing Strategies Promotion Distribution Production Raw material supplay simultaneous have significant relationship on SMEs Performances.

  1. Synchronous motor with HTS-2G wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhin, D.; Ilyasov, R.; Kozub, S.; Kovalev, K.; Verzhbitsky, L.

    2014-05-01

    One of the applications of new high-temperature superconductor materials (HTS) is field coils for synchronous electrical machines. The use of YBCO 2G HTS tapes (HTS-2G) allows increasing of magnetic flux density in the air gap, which will increase the output power and reduce the dimensions of the motor. Such motors with improved characteristics can be successfully used in transportation as traction motor. In MAI-based "Center of Superconducting machines and devices" with the support of "Rosatom" has been designed and tested a prototype of the 50 kW synchronous motor with radial magnetic flux from a field-coils based on HTS-2G tapes. The experimental and theoretical results are presented.

  2. Cloud Computing Application for Romanian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistol, Luminiţa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the current economical state of Romanian SMEs and the utility of cloud computing technologies in the process of sustainable open innovation. The study is based on a supply chain adapted for SMEs, on a model of innovation within a network business environment and on a decision tree dedicated for SMEs when starting a new project. Taking into account the statements of the article, a new framework of cloud computing economics can be developed.

  3. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Adina-Simona

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  4. Open Source CRM Systems for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Tereso; Jorge Bernardino

    2011-01-01

    Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems are very common in large companies. However, CRM systems are not very common in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Most SMEs do not implement CRM systems due to several reasons, such as lack of knowledge about CRM or lack of financial resources to implement CRM systems. SMEs have to start implementing Information Systems (IS) technology into their business operations in order to improve business values and gain more competitive advantage over r...

  5. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, M; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D F; Pischalnikov, Y; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Zbasnik, J

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under "standard" and "extreme" operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  6. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.J.; Sylvester, C.; Zbasnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under ''standard'' and ''extreme'' operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles

  7. US effort on HTS power transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, S., E-mail: shirish.pmehta@spx.com [Waukesha Electric Systems, 400 S. Praire Avenue, Waukesha, WI 53186 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  8. US effort on HTS power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  9. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    The paper examines how small-to-medium size enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale. Seeking to relate SMEs’ value chain position to their operations configuration attributes, we draw on the operations networks literature and use mixed methods of enquiry, including case...... studies and survey techniques. The study highlights characteristics and practices of SMEs that are prompt to offshoring. Furthermore, it identifies a set of key challenges that SMEs need to overcome in order to succeed in offshoring. By incorporating the perspectives of SMEs, the paper provides a more...

  10. SMEs: Trust and judicial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Lorizio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian SMEs share capabilities and routines that permit them to reach high level of competition. But in a global system that is affected by structural deficiencies and negative performance of judicial system, it is very hard to maintain high performances. In this work, starting from the resilience capacity of a group of SMEs of surviving to the crisis, we try to analyse the quality of the expectations of a sample of resilient firms. Our study leads to the hypothesis that the economic crisis is in line with a crisis of confidence in the judicial system. This is all the more serious when considering that this distrust is rooted in those firms located in Southern Italy, where the inefficiency of the judicial system is particularly pronounced.

  11. CSR, SMEs and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murillo, David; Vallentin, Steen

    2012-01-01

    capital are interrelated, turning social capital into a powerful instrument to better explain what academic literature has called silent CSR practices. The analysis that follows questions some of the basic tenets that underpin the branch of business ethics that deals with the nature of SMEs' approach...... this type of action d) Any study of this kind of practice requires a dual approach: a) normative when using tools developed by CSR; and b) descriptive and instrumental using the notion of social capital....... in the automotive sector, took the distinctive approach of trying to understand the nature of CSR-like activities developed not by best-in-class CSR-driven companies but by purely competitiveness-driven firms. The case studies provide explicit evidence that the CSR activities of SMEs and the notion of social...

  12. Flexible automated manufacturing for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Bilberg, Arne; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2017-01-01

    SMEs are in general highly flexible and agile in order to accommodate the customer demands in the paradigm of High Mix-Low Volume manufacturing. The flexibility and agility have mainly been enabled by manual labor, but as we are entering the technology and data driven fourth industrial revolution......, where augmented operators and machines work in cooperation in a highly flexible and productive manufacturing system both an opportunity and a need has raised for developing highly flexible and efficient automation....

  13. Tevatron HTS power lead test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two pairs of ASC 6 kA power leads developed for the Tevatron were successfully tested at Fermilab at over-current conditions. Stable operation was achieved while operating at a current of 9.56 kA for five hours and while continuously ramping between 0-9.56 kA at a ramp rate of 200 A/s for one hour. The minimum required liquid nitrogen flow rate was measured to be 1.5 g/s at 10 kA. After ramping up to 10 kA at 200A/s, it took only 15 minutes to stabilize the upper copper section of the lead with a flow of 1.8 g/s of liquid nitrogen vapor. Testing under extreme operating conditions--270-370 kPa liquid nitrogen vapor pressure and over 0.1 T external magnetic field--demonstrated that the HTS part of the lead can safely operate in the current sharing mode and that this design has large operating margin

  14. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  15. Emergency situations in SMEs : Are entrepreneurs prepared?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Montfort, van K.; Masurel, E.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how entrepreneurs prepare for emergency situations in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. It identifies the characteristics of SMEs and the theory related to emergency situations and the preparations for such situations. It also provides a detailed

  16. Sustainable Business Development Through Leadership in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepańska-Woszczyna Katarzyna; Kurowska-Pysz Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role and scope of the influence of leadership on the sustainable development of SMEs. Research methods included the theoretical analysis of scientific literature and a direct survey. The quantitative sample for analysis contained 138 managers, the representatives of companies (SMEs) located in Poland. The data was collected in November and December 2015.

  17. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, W.G. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lighthipe, R.W. [San Diego Gas & Electric, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world`s first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  18. SMES: Redefining the path to commerical demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, W. G.; Lighthipe, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world's first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States.

  19. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  20. SMES: Redefining the path to commercial demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, W.G.; Lighthipe, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) is an emerging technology offering tremendous potential benefits to the utility industry. San Diego Gas ampersand Electric (SDG ampersand E) and Bechtel are leading a team of companies and national laboratories working towards design and construction of the world's first demonstration facility for large, commercial SMES for enhancing transmission stability in the Southwestern United States

  1. SMEs cooperate to meet social procurement conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oden, Petra

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of (semi) public organizations in the Netherlands write tenders with mandatory social conditions. It is important for SMEs to focus on social procurement in their business strategy. SMEs should be proactive and try to affect the conditions (semi) public organizations write in their

  2. Microwave properties of HTS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.W.; Arendt, P.M.; Grey, E.R.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Bennett, B.L.; Foltyn, S.R.; Estler, R.C.; Wu, X.D.; Reeves, G.A.; Elliott, N.E.; Brown, D.R.; Portis, A.M.; Taber, R.C.; Mogrocampero, A.

    1990-01-01

    High-frequency applications of high- temperature superconductors generally fall into two categories: 1) devices that require low values (relative to Cu) of surface resistance R S in ambient surface magnetic fields H rf ; and 2) devices that require low R S in modest fields (H rf ∼ 250 Oe). Moreover, many applications can be realized with small- surface-area films (∼ 1 cm 2 ) whereas others require larger areas - radiofrequency (rf) cavities, for example. Regardless of the application, the potential of HTS films is predicted on satisfying one or both of the above-stated requirements. The authors have measured the surface resistance of small-area (1 cm 2 ) and large-area (6.5 cm 2 ) YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films that have been laser ablated onto LaA ell O 3 substrates, large-area (5.1 cm 2 YBCO films that have been e-beam deposited onto LaA ell O 3 , and large-area (11.4 cm 2 ) T ell-based films that have been magnetron sputtered onto metallic substrates. The best R S values are obtained from the 1-cm 2 laser-ablated films; they are 40 μΩ and 340 μΩ at 4 K And 77 K, respectively (ω/2π = 10 GHz). Comparable values for Cu are 6 and 13 mΩ, respectively. Large-area T ell-based films yield typical R S values of 4 mΩ and 14 mΩ at 4 K and 77 K, respectively (ω/2π = 18 GHz). The dependence of R S on H rf for these films indicates that surface fields as large as 55 Oe can be achieved with R S increasing only by a factor of 10. This field dependence is associated with c-axis texturing

  3. Analysis of transient state in HTS tapes under ripple DC load current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, M.; Grzesik, B.

    2014-05-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of transient state (quench transition) in HTS tapes loaded with the current having DC component together with a ripple component. Two shapes of the ripple were taken into account: sinusoidal and triangular. Very often HTS tape connected to a power electronic current supply (i.e. superconducting coil for SMES) that delivers DC current with ripples and it needs to be examined under such conditions. Additionally, measurements of electrical (and thermal) parameters under such ripple excitation is useful to tape characterization in broad range of load currents. The results presented in the paper were obtained using test bench which contains programmable DC supply and National Instruments data acquisition system. Voltage drops and load currents were measured vs. time. Analysis of measured parameters as a function of the current was used to tape description with quench dynamics taken into account. Results of measurements were also used to comparison with the results of numerical modelling based on FEM. Presented provisional results show possibility to use results of measurements in transient state to prepare inverse models of superconductors and their detailed numerical modelling.

  4. Is Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) an Entrepreneurship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esuh Ossai-Igwe Lucky; Adebayo Isaiah Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    The inconsistent use of SMEs and entrepreneurship in the field of entrepreneurial business management has made the authors to explore the discrepancy between SMEs and entrepreneurship studies. As a result, the paper distinguishes between SMEs and entrepreneurship by highlighting the similarities and differences between the two concepts. The paper concludes that entrepreneurship differs from SMEs in that entrepreneurship is a process leading to the creation of SMEs and business ventures while ...

  5. IT Governance in SMEs: Trust or Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Jan; van Landeghem, Hendrik; Deschoolmeester, Dirk

    It is believed by many scholars that a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) cannot be seen through the lens of a large firm. Theories which explain IT governance in large organizations and methodologies used by practitioners can therefore not be extrapolated to SMEs, which have a completely different economic, cultural and managerial environment. SMEs suffer from resource poverty, have less IS experience and need more external support. SMEs largely contribute to the failure of many IS projects. We define an outsourced information system failure (OISF) as a failure of IT governance in an SME environment and propose a structure for stating propositions derived from both agency theory and theory of trust. The theoretical question addressed in this paper is: how and why do OISFs occur in SMEs? We have chosen a qualitative and positivistic IS case study research strategy based on multiple cases. Eight cases of IS projects were selected. We found that trust is more important than control issues like output-based contracts and structured controls for eliminating opportunistic behaviour in SMEs. We conclude that the world of SMEs is significantly different from that of large companies. This necessitates extra care to be taken on the part of researchers and practitioners when designing artefacts for SMEs.

  6. Access to bank finance for Scottish SMEs.

    OpenAIRE

    North, David J.; Baldock, Robert; Deakins, David; Whittam, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that some SMEs may still face difficulties in accessing bank finance from lenders (CEEDR, 2007). This paper reports an in-depth study into demand and supply side issues relating to access to bank finance by Scottish SMEs and whether there is still market\\ud failure associated with good, bankable business cases from SMEs that do not receive finance. We argue that our study utilises innovative methodology and is relatively rare as a robust study in this area. We combine demand...

  7. International Financial Reporting Standards for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicilia IONESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available • IFRS for SMEs give the response to an international requirement of the developed and emerging economies in the process of globalization to have a rigorous and common set of international accounting provisions (standard, rule, regulation specifically for SMEs, to be much more simplified than the complete IFRSs. The area where are applicable the IFRS for SMEs includes all the profit-oriented entities that prepare the general financial statements and do not have the public accountability and there are excluded the entities whose securities are publicly traded and the financial institutions like banks and the insurance companies.

  8. Sustainable Tourism Related SMEs through Strategy Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Mastura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It should be pointed out that expansion of tourism sector relies on micro, small and medium enterprises exist in various related region. This particular study was conducted in Lenggong Valley, Perak to assess the existing strategies in the attempt to develop sustainable tourism related SMEs. Potential businesses in the area were measured using four traditional SWOT inclusive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The results from observation reveal interesting findings in relation to internal and external factors evaluation of tourism related SMEs. Therefore, this study presents the strategies for development of sustainable tourism related SMEs in the Lenggong Valley, which serve the purpose of assessing the potential business of tourism related SMEs and entrepreneurs. In-depth inspection of tourism strategies are critically considered when creating public policy that benefits the area and the local community.

  9. SMES-ETM Technical Analysis Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    ... documentation for the SMES-ETM Program is determined. Specifically, this report will support the SDIO-ENEC and DNA decision on whether an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement is most appropriate...

  10. Knowledge Management in Health Technology SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huusko, Juhamatti; Kuusisto-Niemi, Sirpa; Saranto, Kaija

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge management's (KM) role in small and medium-sized (SMEs) health technology enterprises, which employ fewer than 250 employees. In this study, KM is understood as the ability to achieve competitive advantage by utilizing management knowledge and making it profitable. The health technology enterprises use modern technology to resolve health-related issues. The research data was acquired from Finnish health technology SMEs. The questionnaire was sent to 140 enterprises, generating 25 responses, or a 17.9% response rate. According to the results, health technology enterprises have not adopted KM concepts, nor do they have the necessary resources to do so. SMEs' KM use is informal: information is transferred informally through human interaction, rather than through information systems. In the SMEs, KM is not perceived as important, although it is seen as associated with the enterprise's financial performance through the potential in making the knowledge profitable.

  11. Reducing SMEs informal economy through institutionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Lopez Lira Arjona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The informal sector has been growing throughout the last century in emerging economies. Particularly in Latin America, both a long-term instability in economic and political environments, and a continuous migration from rural to urban areas; have triggered the appearance of unregulated businesses and employments. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs operate informally in one or more business processes, in order to reduce costs and maximize profits. Leaving aside tax evasion and illegal labor, such SMEs often have low technology and an unskilled work force; which threatens its survival in highly competitive environments. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the Multi National Corporation (MNC and the Academia in the formalization of SMEs. This is aimed through a collaborative model for the institutionalization of operational and managerial knowledge within SMEs. Qualitative results indicate that improvements are triggered by a self-conscious awareness of the value derived from institutionalizing best business practices.

  12. Corporate Environmental Sustainability in Danish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Juan Felipe; Ulhøi, John P.; Madsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    While industry leaders proactively address environmental issues as an integrated part of corporate strategy, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) often perceive it as a means of cost reduction. The aim of this paper is to track the development of motivators, environmental initiatives......, and their perceived effects on competitive advantage among SMEs. For that purpose, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of 4 repeated surveys over a period of 14 years among Danish manufacturing SMEs. Results show that Danish SMEs have increasingly deployed environmental initiatives that are associated with both...... of the levels of environmental engagement, the competitive benefits are generally robust regarding firm size. Before concluding, implications for future research and corporate managers are pointed out....

  13. Knowledge Exchange Between Universities and SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Sarai; Lykke, Marianne

    Exchanging knowledge between university and industry is generally known to be problematic. In this paper we address the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to understand their use of knowledge: in particular scientific knowledge. The paper will present data from...... a qualitative study of the situations of eight SMEs. The data consists of ‘walk-alongs’, situational maps, and thirty-seven semi-structured interviews. The goal is to provide an in- depth understanding of the numerous circumstances that influence SMEs’ interactions with universities and scientific knowledge....... The paper presents new understandings related to industry’s ways of perceiving, accessing and imple- menting scientific knowledge; these include insights into the primary ways in which SMEs appropriate new knowledge; the barriers to acquiring new knowledge; how SMEs understand the university setting...

  14. Drivers for Malaysian SMEs to Go Green

    OpenAIRE

    M. Krishna Moorthy; Peter a/l Yacob; Mahendra Kumar a/l Chelliah; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) around the world have little knowledge about environmental management and do not understand the concept of environmental management. The concept of green is still very new to Malaysian SME owners/managers, although many green conferences, seminars and campaigns have been carried out for quite some time. The concept for green process and products in Malaysia is at the infancy stage. The drivers of environmental behavior in SMEs are relatively under-researche...

  15. Money Soon Growing On Trees for SMEs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Banks in Shanghai greenlight loans to SMEs At a June 19 fair on banking financing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Shanghai, the discussion inside was just as heated as the temperature outside. "We hope that banks' lending policies will not change," said Mr. Wang, who runs a retail shop selling electrical appliances in the Putuo District of Shanghai. "Just a small shift and there goes our cash flow. With the increase in interest rates, we are concerned

  16. IFRS Handbook for SMEs in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has led to greater competition among businesses the world over to attract stakeholders who can positively affect their business on international and global markets. To facilitate competition financial statements should be understandable and comparable to similar businesses. IFRS has become the de facto financial reporting stan-dard of the world. Finnish SMEs involved in international trade are not using IFRS, though a simple version exist for SMEs the switch from Finnish Account...

  17. Rapport fra forbedringsaktivitet: Software udviklingsmodel, Brüel & Kjær CMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Vinter, Otto

    1999-01-01

    Final report from a software process improvement initiative at Brüel & Kjær CMS. The initiative aimed to develop and obtain practical experience with a software development model based on incremental development and timeboxing.......Final report from a software process improvement initiative at Brüel & Kjær CMS. The initiative aimed to develop and obtain practical experience with a software development model based on incremental development and timeboxing....

  18. Centrifuge advances using HTS magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Flögel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Wippich, D.; Riedel, T.

    2001-05-01

    Passive magnetic bearings are of increasing technical interest. We performed experiments with centrifugal rotors to analyze gyroscopic forces in terms imbalance, rotor elasticity and damping. Centrifuge rotors need to be operated soft and stable without whirling the sediments. In order to evaluate optimal parameters critical and resonance behaviors are investigated. Eccentricities up 2 mm are safely passed by accelerating test wheels. In a simple model we describe the effect of passing critical rotational speeds. Measurements of bearing properties and wheel performance are presented. We have constructed a first prototype centrifuge designed with a HTS double bearing which operates a titanium rotor safely up to 30 000 rpm. A 15 W Stirling cooler serves cryogenics of the YBCO stators. From the experiments design guidelines for centrifugal applications with HTS bearings are given.

  19. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-01-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques

  20. Initiation of Hoshin Kanri in SMEs using a tentative process

    OpenAIRE

    Löfving, Malin; Melander, Anders; Andersson, David; Elgh, Fredrik; Thulin, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Hoshin Kanri is a management method supporting strategic work. In spite of a number of Hoshin Kanri success stories in large organizations, little research attention are given to SMEs. This research encourages an increased focus on Hoshin Kanri in SMEs. In this paper a tentative process for the initiation of Hoshin Kanri in SMEs is outlined. We also identify factors influencing the initiation of Hoshin Kanri in SMEs based on findings from eight case studies. The result shows that the initiati...

  1. Progress in development of high capacity magnetic HTS bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummeth, P.; Nick, W.; Neumueller, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    HTS magnetic bearings are inherently stable without an active feedback system. They provide low frictional losses, no wear and allow operation at high rotational speed without lubrication. So they are very promising for use in motors, generators and turbines. We designed and constructed an HTS radial bearing for use with a 400 kW HTS motor. It consists of alternating axially magnetized permanent magnet rings on the rotor and a segmented YBCO stator. Stator cooling is performed by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the stator can be adjusted by varying the pressure in the cryogenic vessel. At 68 K maximum radial forces of more than 3.7 kN were found. These results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported worldwide. The encouraging results lead us to develop a large heavy load HTS radial bearing. Currently a high magnetic gradient HTS bearing for a 4 MVA synchronous HTS generator is under construction

  2. SMES' SECTOR ACCESS TO FINANCE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Angela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Through their contribution to the creation of added value and new jobs, the small and medium enterprises (SMEs have a significant role in the economic and social development of a country. However, these enterprises are facing numerous obstacles that limit their performance, growth and development. Among the difficulties faced by SMEs, the access to finance is often reported as a major obstacle to the deployment and expansion of their activity. The access to finance is crucial for efficient allocation of financial resources and entrepreneurial development, which explains the major interest given to this subject both by the academic literature and the policy makers. The paper aims to highlight the difficulties faced by SMEs in securing financing resources, emphasizing the differences between countries and also between SMEs and large enterprises. Knowing the difficulties in SMEs financing is essential for policy makers in order to design and implement appropriate measures, which will help to improve the access to financing for these enterprises. Thus, another issue addressed, synthetically, in this paper aims the measures taken by public authorities in order to support the access to financing for SMEs. The research methodology used in this paper starts with a literature review in order to highlight the importance of the subject addressed in our research. The analysis conducted in this paper is based on data and statistics provided mainly by the World Bank surveys, by certain empirical studies and by the National Council of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises in Romania. Based on the methodology used, the paper indicates the difficulties in SMEs financing and the crucial importance of enhancing the public authorities concerns regarding their alleviation, especially by adopting measures focused on increasing financial development, which would ensure greater availability of financing for businesses and thus economic growth. The limited

  3. New facility for testing LHC HTS power leads

    CERN Document Server

    Rabehl, Roger Jon; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D; Pischalnikov, Y; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M

    2005-01-01

    A new facility for testing HTS power leads at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has been designed and operated. The facility has successfully tested 19 pairs of HTS power leads, which are to be integrated into the Large Hadron Collider Interaction Region cryogenic feed boxes. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. HTS power lead test results from the commissioning phase of the project are also presented.

  4. Detailed modeling of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Liu, Y.; Arsoy, A.B.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Steurer, M.; Iravani, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed model for simulation of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system. SMES technology has the potential to bring real power storage characteristic to the utility transmission and distribution systems. The principle of SMES system operation is reviewed in

  5. Japanese activities on energy storage by superconductivities (SMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, M.; Shintomi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Japanese Research Association of SMES has 5 activities. They almost finished the conceptual design and economic evaluation of 5 GWh SMES. They are proposing 50 MJ testing plant to the government. The unfinished activities are the design of 20 MWh, feasibility check of high Tc SMES and the safety analysis

  6. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S., E-mail: alexlee.zn@gmail.com; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested.

  7. Superconducting Electric Machine with Permanent Magnets and Bulk HTS Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, A. V.; Vasich, P. S.; Dezhin, D. S.; Kovalev, L. K.; Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Penkin, V. T.

    Theoretical methods of calculating of two-dimensional magnetic fields, inductive parameters and output characteristics of the new type of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motors with a composite rotor are presented. The composite rotor has the structure containing HTS flat elements, permanent magnets and ferromagnetic materials. The developed calculation model takes into account the concentrations and physical properties of these rotor elements. The simulation results of experimental HTS motor with a composite rotor are presented. The application of new type of HTS motor in different constructions of industrial high dynamic drivers is discussed.

  8. HTS axial flux induction motor with analytic and FEA modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Fan, Y.; Fang, J.; Qin, W.; Lv, G.; Li, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A high temperature superconductor axial flux induction motor and a novel maglev scheme are presented. •Analytic method and finite element method have been adopted to model the motor and to calculate the force. •Magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated by analytic method. •An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. •AC losses of HTS coils in the HTS axial flux induction motor are estimated and tested. -- Abstract: This paper presents a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) axial-flux induction motor, which can output levitation force and torque simultaneously. In order to analyze the character of the force, analytic method and finite element method are adopted to model the motor. To make sure the HTS can carry sufficiently large current and work well, the magnetic field distribution in HTS coil is calculated. An effective method to improve the critical current of HTS coil is presented. Then, AC losses in HTS windings in the motor are estimated and tested

  9. Advanced concept of 100 kJ CO2 laser module for reactor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Matoba, M.; Fujita, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Daido, H.

    1980-01-01

    The design study of 100 kJ CO 2 laser module for inertial fusion confinement is in progress. The basic requirement for the design of a 100 kJ laser is that the structure should be simple enough so as to be one module which can be compiled to set up a 1 MJ system. The requirements imposed on the design are the single gain medium to extract 100 kJ, the multi-pass amplification to achieve high efficiency, laser beam passing the gain medium many times, the possibility to preserve the arbitrary angle of beam injection, and the possibility of construction based on the established or tractable techniques. The gain medium of cylindrical shape was adopted to preserve all directional access with equal configuration. Demonstration experiments are planned to find out the optimized condition regarding to the vibrational relaxation, the time interval of each passage of a laser pulse, gas mixture and pressure, and pumping condition. The optical design of one beam for a 100 kJ test module is presented. This optical design named PENTAGONAL 10 has the following features; compact optics, high parasitic oscillation threshold, and the same intervals of multiple passing for energy extraction with four beams. The laser is an electron beam (E-beam)-controlled discharge laser. An electric power source and feed through were also studied. The construction of a 100 kJ laser system will be possible with the conventional techniques. (Kato, T.)

  10. Network-based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parizi, Mohammad Shahabeddini; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... could be obtained through network interaction. Based on two extreme cases of SMEs representing low-tech industry and an in-depth analysis of their manufacturing facilities this paper presents how collaboration between firms embedded in a regional ecosystem could result in implementation of new...... with other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently...

  11. Have SMEs Benefited from E-Commerce?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Poon

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a surge in research projects on how small and medium enterprises (SMEs use E-Commerce/E-Business for business purposes. These include a mixture of academic, industry and government studies. The outcomes have presented a mixed message. While there are anecdotal success stories, SMEs found their E-Commerce/E-Business endeavours successful to a point but face difficulties in achieving many speculations portrayed by the media and visionaries. In this paper, I try to address the issue based on published works in the domain of E-Commerce/E-Business adoption among SMEs. The answer may lie in a more refined research strategy and consolidation of research outcomes. Lessons from EDI adoption might be useful to formulate impetus to further adoption.

  12. Materiality Analysis for CSR Reporting in Spanish SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Escrig-Olmedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most corporate social responsibility (CSR standards have not been designedto be implemented in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Giventhat 99% of Spanish companies are SMEs, this study aims to propose aselection of basic CSR material issues that, because of their usefulness andsignificance, should be adapted to Spanish SMEs and their stakeholders.This study provides a CSR model for SMEs that includes the most importantsocial, environmental, and corporate governance issues. This model, whichis based on expert knowledge, is useful for integrating sustainability in themanagement of SMEs and enhancing the management of stakeholders.

  13. Managing Complexity and Change in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Managing Complexity new and Change in SMEs Frontiers in European ResearchThe process of founding new enterprises and making them grow and prosper is a far more convoluted undertaking than it was just a few decades ago. This book explores the complexity faced by today's entrepreneurs. Institutional...... boundaries, evolutionary perspectives and the intricacies of management are the central themes in this study of entrepreneurs and SMEs in a world marked by major transitions. While mainstream research enhances our understanding of the dynamics of the entrepreneurial process, this book progresses the research...

  14. Designing Collaborative Manufacturing Solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bogers, Marcel; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    specifically examine how these SMEs collaborate with both competitors and complementors in an innovative automation project. The findings include a decreasing importance of monetary motivation, a direct competitors paradox, and leadership and ownership's issues, on both inter- and intra-company level.......In this paper, we investigate how small manufacturing companies can apply open innovation in the context of process innovation. We present a case study, with embedded action research elements, of a particular set of SMEs that implement a collaborative solution for manufacturing processes. We...

  15. Human relations in SMEs from Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lizandro Arias Gallegos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research settles as aim, to determine the kind of human relations which prevail in small and medium enterprises (SMEs at Paucarpata district from Arequipa City. In order to, we use the Human Relations Questionnaire with acceptable levels of validity and reliability (α = 0,648 and discriminate between four types of human relations: unsecure, collaborative, selfish and hostile. The results point that predominant human relations in SMEs are the hostile type, and make us to suppose that work conditions don’t benefit employees and could even have negative consequences in their job performance and welfare.

  16. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  17. Hvilken rolle spiller hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk?

    OpenAIRE

    Varem, Andrea; Nervik, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Temaet for denne bacheloroppgaven er hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk. Etter en omfattende gjennomgang av eksisterende teori rundt kundereisen fikk vi et inntrykk av at det er et gap i forskningen knyttet til kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk, på tross av størrelsen på dette markedet. Det vi fant av teori på feltet var i stor grad basert på kvantitative undersøkelser, og vi ønsker derfor å belyse kundereisen i denne konteksten gjennom et kvalitativt forskningsdesign. Med ut...

  18. Growth attributes – closing the GAP in Family-SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    -sized Enterprises (SMEs)” to enhance the growth opportunities present in the EU SMEs. Most initiatives focus on creating better framework conditions for SMEs. However, research shows that growth is hampered by a number of internal factors. Many SMEs often lack the important internal attributes for growth pointed...... out in theory and empirical studies, which means that there is a gap between theory and practice when it comes to growth attributes in SMEs. This paper provides an enhanced understanding of whether gap-filling between theory and practice in family-SMEs is possible and whether gap-filling will actually...... stimulate growth. The findings are based on a large-scale research project involving 24 Danish family-SMEs, which completed a learning and development process over a period of three years. The aim of the project was to examine whether such a process which focused on a combination of some of the most...

  19. Discovering Gaps in Internationalization Competences of SMEs¨Ca Comparative Case Study of Austrian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Anzengruber

    2015-01-01

    This article adds to the debate on internationalization competences of SMEs. After an examination of the most influential papers, we systematically discuss the role of individual and organizational competence gaps before and during the internationalization phase. In more detail, we raise the question what kinds of competences gaps hinder SMEs to go international and what competence gaps arise during the internationalization. This is done using a comparative case study design with competence g...

  20. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly

  1. Overcurrent experiments on HTS tape and cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, Kim Høj; Træholt, Chresten

    2001-01-01

    their critical current. In this light, it is important to investigate the response of HTS tapes and cable conductors to overcurrents several times the critical current. A number of experiments have been performed on HTS tapes and cable conductors, with currents up to 20 times the critical current. During...... overcurrent experiments, the voltage, and the temperature were measured as functions of time in order to investigate the dynamic behavior of the HTS tape and cable conductor. After each experiment, damage to the superconductors was assessed by measuring the critical current. Preliminary results show...... that within seconds an HTS tape (critical current=17 A) heats above room temperature with an overcurrent larger than 140 A. Similar overcurrent experiments showed that a HTS cable conductor could sustain damage with overcurrents exceeding 10 times the critical current of the cable conductor....

  2. Fault Management of a Cold Dielectric HTS Power Transmission Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, J; Allais, A; Yuan, J; Schmidt, F; Hamber, F; Welsh, Tom

    2006-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) power transmission cables offer significant advantages in power density over conventional copper-based cables. As with conventional cables, HTS cables must be safe and reliable when abnormal conditions, such as local and through faults, occur in the power grid. Due to the unique characteristics of HTS power cables, the fault management of an HTS cable is different from that of a conventional cable. Issues, such as nitrogen bubble formation within lapped dielectric material, need to be addressed. This paper reviews the efforts that have been performed to study the fault conditions of a cold dielectric HTS power cable. As a result of the efforts, a fault management scheme has been developed, which provides both local and through faults system protection. Details of the fault management scheme with examples are presented

  3. The Need for Standardization in SMEs Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mijatovic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many SMEs networking initiatives failed because of the absence of trust among companies and between companies and government, leadership and management approaches as well as absence of entrepreneurial skills in managing business networks. Even though local governments or regional agencies have a capacity to mobilize actors from the public and private sectors, generic public initiatives are proved not to be enough. The private sector should also be supported in gathering around joint interests and solving their mutual problems, thus improving business and competitiveness. Research, management and policy instruments to support SMEs will need to have some other directions. Can standardization be one of the directions? The main objective of this paper is to present some aspects of need for standardization in SMEs networking initiatives. The solution to actual or potential matching problems (intended and expected to be used repeatedly or continuously, during a certain period, by a substantial number of parties for whom they are meant can be formalized as standard. The standard development process can serve as basis for building connections and trust among cluster members. Even though some researche emphasizes the role of ad hoc de facto standards as well as standardization in the contexts of achievement of the optimum degree of order in SMEs networks, specific experience is evident in all cases, but experience in design of ad hoc de facto standards and standardization management are still missing.

  4. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...

  5. Corporate social responsibility motivations in Zambian SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choongo, P.; van Burg, J.C.; Paas, L.J.; Masurel, Enno; Lungu, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations of different forms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in an under-researched Sub-Saharan African country, Zambia. The results show that internal motivations (financial motivation and moral and ethical motivation)

  6. Corporate Brand Identity Development in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactive narratives that underpin the emergence of corporate brand identity in new venture SMEs. We apply a process perspective that considers the complex interactions between layers of identities and sense-making in and around the organisation in the stakeholder eco-system. We...

  7. Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Ewing, J.J.; Center, R.E.; Mumola, P.; Olson, T.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described

  8. Research on Cigarettes Customer Needs Importance Algorithm Based on KJ / RAHP / KANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Xiong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To express the ambiguity and uncertainty of customer needs importance, an algorithm was proposed. It integrated KJ method, rough analytic Hierarchy Process and KANO model. It calculated the customer needs importance in rough set. A case study of cigarettes customer needs importance illustrated the feasibility and validity of the algorithm.

  9. Development of a highly sensitive current and position monitor with HTS squids and an HTS magnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Ikeda, T.; Kase, M.; Yano, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.

    2005-01-01

    A highly sensitive current and position monitor with HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) and an HTS magnetic shield for the measurement of the intensity of faint beams, such as a radioisotope beam, has been developed for the RIKEN RI beam factory project. The HTS magnetic shield and the HTS current sensor including the HTS SQUID are cooled by a low-vibration pulse-tube refrigerator. Both the HTS magnetic shield and the HTS current sensor were fabricated by dip-coating a thin Bi 2 -Sr 2 -Ca 2 -Cu 3 -O x (Bi-2223) layer on 99.9% MgO ceramic substrates. The HTS technology enables us to develop a system equipped with a downsized and highly sensitive current monitor. Recently, a prototype system was completed and installed in the beam transport line of the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron to measure the DC-current of high-energy heavy-ion beams. As a result, we succeeded in measuring the intensity of the 600 nA 40 Ar 17+ beam (95 MeV/u). We describe the present status of the monitor system and the results of the beam measurements. (author)

  10. Levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovskiy, S. V.; Ermolaev, Y. S.; Rudnev, I. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Due to the considerable development of the technology of second generation high-temperature superconductors and a significant improvement in their mechanical and transport properties in the last few years it is possible to use HTS tapes in the magnetic levitation systems. The advantages of tapes on a metal substrate as compared with bulk YBCO material primarily in the strength, and the possibility of optimizing the convenience of manufacturing elements of levitation systems. In the present report presents the results of the magnetic levitation force measurements between the stack of HTS tapes containing of tapes and NdFeB permanent magnet in the FC and ZFC regimes. It was found a non- linear dependence of the levitation force from the height of the array of stack in both modes: linear growth at small thickness gives way to flattening and constant at large number of tapes in the stack. Established that the levitation force of stacks comparable to that of bulk samples. The numerical calculations using finite element method showed that without the screening of the applied field the levitation force of the bulk superconductor and the layered superconductor stack with a critical current of tapes increased by the filling factor is exactly the same, and taking into account the screening force slightly different.

  11. New Perspectives in HTS Transformer Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariante, M [C.R.I.S, via Nuova delle Brecce 260, Naples (Italy); Formisano, A [D.I.I., Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Marignetti, F [D.A.E.I.M.I., Universita di Cassino, Cassino (France) (Italy); Martone, R [D.I.I., Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Masullo, G [C.R.I.S, via Nuova delle Brecce 260, Naples (Italy); Matrone, A [C.R.I.S, via Nuova delle Brecce 260, Naples (Italy); Quarantiello, R [C.R.I.S, via Nuova delle Brecce 260, Naples (Italy); Rubinacci, G [D.I.E, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Sangiorgi, F [GETRA S.p.A., Marcianise (CE) (Italy); Scarano, M [D.A.E.I.M.I., Universita di Cassino, Cassino (France), Italy; Silvestri, S [GETRA S.p.A., Marcianise (CE) (Italy); Villone, F [D.A.E.I.M.I., Universita di Cassino, Cassino (France), (taly); Zigon, M [GETRA S.p.A., Marcianise (CE) (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    Power transformers based on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) technology are an appealing promise for several practical applications. The present designs still leave wide margins of possible improvement in terms of both layout optimisation and introduction of new technologies. In the framework of a technical-scientific cooperation among scientific and industrial subjects, a 10 kVA single-phase transformer was designed and manufactured, using copper for primary windings and BSCCO-2223 HTS tape for secondary windings. The layout has been optimized taking into account the particular characteristics of BSCCO tapes, in particular their AC losses, and the usual figures (stray flux, Joule and iron losses, weight and overall footprint) considered in transformers design. The prototype has then been realized and characterized, using general as well as specific tests. The performance of the device has been evaluated and compared with numerical calculation. In the paper, an overview of the device design and manufacturing will be presented, together with a critical comparison between computed and measured performance.

  12. Benchmarking and energy management schemes in SMEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenges Wajer, Boudewijn [SenterNovem (Netherlands); Helgerud, Hans Even [New Energy Performance AS (Norway); Lackner, Petra [Austrian Energy Agency (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Many companies are reluctant to focus on energy management or to invest in energy efficiency measures. Nevertheless, there are many good examples proving that the right approach to implementing energy efficiency can very well be combined with the business-priorities of most companies. SMEs in particular can benefit from a facilitated European approach because they normally have a lack of resources and time to invest in energy efficiency. In the EU supported pilot project BESS, 60 SMEs from 11 European countries of the food and drink industries successfully tested a package of interactive instruments which offers such a facilitated approach. A number of pilot companies show a profit increase of 3 up to 10 %. The package includes a user-friendly and web based E-learning scheme for implementing energy management as well as a benchmarking module for company specific comparison of energy performance indicators. Moreover, it has several practical and tested tools to support the cycle of continuous improvement of energy efficiency in the company such as checklists, sector specific measure lists, templates for auditing and energy conservation plans. An important feature and also a key trigger for companies is the possibility for SMEs to benchmark anonymously their energy situation against others of the same sector. SMEs can participate in a unique web based benchmarking system to interactively benchmark in a way which fully guarantees confidentiality and safety of company data. Furthermore, the available data can contribute to a bottom-up approach to support the objectives of (national) monitoring and targeting and thereby also contributing to the EU Energy Efficiency and Energy Services Directive. A follow up project to expand the number of participating SMEs of various sectors is currently being developed.

  13. Recent development status of stirling type pulse tube cryocooler for HTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Y; Nakano, K; Kato, T

    2014-01-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been developing a high power stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motor, SMES and current fault limiter, requested specifications from the devices to a cryocooler are compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. Especially, the cryocooler must be demanded COP > 0.1 in the efficiency. The experimental results of prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in June 2012 [1]. For an In-line type expander, the cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW and the operating frequency was 49 Hz. Accordingly, COP was about 0.055. Moreover, for miniaturization a U type expander was tested and the performance is about 10 % less than that of an In-line type expander. After that, we have estimated that the cooling performance is influenced by the environment such as the effect of the pulse-tube inclination, the temperature and the flowing quantity of cooling water. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  14. The Dynamic Internationalization Model of Slovenian Born Global SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Lejko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are important businessactors in the Slovenian, as well as European economy. Inaddition to the current global market conditions, reflecting a severeeconomic downturn, the SMEs in Slovenia and other transitioneconomies operate under additional extensive external pressures,arising from the opening of their domestic markets. Undersuch conditions, companies, including SMEs, perceive internationalizationas an inevitable, or even urgent step in the processof their business operations. However, companies pursue differentpaths in their internationalization efforts, one of them beinga rapid internationalization strategy, denoted as the Born Globalconcept. In the paper, we explore the internationalization processof Slovenian Born Global SMEs. We employ an exploratory qualitativecase study analysis of selected Slovenian SMEs in order tograsp the key characteristics of their internationalization process.On the basis of the latter we construct a dynamic internationalizationmodel that might be used as a conceptual framework forempirical research of dynamic SMEs market behavior in Sloveniaand other transition countries.

  15. Efficient growth of HTS films with volatile elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.

    1998-12-22

    A system is disclosed for applying a volatile element-HTS layer, such as Tl-HTS, to a substrate in a multiple zone furnace, said method includes heating at higher temperature, in one zone of the furnace, a substrate and adjacent first source of Tl-HTS material, to sublimate Tl-oxide from the source to the substrate; and heating at lower temperature, in a separate zone of the furnace, a second source of Tl-oxide to replenish the first source of Tl-oxide from the second source. 3 figs.

  16. Network Business Environment for Open Innovation in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Ţoniş BuceaManea, Rocsana; Catană, Mădălin Gabriel; Tonoiu, Sergiu

    2014-01-01

    The SMEs represent an important factor of growth in both developed and developing countries, into which, however, they face different obstacles in the process of innovation. This paper analyses how open communication and collaboration can help SMEs in their struggle for sustainable innovation and profitable market competition. Based on a literature review, a number of obstacles that SMEs have to overcome in their current activity and possible support to be competitive are revea...

  17. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MODELS IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMES)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliviana Bold, Ph. D Student

    2011-01-01

    Bringing forward the concepts of change and change management is no longer surprising nowadays. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) face unique and difficult challenges in the business environment. Challenges to the growth and viability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are arising from several external factors, like globalization, increased customer expectations or competition, technological advances, all of the factors being determined by the change. SMEs need to successfully deal with...

  18. The usage of digital marketing channels in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Taiminen, Heini; Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the utilization and goals of digital marketing, and examines factors that influence the adoption and use of digital marketing channels in SMEs. Design/methodology/approach – The data comprises semi-structured theme interviews in SMEs among 16 managers and 421 survey respondents in Central Finland. Findings – The results of this study reveal that SMEs seem not use the full potential of the new digital tools, and s...

  19. The conceptual design and economic evaluation of utility scale SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports the result of current Japanese activities in designing and evaluating the economic feasibility of utility Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The 5 GWh/1 GW is proposed as a relevant unit of SMES in the year 2000. More than 20 companies, several universities and two national laboratories joined in a task force to study this technology. After three year's assessment, the conclusion on utility scale SMES is that no unresolvable technologies have been found and commercialization potential exists

  20. Effects of SMES units on power system stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byerly, R.T.; Juves, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model suitable for representing SMES units in power system stability studies has been developed and incorporated into an existing large-scale stability program. Demonstration studies have been performed which emphasize the use of SMES units to improve the damping of oscillations associated with synchronizing power flow among generators. The capability exists to conduct stability studies of large systems which include SMES units

  1. Governance mechanisms, investment opportunity set and SMEs cash holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Belghitar, Yacine; Khan, James

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of firm characteristics and governance mechanisms on cash holdings for a sample of UK SMEs. The results show that UK SMEs with greater cash flow volatility and institutional investors hold more cash; whereas levered and dividend paying SMEs with non-executive ownership hold less cash. We also find that ownership structure is significant only in explaining the cash holdings for firms with high growth investment opportunities, and leverage is only significant in e...

  2. Lyden Sker - et interview med Torben Ulrich og Søren Kjærgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Da musikeren, poeten og tennisspilleren Torben Ulrich i Seattle mødte jazzpianisten og komponisten Søren Kjærgaard udviklede det sig til en dybdegående udforskning af feltet mellem lyd og ord, stilhed og puls, rum og nærvær. Deres fælles bestræbelser kulminerede i foråret 2009 med det eksperiment......Da musikeren, poeten og tennisspilleren Torben Ulrich i Seattle mødte jazzpianisten og komponisten Søren Kjærgaard udviklede det sig til en dybdegående udforskning af feltet mellem lyd og ord, stilhed og puls, rum og nærvær. Deres fælles bestræbelser kulminerede i foråret 2009 med det...

  3. Preliminary results on a 4 kJ, 140 k A plasma focus; Resultados preliminares en un plasma foco de 4 KJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricio; Favre, Mario; Chuaqui, Hernan; Wyndham, Edmund [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary results on the operation of a 4 kJ, 140 kA Plasma Focus device are presented. The machine operates Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Argon mixtures at pressures between 400 m Torr to 10 Torr. Main diagnostics include electric and current measurements, time and space resolved X-ray observations, with limited spectral resolution, and B-dot sensors to monitor the evolution of de current sheet during the run up phase of the discharge. The results indicate that good focus is obtained in the above pressure range. This is inferred from I-dot traces and Pin diode and pin-hole camera X-ray observations. The B-dot loops suggest that a symmetric current sheet is produced. These results show that the machine exhibits a reliable performance, which allows further studies on dense transient plasmas to be developed. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) external fields and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, C.; Boom, R.W.; Eyssa, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses preferred SMES configurations and the external magnetic fields which they generate. Possible biological effects of fields are reviewed briefly. It is proposed that SMES units be fenced at the 10 gauss (1 mT) level to keep unrestricted areas safe, even for persons with cardiac pacemakers. For a full size 5000 MWh (1.8 x 10 13 J) SMES the magnetic field decreases to 10 gauss at a radial distance of 2 km from the center of the coil. Other considerations related to the environmental impact of large SMES magnetic fields are discussed briefly

  5. ROMANIAN SME-S AFTER INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Ana BORCOŞI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available According with the White Charter of Romanian SME-s 2007, Romanian integration in European Union was considered a great opportunity for the 46,67% of SME-s, just 9,18% of SME-s consider it like a major threatening. Romanian integration in European Union gave us much benefits and big responsibilities for all participants to this complex and long action, which is integration. The influence of integration in EU for SME-s was manifested in some special directions like: human resource, quality and competitiveness, ethics in business.

  6. RESILIENCE AND ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE IN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that SMEs need to embrace the drivers of resilience and that a well-defined and readily available Enterprise Architecture (EA supports enterprise integration by enabling the common view of business processes, data and systems across the enterprise and its partners, we can say that EA is one of the tracks making resilience predictable and it should support and collaborate with other resilience tracks. However, the EA frameworks do not give relevance to the activities that contribute most to business resilience, so this paper aims to clarify the dimensions and the activities related to the development of an EA and the touching points with other enterprise wide processes in order to guarantee that resilience requirements are met in SMEs. For this I propose an approach of ecological adaptation, and four architectures: business, organizational, information, and technological, although this paper only presents the Business and Organizational Architectures.

  7. Network characteristics and open innovation in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maja; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Esbjerg, Lars

    The open innovation literature has primarily been concentrating on open innovation (OI) in large companies. Hence it is very unclear whether these findings can be generalized to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This paper begins filling in this knowledge gap. In doing so, we focus...... explicitly on understanding network characteristics and the unfolding of OI in SMEs. Case studies were used and empirical data was mainly generated through semi-structured interviews. Cases selected for study were companies in the Danish food industry with less than 499 employees. In this paper we report our...... findings for four cases. Our study shows that companies with a relatively open innovation process have both strong and weak ties with external partners. Companies with a relatively more closed innovation process have on the other hand only few weak ties and no strong ties with external partners....

  8. Perceptions of Circular Business Models in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Ion Ceptureanu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Testing circular economy business models is crucial in understanding Circular Economy features across various industries. This paper analyses Circular Economy perceptions in Romanian SMEs by investigating entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry. Using a multidimensional framework, ReSOLVE, as a conceptual model, and Lewandowski systematization, we measured 6 business actions and their relations with Value creation. The results of our survey can be described as mixed. Of the 6 business actions of ReSOLVE framework, for half of them (Regenerate, Optimize and Exchange we can definitely conclude that these are correlated with Circular Economy in terms of Value Creation, while for a fourth there are variables significantly correlated without being able to conclude its overall contribution in terms of Value creation. Our empirical investigation contributes to literature development on Circular Economy research in SMEs and a step forward to shape future research initiatives.

  9. LEARNING ORGANISATION CHALLENGE FOR ROMANIAN PHARMACEUTICAL SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia-Maria BORDEIANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the learning organization has gone through many changes both theoretically and also as practical implementation. Learning organizations do not appear automatically, they require a strong commitment for developing the skills needed in the workplace, and this commitment should start from the top of the organization. The learning process should be managed at different levels within the organization. Learning, therefore, is made up of several different components and requires a special management. Successful companies are the result of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments and management processes. This paper investigates the learning organization dimensions analysed in case of pharmaceutical SMEs from Romania. The results obtained in this study allow us to draw relevant conclusions, constituting a practical starting point for businesses. The paper highlights the fact that SMEs pharmaceutical companies have taken important steps toward learning organization model, but reaching different levels from one key dimension to another.

  10. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  11. Study the Output Characteristics of a 90 kJ Filippove-Type Plasma Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Talaei, A.; Adlparvar, S.; Zirak, A.; Elahi, M.; Safarian, A.; Farhangi, S.; Alhooie, S.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Khalaj, M. M.; Mahlooji, M. S.; Talaei, M.; KaKaei, S.; Sheibani, S.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-08-01

    The output characteristics of a Filippove-Type plasma focus "Dena" (288 μF, 25 kV, 90 kJ) is numerically investigated by considering the voltage, current, current derivative, and maximum current as a function of capacitor bank energy in the constant Argon gas pressure and compared to the experiment. It is shown that increase on the bank energy leads to the increment on the maximum current and decrement on the pinch time.

  12. Building Philippine SMEs Resilience to Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Marife M.; Domingo, Sonny N.

    2015-01-01

    Disasters are bad for business specifically for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). These catastrophic events can compromise capital, logistics, product market, and labor, which compromise business continuity and recovery. Physical damage and disruptions in supply and labor can cause temporary business closure while structural repairs to buildings and recovery or replacement of damaged equipment needed to restore operations require large amount of resources. The adverse impact may not only b...

  13. Short Considerations on Tax Competition for SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Tudor

    2011-01-01

    Tax competition is particularly evident with regard to attracting foreign direct investment, portfolio investment to finance investment, higher skilled jobs, etc. Taxpayers may choose thus the tax for those residences that offer a combination of public goods and taxes that satisfy the highest preferences. Starting from the main rules in the field of taxation, our study aims to identify those opportunities that can benefit SMEs on a background of fierce tax competition fierce competition in EU.

  14. Software Process Improvement for SMEs using OMM

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Software Process Improvement initiatives have been implemented by many companies in order to achieve quality of products and practices. Many models like CMMI and IDEAL have been adopted as a means to gain competitive advantages among competitors and trustworthiness of customers. Although these models have proved successful results, the inherent characteristics of SMEs make it difficult and in many cases unfeasible to implement such models, without meaning that those companies are less capable...

  15. Sourcing of Accounting: Evidence from Belgian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    P. EVERAERT; G. SARENS; J. ROMMEL

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Firstly, this paper investigates the sourcing strategy of small and medium sized companies (SMEs) in terms of accounting tasks. Secondly, this paper also attempts to find motivations for the sourcing strategy of accounting. Thirdly, this paper investigates whether the sourcing strategy is related to firm size, industry and familiarity with outsourcing of other support tasks. The following accounting tasks are considered in this study: (1) entry of invoices and financial transactions,...

  16. Design and modelling of a SMES coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A, E-mail: wy215@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity group, Engineering Department, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    The design of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil wound by coated conductors has been presented. Based on an existing model for coated conductor pancake coils, this paper analysed the magnetic field and current density distribution of the coil at two different operation temperatures, 77K and 22K. A comparison table of the critical currents and AC losses at these two temperatures has been presented. Several steps to improve the transport current of the coil have been suggested as well.

  17. Internationalization of SMES: business opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, João Filipe Amado

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to identify the main business opportunities in Chile, legal advantages in the business perspective and entry strategies for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The methodology used was qualitative, by conducting several interviews with chamber of commerce representative from Portugal in Chile and Chile in Portugal, several young entrepreneurs from different nations operating in Chile, the CEO of a Spanish company that decided to not internationalize to...

  18. The Internationalization of SMEs in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Bonilla, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the internationalization process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Costa Rica. Its ultimate goal is to draw conclusions that might enable the various stakeholders in the process (businesses, government, support agencies, and academia) to make decisions based on better information. To do this we will review the current status of this business sector, compare the patterns of internationalization identified in the theory with those experienced by Costa Rican ...

  19. Creative clusters: a new era for SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Oxborrow, L

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The paper illustrates how the characteristics of industry clusters are revived in a new era for SME networks. It explores how a succession of industry shocks - increased global competition, recession and reduced policy support - have stimulated an innovative response in creative SMEs. The paper goes on to investigate the clustering experience of a small group of creative entrepreneurs in pursuing networked activities, with a view to identifying lessons that can be learnt to suppor...

  20. Factors influencing access to finance by SMEs in Mozambique: Case of SMEs in Maputo central business district

    OpenAIRE

    Osano, Hezron Mogaka; Languitone, Hilario

    2016-01-01

    SMEs play an important role in the economic development of Mozambique. Access to finance is important for the growth of SMEs. Thus, the purpose of the study was to establish the factors that influence access to finance by SMEs. The factors that were addressed included structure of financial sector, awareness of funding opportunities, collateral requirements, and small business support services. The target population was 2725 which comprised of 2075 staff of three Banks, namely BIM Bank, BCI B...

  1. SMEs AND INNOVATION – CASE OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA RISTESKA JANKULOSKA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the dynamic environment, competitiveness of small and medium enterprises depends on the speed with which new products can be presented in the market. Innovation represent specific instrument of entrepreneurship, and in general entrepreneurs are bringing innovation. Innovation represents activity that impregnates the existing resources with new capacities for creation of resources. Innovation sometimes may result in brand new, unknown product or replacement of some existing function for it’s more efficient and successful performance. SMEs are more innovative than larger firms, due to their flexibility and their ability to quickly and efficiently integrate inventions created by the firms’ development activities. Hence, in this paper the main focus will be on SMEs in Macedonia, their innovation and the business environment, excually the influence of business environment for creating innovation. To prove this we will test three hypotheses by using the ANNOVA model and in the end of the paper based on the obtained results we will purpose a measures for improving the business environment in Macedonia in order to stimulate SMEs innovation.

  2. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  3. SMEs Growth in the Czech Republic: Some Macroeconomic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nedu Osakwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are seen as a vehicle for employment generation, wealth creation, economic growth and development in countries that have a sound investment climate. SMEs, account for approximately one-third of GDP, over 50% of the value added, 99% of the share of total registered enterprises, and represent 60% of total employment in the Czech Republic. In the light of this background, the paper explores the influence of some macroeconomic variables on SMEs growth in the Czech Republic for the period 1995–2013. In order to assess the impacts of these critical macroeconomic variables (e.g., rate of unemployment, economic growth, credit provided by the financial sector on SMEs growth, we employed an econometric technique. Our findings suggest a concave relationship between unemployment and SMEs growth in the Czech Republic. More precisely, it signifies that beyond a turning point, unemployment is likely to slow down SMEs growth in the country. Our results further hint at a positive relationship between economic growth and SMEs growth. However, our empirical estimates showed an insignificant relationship between domestic credit provided by the financial sector and SMEs growth in the country. The government of the Czech Republic should continue to provide an enabling investment climate and support for bolstering a sustainable SMEs development within the country. Similar to the extant literature, we have also implored the Czech government to do more with regard to the provision of easier access and affordable credits/loans to SMEs. We have also called for the reduction of bureaucratic bottlenecks that might have to do with SMEs legislations in the country.

  4. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  5. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory's High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects

  6. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

  7. Coping with Risk in the Internationalization of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2015-01-01

    managerial perceptions influence risk accommodation. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore experiences of a group of international Danish SMEs. Findings show that SMEs follow different strategies of coping with risk and uncertainty in the internationalization process depending on key decision...

  8. Universities, SMEs and Innovation Frameworks: Think Global, Act Local?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickernell, David; Clifton, Nick; Senyard, Julienne

    2009-01-01

    Universities are increasingly encouraged to take a leading role in economic development, particularly through innovation. Simultaneously, economic development policy itself is increasingly focused on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), creating overlapping interactions in the roles of government policy, universities and SMEs and the…

  9. Develop risk-based procurement management tools for SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne; Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Walhof, Gert; Holman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for developing risk-based management tools to improve the procurement (purchasing) performance of SMEs. Extant academic literature only offers little support on developing such tools and does not consider the wide variety of SMEs. The paper defines a procurement tool for

  10. Foundational Competencies for Enhancing Work Engagement in SMEs Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Aliyu Yelwa; Marthandan, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the impact of foundational competencies on work engagement in the context of the Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) service sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Malaysia, and data were gathered via a survey on 312 employees representing SMEs service…

  11. Supporting Sustainable Strategies for SMEs through Training, Cooperation and Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Emma O.; Hamburg, Ileana

    2014-01-01

    In order to remain successful and competitive in business today it is important that SMEs can sustain themselves by adapting to economic changes. SMEs have a distinct advantage over large companies in that they have less bureaucracy and hierarchical restrictions and can implement changes quickly. However often they are slow to change their way of…

  12. Business risks in the SMEs from the North East region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leronard Ovidiu TURCU

    2014-04-01

    The vulnerabilities of the SMEs are mainly linked to the decreasing available resources, to the excessive dependence on the entrepreneurs’ financial decisions and to the changing business environment. In order to revive the SMEs sector in Romania there is a need for more rigorous approaches, based on the implementation of business strategies.

  13. Open innovation in SMEs : trends, motives and management challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrande, van de V.J.A.; Jong, de J.P.J.; Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Rochemont, de M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Open innovation has so far been studied mainly in high-tech, multinational enterprises. This exploratory paper investigates if open innovation practices are also applied by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Drawing on a database collected from 605 innovative SMEs in the Netherlands, we

  14. Plans on developments of a SMES system in Kyushu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeo, M.; Sato, S.; Kunaki, K.; Okada, H.; Ezaki, T.; Sumiyoshi, F.; Irie, F.; Tokunaga, T.; Kanetaka, H.; Ichiki, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have continued an investigation on superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Here, we review recent progresses in the Kyushu community, in relation with a national project of SMES by the Agency of National Resources and Energy in MITI of Japan. (orig.)

  15. Leadership styles and quality of work life in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in India are currently facing the challenges of increased competitions. In such environment, labor retention is very important factor for competition and survival. In this context, appropriate leadership styles and Quality of Work Life (QWL are very important factors for survival. Literature on QWL is limited to SMEs and several studies commonly correlated with only QWL dimensions but no study on QWL has association with Leadership styles. This empirical study is accomplished to predict QWL in relation to Transformational and Transactional leadership styles. The sample consists of 240 Mechanical Manufacturing SMEs in Bangalore, India. To draw the inference chi-square test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis was carried out for the collected data using Mini Tab14. The results indicate that 25% of SMEs have implemented good QWL, in 56.6% of SMEs have implemented Transformational leadership styles; QWL of SMEs has significant association with Leadership styles. QWL and Leadership styles of SMEs are independent of demographical factors of SMEs like age of the firms, size of the firms, and cost of the project. QWL dimensions like work environment, relation and cooperation, autonomy of work has a significant association with leadership style. For both transformational and transactional leadership style job satisfaction and job security has highest correlation coefficient.

  16. Role of Cooperatives in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the contributions of cooperatives to small and medium scale enterprises (SME) development, identified the challenges and to suggested ways of strengthening this role. The paper argued that SMEs are the key to Nigeria‟s prosperity, but that past efforts by the government to promote SMEs has not ...

  17. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  18. University - SMEs Collaboration to Support the Economic Growth: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... support prevent many of these companies to even think of new investment. ... Local Universities can support SMEs by designing low cost equipment to meet their needs. ... doing the link between University and SMEs and the funding institutions. ... Many small projects have already been considered by the University of ...

  19. Computational quench model applicable to the SMES/CICC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Cesar A.; Chang, Chih-Lien; Partain, Kenneth D.

    1994-07-01

    A computational quench model accounting for the hydraulic peculiarities of the 200 kA SMES cable-in-conduit conductor has been developed. The model is presented and used to simulate the quench on the SMES-ETM. Conclusions are drawn concerning quench detection and protection. A plan for quench model validation is presented.

  20. Specifics of the Internationalization Process of Czech Engineering SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Kubíčková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define the specifics of the internationalization process of Czech engineering small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Based on primary data collection among Czech engineering SMEs there were defined the main motives of the internationalization. There were also identified the factors subjectively considered by SMEs as the key success factors of the internationalization process. Attention was also paid to subjectively perceived risk factors of the internationalization process and to the issue of risk management in the internationalization process, while it was investigated whether the risk management affects the intensity of export of Czech engineering SMEs. Data were collected via electronic questionnaire surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012. In total 194 respondents (engineering SMEs filled the questionnaires. The obtained data were processed on the basis of descriptive statistics. Moreover hypothesis testing was performed.

  1. A 1-kJ KrF laser system for laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owadano, Y.; Okuda, I.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yaoita, A.; Komeiji, S.; Yano, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ultraviolet laser light has several advantages in coupling with a laser fusion target, and the KrF laser is considered to be a promising candidate for the driver because of its short wavelength, high overall efficiency, and scalability to a megajoule class system. The Electrotechnical Laboratory is developing a 1-kJ class KrF laser system to perform target-shooting experiments in the 10/sup 13/-10/sup 15/-W/cm/sup 2/, 10-20-ns range and to investigate the possibility of a compact laser fusion driver which operates at a high pumping density and high laser power density. Based on the pulsed-power technology used in Amp2 and the characteristics of the Kr-rich mixture measured, Amp3 was designed to operate at high optical power density with a Kr-rich mixture. Amp3 has four PFLs charged by a single 40-kJ Marx generator and four e-beam diodes (550 kV, 4 Ω) arranged cylindrically around the laser cell. The active volume is 660 cm/sup 2/ (29 cm in diameter) X 1 m, and 2-atm Kr is pumped at a density of 1.9 MW/cm/sup 3/. Output energy of 1 kJ is expected at an intrinsic efficiency of 8.3% and overall efficiency of 2.5%. Output energy fluence is 1.5 J/cm/sup 2/ (15 MW/cm/sup 2/) on average, which is lower than the damage threshold of our fully reflecting AR coatings (>3 J/cm/sup 2/)

  2. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Results of a technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, T.; Juengst, K.P.; Brandl, V.; Maurer, W.; Nieke, E.

    1995-05-01

    The authors report on results of a Technology Assessment study commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) technology with respect to the economical, political and organization structures in the Federal Republic of Germany. The main focus of the study was on the technical and economic potential of large-scale SMES for diurnal load levelling applications. It was shown that there is no demand for the development of large SMES in Germany in the short and medium term. A second range of applications investigated is storage of electric energy for immediate delivery or consumption of electric power in case of need or for periodic power supply within the range of seconds. Due to its excellent dynamic properties SMES has substantial advantages over conventional storage technologies in this field. For those so-called dynamic applications SMES of small and medium energy capacity are needed. It was shown that SMES may be economically attractive for the provision of spinning reserve capacity in electrical networks, in particular cases for power quality applications (uninterruptable power supply, UPS) and for the compensation of cyclic loads, as well as in some market niches. The use of SMES for storage of recuperated energy in electrical railway traction systems has been proven to be uneconomical. Mobile SMES applications are unrealistic due to technical and size limitations. In SMES systems the energy is stored in a magnetic field. Biological objects as well as technical systems in the vicinity of a SMES plant are exposed to this field. The knowledge on impacts of magnetic fields on sensitive technical systems as well as on living organisms and especially on effects on human health is rather small and quite uncertain. (orig./MM) [de

  3. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN 2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN 2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved

  4. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werfel, Frank N., E-mail: werfel@t-online.de [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany); Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Rittergut Adelwitz 16, 04886 Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems. ► Multi-seeded YBCO bulks joint the way for large-scale application. ► Levitation platforms demonstrate “superconductivity” to a great public audience (100 years anniversary). ► HTS magnetic bearings show forces up to 1 t. ► Modular HTS maglev vacuum cryostats are tested for train demonstrators in Brazil, China and Germany. -- Abstract: ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN{sub 2} and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500–3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN{sub 2} allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  5. Distance Management of SMEs Using ICT Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzislaw Polkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of a research conducted in collaboration with some Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs program Romanian students, concerning the use and implementation of ICT (Information and Telecommunication Technology, especially in distance managing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. The paper is a response to the nature of contemporary business management, with the constantly increasing amount of work, bureaucracy and the necessity to travel on business combined with the need to manage the company being away. In the research the students assumed the roles of the employees and entrepreneurs simultaneously, to gain the perspective from both points of view – supervised by the authors. The aim was to find and test the effectiveness of the available ICT remote management instruments in the context of SMEs. The aim was to create a study of implementation in real-life conditions, considering the advantages and disadvantages of the solutions tested, including possible future trends. The result was a set of recommendations for business people. Apart from the educational value of the research, the unique, dual perspective assumed by the students participating in it, provided them with a practical insight and skills to better understand and make a better use of the conditions of managing and being managed. The results described here both practical and academic value. The resulting recommendations may constitute the basis of positive changes and improvement in the use of advanced technology in business activities. It is worth noting with its international character the study focuses not only on selected Polish enterprises, but the resulting contents reflects the situation in SMEs in the EU as well, thus it may be a starting point for analyzing other regions worldwide.

  6. SMES based power modulator - status August 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengst, K.P.; Gehring, R.; Kudymow, A.; Suess, E.

    2001-10-01

    Based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) a long-pulse klystron modulator has been designed for use in the TESLA test facility (TTF) at DESY, Hamburg. A proto-type with an output power of 25 MW is under development at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in cooperation with the office of engineering lbK at Karlsruhe. Including a pulse transformer (1:13/11.5), the system will deliver pulses of 130 kV or 115 kV, 1.7 ms pulse length with a flat top of ± 0.5%, at a repetition rate up to 10 Hz. This new system's main features are a highly dynamic SMES (> 100 T/s), a high current power supply (rated 27 V/2.6 kA), a switched-mode high voltage power supply (rated 14 kV/45 A), a fast thyristor power switch for 2.6 kA approx. continuous current/ 2 ms break, an IGCT power switch rated 2.6 kA/14 kV, a protection switch unit and a system control unit. This demonstration system is to serve alternatively two klystrons of 5 MW RF output or one multibeam klystron of 10 MW RF output. A significant part of the components of the system has been built. A first set of the system components had been arranged to form a model of the modulator and 1 MW pulses were generated. The next large step in the area of the power electronic part is to increase the power of this test arrangement up to 10 MW. The SMES and its cryostat have undergone initial testing. The data acquisition and control system under development at DESY has been taken over and adjusted to our computer and experimental environment. (orig.)

  7. Development and characterization of magnetic HTS bearings for a 400 kW synchronous HTS motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummeth, P; Ries, G; Nick, W; Neumueller, H-W

    2004-01-01

    Promising results of static and dynamic investigations on various journal type test bearings encouraged us to develop a scaled-up HTS bearing, able to carry the HTS rotor of a 400 kW superconducting motor. The stator, a YBCO hollow cylinder of 203 mm inner diameter and 250 mm length, is cooled by liquid nitrogen. Permanent magnet rings with a diameter of 200 mm were mounted on a shaft with alternating polarity. Characterization of the bearing capacity was performed with three different YBCO stators at temperatures between 66 and 86 K in a test set-up. A significant influence of the temperature was found. At a stator temperature of 72 K and a rotation frequency of 25 Hz (corresponding to nominal motor speed) a radial bearing force of 2700 N was measured for the shaft at centre position. Under rotation of the shaft the bearing capacity is reduced. At present our results range within the highest radial bearing capacities reported world-wide

  8. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calza, Elisa; Goedhuys, Micheline; Trifkovic, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological...... international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption...... is higher when firms implement technological innovations and that the effect of certification on productivity is particularly strong for firms with technological innovation....

  9. Corporate governance and audit features: SMEs evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Najjar, Basil

    2018-01-01

    Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of corporate governance factors on audit features, namely, audit fees and the selection of Big 4 audit firms within the UK SMEs context.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud The author uses different regression models to investigate the impact of corporate governance characteristics on audit features, and employs cross-sectional time series models as well as two-stage least squares technique. In addition, the author has used l...

  10. Tax Policy: What Does SMEs Say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuswantara Dian Anita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tax is one of the main sources of government revenue in Indonesia. Unfortunately the enormous population has not been able to make tax revenues so great. The cost to issue a new policy package should be accompanied by increased taxpayer compliance, as indicated by tax revenue. But until now the increase in tax revenue is due to the higher the value of money. Based on the above, it needs to be studied and analysed on how the critical analysis of income tax policy for individual taxpayers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs.

  11. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). The design, analysis, evaluation, and operation of SMES systems and equipment are discussed. Topics include utility scale SMES plants, SMES for transmission line stabilization, design and protection of superconducting magnets and coils, computer controlled SMES systems, and fusion power reactors. (Contains a minimum of 82 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). The design, analysis, evaluation, and operation of SMES systems and equipment are discussed. Topics include utility scale SMES plants, SMES for transmission line stabilization, design and protection of superconducting magnets and coils, computer controlled SMES systems, and fusion power reactors. (Contains a minimum of 82 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  14. Benefit/cost comparisons for utility SMES applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Steese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight cases studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES application in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios that those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in may utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems

  15. The Effect of International Business on SMEs Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Moruff Sanjo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research examined the effect of international business on SMEs growth in a competitive environment, particularly Nigeria. The secondary data were gathered from the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN annual report. This study adopted ordinary least square method of data analyses. The finding revealed that trade openness as a measure of competitiveness and FDI has no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It was also revealed that the exchange rate has a significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria, and the level at which exchange rate affects SMEs growth is relatively high. It was further showed that the exchange rate has a negative coefficient indicating that, as the exchange rate reduces SMEs growth increases. It is concluded that trade competitiveness had no significant effect on SMEs growth in Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that government should formulate policies, which will encourage the reduction of exchange rate in the country in order to enhance competition and improve business activities across the country, and improve the growth of SMEs across the country, as well as encouraging entrepreneurship spirit in the country.

  16. Benefit/cost comparison for utility SMES applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desteese, J. G.; Dagle, J. E.

    1991-08-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES applications in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios than those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in many utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems.

  17. Environmental Management Systems and Sustainability in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in manufacturing sector has been allocated a major consideration in the international literature. Due to growing concerns over the high effect of SMEs on world manufacturing industries and their contribution to pollution; this research attempts to focus on the key parameters that interact in the application of environmental management system, taking into account the main features of SMEs and also the integral role of industrial entrepreneurs in inspiring their firms’ approaches. The paper explores the potential opportunities which enable these enterprises to move towards organizations with high level of responsibility regarding environmental protection in order to provide a healthier life for future generations. Case investigation is carried out on an adhesive manufacturing company, which covers a notable market share within the sector. The research identifies that the company requires developing both internal and external entities within an explicit plan to revolutionize the recruitment patterns. Given the lack of adequate studies in adhesive technology, more researches are recommended in the future to consider the sustainable innovations on a broader sample of adhesive manufacturing companies to perform the life-cycle analysis due to the harmful organic compounds and toxic vapours of the adhesive products.

  18. Detection of Local Temperature Change on HTS Cables via Time-Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Su Sik; Lee, Geon Seok; Kwon, Gu-Young; Lee, Yeong Ho; Ji, Gyeong Hwan; Sohn, Songho; Park, Kijun; Shin, Yong-June

    2017-07-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are drawing attention as transmission and distribution cables in future grid, and related researches on HTS cables have been conducted actively. As HTS cables have come to the demonstration stage, failures of cooling systems inducing quench phenomenon of the HTS cables have become significant. Several diagnosis of the HTS cables have been developed but there are still some limitations of the experimental setup. In this paper, a non-destructive diagnostic technique for the detection of the local temperature change point is proposed. Also, a simulation model of HTS cables with a local temperature change point is suggested to verify the proposed diagnosis. The performance of the diagnosis is checked by comparative analysis between the proposed simulation results and experiment results of a real-world HTS cable. It is expected that the suggested simulation model and diagnosis will contribute to the commercialization of HTS cables in the power grid.

  19. Loss analysis of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, S K; Kwon, Y K; Kim, H M; Lee, J D; Kim, Y C; Park, H J; Kwon, W S; Park, G S

    2009-01-01

    The HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) synchronous motor has advantages over the conventional synchronous motor such as smaller size and higher efficiency. Higher efficiency is due to smaller loss than the conventional motor, so it is important to do loss analysis in order to develop a machine with higher efficiency. This paper deals with machine losses those are dissipated in each part of a HTS synchronous motor. These losses are analyzed theoretically and compared with loss data obtained from experimental results of a 1 MW class HTS synchronous motor. Each machine loss is measured based on IEEE 115 standard and the results are analyzed and considered based on the manufacturing of the test machine.

  20. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-08-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads.

  1. HTS power lead testing at the Fermilab magnet test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabehl, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has tested high-temperature superconductor (HTS) power leads for cryogenic feed boxes to be placed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) interaction regions and at the new BTeV CO interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron. A new test facility was designed and operated, successfully testing 20 pairs of HTS power leads for the LHC and 2 pairs of HTS power leads for the BTeV experiment. This paper describes the design and operation of the cryogenics, process controls, data acquisition, and quench management systems. Results from the facility commissioning are included, as is the performance of a new insulation method to prevent frost accumulation on the warm ends of the power leads

  2. Modelling, Construction, and Testing of a Simple HTS Machine Demonstrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the construction, modeling and experimental testing of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) machine prototype employing second generation (2G) coated conductors in the field winding. The prototype is constructed in a simple way, with the purpose of having an inexpensive way...... of validating finite element (FE) simulations and gaining a better understanding of HTS machines. 3D FE simulations of the machine are compared to measured current vs. voltage (IV) curves for the tape on its own. It is validated that this method can be used to predict the critical current of the HTS tape...... installed in the machine. The measured torque as a function of rotor position is also reproduced by the 3D FE model....

  3. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qingyong; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao

    2009-01-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle

  4. Levitation force relaxation under reloading in a HTS Maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Qingyong [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: hedoubling@gmail.com; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiansi; Dong Hao; Wang Yuxin; Shao Senhao [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, M/S 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2009-02-01

    The loading capacity of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev vehicle is an important parameter in the practical application. It is closely related to the levitation force of the HTS bulk. Many papers reported that the levitation force showed the relaxation characteristic. Because different loads cause different levitation gaps and different applied magnetic fields, the levitation force relaxations under the different loads are not the same. In terms of cylindrical YBCO bulk levitated over the permanent magnetic guideway, the relationship between the levitation force relaxation and the reloading is investigated experimentally in this paper. The decrement, the decrement rate and the relaxation rate of the levitation force are calculated, respectively. This work might be helpful for studying the loading capacity of the HTS Maglev vehicle.

  5. AC Application of HTS Conductors in Highly Dynamic Electric Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, B; Best, K-J; Setzer, M; Duffner, E; Soell, M; Gawalek, W; Kovalev, L K

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent investigations we design highly dynamic electric motors up to 400 kW and linear motors up to 120 kN linear force using HTS bulk material and HTS tapes. The introduction of HTS tapes into AC applications in electric motors needs fundamental studies on double pancake coils under transversal magnetic fields. First theoretical and experimental results on AC field distributions in double-pancake-coils and corresponding AC losses will be presented. Based on these results the simulation of the motor performance confirms extremely high power density and efficiency of both types of electric motors. Improved characteristics of rare earth permanent magnets used in our motors at low temperatures give an additional technological benefit

  6. Romanian SMEs During the Crisis: Economic Results and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at how SMEs from Romania evolved in the period2004–2011. The main objective of the paper is to compare SMEs’situation before the start of the economic crisis and during theperiod of the crisis. The examination is done from a dynamic perspectiveand the analysis comprises two aspects: (a the evolutionof a number of economic indicators related to Romanian SMEs’in the studied period and (b the opinions and the perceptions ofSMEs about the impact of the economic crisis on their activity. Thepaper advances proposals of possible strategies to help SMEs bettercope with the on-going economic crisis.

  7. SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS AND ROMANIAN SMEs. AN INNOVATION PERSPECTIVE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIANA TAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovation can take a lot of forms in firms. Large companies are more willing to innovate due to a higher potential than SMEs. In social media, SMEs have equal chances to make a difference. In this paper I aim to present a social media overview, emphasizing the benefits and characteristics of these platforms and the way they can represent a huge innovation for SMEs and in the second part to discuss the case of Romania in relation with social media from the perspective of innovation.

  8. Exploring management and entrepreneurial factors in the internationalisation of SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiar Rana, Mohammad; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to explore the internal management and entrepreneurial factors that affect the internationalisation process of ready-made-garment (RMG) SMEs in Bangladesh. The study collects information from 46 apparel SMEs located in Chittagong, Bangladesh, and is followed by a pilot survey...... in the internationalisation of apparel SMEs. Since the nature of the apparel business is buyer driven, establishing and maintaining a ‘network’ and ‘learning’ are the most important aspects for internationalisation process, which are dependent on the entrepreneur’s management capability, foreign language skill and the extent...

  9. Design and manufacture of a D-shape coil-based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2nd generation HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Sung, Hae-Jin; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Yoon-Su; Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The authors designed and fabricated a D-shape coil based toroid-type HTS DC reactor using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. • The toroid-type magnet consisted of 30 D-shape double pancake coil (DDC)s. The total length of the wire was 2.32 km. • The conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. • The maximum cooling temperature of reactor magnet is 5.5 K. • The inductance was 408 mH in the steady-state condition (300 A operating). - Abstract: This paper describes the design specifications and performance of a real toroid-type high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The target inductance of the HTS DC reactor was 400 mH. The expected operating temperature was under 20 K. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. Performances of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor were analyzed through experiments conducted under the steady-state and charge conditions. The fundamental design specifications and the data obtained from this research will be applied to the design of a commercial-type HTS DC reactor.

  10. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The superconducting tapes are used in the industrial synchronous motor winding due to their electrical characteristics. • The high magnetic field with no electric loss is obtainable by using the superconducting rotor coils. • The rotor core can be replaced by light non-magnetic materials which drops the rotor total weight up to 50%. • Decreasing the rotor weight was verified by FEM analyses for a sample motor. -- Abstract: Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model

  11. Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

  12. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan

    2012-01-01

    affecting public acceptance of the project. In order to solve this problem, a model cryostat was developed consisting of alternating rigid and flexible sections and hydraulic tests were conducted using sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. In the 47 m-long cryostat, containing a full-size HTS cable model, measured....... A flexible dummy HTS cable was inserted into this cryostat and sub-cooled liquid nitrogen was circulated in the annulus between the dummy cable surface and the inner cryostat surface. In the paper details are presented of the cryostat, of the measurement setup, of the experiment and of the results....

  13. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  14. Spectral study of the electron beam emitted from a 3 kJ plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patran, A; Tan, L C; Stoenescu, D; Rafique, M S; Rawat, R S; Springham, S V; Tan, T L; Lee, P; Zakaullah, M; Lee, S

    2005-01-01

    In a 3 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device operated in neon, the electron beam emission is investigated using both a magnetic electron energy analyser (in the 30-660 keV range) and a Rogowski coil (coupled with an appropriate RC passive integrator). Several electron emission features are identified and correlated with the x-ray emission in different energy ranges. The electron beam output shows very strong correlation with the general plasma dynamics (breakdown, axial and radial acceleration, pinch and post-pinch phases). The electrons' energy spectra showed most of the electron emission concentrating below 200 keV and negligible emission with energy above 350 keV. At 4 mbar neon, the electron emission, as well as the beam energy, is the highest and has a good shot-to-shot reproducibility

  15. 100 kV, 80 kJ low-induction capacitor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrezen, A.B.; Burtsev, V.A.; Vodovozov, V.M.; Drozdov, A.A.; Makeev, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    A low induction capacitor module has been developed to investigate THETA- and Z-pinch plasma. Energy output time of the module lays in the microsecond range. The 100 kV, 80 kJ module is based on low-induction castor capasitors. The module is equipped with two solid dielectric dischargers, the system of discharger ignition protection system and automatic system for charging of capacitors. The module discharge period T 0 =5.6 μs. The capacitor module has been used in investigations of electric explosions of Al plane foils in the pulverized quartz. The overvoltage Usub(max)/Usub(o) approximately equal to 10 has been received at the maximum intensity of the electric field Esub(max) approximately equal to 12 kV/sm [ru

  16. Preliminary results on a 4 kJ, 140 k A plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patricio; Favre, Mario; Chuaqui, Hernan; Wyndham, Edmund

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary results on the operation of a 4 kJ, 140 kA Plasma Focus device are presented. The machine operates Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Argon mixtures at pressures between 400 m Torr to 10 Torr. Main diagnostics include electric and current measurements, time and space resolved X-ray observations, with limited spectral resolution, and B-dot sensors to monitor the evolution of de current sheet during the run up phase of the discharge. The results indicate that good focus is obtained in the above pressure range. This is inferred from I-dot traces and Pin diode and pin-hole camera X-ray observations. The B-dot loops suggest that a symmetric current sheet is produced. These results show that the machine exhibits a reliable performance, which allows further studies on dense transient plasmas to be developed. (author)

  17. Islamic Financing in Mitigating Access to Financing Problems of SMEs in Malaysia: A Survey Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Haron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The SMEs worldwide face the biggest problem in accessing financial assistance. By surveying selected SMEs in Malaysia, this study found similar cases as they are also facing the same problem because of a lack of collateral. Investigating the feasibility of Islamic financing schemes in providing financial aids to SMEs, this study found that several Islamic financial schemes are preferred by SMEs depending on the risk profile of SMEs. These Islamic financial schemes can build a firm liaison with SMEs in realizing the Maqasid al Shari’ah and simultaneously offer paths to better distribute wealth and prosperity among SMEs and the funders as well. This study contributes significantly to the literature as it provides insights to the nature of the SMEs and the bridge built between the SMEs and the Islamic financing schemes as to realize the Islamic social financing aim as a whole.

  18. Application of SMES in wind farm to improve voltage stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y.J.; Ren, L.; Li, J.D.; Chen, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably

  19. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Mohsen, E-mail: m.farahani@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Hamedan-Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-14

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  20. A new control strategy of SMES for mitigating subsynchronous oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new strategy to mitigate the subsynchronous oscillations in power systems compensated by series capacitors via control of active power of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit. The strategy is based on the generator acceleration signal. So, the SMES absorbs or generates the energy imbalance caused by different disturbances in the power system and suppresses the subsynchronous oscillations. The chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is used to achieve the optimal parameter of the proposed controller. To validate the capability of the SMES in damping oscillations, some simulations with different disturbances are performed on the first model of IEEE second benchmark model. All the simulation results show that the subsynchronous resonance as well as low frequency oscillation (LFO) is satisfactorily mitigated by the SMES controlled by the proposed strategy.

  1. Employment of radically new skills in innovative and transformative SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    This paper briefly reviews different but complementary streams of literature on innovation and qualitative employment effects at the firm level. Subsequently, empirical studies indicating an introduction of radically new skills in innovative and transformative Danish SMEs are reported....

  2. P-Q simultaneous control scheme for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Ise, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can be looked at as a control device as well as an effective energy storage device in power system applications. Thus far, active power control and reactive power control seem to have been treated separately. However, under some minor constraints, active (P) and reactive power (Q) may be controlled simultaneously and this capability is perhaps one of the most valuable characteristics of SMES in power system applications. In this brief paper, we examine the possibility of controlling active and reactive power simultaneously (henceforth we call it P-Q simultaneous control) and propose a direct digital control algorithm for the P-Q simultaneous control of SMES. Some simulation results are presented. In addition, a hierarchical control scheme for SMES at a load center is briefly discussed as an extension of P-Q simultaneous control presented in this paper

  3. All SMES-ed up and no place to go

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, as part of an eleven-point Presidential initiative on the development of superconductivity, the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization allocated funds for a three-year, $31-million program to design, construct and test a 20-MWh, 400-MW engineering test model (ETM) for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). SMES was to be an integral part of the Reagan Administration's Star Wars technology. This paper reports that because of dwindling defense applications the DNA nearly brought about the demise of the SMES-ETM, despite the fact that $31 million was already invested in the project. Today, four years and millions of dollars later, Congressional pressure for dual-use programs and two additional $4.7 million contract have kept the SMES-ETM program alive

  4. A proposal of nuclear fusion power plant equipped with SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsukawa, Tatsuya; Makamura, Hirokazu; Molinas, Marta; Nomura, Shinichi; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    2000-01-01

    When we intend to operate the nuclear fusion power plant (NFPP) under the economically efficient conditions as an independent power plant, it is desirable that the generated electric power should be sent to network according to the power demand. With such strategy being expanded, some energy storage system is available. In this paper, NFPP equipped with the superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) as electric power storage device is proposed. The advantages of NFPP equipped with SMES are discussed and a case study of 500 MW NFPP equipped with 6 GWh SMES is done with estimating its operational value. For SMES coil, the concept of Force Balanced Coil (FBC) is applied and 6 GWh class FBC is briefly designed

  5. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and transfer pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises have very important position in the EU economy, mainly in the area of growth and employment. However, most of SMEs are active only in their home country and only a few of them participate in cross-border activities. Furthermore, their activities in the internal market are limited by great deal of obstacles, mainly in the form of different tax systems which generate excessive compliance costs of taxation and the existence of different SMEs definitions for various purposes in Member states. In addition, from the view of the international taxation issues, the most important obstacles can be considered a transfer pricing and cross-border loss compensations. In this area, SMEs are facing specific problems and have specific needs. The aim of the paper is to analyze and evaluate the specific transfer pricing issues of SMEs and propose recommendations for them.

  6. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The authors developed the 400 mH, 400 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor system. • The target temperature, inductance and operating current are under 20 K at magnet, 400 mH and 400 A, respectively. All target performances of the HTS DC reactor were achieved. • The HTS DC reactor was conducted through the interconnection operation with a LCC type HVDC system. • Now, the authors are studying the 400 mH, 1500 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase HTS DC reactor. - Abstract: This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  7. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The authors developed the 400 mH, 400 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor system. • The target temperature, inductance and operating current are under 20 K at magnet, 400 mH and 400 A, respectively. All target performances of the HTS DC reactor were achieved. • The HTS DC reactor was conducted through the interconnection operation with a LCC type HVDC system. • Now, the authors are studying the 400 mH, 1500 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase HTS DC reactor. - Abstract: This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  8. Scaling Laws of Nitrogen Soft X-Ray Yields from 1 to 200 kJ Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akel, M.; Lee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments are carried out systematically to determine the nitrogen soft x-ray yield for optimized nitrogen plasma focus with storage energy E 0 from 1 kJ to 200 kJ. Scaling laws on nitrogen soft x-ray yield, in terms of storage energies E 0 , peak discharge current I p eak and focus pinch current I p inch were found. It was found that the nitrogen x-ray yields scales on average with y s xr, N= 1.93xE o 1 .21 J (E 0 in kJ) with the scaling showing gradual deterioration as E 0 rises over the range. A more robust scaling is y s xr = 8x10 - 8I 0 3.38 p inch . The optimum nitrogen soft x-ray yield emitted from plasma focus is found to be about 1 kJ for storage energy of 200 kJ. This indicates that nitrogen plasma focus is a good water-window soft x-ray source when properly designed. (author)

  9. Validation of the FEEL-KJ: An Instrument to Measure Emotion Regulation Strategies in Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiel Cracco

    Full Text Available Although the field of emotion regulation in children and adolescents is growing, there is need for age-adjusted measures that assess a large variety of strategies. An interesting instrument in this respect is the FEEL-KJ because it measures 7 adaptive and 5 maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to three different emotions. However, the FEEL-KJ has not yet been validated extensively. Therefore, the current study aims to test the internal structure and validity of the FEEL-KJ in a large sample of Dutch-speaking Belgian children and adolescents (N = 1102, 8-18 years old. The investigation of the internal structure confirms earlier reports of a two-factor structure with Adaptive and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation as overarching categories. However, it also suggests that the two-factor model is more complex than what was previously assumed. The evaluation of the FEEL-KJ validity furthermore provides evidence for its construct and external validity. In sum, the current study confirms that the FEEL-KJ is a valuable and reliable measure of emotion regulation strategies in children and adolescents.

  10. TOOLS FOR COLLABORATION AND INNOVATION IN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe ENGLISH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises and micro-enterprises are the backbone of the EU economy. Their prosperity is a crucial factor for achieving more growth and more and better jobs in the EU. They are vital to fulfilling the goal of a more equal and productive society with higher social and economic integration. Yet they are often poorly equipped to fulfill their potential as innovators and entrepreneurs, especially in the relentless transition to a knowledge based society, both because of their diverse academic backgrounds and their lack of training. This paper summarizes work currently underway by two diverse teams across Europe to develop and roll out a suite of training and tools to enhance the innovation and collaboration capacities and capabilities of small and micro-businesses.

  11. REGULATIONS AND FINANCING OF SMEs IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor that has contributed in the realization of a positive economic growth in Albania in the last 20 years is undoubtedly the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME sector. SME financing is a topic of significant research interest to academics, and an issue of great importance to the policy makers around the world. Economic, as well as technical and social arguments warrant the promotion of SMEs. They create large scale, low-cost employment opportunities, use locally available inputs and technologies, mobilize small and scattered private savings, develop entrepreneurship, and correct the regional imbalance in development that exists in industrialized countries. Several studies identify financing, infrastructure facilities, taxes, regulations and stability in policies as major obstacles for the growth of small and medium businesses. Improving the business environment for SME development is a key objective of the policy framework in Albania.

  12. The Strategy Development of SMEs Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Setyorini Gunawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to identify the profile of SMEs metal and to analyze the predictors that differentiate the performance achievement of metalworkers in Pasir Wetan Village, Karanglewas Sub-District, Banyumas Regency using primary data obtained from direct interviews with metalworkers in Pasir Wetan Village, Karanglewas Sub-District, Banyumas Regency. Primary data included the data of net income rate, the amount of labor used, the amount of bank credit received, business duration, education level, and the amount of production. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and discriminant analysis. The analysis results indicated that the increase in the amount of production and the amount of labor used were the predictors that differentiate the revenue achievement between superior metalworkers group and non-superior metalworkers group. In addition, the amount of production was the best predictor to differentiate the revenue achievement between superior metalworkers group and non-superiors metalworker group.

  13. Design study of SMES system using high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, T.; Masuda, M.; Shintomi, T.; Hasegawa, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various studies of high Tc superconductors are being energetically pursued all over the world, since IBM Zurich Research Laboratory reported on the superconducting oxide. A new design using a high Tc superconductor is under study for 5000 MWh, on the assumption that it is available like conventional superconductors. Problems related to the Tc SMES system, mainly thermal insulation, refrigeration system, stability of superconductors, etc., are considered. Some design examples of high Tc SMES system are proposed

  14. Using Social Media components in business world – SMEs perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robu, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    SMEs have a major contribution to economic growth and job creation. In a dynamic world, marked by very rapid technological and economic changes, they must adapt and seek new ways to improve business. Social Media seems to provide tools to improve the work, especially on the sales and marketing. This paper is to capture how social media components are used in SMEs, also highlighting some of the advantages of them.

  15. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail

  16. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Rong, E-mail: haven21c@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Man [University of Incheon, Songdo-dong, Incheon 406-772 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► The operating characteristics of SMES for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid were investigated. ► The SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. ► A dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the performances. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  17. External Pressures for Adoption of ICT Services Among SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    A. ORDANINI; ARBORE A

    2008-01-01

    This study intends to emphasize the importance that external sources of pressure may have on the level of ICT involvement among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Italy. While past research tends to prioritize the role of endogenous conditions for the adoption of information and communication technologies, the high dependence of SMEs on their environment requires paying especial attention to external pressures as well. Both competitive and institutional pressures are proposed and...

  18. Network ties in the international opportunity recognition of family SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Kontinen, Tanja; Ojala, Arto

    2011-01-01

    The importance of network ties is emphasized in the current literature on opportunity recognition. However, it is unclear how firms with limited bridging networks, such as family SMEs, recognize international opportunities through their network ties. In this case study we found that in gaining foreign market entry, those family SMEs that lack existing network ties recognize opportunities through weak ties formed in international exhibitions. The findings also indicate that rather than being p...

  19. Small and Medium Enterprises` (SMEs) Access to Finance: Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Aldaba, Rafaelita M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 97 firms in the garments, textiles, automotive, electrical and electronics, and food manufacturing industries; the paper highlights the difficulties faced by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in accessing finance. For both firms with access to finance as well as those that did not make any finance request, financing obstacles posed as one of the top four serious problems for the growth of their businesses. The survey indicates the continued dependence of SMEs on interna...

  20. FAMILY RUN SMEs IN NEPAL AND THEIR APPROACH TO MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghai, Megha Sanghai

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory research aims to study the role of marketing and its relevance in small and medium sized family businesses in Nepal by comparing it to the combined review of authors and academicians in the field of SME/ entrepreneurial marketing. Although marketing is a key factor in the survival and development of business ventures, SMEs in Nepal cannot do conventional marketing because of the limitations of resources which are inherent to Nepalese SMEs and also because business owner/ mana...

  1. Credit Risk Evaluation of Swedish SMEs : A Banking Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hörstedt, Maria; Linjamaa, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    As a result from the latest financial crisis, the banking industry has undergone major modifications during the last years in order to limit banks’ risks. A vast majority of existing literature tends to focus upon credit risk evaluation methods and techniques mainly concerning quantitative measures and large companies. Thus, the lack of research regarding credit risk evaluation of SMEs is profound, especially considering Sweden. With the dominant market share of SMEs compared to large corpora...

  2. Barriers to innovation in service SMEs: Evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Guzman, G.; Garza-Reyes, J. A.; Pinzón-Castro, S. Y.; Kumar, V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Specific research related to the study of innovation barriers in service SMEs in the Latin American region is limited. This study thus investigates the effects that external environmental, financial and human barriers have on innovation activities, particularly, within the context of Mexican service SMEs.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Three hypotheses were formulated and tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). Data were collected through an instrument that was devel...

  3. Integrating SMEs into the East Asian Region: Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Medalla, Erlinda M.; Aldaba, Rafaelita M.; del Prado, Fatima; Yasay, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to examine the characteristics and factors that constrain the growth of SMEs that are operating within and outside production networks. Based on a survey of 101 firms, the analysis shows that SMEs are not homogeneous. While they share certain characteristics such as age, Filipino ownership, and foreign equity share; they differ in terms of performance export intensity, interest rates on borrowings, major sources of finance, and other economic indicators. The results also show t...

  4. CHINESE SMEs' USES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    HOWARD VAN AUKEN; KUI YANG

    2014-01-01

    With a sample of 46 Chinese small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this study examines factors that might affect firms' use of financial statements to make decisions. Financial statements contain insightful information about potential risk and return implications of various decisions. A logit analysis shows that owners of Chinese SMEs use financial statements to make decisions according to the frequency of available financial statement information and their ability to interpret the informa...

  5. Innovation and Internationalization of Hungarian SMEs in the IT Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csonka László

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to look at the extent and type of internationalization among Hungarian information technology (IT small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the possible relationship between the degree of innovativeness and the internationalization of these companies. Information technologies play an important role in the Hungarian economy: this sector is one of the most R&D intensive industries in which many SMEs are active.

  6. Numerical assessment of efficiency and control stability of an HTS synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian Wei; Yuan Weijia; Coombs, T A, E-mail: wx210@cam.ac.u [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, Cambridge University, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is designed and developed in Cambridge University. It is expected to become cost competitive with the conventional PMSM owing to its high efficiency, high power density, high torque density, etc. The structure and parameters of HTS PMSM are detailed. Both AC losses by transport current and applied filed in stator armature winding of HTS PMSM are also analyzed. Computed and simulated results of the characteristics of the HTS PMSM and conventional PMSM are compared. The improvement on stability of direct torque control (DTC) on the HTS PMSM is estimated, and proved by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.

  7. Design procedures of hybrid PV/SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ismail; El-Sayas, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents accurate procedures to determine the design parameters of an autonomous hybrid PV/SMES system. Integrating Superconductive magnetic energy storage as a recent storage technology with photovoltaic power system enhances the PV output utilization during the solar radiation fluctuations period. this is because of SMES fast response to any PV output fluctuation. The load demand is supplied either from PV plant or through SMES or from both. Imposed to the technical and economical constrains, the optimum solar cells area and the proper capacity and rating of SMES system are assessed. Regarding solar radiation profile, clear and cloudy days are accurately considered for investigation. Three indices are suggested to express the cloudy and fluctuations conditions. These indices represent the non-utilized PV energy due to clouds (x), fluctuation period (T f ) and location of fluctuations period(t s t). The incremental changes in the design parameters are computed for any variation in these indices. Differentiation between the role of BS and SMES in affecting the results is determined and quantitatively analyzed. The results of clear day condition with SMES are the bas quantities for these changes. Complete analysis of the most effective parameters is presented. Eventually, mathematical models are deduced for each parameter which assists in predicting its behavior against the independent variable.(Author)

  8. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 65, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responsibility, God and society: The cry of the other in the sacred texts as a challenge towards responsible global citizenship · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J-A Meylahn. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v65i1.131 ...

  9. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 41, No 4 (1985)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die funksie van die belydenis en die dogma in die struktuur van die Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk en die implikasies daarvan vir die predikant · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.D. Pont, 519-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v41i4.2171 ...

  10. Multi-Pole HTS Generators for Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Seiler, Eugen

    or the performance of the coated conductor has to improve significantly (by a factor of 10 or more) in order for HTS generators to become feasible in direct drive offshore wind turbines. This price/performance improvement is not unrealistic in the coming decade. Additionally the reliability of such machines...

  11. The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, L.J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J

    2003-10-15

    This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 x the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC's first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC's second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

  12. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 46, No 3 (1990)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paradigma-verandering, relativisme en rasionaliteit · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.J. Antonites, 312-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v46i3.2320 ...

  13. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 64, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die hermeneutiek van kerkgeskiedenis en “teologiegeskiedenis”: 'n “Nuwe paradigma” vir kerkgeskiedenis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JP Labuschagne, 861-883. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v64i2.48 ...

  14. HTS power leads for the BTEV interaction region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Page, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    A new Interaction Region (IR) for the BTEV experiment was planned to be built at Fermilab. This IR would have required new superconducting quadrupole magnets and many additional power circuits for their operation. The new ''low beta'' quadrupole magnet design was based upon the Fermilab LHC quadrupole design, and would have operated at 9.56 kA in 4.5 K liquid helium. The use of conventional power leads for these circuits would have required substantially more helium for cooling than is available from the cryogenic plant, which is already operating close to its limit. To decrease the heat load and helium cooling demands, the use of HTS power leads was necessary. In developing specifications for HTS leads for the BTEV interaction region, several 6 kA HTS leads produced by American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) have been tested at over-current conditions. Final design requirements were to be based on these test results. This paper summarizes the test results and describes the design requirements for the 9.65 kA HTS power leads.

  15. HTS power leads for the BTEV interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, S.; Carcagno, R.; Orris, D.; Page, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    A new Interaction Region (IR) for the BTEV experiment was planned to be built at Fermilab. This IR would have required new superconducting quadrupole magnets and many additional power circuits for their operation. The new ''low beta'' quadrupole magnet design was based upon the Fermilab LHC quadrupole design, and would have operated at 9.56 kA in 4.5 K liquid helium. The use of conventional power leads for these circuits would have required substantially more helium for cooling than is available from the cryogenic plant, which is already operating close to its limit. To decrease the heat load and helium cooling demands, the use of HTS power leads was necessary. In developing specifications for HTS leads for the BTEV interaction region, several 6 kA HTS leads produced by American Superconductor Corporation (ASC) have been tested at over-current conditions. Final design requirements were to be based on these test results. This paper summarizes the test results and describes the design requirements for the 9.65 kA HTS power leads

  16. HTS Power Leads for the BTeV Interaction Region

    CERN Document Server

    Feher, Sandor; Orris, Darryl; Pishchalnikov, Yu M; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, John

    2005-01-01

    A new Interaction Region for the BTEV experiment is planned to be built soon at Fermilab. This IR will require new superconducting quadrupole magnets and many additional power circuits for their operation. The new "low beta" quadupole magnet design is based upon the Fermilab LHC quadrupole design, and will operate at 9.56 kA in 4.5 K liquid helium. The use of conventional power leads for these circuits would require substantially more helium for cooling than is available from the cryogenic plant, which is already operating close to its limit. To decrease the heat load and helium cooling demands, the use of HTS power leads is necessary. Fermilab is in the process of procuring HTS leads for this new interaction region. Several 6 kA HTS leads produced by American Superconductor Corporation have been tested at over-current conditions. Based on the test results, design requirements are being developed for procuring the HTS current leads. This paper summarizes the test results and describes the design requirements ...

  17. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 64, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexuality and partnership: Aspects of theological ethics in the field of marriage, unmarried and homosexual couples · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. UHJ Körtner, 209-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v64i1.18 ...

  18. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 1, No 4 (1944)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die heidelbergse kategismus as kerklike simbool · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. SP Engelbrecht, 160-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v1i4.3327 ...

  19. Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs

  20. Utilization of process TEG for fabrication of HTS circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hato, T.; Okada, Y.; Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Wakana, H.; Adachi, S.; Kawabe, U.; Tanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    We improved the fabrication process of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler circuits with multilayer structures by utilizing a test elements group (TEG). Among a lot of difficulties in the HTS circuit fabrication process, loss of oxygen is one of the most significant problems. Since the film transition temperature (T c ) has a strong relationship with the resistance at room temperature, we fabricated a test pattern on the same wafer of the circuits and measured the resistance at room temperature by using a prober to estimate the T c of each layer. By introducing the measurement of the normal resistance after each process, we found better process conditions without a T c drop. Moreover, we constructed a low-temperature probing system, in which we can measure the junction TEG. The system enabled feedback of the fabrication condition soon after the junction process. The utilization of the process TEG contributed to reproducible fabrication of HTS circuits and that is a promising advance of the HTS circuit technology

  1. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies - Vol 49, No 3 (1993)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of the Gospel of Mark: An essay on intertextuality · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W.S. Vorster, 385-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v49i3.2499 ...

  2. Large-scale HTS bulks for magnetic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Frank N.; Floegel-Delor, Uta; Riedel, Thomas; Goebel, Bernd; Rothfeld, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Peter; Wippich, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    ATZ Company has constructed about 130 HTS magnet systems using high-Tc bulk magnets. A key feature in scaling-up is the fabrication of YBCO melts textured multi-seeded large bulks with three to eight seeds. Except of levitation, magnetization, trapped field and hysteresis, we review system engineering parameters of HTS magnetic linear and rotational bearings like compactness, cryogenics, power density, efficiency and robust construction. We examine mobile compact YBCO bulk magnet platforms cooled with LN2 and Stirling cryo-cooler for demonstrator use. Compact cryostats for Maglev train operation contain 24 pieces of 3-seed bulks and can levitate 2500-3000 N at 10 mm above a permanent magnet (PM) track. The effective magnetic distance of the thermally insulated bulks is 2 mm only; the stored 2.5 l LN2 allows more than 24 h operation without refilling. 34 HTS Maglev vacuum cryostats are manufactured tested and operate in Germany, China and Brazil. The magnetic levitation load to weight ratio is more than 15, and by group assembling the HTS cryostats under vehicles up to 5 t total loads levitated above a magnetic track is achieved.

  3. Wyle Prof H G Viljoen | Geyser | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (1953) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  4. Wyle Prof H G Viljoen | Geyser | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (1953) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Wyle Prof H G Viljoen. A S Geyser. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  5. Design Challenges and Potentials of HTS Synchronous Motor for Superbus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ani, S.O.; Polinder, H.; Ferreira, J.A.; Ockels, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibilities of applying high temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor to Superbus, an alternative and sustainable type of public transportation developed at TU Delft. Two important factors within the Superbus drive that influence the operating range are weight

  6. Characteristics on electodynamic suspension simulator with HTS levitation magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Bae, D.K.; Sim, K.; Chung, Y.D.; Lee, Y.-S.

    2009-01-01

    High-T c superconducting (HTSC) electrodynamic suspension (EDS) system basically consists of the HTSC levitation magnet and the ground conductor. The levitation force of EDS system is forms by the interaction between the moving magnetic field produced by the onboard levitation magnet and the induced magnetic field produced by eddy current in the ground conductor. This paper deals with the characteristics of the EDS simulators with high-T c superconducting (HTS) levitation magnet. Two EDS simulator systems, rotating type EDS simulator and static type EDS simulator, were studied in this paper. The rotating type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet and a 1.5 m diameter rotating ground conductor, a motor, the supporting structure and force measuring devices. In the static type EDS simulator, instead of moving magnetic field, AC current was applied to the fixed HTS levitation magnet to induce the eddy current. The static type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet, a ground conductor, force measuring devices and supporting structure. The double-pancake type HTSC levitation magnet was designed, manufactured and tested in the EDS simulator.

  7. Characteristics on electodynamic suspension simulator with HTS levitation magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Bae, D. K.; Sim, K.; Chung, Y. D.; Lee, Y.-S.

    2009-10-01

    High- Tc superconducting (HTSC) electrodynamic suspension (EDS) system basically consists of the HTSC levitation magnet and the ground conductor. The levitation force of EDS system is forms by the interaction between the moving magnetic field produced by the onboard levitation magnet and the induced magnetic field produced by eddy current in the ground conductor. This paper deals with the characteristics of the EDS simulators with high- Tc superconducting (HTS) levitation magnet. Two EDS simulator systems, rotating type EDS simulator and static type EDS simulator, were studied in this paper. The rotating type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet and a 1.5 m diameter rotating ground conductor, a motor, the supporting structure and force measuring devices. In the static type EDS simulator, instead of moving magnetic field, AC current was applied to the fixed HTS levitation magnet to induce the eddy current. The static type EDS simulator consists of a HTS levitation magnet, a ground conductor, force measuring devices and supporting structure. The double-pancake type HTSC levitation magnet was designed, manufactured and tested in the EDS simulator.

  8. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  9. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, M; Felder, B; Tsuzuki, K; Xu, Y; Deng, Z; Izumi, M [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hayakawa, H [Kitano Seiki Co. Ltd, 7-17-3, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan); Morita, M; Teshima, H, E-mail: d082025@kaiyodai.ac.j [Nippon Steel Co. Ltd, 20-1, Shintomi, Huttsu-shi, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d} (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  10. Het raadselspel als rituele handeling | Obbink | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (1954) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  11. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMES - A SOLUTION TO OVERCOME THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Ana BORCOŞI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a close link between economic performance and increasing internationalization of SMEs. International activities increase competitiveness and ensure long-term development of enterprises. However, European SMEs still depend largely on their internal markets, notwithstanding the opportunities created to the single market and globalization in general. A study realized in 2009 by the European Commission reveals that internationalization creates more jobs: SMEs active in foreign markets reported an increase in employment by 7% compared to only 1% free activities for SMEs international. Internationalized SMEs are more innovative: 26% of SMEs have introduced internationally active products or services that were new to the sector in their country of origin.

  12. ARE SMES MORE CONFORTABLE WITH SMALL DOMESTIC LENDERS? (II –EVIDENCE FOR ROMANIAN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a consistent literature presented in the previous part of our paper, and analysing our research results, carried out on a significant number of SMEs from Romania in 2011, the purpose of this paper is to examine how SMEs are affected and how they perceive the bank involvement in financing SMEs needs, in terms of the nature and characteristics of organizational structure of these lenders. We have found that, despite of the recent development of the crisis and the decision of the most of important European banks to reduce theirs involvement in Central and Eastern Europe, the mostly of the Romanian SMEs considered they are not ignored or under-privileged by large, international banks operating in Romania.

  13. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-01-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable. (paper)

  14. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-07-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable.

  15. 1 MVA HTS-2G Generator for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Ilyasov, R. I.; Verzhbitsky, L. G.; Kozub, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The calculation, design simulations and design performance of 1 MVA HTS-2G (second-generation high-temperature superconductor) Generator for Wind Turbines were done in 2013-2014 [1]. The results of manufacturing and testing of 1 MVA generator are presented in the article. HTS-2G field coils for the rotor were redesigned, fabricated and tested. The tests have shown critical current of the coils, 41-45 A (self field within the ferromagnetic core, T = 77 K), which corresponds to the current of short samples at self field. Application of the copper inner frame on the pole has improved internal cooling conditions of HTS coil windings and reduced the magnetic field in the area, thereby increased the critical current value. The original construction of the rotor with a rotating cryostat was developed, which decreases the thermal in-flow to the rotor. The stator of 1 MW HTS-2G generator has been manufactured. In order to improve the specific weight of the generator, the wave (harmonic drive) multiplier was used, which provides increasing RPM from 15 RPM up to 600 RPM. The total mass of the multiplier and generator is significantly smaller compared to traditional direct-drive wind turbines generators [2-7]. Parameters of the multiplier and generator were chosen based on the actual parameters of wind turbines, namely: 15 RPM, power is 1 MVA. The final test of the assembled synchronous generator with HTS-2G field coils for Wind Turbines with output power 1 MVA was completed during 2015.

  16. NEW PERSPECTIVES REGARDING CHANGE AND INNOVATION INTO ROMANIAN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gabriel Ceptureanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the major factor to contribute to success and competitiveness on an SMES, as these enterprises are vital for a healthy and sustainable economy. Literature consider innovativeness as one of the most important agent through which such businesses contribute to economic development. This is an even more important issue for country such Romania, where SMEs are often faced with inadequate business infrastructure and lack of support for entrepreneurs. We also consider that last years have been characterized by an increasingly dynamic, complex and unpredictable environment for businesses. Intense competition in the global market is compelling SMEs to leverage their capabilities and competencies in order to differentiate themselves in the marketplace, and improve their performance. In this paper, we explore factors that drive innovation activities and change in SMEs in Romania, and compare it with findings from other studies. We also consider that implementing changes has positive impact on products/services innovation while applying into specific organizational structures, peculiar on SMEs. In this research four types of product innovation are studied: product, process, line extension and radical radical product innovation. We also consider factors regarding percentage of highly skilled employees (T managers, knowledge oriented white collars, implementation of changed strategy, new/improved managerial techniques , SMEs age, region of developement, company dimension and legal type of organization. To generate additional insight in innovation, we also explore problems and obstacle to innovation and change. Literature considers that it is necessary to continuous change and improve SMES in order to be more sustainable and provide innovative products and services to the market If SMEs account for over 90% of businesses all over the world, and there is a growing need to create sustainable SMEs, then developing and implementing change is

  17. Development of a REBCO HTS magnet for Maglev - repeated bending tests of HTS pancake coils -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugino, Motohikoa; Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Minoru; Ogata, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    In the past study, two manufacturing methods were developed that can manufacture pancake coils by using REBCO coated conductors. It was confirmed that the conductors have no electric degradation that caused by the manufacturing method. The durability evaluation tests of the pancake coils were conducted as the final evaluation of the coil manufacturing method in this study. The repeated bending deformation was applied to manufactured pancake coils in the tests. As the results of these tests, it was confirmed that the pancake coils that were manufactured by two methods had the durability for the repeated bending deformation and the coils maintained the appropriate mechanical performance and electric performance. We adopted the fusion bonding method as the coil manufacturing method of the HTS magnet Furthermore, using the prototype pancake coil that was manufactured by the fusion bonding method as a test sample, the repeated bending test under the exited condition was conducted. Thus it was confirmed that the coil manufactured by the fusion bonding method has no degradation of the electricity performance and the mechanical properties even if the repeated bending deformation was applied under the exited condition.

  18. Results from AFWL 230 kJ coaxial plasma gun experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.J.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.; Clouse, C.J.; Degnan, J.H.; Dietz, D.; Hackett, K.E.; Higgins, P.L.; Holmes, J.L.; Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A coaxial plasma gun has been operated on the AFWL 0.5 MJ capacitor bank. A Marshall valve actuated by an explosive detonator is used to puff hydrogen gas from a small high pressure plenum into the breech of the gun. After a set delay from the explosion the capacitor bank is discharged across the electrodes of the coaxial gun. The operating mode of the gun can be changed by varying the plenum pressure and the firing delay. Over 150 shots have been fired, varying delay, plenum pressure, and initial stored energy. Initial plenum pressures were varied from 250 to 750 psi, and firing delays ranged from 0.8 msec to 2.2 msec. Experiments were conducted at 90, 176, and 230 kJ of initial stored energy (50, 70, adn 80 kV charge). Rogowski coils were used to measure current and magnetic field within the plasma at 25 axial locations along the gun. The coils were installed in grooves on the inner surface of the outer conductor. Signals from the coils were passively integrated. Integrator time constants ranged from 95 to 114 μsec. Time histories of magnetic field profiles are presented. These are used to describe the operating mode of the gun

  19. Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.

  20. Marketing fortification of business through crowdsourcing and social responsibility: focus on South African SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice Lebogang Sesale; Solly Matshonisa Seeletse

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates networking and related activities for marketing performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) for the sustainable development and the preservation of the environment. These SMEs have limited business skills and knowledge, and don`t have any marketing funds. As a clearly growing trend aspect in business, networking approaches were blended to find approaches to help these SMEs to take their market niche. Thirty-seven (37) SMEs were used as a convenience sample to ex...

  1. Problems of financing SMEs in Ghana: a case study of the Sunyani Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Prempeh, kwadwo Boateng

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium enterprises play an important role in the development of a country. The growth of SMEs is also important for the world economy which has been widely discussed in recent years. Although the problems SMEs face in accessing finance are well known, still there are some research gaps that need to be filled. The main focus of this research is to explore the nature and the characteristics of SMEs together with the financial constraints facing the SMEs. Basically the research focuses...

  2. SMEs Financial Reporting in European Union: Steps towards a More Harmonized Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Buculescu (Costicã) Maria Mãdãlina; Stoica Anamaria

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly importance of SMEs in the economy, European Commission attempts to develop an “economic friendly” environment for SMEs business and further to create a harmonized accounting framework for SMEs financial reporting. Therefore, in 2013, European Commission issued a new Accounting Directive 2013/34/EU, to which the member states have to comply until July 2015, representing an important effort undertaken to reduce the administrative burden of SMEs financial reporting, ...

  3. Probabilistic assessment of power system transient stability incorporating SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jiakun, E-mail: Jiakun.Fang@gmail.com [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Wei [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wen, Jinyu, E-mail: jinyu.wen@hust.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, Shijie; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Zhuo [State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Probabilistic study of power system with wind farm and SMES is proposed. ► Quantitative relationship between system stability and SMES capacity is given. ► System stability increases with the capacity of the SMES. ► System stability decreases with the penetration of wind power. ► Together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized. -- Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system incorporating the wind farm and the SMES. Uncertain factors include both sequence of disturbance in power grid and stochastic generation of the wind farm. The spectrums of disturbance in the grid as the fault type, the fault location, the fault clearing time and the automatic reclosing process with their probabilities of occurrence are used to calculate the probability indices, while the wind speed statistics and parameters of the wind generator are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate samples for the studies. With the proposed method, system stability is ”measured”. Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve, together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized economically.

  4. YOUNG SMES INSOLVENCY.THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND POLICY ACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion Ceptureanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with large firms, young SMEs in general are more leveraged and reliant on bank financing and have significantly higher chances to experience insolvency. High SME insolvency reflect in part the deep and prolonged recession that hit young SMEs hard, both through the collapse in domestic demand and the tightening of credit conditions. Despite the declines in sovereign yields, SME borrowing rates have declined by much less and remain high compared with those for large firms. SMEs present a particular set of challenges for restructuring and resolution. Given the large number of SMEs and their small sizes, lower reporting requirements, and heavy reliance on collateral, SME loan restructuring is more costly and riskier for banks than for large firms. If left unaddressed, the problems of SME indebtedness and insolvency pose a risk to the recovery and financial stability. High corporate debt and non-performing loans represent a significant drag on investment, as credit-constrained firms cut back on spending to repay debt. Young SMEs in particular, given their high leverage and lack of alternative financing, are more vulnerable to a growth slowdown or financial distress. SME weakness can in turn undermine banks’ asset quality and profitability, constraining banks’ ability to provide credit.

  5. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of power system transient stability incorporating SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jiakun; Yao, Wei; Wen, Jinyu; Cheng, Shijie; Tang, Yuejin; Cheng, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Probabilistic study of power system with wind farm and SMES is proposed. ► Quantitative relationship between system stability and SMES capacity is given. ► System stability increases with the capacity of the SMES. ► System stability decreases with the penetration of wind power. ► Together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized. -- Abstract: This paper presents a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system incorporating the wind farm and the SMES. Uncertain factors include both sequence of disturbance in power grid and stochastic generation of the wind farm. The spectrums of disturbance in the grid as the fault type, the fault location, the fault clearing time and the automatic reclosing process with their probabilities of occurrence are used to calculate the probability indices, while the wind speed statistics and parameters of the wind generator are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate samples for the studies. With the proposed method, system stability is ”measured”. Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve, together with the cost function, the coil size is optimized economically

  7. Why SMEs invest in Environmental Measures: Sustainability Evidence from Small and Medium-sized Printing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.

    2007-01-01

    Why do SMEs invest in environmental measures? From the literature we know that most SMEs are rather slow in adopting these sustainable measures, but then the following question arises: why are other SMEs fast in this respect? From our research, it becomes clear that improving the working conditions

  8. The Netherlands: ERM Comparative Analytical Report on 'Public policy and support for restructuring in SMEs'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van het Kaar, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although SMEs get a lot of attention in the Netherlands, there is no specific debate on SMEs and restructuring. A range of public instruments directed at SMEs exists, but their focus is mainly on growth and expansion. Many instruments are fiscal in nature. There are no public or social partner

  9. SMEs and their E-Commerce: Implications for Training in Wellington, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Tim; Abdullah, Moha Asri

    2005-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing traditional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) throughout the world is that posed by the Internet. While the Internet offers great potential to SMEs, from improving and cheapening production processes through to reaching global customers, it also poses great problems. SMEs' resources, human and…

  10. Innovation protection by SMEs : The case of the north east of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Mischa C.; Masurel, Enno

    2011-01-01

    SMEs do not own many patents. Although the reasons for not patenting have been the subject of much research, little is known on the alternatives that SMEs use. This article discusses a case study on the protection of innovations by SMEs by means of an analysis of the patent data and 20 interviews

  11. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  12. Quench Detection and Protection of an HTS Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Evan; Pfotenhauer, John; Miller, Franklin; Christianson, Owen

    2017-12-01

    A pulsed, modular HTS magnet for energy storage applications was constructed and tested. Charge and discharge pulses were accomplished in about 1 second. A recuperative cryogenic cooling system supplies 42 to 80 Kelvin helium gas to the magnet. A practical solution to overvoltage and overcurrent protection has been implemented digitally using LabVIEW. Voltages as little as 46 μV greater than the expected value trigger the protection system, which stops the pulse profile and begins an immediate current ramp down to zero over 1 second. The protection system has displayed its effectiveness in HTS transition detection and damage prevention. Experimentation has demonstrated that current pulses on the order of seconds with amplitudes of up to 110 Amps can be achieved for extended periods. Higher currents produce joint heating in excess of the available cooling from the existing cryogenic system.

  13. Simulation of magnetization and levitation characteristics of HTS tape stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anischenko, I. V.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Mineev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work it is presented a computational model of a magnetic levitation system based on stacks of high-temperature second generation superconducting tapes (HTS) GdBa2Cu3O7-x. Calculated magnetic field and the current distributions in the system for different stacks geometries in the zero-field cooling mode are also presented. The magnetization curves of the stacks in the external field of a permanent NdFeB magnet and the levitation force dependence on the gap between the magnet and the HTS tapes stack were obtained. A model of the magnetic system, oriented to levitation application, is given. Results of modeling were compared with the experimental data.

  14. High quality factor HTS Josephson junctions on low loss substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stornaiuolo, D; Longobardi, L; Massarotti, D; Barone, A; Tafuri, F [CNR-SPIN Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Papari, G; Carillo, F [NEST, CNR-NANO and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cennamo, N [Dipartimento Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    We have extended the off-axis biepitaxial technique to produce YBCO grain boundary junctions on low loss substrates. Excellent transport properties have been reproducibly found, with remarkable values of the quality factor I{sub c}R{sub n} (with I{sub c} the critical current and R{sub n} the normal state resistance) above 10 mV, far higher than the values commonly reported in the literature for high temperature superconductor (HTS) based Josephson junctions. The outcomes are consistent with a picture of a more uniform grain boundary region along the current path. This work supports a possible implementation of grain boundary junctions for various applications including terahertz sensors and HTS quantum circuits in the presence of microwaves.

  15. Heating Development Analysis in Long HTS Objects - Updated Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vysotsky, V S; Repnikov, V V; Lobanov, E A; Karapetyan, G H; Sytnikov, V E [All-Russian Scientific R and D Cable Institute, 5, Shosse Entuziastov, 111024, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-01

    During fault in a grid large overload current, up to 30-times fold, forcibly will go to an HTS superconducting cable installed in a grid causing its quench and heating. The upgraded model has been used to analyse the heating development in long HTS objects during overloads. The model better presents real properties of materials used. New calculations coincide well with experiments and permit to determine the cooling coefficients. The stability limit (thermal runaway current) was determined for different cooling and index n. The overload currents, at which the superconductor will be heated up to 100 K during 250 ms can be determined also. The model may be used for practical evaluations of operational parameters.

  16. Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwa, Toshihiko, E-mail: kiwa@okayama-u.ac.jp; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been developed. •The electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board were visualized. •The electric properties of the commercial solar panels were demonstrated. -- Abstract: The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized.

  17. Magnetic evaluation of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwa, Toshihiko; Fukudome, Yohei; Miyazaki, Shingo; Saari, Mohd Mawardi; Sakai, Kenji; Tsukada, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been developed. •The electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board were visualized. •The electric properties of the commercial solar panels were demonstrated. -- Abstract: The magnetic evaluation system of a solar panel using HTS-SQUID has been proposed and developed. A normal pick-up coil was applied to detect the tangential magnetic field to the panel surface. Since the detected field could be related to the currents of the solar panels, the electric properties of the solar panels could be evaluated. In this work, the evaluation of the electric properties of the commercial solar panels as well as the electric circuits made by the discrete devices on the circuit board was visualized

  18. Observation of 45 GHz current waveforms using HTS sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, M.; Suzuki, H.; Hato, T.; Wakana, H.; Nakayama, K.; Ishimaru, Y.; Horibe, O.; Adachi, S.; Kamitani, A.; Suzuki, K.; Oshikubo, Y.; Tarutani, Y.; Tanabe, K.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded in observing high-frequency current waveforms up to 45 GHz using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sampler. In this experiment, we used a sampler circuit with a superconducting pickup coil, which magnetically detects current signals flowing through a micro-strip line on a printed board placed outside the cryochamber. This type of measurement enables non-contact current-waveform observation that seems useful for analyses of EMI, defects in LSI, etc. Computer simulation reveals that one of our latest versions of HTS sampler circuits having Josephson transmission lines with optimized biases as buffers has a potential of sampling high-frequency signals with a bandwidth above 100 GHz. To realize the circuit parameters required in the simulations, we developed an HTS circuit fabrication process employing a lower ground plane structure with SrSnO 3 insulating layers. We consider that improvement of the circuit fabrication process and optimization of the pickup coil lead to much higher signal frequency observable by the sampler

  19. Sustaining Tunisian SMEs' Competitiveness in the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Pasquale; Elia, Gianluca; Secundo, Giustina

    The paper aims to contribute to the debate about knowledge and digital divide affecting countries' competitiveness in the knowledge society. A survey based on qualitative and quantitative data collection has been performed to analyze the level of ICTs and e-Business adoption of the Tunisian SMEs. The results shows that to increase the SMEs competitiveness is necessary to invest in all the components of Intellectual capital: human capital (knowledge, skills, and the abilities of people for using the ICTs), structural capital (supportive infrastructure such as buildings, software, processes, patents, and trademarks, proprietary databases) and social capital (relations and collaboration inside and outside the company). At this purpose, the LINCET "Laboratoire d'Innovation Numerique pour la Competitivité de l'Entreprise Tunisienne" project is finally proposed as a coherent proposition to foster the growth of all the components of the Intellectual Capital for the benefits of competitiveness of Tunisian SMEs.

  20. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMEs – CASE IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA RISTESKA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are the backbone of the economy in the most of the countries around the world, their contribution can be seen in employment, export and added value. Internationalization used to be characteristic only of multinational corporations, but today it is a trend with both small and medium enterprises The main aim of this paper is to get information about the situation with internationalization of SMEs in R. Macedonia. For this purpose we carried out a survey by means of questionnaire. Obtained results are presented within this paper in details. Considering the facts from the analysis in the end of the paper we will propose many recommendations for increasing the internationalization of SMEs in Republic of Macedonia.

  1. Innovation types at smes and external influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulating innovation is one of the pressing policy challenges facing many countries in the world today. The paper analyses the external factors that Polish entrepreneurs find most detrimental to their innovative activity. A sample of 199 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in Poland were subjected to a survey. The data collected revealed the innovation types of SMEs in Poland and external financial factors influencing innovation the most. The results show external factors such as legal regulations, access to external financing, bureaucracy of institutions, financial government support, the tax system, time necessary to comply with regulations, and crisis and instability are very important for SMEs. According to the results, process and marketing innovations are applied more frequently than product and organisational innovations. Finally, the results indicate that entrepreneurs indicate that lack of government support and weakness of tax incentives is an important barrier to the innovation process.

  2. Factors Contributing to SMEs Failure in Meeting Supplier Performance Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Scheers Louise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the factors that contribute to the failure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in meeting supplier performance standards. Suppliers are faced with the challenge of SMEs failing to meet supplier performance standards because they rely on these providers of products and services, mainly SMEs, for their operations and to ultimately achieve their mandate. The researchers were able to establish the main factors contributing to SME failure in meeting supplier performance standards. These are as follows: unclear specifications and terms of references from suppliers; insufficient information provided to SME suppliers to ensure understanding of requirements; insufficient feedback and support; no support of SME suppliers based on their Black Economic Empowerment (BEE status; limited or no use of business support programs by SME suppliers; and external factors such as access to finance, changes in the economy, and location.

  3. Encouraging resilience within SMEs: the Cabinet Office's proposed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces the Cabinet Office's Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS). It explains how the National Risk Assessment, produced within the CCS, is created and used. As part of the recent Strategic Defence and Security Review, the Government made a commitment to improve the business continuity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).This paper describes the CCS's approach to achieving this, and explains why the resilience of SMEs is important to both local communities, at a time of disruption or crisis, and the essential services sectors, such as energy, food and transport. It provides an outline of a strategic approach that will seek to simplify business continuity by making it accessible, achievable and affordable, and, in partnership with the organisations that SMEs turn to for advice, promotes the benefits of business continuity and encourages its use.

  4. Alignment of Quality Management in SMEs with the Market Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yslene Rocha Kachba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to relate competitiveness through productivity on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs with the level of quality that these companies are and the market segment they serve. The methodology used was a multiple case study using questionnaires and systematic observations in SMEs. Results showed that the quality of the companies surveyed is determined by the market segment in which they operate. Quality management is based on the end customer and the view of entrepreneurs look beyond the premises of their companies. The importance of this research is to relate the market segment with the quality level used in SMEs, a strategy required for the current competitiveness.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  6. Exploring the Enablers of Organizational and Marketing Innovations in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi Moses Ajayi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research studies on innovation tend to focus on process and product innovations. Recent theoretical opinions reveal that Organizational and Marketing Innovations (OMIs could be the necessary prerequisites to optimally utilize and deploy such process and product innovations. It is important to note that there is a dearth of information on the enablers of OMIs capabilities among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Despite their closeness to their customers, many SMEs are finding it difficult to achieve successful and effective innovations; these are innovations that have a positive impact on the business growth and returns. This study presents findings from exploratory qualitative research conducted in South-Western Nigeria. Drawing upon information-rich evidence from 13 in-depth interviews with the owners and the managers of SMEs, this study identifies some enablers that can promote SMEs’ OMIs capabilities, effective innovations, and organizational survival.

  7. Financial management practices in successful Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Petrus Wolmarans

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the success of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is extremely important for the South African economy, their failure rate is amongst the highest in the world; some researchers estimate as high as 90 percent. Research has shown that the lack of financial management skills and application of financial management practices are some of the biggest factors contributing to SME failure. However, it is not clear from the literature which of these skills and practices are more important than others. This study aims to fill this gap by determining which financial management skills are relevant for successful SMEs. A survey was done on a sample of owner-managers of successful SMEs who had been asked, firstly, whether they performed different financial management practices and, secondly, how frequently they performed these in their companies. The study concludes that practices regarding working capital as well as profitability are much more relevant than those regarding a balance sheet or strategic finance. Similarly, financial practices related to cash flow and decision making are more relevant than those related to planning or analysing. It may be true, due to the high risk and volatile environment of SMEs, as well as the challenges that are often underestimated, that financial practices which academics regard as important are not always implemented by these companies.  This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge as it determines the relative relevance and frequency of use of financial management practices by successful SMEs. KEY WORDS Small and medium enterprises, Financial management practices, Successful SMEs, Entrepreneurship education

  8. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  9. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  10. Determination of SMES capacity to enhance the dynamic stability of power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y.; Dai, T.; Ren, L.; Li, J.; Cheng, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the principle of SMES capacity determination for power system stable operation. Adopting the energy function method, the mechanism of SMES damping power oscillation in the classical single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB) system is analyzed. The released kinetic energy during disturbance is the original of power system oscillation, which is taken as the principle of SMES capacity determination. Then, the influence of fault type, fault position, and fault clearing time on the SMES capacity determination are discussed. Using MATLAB simulation, the principle of SMES capacity determination is evaluated.

  11. IMS IN SMES - REASONS, ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS ON IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Rajković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Appearance of a number of management systems with various and sometimes divergent demands, demands for revise of optimal strategy on implementation of these standards in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the attempt on their integration into integrated management system are suggested even more. Firstly question on choice and reasons for implementation of standards is raised. Management and employees expect benefits on the implementation and they pass and minimize the implementation barriers. Basic concept on integrated management system (IMS into SMEs and analyse on reasons, advantages and barriers at IMS implementation are presented in this paper.

  12. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  13. Marketing in SMEs: a '4Ps' self-branding model

    OpenAIRE

    Resnick, SM; Cheng, R; Simpson, M; Lourenço, F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which traditional marketing theory and practice can be applied in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and consider how owner-managers perceive their own role in marketing within a small business setting. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative exploratory approach using semi-structured in-depth interviews amongst owner-managers of SMEs in the UK. Findings – SME marketing is effective in that it embraces some relevant c...

  14. Business Models For SMEs In Bandung: Swot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senen Machmud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to find the model business for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs with management strategy and business strategy approach. This research to help researchers, owners of SMEs and government in developing a framework for management strategy and business strategy on how the best result of business models. This study is valuable considering the limited among of empirical work previously done on the topic in question. The result of management strategies is internal and external factor analysis than analysis with strength, weakness, opportunities, and treatment (SWOT.

  15. Application of medium sized SMES electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handschin, E.; Damschen, C.; Stephanblome, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the technological and economical impact of medium sized SMES with a capacity in the range of a few 100 kWh on power system operation a lot of system engineering studies are still necessary. Although the two examples mentioned in the present paper do not claim to be complete they are still illustrating the general structure of investigations concerning the location, dimensioning and control scheme of SMES. Also there is a relationship between these investigations which has to be taken into consideration with respect to economical reasons. (orig.)

  16. The Vulnerability of SMES in the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ŢÂU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of small and medium enterprises is closely related to their reduced volume of activity and insufficient financial resources available to them. Therefore, these types of organizations are more likely to be the subject of the changes that occur in the market. Although there are available a variety of funding sources, most SMEs in Romania are not able to access existing funds as they are not competitive on the single European market. During the economic crisis, the businesses environment but the economical one as well was not beneficial for the Romanian SMEs due to the financial, structural and fiscal instability, which led to negative results, especially on long term.

  17. Hysteresis and reluctance electric machines with bulk HTS elements. Recent results and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, L.K.; Ilushin, K.V.; Penkin, V.T.; Kovalev, K.L.; Koneev, S.M.-A.; Poltavets, V.N.; Larionoff, A.E.; Modestov, K.A.; Larionoff, S.A.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Oswald, B.; Best, K.-J.; Strasser, T.

    2000-01-01

    Two new types of HTS electric machine are considered. The first type is hysteresis motors and generators with cylindrical and disc rotors containing bulk HTS elements. The second type is reluctance motors with compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors. The compound HTS-ferromagnetic rotors, consisting of joined alternating bulk HTS (YBCO) and ferromagnetic (iron) plates, provide a new active material for electromechanical purposes. Such rotors have anisotropic properties (ferromagnetic in one direction and diamagnetic in the perpendicular one). Theoretical and experimental results for HTS hysteresis and reluctance motors are presented. A series of hysteresis HTS motors with output power rating from 1 kW (at 50 Hz) up to 4 kW (at 400 Hz) and a series of reluctance HTS motors with output power 2-18.5 kW (at 50 Hz) were constructed and successfully tested. It was shown that HTS reluctance motors could reach two to five times better overall dimensions and specific power than conventional asynchronous motors of the same size and will have higher values of power factor (cos φ≥0.7 to 0.8). (author)

  18. Analysis of stability and quench in HTS devices-New approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotsky, V.S.; Sytnikov, V.E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Ilyin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    R and D of HTS devices are in their full steam-more magnets and devices are developed with larger sizes. But analysis of their stability and quench was still old fashioned, based on normal zone determination, analysis of its appearance and propagation. Some peculiarities of HTS make this traditional, quite impractical and inconvenient approach to consideration of HTS devices stability and quench development using normal zone origination and propagation analysis. The novel approaches were developed that consider the HTS device as a cooled medium with non-linear parameters with no mentioning of 'superconductivity' in the analysis. The approach showed its effectiveness and convenience to analyze the stability and quench development in HTS devices. In this paper the analysis of difference between HTS and LTS quench, dependent on index n and specific heat comparison, is followed by the short approach descriptions and by the consequences from it for the HTS devices design. The further development of the method is presented for the analysis of long HTS objects where 'blow-up' regimes may happen. This is important for design and analysis of HTS power cables operations under overloading conditions

  19. Development of a single-phase 30 m HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeonwook; Bae, Joon-Han; Kim, Hae-Jong; Sim, Ki-Deok; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyun-Man; Lee, Chang-Young; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2006-05-01

    HTS power transmission cables appear to be the replacement and retrofitting of underground cables in urban areas and HTS power transmission cable offers a number of technical and economic merits compared to the normal conductor cable system. A 30 m long, single-phase 22.9 kV class HTS power transmission cable system has been developed by Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), LS Cable Ltd., and Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), which is one of the 21st century frontier project in Korea since 2001. The HTS power cable has been developed, cooled down and tested to obtain realistic thermal and electrical data on HTS power cable system. The evaluation results clarified such good performance of HTS cable that DC critical current of the HTS cable was 3.6 kA and AC loss was 0.98 W/m at 1260 Arms and shield current was 1000 Arms. These results proved the basic properties for 22.9 kV HTS power cable. As a next step, we have been developing a 30 m, three-phase 22.9 kV, 50 MV A HTS power cable system and long term evaluation is in progress now.

  20. Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørg S. Christophersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein. Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937 og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172.Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%. Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine. The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937 and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%. Women were represented in about

  1. An integrated information system to support supply chain management & performance in SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekeng; Budiarto, S.; Prabowo, M. Agung; Herawan, Tutut

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relation between the level of supply chain management (SCM) adoption and small & medium enterprises (SMEs) performance. SCM adoption level is expected to facilitate SMEs in improving their efficiency, thus they can obtain their competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses primary data in the form of questionnaires. This study only takes the SMEs engaged in commerce (retail) business in order to avoid bias in IT usage. The questionnaires are given to 88 SMEs owners whom responsible for the IT development in their companies. Findings: The result proves that SCM adoption significantly affects SMEs performance. The hypotheses testing is performed using one-way ANOVA, the result shows that there are significant differences between level initiation, diffusion, and integration with SMEs performance. Originality: This study explains the relation between supply chain management (SCM) adoption level and SMEs performance that has never been performed before.

  2. An integrated information system to support supply chain management & performance in SMEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekeng; Budiarto, S.; Prabowo, M. Agung; Herawan, Tutut

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to examine the relation between the level of supply chain management (SCM) adoption and small & medium enterprises (SMEs) performance. SCM adoption level is expected to facilitate SMEs in improving their efficiency, thus they can obtain their competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses primary data in the form of questionnaires. This study only takes the SMEs engaged in commerce (retail) business in order to avoid bias in IT usage. The questionnaires are given to 88 SMEs owners whom responsible for the IT development in their companies. Findings: The result proves that SCM adoption significantly affects SMEs performance. The hypotheses testing is performed using one-way ANOVA, the result shows that there are significant differences between level initiation, diffusion, and integration with SMEs performance. Originality: This study explains the relation between supply chain management (SCM) adoption level and SMEs performance that has never been performed before.

  3. Progress in American Superconductor’s HTS wire and optimization for fault current limiting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malozemoff, Alexis P., E-mail: amalozemoff@amsc.com

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • AMSC HTS wire critical current needed for rotating machinery is doubled by 16 MeV Au irradiation. • Nonuniformity of HTS wires in power devices causes hot spot formation during power system faults. • Lower normal-state resistivity and critical current lower HTS wire hot spot heating during faults. • HTS wire hot spot heating in HTS cables during faults must stay below lN{sub 2} bubble nucleation point. • HTS wire can be designed to meet hot spot heating limits in fault current limiting cables. - Abstract: American Superconductor has developed composite coated conductor tape-shaped wires using high temperature superconductor (HTS) on a flexible substrate with laminated metal stabilizer. Such wires enable many applications, each requiring specific optimization. For example, coils for HTS rotating machinery require increased current density J at 25–50 K. A collaboration with Argonne, Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories and several universities has increased J using an optimized combination of precipitates and ion irradiation defects in the HTS. Major commercial opportunities also exist to enhance electric power grid resiliency by linking substations with distribution-voltage HTS power cables [10]. Such links provide alternative power sources if one substation's transmission-voltage power is compromised. But they must also limit fault currents which would otherwise be increased by such distribution-level links. This can be done in an HTS cable, exploiting the superconductor-to-resistive transition when current exceeds the wires’ critical J. A key insight is that such transitions are usually nonuniform; so the wire must be designed to prevent localized hot spots from damaging the wire or even generating gas bubbles in the cable causing dielectric breakdown. Analysis shows that local heating can be minimized by increasing the composite tape's total thickness, decreasing its total resistance in the normal state and

  4. Effects of the use of competitive intelligence in industrial SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Placer-Maruri

    2016-08-01

    Originality/value: This work provides a step forward in measuring the effects generated by Competitive Intelligence in SMEs, making it possible to demonstrate that only case studies have been analyzed. It also incorporates an approach using financial and non-financial variables that can guide future research as well as companies that want to generate their own self-assessment systems.

  5. Debt maturity and relationship lending: An analysis of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Canovas, G.; Koeter-Kant, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the association between bank debt maturity and relationship lending using a unique survey sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. The knowledge of how the institutional environment shapes relationship lending helps us to understand how current institutional changes,

  6. Enabling SMEs to take full advantage of E-business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caskey, K.R.; Hunt, I.; Browne, J.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is rapidly changing the relationships between supply chain partners. This paper looks at what is needed to allow SMEs to participate fully in supply chain integration. First, current trends in supply chain integration, electronic commerce, and Internet support are examined. Next,

  7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS A DETERMINANT OF SMES COLLABORATION AND INNOVATIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cvetanovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of small and medium-sized enterprise (SMEs development around the world show that the most significant factor for increasing their numbers and improving business success is the free enterprise, as exogenous, and innovation as an endogenous variable. At the same time, the dominant view in economic theory is that innovation is a key generator of changes for which the SMEs can be considered as a kind of metaphors for a successful business over the last twenty years in a number of economies. Arguing that cooperation between SMEs is increasingly common generic strategy of their development, the paper first explains the importance of collaboration to increase innovation and competitiveness, and then provides possible models using information technology such as Workflow Management Systems (WfMS, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Architecture (SOCCA to support the collaboration of these business entities. Solutions provided are aimed at improving the innovativeness of SMEs and fully follow the requirements of the so-called fifth-generation innovation process whose key attributes are integration and flexibility.

  8. Young successors : A Two-Sided Story in Renewing SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Kleingeld; Lex van Teeffelen

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often used as a synonym for starting up a new business. Existing SMEs — from purchasing to succession — are all too often left out of the picture. This booklet tells the stories of those involved in handing over their businesses to the next generation. It’s an honest and

  9. Cloud Computing and Information Technology Resource Cost Management for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Adanu, Kwame; Olesen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision-making problem confronting SMEs considering the adoption of cloud computing as an alternative to in-house computing services provision. The economics of choosing between in-house computing and a cloud alternative is analyzed by comparing the total economic costs...... in determining the relative value of cloud computing....

  10. Mapping of Supply Chain Learning: A Framework for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Jitesh; Kanda, Arun; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a mapping framework for evaluating supply chain learning potential for the context of small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The extracts of recently completed case based research for ten manufacturing SME units and facts reported in the previous research are utilized…

  11. Employing Knowledge Transfer to Support IS Implementation in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Martin; Turner, Phillip; Abas, Hanida; Shen, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Information systems strategy is an increasingly important component of overall business strategy in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The need for readily available and consistent management information, drawn from integrated systems based on sound and upgradeable technologies, has led many senior company managers to review the business…

  12. Its All Action, Its All Learning: Action Learning in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…

  13. Acceptance of Mobile Learning at SMEs of the Service Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutner, Marc; Rüscher, Frederike Anna

    2017-01-01

    Mobile Learning (mLearning) is becoming popular in several parts of education. The increasing availability of mobile technology and devices is an important fact, which fosters this trend. However, even if it attracts more and more attention at huge enterprises it is not clear what small and medium enterprises (SMEs) think about Mobile Learning.…

  14. Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhunia, Uttam, E-mail: ubhunia@vecc.gov.in; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The optimization approach minimizes both the magnet size and necessary cable length of a sectored toroidal SMES unit. • Design approach is suitable for low temperature superconducting cable suitable for medium size SMES unit. • It investigates coil parameters with respect to practical engineering aspects. - Abstract: A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium–titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy.

  15. Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

  16. Improving Tacit Knowledge Transfer within SMEs through E-Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of e-learning can help SMEs to develop skills to cope with their operational environments, but current literature suggests they are not effectively engaged, partly due to a lack of understanding and mistrust of vendors. This paper considers the potential for a more effective transfer of marketing knowledge to firms…

  17. Environmental Sustainability Change Management in SMEs: Learning from Sustainability Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, Doren; Wiesner, Retha; Roxas, Banjo

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the change management processes involved in undertaking environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives within Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) and relate these to the main attributes of learning organisations. Using case study techniques, the study draws from the change management experiences of a sample of 12 ES…

  18. Innovation in SMEs: a race with no finish line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, R.; van der Wal, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of our long-term study into the innovative behavior of fifteen Dutch small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) that were considered promising in 1985. We asked ourselves the following two questions: (i) How did these companies develop while aiming for their

  19. The impact of macroeconomic variables on SMEs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, F. A.; Malim, M. R.; Derasit, Z.; Rani, R. M.; Rashid, S. S.

    2017-09-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia have gained a prominent role as the significant contributor to the economic growth. However, the world nowadays is heading towards economic downturn. The stability of macroeconomic variables promotes profitability of SMEs which propels them to a stage where they can access financing for sustaining growth. Therefore, it is apparent that the behaviour of the macroeconomic variables plays a major part in determining the nation’s backbone in surviving the economic downturn. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of macroeconomic variables on the profitability of SMEs in Malaysia using multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that the exchange rate has a small positive impact on SME GDP growth rate (10.81%), the interest rate has a strong positive impact (60.74%), while the inflation rate has a strong negative impact (-53.89%). Therefore, it can be concluded that the interest rate and inflation rate have significant impacts on the profitability of SMEs in Malaysia.

  20. Empirical study of ERP systems implementation costs in Swiss SMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equey, C.; Kusters, R.J.; Varone, S.; Montandon, N.; Cordeiro, J.; Felipe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on sparse literature investigating the cost of ERP systems implementation, our research uses data from a survey of Swiss SMEs having implemented ERP in order to test cost drivers. The main innovation is the proposition of a new classification of cost drivers that depend on the enterprise

  1. Strategic HRM for SMEs: Implications for Firms and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Maryse J.; Bax, Erik H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is on the growing importance of strategic human resource management (SHRM) for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Many small firms encounter serious human resource problems, while at the same time these human resources play a vital role in developing and sustaining their competitive advantages. In (S)HRM literature specific…

  2. Employability and the psychological contract in European ICT sector SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholarios, D.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; van der Schoot, E.; Bozionelos, N.; Epitropaki, O.; Knauth, P.; Marzec, I.; Mikkelsen, A.; van der Heijde, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the employability of information and communication technology (ICT) professionals from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The first stage of analysis, based on over 100 interviews with managers of ICT supplier companies in seven European countries

  3. Pareto optimal design of sectored toroidal superconducting magnet for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, Uttam; Saha, Subimal; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization approach minimizes both the magnet size and necessary cable length of a sectored toroidal SMES unit. • Design approach is suitable for low temperature superconducting cable suitable for medium size SMES unit. • It investigates coil parameters with respect to practical engineering aspects. - Abstract: A novel multi-objective optimization design approach for sectored toroidal superconducting magnetic energy storage coil has been developed considering the practical engineering constraints. The objectives include the minimization of necessary superconductor length and torus overall size or volume, which determines a significant part of cost towards realization of SMES. The best trade-off between the necessary conductor length for winding and magnet overall size is achieved in the Pareto-optimal solutions, the compact magnet size leads to increase in required superconducting cable length or vice versa The final choice among Pareto optimal configurations can be done in relation to other issues such as AC loss during transient operation, stray magnetic field at outside the coil assembly, and available discharge period, which is not considered in the optimization process. The proposed design approach is adapted for a 4.5 MJ/1 MW SMES system using low temperature niobium–titanium based Rutherford type cable. Furthermore, the validity of the representative Pareto solutions is confirmed by finite-element analysis (FEA) with a reasonably acceptable accuracy

  4. Generic Challenges and Automation Solutions in Manufacturing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Malik, Ali Ahmad; Bilberg, Arne

    Evermore research is conducted on smart manufacturing, digital manufacturing and other aspects of what is expected from the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Most of the research of Industry 4.0 is currently a better fit for large corporations than for SMEs, which in Europe howe...

  5. A CLASICAL APPROACH TO HUMAN RESSOURCES IN ROMANIAN SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria FIRA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our paper is the study of human resources management in SMEs in Dolj County. Through our research we emphasize and demonstrate the importance of human resources in the maintaining process of stability and in perpetuating the viability of this dynamic sector – the one of SMEs. Thus, the theoretical concepts are grounded both through theory and national and international practices, and through the actual data obtained from the research that will be carried out in the field. The practical implications of our research reflect in the analysis and interpretation of the research results carried out on 516 employees from SMEs in Dolj County, as well as in the recommendations elaborated based on a set of variables established according to the importance of the employees’ role in the enterprises as bearers of initiative and generators of innovation. Therefore, we have reached the conclusion that involving employees in the decision making process is an important factor for the survival and progress of SMEs.

  6. A Web Based Intelligent Training System for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Roisin; Duan, Yanqing; Hamblin, David; Burrell, Phillip; Jin, Huan; Jerzy, Goluchowski; Ewa, Ziemba; Aleksander, Billewicz

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that employees in small business suffer from a lack of knowledge and skills. This lack of skills means that small companies will miss out on new business opportunities. This is even more evident with respect to the adoption of Internet marketing in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This paper reports a pilot research…

  7. Labour flexibility in SMEs: the impact of leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesu, J.K.; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between transformational and transactional leadership, and labour flexibility within small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using a sample comprising 755 employees, rating 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized

  8. Test results of the SMES model coil. Pulse performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamajima, Takataro; Shimada, Mamoru; Ono, Michitaka

    1998-01-01

    A model coil for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES model coil) has been developed to establish the component technologies needed for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device. The SMES model coil was fabricated, and then performance tests were carried out in 1996. The coil was successfully charged up to around 30 kA and down to zero at the same ramp rate of magnetic field experienced in a 100 kWh SMES device. AC loss in the coil was measured by an enthalpy method as parameters of ramp rate and flat top current. The results were evaluated by an analysis and compared with short-sample test results. The measured hysteresis loss is in good agreement with that estimated from the short-sample results. It was found that the coupling loss of the coil consists of two major coupling time constants. One is a short time constant of about 200 ms, which is in agreement with the test results of a short real conductor. The other is a long time constant of about 30 s, which could not be expected from the short sample test results. (author)

  9. Role of Cooperatives in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Enterprises (SMEs) Development in Nigeria: Challenges and the Way ... Nigerian governments have been spending an immense amount of money obtained from ... (SMEDAN) to facilitating access to credit, technology and market for the .... Information; Cooperation among Cooperatives and Concern for the.

  10. Toward economic reward: Corporate social responsibility communication of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulović Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In business world of today, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play the part of an increasingly important role in the world economy. Currently, SMEs are thought to be the backbone of economic growth in many countries, contributing to the creation of job opportunities and acting as suppliers of goods and services for large organizations. Internationally, various studies are related to the importance of SMEs for a country's development and economic stability. SMEs also play an important role in European economies and their form according to some authors is a pillar of business structure. Academics emphasise in many ways Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR as a mantra for our time, a time which they characterised as 'the era of compassionate capitalism' or 'the age of sustainability'. CSR communication is an important element of the strategic approach to communication, which rests on the idea that enterprises can create a strong identity by implementing a systematic and proactive strategic communication practice within their organisations, establishing the way for 'the building and maintaining of favourable reputations and relationships with key stakeholders'.

  11. Project Finance for Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project financing is one of the best methods of seeking to acquire capitals Funds and other tools to finance a planned business activity which will yields profit in order to liquidate the procured fund. Financing project for SMES is carried out by Federal, States and some development Institutions. In Nigeria, project financing ...

  12. Bank financing for SMEs : Lessons from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys the recent literature on the relationship between SMEs, financial deepening and economic development. While a large SME sector is not associated with faster economic growth or poverty alleviation, financial deepening can have a pro-growth and pro-poor impact by alleviating SMEs’

  13. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian SMEs industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghandoor, A.; Al Salaymeh, M.; Al-Abdallat, Y.; Al-Rawashdeh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyze the energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian SMEs industries. ► We developed an energy balance for the Jordanian SMEs industries. ► The low efficiencies values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilizations still exist. - Abstract: This study presents detailed analysis of the energy and exergy utilizations of the Jordanian Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by considering the flows of energy and exergy through the main end uses in the Jordanian industrial sector. To achieve this purpose, a survey covering 180 facilities was conducted and energy consumption data was gathered to establish detailed end-use balance for the Jordanian industrial sector. The energy end-use balance provides a starting point to estimate the site and embodied energy and exergy efficiencies. The average site energy and exergy efficiencies of the Jordanian SMEs industries sector are estimated as 78.3% and 37.9% respectively, while the embodied energy and exergy efficiencies are estimated as 58.9% and 21.2% respectively. The low efficiencies values suggest that many opportunities for better industrial energy utilizations still exist.

  14. The perception & attitudes of SMEs managers towards e-commerce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical study has been conducted by authors in the Wilaya (County) of Ghardaia (Southern Algeria) with the ultimate aim of surveying the local SMEs managers' perception and attitudes towards e-commerce. It seems that, these managers' perception and attitudes are on the whole positive. However, due mainly to ...

  15. The optimal rating philosophy for the rating of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikkers, F.; Thibeault, A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the optimal rating philosophy for the rating of SMEs, and to describe the consequences of the chosen philosophy on several related aspects. As to our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies the considerations of financial institutions on what

  16. A Possible Path from BCS through HTS to VHTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. W.

    2010-03-01

    Three years after celebrating the 50th anniversary of the BCS theory and the 20th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductivity (HTS), it appears to be most fitting for us to contemplate the possibility of very high temperature superconductivity (VHTS). VHTS, preferably at room temperature, if achieved, could change the world both scientifically and technologically. Unfortunately, it has long been considered by some to belong to the domain of science fiction and to occur only ``at an astronomical distance and under an astronomical pressure.'' With the advent of liquid nitrogen superconductivity in 1987, the outlook has become much brighter. Currently, there appears to be no reason, either theoretical or experimental, why VHTS would be impossible, in spite of the 2006 prediction of the death of HTS by 2010-2015 through the so-called scientometric analysis of the publication record of the previous 20 years. The recent discovery of the new class of Fe-pnictide HTSs fuels more cautious optimism. Since its inception, BCS theory has provided the basic framework for the occurrence and understanding of superconductivity, but it has failed to show where and how to find superconductivity at a higher temperature. This may be attributed to the small energy scale of superconductivity in comparison with those of other excitations in the solids. After examining existing data, we believe that a holistic multidisciplinary enlightened empirical approach appears to be the most effective way to discover novel superconductors with higher transition temperatures. In this talk, I shall present several possible approaches toward VHTS that we are currently pursuing, after briefly summarizing what has happened in the long search for HTS and VHTS.

  17. Capturing Firms’ Heterogeneity through Marketing and IT Capabilities in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Ramón-Jerónimo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sustainability, firms capable of surviving economic recessions is of key relevance; the capabilities that firms need to face dynamic environments remain an open question. In this work, a new procedure is proposed to capture firms’ heterogeneity with regard to the capabilities they possess in operating efficiently in dynamic environments. This approach enables the identification of the classes of firms that develop efficiency with a specific integration of resources. While the literature has most often measured firm capabilities using subjective measures, this study suggests the use of Data Envelopment Analysis to capture the ability to transform resources into outcomes and of Latent Class Regression to capture differences across firms that explain firms’ heterogeneity in the way they perform. By combining these two techniques, this work presents a way to identify those firms that need to invest in and develop certain capabilities. This work analyses a large dataset of manufacturing Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs extracted from the Business and Strategy survey provided by Fundación de la Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales( SEPI in Spain. The dataset used enfolds 10,960 observations from 2048 firms during the period 1994–2011. The complete dataset has been employed to calculate manufacturing firms’ efficiency. In a second step, data were cleaned to eliminate outliers, and to identify SMEs and observations with records of IT capabilities. As a result, 329 manufacturing SMEs were analysed to capture their heterogeneity. The results contribute to the current literature by explaining how manufacturing SMEs show a different need in their development of capabilities to be efficient and adapt to environmental changes. While approximately 20% of firms analysed really take advantage of recessions through their investment in R&D, the remaining 80% need to adjust their size or invest in IT capabilities to become competitive

  18. Competitive Advantages Through it Innovation Adoption by Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moghavvemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper seeks to explain the impact of IT innovation on competitive advantage; the barriers and the benefits companies gain from adopting and using these innovations and propose a model with which it is possible to measure determinants of IT innovation adoption among SMEs. Design/methodology/approach—This paper presents conceptual consideration on the role of SMEs in the Malaysian economy and the effect of government policy in encouraging companies to adopt IT innovation. The proposed research framework will be empirically validated using survey data. This study is an ongoing research, in the existing stage a theoretical argument is developed and methodology is in the process of being tested through regression analysis. Findings—Conclusions are drawn on the status of Malaysian SMEs to adopt IT innovation. We added attitude and self-efficacy to the Innovation Diffusion Theory to suit it to the individual situation. Therefore a novel approach is needed in order to study and understand it. Research limitations/implications—The paper represents work in progress. Practical implications – This paper present the theoretical framework for further study of IT innovation adoption among Malaysia SMEs. Originality/Value—The Information Technology concept is considered a powerful competitive weapon in the modern economy. This study used Innovation Diffusion Theory as the base theory, and added attitude and self efficacy as determinants to measure the individual’s perception toward innovation adoption. Individual self-efficacy and attitude toward innovation adoption shape beliefs and perceptions toward innovation, leading them to adopt or reject an innovation. Adding these factors to Innovation Diffusion Theory will narrow the breadth of the theory and possibilities to frame a single study which allows examination of the individual and technological dimension toward technology adoption. Keywords: IT innovation adoption, competitive

  19. Competitive Advantages Through it Innovation Adoption by Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moghavvemi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—This paper seeks to explain the impact of IT innovation on competitive advantage; the barriers and the benefits companies gain from adopting and using these innovations and propose a model with which it is possible to measure determinants of IT innovation adoption among SMEs.Design/methodology/approach—This paper presents conceptual consideration on the role of SMEs in the Malaysian economy and the effect of government policy in encouraging companies to adopt IT innovation. The proposed research framework will be empirically validated using survey data. This study is an ongoing research, in the existing stage a theoretical argument is developed and methodology is in the process of being tested through regression analysis.Findings—Conclusions are drawn on the status of Malaysian SMEs to adopt IT innovation. We added attitude and self-efficacy to the Innovation Diffusion Theory to suit it to the individual situation. Therefore a novel approach is needed in order to study and understand it.Research limitations/implications—The paper represents work in progress.Practical implications – This paper present the theoretical framework for further study of IT innovation adoption among Malaysia SMEs.Originality/Value—The Information Technology concept is considered a powerful competitive weapon in the modern economy. This study used Innovation Diffusion Theory as the base theory, and added attitude and self efficacy as determinants to measure the individual’s perception toward innovation adoption. Individual self-efficacy and attitude toward innovation adoption shape beliefs and perceptions toward innovation, leading them to adopt or reject an innovation. Adding these factors to Innovation Diffusion Theory will narrow the breadth of the theory and possibilities to frame a single study which allows examination of the individual and technological dimension toward technology adoption.Keywords: IT innovation adoption, competitive

  20. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, C P; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; MacFarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods.

  1. Several alternative approaches to the manufacturing of HTS Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Villegier , J.; Boucher , H.; Ghis , A.; Levis , M.; Méchin , Laurence; Moriceau , H.; Pourtier , F.; Vabre , M.; Nicoletti , S.; Correra , L.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we describe comparatively the fabrication and the characterization of various types of HTS Josephson junctions manufactured using different processes : grain boundary junctions have been studied both by the way of junctions on bicrystal substrates and of bi-epitaxial junctions. Ramp-edge types have been elaborated and characterized using mainly N-YBaCuO thin film as a barrier while the trilayer approach has been investigated through a-axis structures. YBaCuO or GdBaCuO supercondu...

  2. Issues relating to airborne applications of HTS SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, C P; Leslie, K E; Binks, R A; Lam, S H K; Du, J; Tilbrook, D L; Mitchell, E E; Macfarlane, J C; Lee, J B; Turner, R; Downey, M; Maddever, A

    2002-01-01

    Airborne application of HTS SQUIDs is the most difficult environment for their successful deployment. In order to operate with the sensitivity required for a particular application, there are many issues to be addressed such as the need for very wide dynamic range electronics, motion noise elimination, immunity to large changing magnetic fields and cultural noise sources. This paper reviews what is necessary to achieve an airborne system giving examples in geophysical mineral exploration. It will consider issues relating to device design and fabrication, electronics, dewar design, suspension system requirements and noise elimination methods

  3. Calculation of AC losses in large HTS stacks and coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zermeno, Victor; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a homogenization method to model a stack of HTS tapes under AC applied transport current or magnetic field. The idea is to find an anisotropic bulk equivalent for the stack of tapes, where the internal alternating structures of insulating, metallic, superconducting...... allowing for overcritical current densities to be considered. The method presented here allowed for a computational speedup factor of up to 2 orders of magnitude when compared to full 2-D simulations taking into account the actual structure of the stacks without compromising accuracy....

  4. Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Chen; Liu Menglin; Xing Huawei; Zhou, Tong; Yin Wensheng; Zong Jun; Han Zhenghe

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5 m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS coils made of Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape were used to provide the magnetic motive force. Several questions relating to the unique characteristics of the HTS material in a controlled magnetic circuit are discussed. The most important consideration for such applications is that the anisotropic critical current of the Bi-2223/Ag tape depends strongly on the magnetic field. The commercially available FEA software ANSYS was used to simulate the field distribution along the magnetic circuit and HTS coil winding, and thereby identify how the magnetic circuit alters the field distribution in the coil winding and therefore also the critical current. A general optimization process is described for finding the best position in the U-shape iron core to hold the HTS coils. In this process the critical current of the HTS tape and the force-current characteristic of the magnetic circuit are considered synthetically. The results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of HTS material in a typical maglev system and other similar controllability applications

  5. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  6. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for a 6km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop in th...

  7. Design, construction and performance of an EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Chen [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: guchen@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu Menglin [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xing Huawei [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou, Tong [Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yin Wensheng [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zong Jun [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing 100176 (China); Han Zhenghe [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Building LiZhai, Room 102, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-06-15

    A laboratory-scale EMS-based HTS maglev vehicle operating over a 1.5 m guideway has been successfully constructed. The fully integrated system consists of a vehicle chassis, four dependent magnetic circuits, four distance sensors, and control and power amplification circuits. As key component of the system, each magnetic circuit includes a U-shape iron core with one HTS coil forming each pole. Eight HTS coils made of Bi-2223 multi-filamentary tape were used to provide the magnetic motive force. Several questions relating to the unique characteristics of the HTS material in a controlled magnetic circuit are discussed. The most important consideration for such applications is that the anisotropic critical current of the Bi-2223/Ag tape depends strongly on the magnetic field. The commercially available FEA software ANSYS was used to simulate the field distribution along the magnetic circuit and HTS coil winding, and thereby identify how the magnetic circuit alters the field distribution in the coil winding and therefore also the critical current. A general optimization process is described for finding the best position in the U-shape iron core to hold the HTS coils. In this process the critical current of the HTS tape and the force-current characteristic of the magnetic circuit are considered synthetically. The results demonstrate the feasibility and stability of HTS material in a typical maglev system and other similar controllability applications.

  8. Reduction of Thermal Loss in HTS Windings by Using Magnetic Flux Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Koshiba, Y.; Izumi, M.; Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yanamoto, T.

    Efforts on the generation of intensified magnetic flux have been made for the optimized shape of HTS winding applications. This contributes to the high efficiency of the rotating machines using HTS windings. Heat generation from the HTS windings requires to be suppressed as much as possible, when those coils are under operation with either direct or alternative currents. Presently, the reduction of such thermal loss generated by the applied currents on the HTS coils is reported with a magnetic flux deflection system. The HTS coils are fixed together with flattened magnetic materials to realize a kind of redirection of the flux pathway. Eventually, the magnetic flux density perpendicular to the tape surface (equivalent to the a-b plane) of the HTS tape materials is reduced to the proximity of the HTS coil. To verify the new geometry of the surroundings of the HTS coils with magnetic materials, a comparative study of the DC coil voltage was done for different applied currents in prototype field-pole coils of a ship propulsion motor.

  9. Investment determinants of young and old Portuguese SMEs: A quantile approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Mendes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering two samples of Portuguese SMEs: 582 young SMEs and 1654 old SMEs, using the two-step estimation method and quantile regressions, the empirical evidence allows us to conclude that the determinants of investment have a different impact on young and old SMEs, depending on a firm’ level of investment. In the framework of Acceleration Principle and Neoclassical Theories, the determinants are relevant in explaining the investment of young and old SMEs with high levels of investment. The Growth Domestic Product, as the investment determinant of Acceleration Principle Theory, has a greater impact on the investment of young SMEs with high levels of investment. Sales, as the investment determinant of Neoclassical Theory, have greater impact on the investment of old SMEs with high levels of investment. Cash flow, as the investment determinant of Free Cash Flow Theory, is important in explaining the investment of young and old SMEs with low levels of investment. However, cash flow has greater impact on the investment of young SMEs with low levels of investment. The empirical evidence obtained allows us to make suggestions for policy-makers and the owners/managers of Portuguese SMEs.

  10. BIM adoption within Australian Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs: an innovation diffusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Hosseini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the envisaged benefits of BIM adoption for SMEs, BIM in SMEs has remained an underrepresented area within the available academic literature. This study proposes and draws upon a framework grounded on innovation diffusion theory (IDT to provide an illuminating insight into the current state of BIM and the main barriers to BIM adoption within Australian SMEs. Based on analyses of 135 questionnaires completed by SMEs through partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM and grounded on the proposed framework, the current state of BIM adoption and barriers to BIM adoption for SMEs are discussed. The findings show that currently around 42% of Australian SMEs use BIM in Level 1 and Level 2 with only around 5% have tried Level 3. It comes to light that lack of knowledge within SMEs and across the construction supply chain is not a major barrier for Australian SMEs. In essence, the main barriers stem from the risks associated with an uncertain return on investment (ROI for BIM as perceived by key players in SMEs. The findings also show the validity of the framework proposed for explaining BIM adoption in Australian SMEs.

  11. Overcoming SMEs Financing and Supply Chain Obstacles by Introducing Supply Chain Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Waseem Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in view the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs for the growth of a nation, we must also keep an eye on the challenges faced by those SMEs. There are various kinds of financing and supply chain options available for SMEs but they still face lot of hindrances. This paper would help us to understand why SMEs are important for the development of any country and how could we help the SMEs from facing challenges related to financing and supply chain. This study further highlights the key financing issues faced by SMEs and also focuses on major supply chain challenges confronted by the SMEs. This study put emphasis on the concept of supply chain finance (SCF and that how SCF could help SMEs to overcome those challenges. In addition, this paper also points out the benefits and prospects of SMEs. Even though the concept of SCF is still in developing phase but it has shown significant assistance to SMEs in order to grow further.

  12. Designing Online Marketplace To Resolve Marketing Problem For Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Hermawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to design an online marketplace to provide solutions to problems faced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the difficulty to market their products online. One of the problems faced by SMEs is difficult to market their products online. One of the solutions that we provide is by designing an online marketplace to solve marketing problems effectively. We found that SMEs have attempted to market their products through social media such as facebook, twitter and others. In addition, some SMEs also have a website and advertise their products through online advertising. However, many of those who did not know how to market products online in order to increase sales. We designed an online marketplace for SMEs based on the concept of e-commerce to resolve the problems faced by SMEs, the effective marketing. The online market design is made taking into account the needs of SMEs as well as customer needs. Therefore, this study was conducted to SMEs in Malang, East Java, Indonesia  and the people who often make purchases online.With the existence of the online market, SMEs can increase sales lead to increased profits for SMEs. Keyword: Online market, E-Commerce, Maketing

  13. Tests of operating conditions for metrological application of HTS Josephson arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A; Lacquaniti, V; Andreone, D; Cerri, R; Klushin, A M

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of metrological properties of High Temperature Superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions, to assess their accuracy. A detailed analysis of measurement errors is presented, mainly based on a direct comparison of an HTS array against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the comparison, we were able to measure the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step at nanovolt level. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results provided by the usual, low sensitivity, techniques, confirming that the method we adopted is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current as well, providing some insights on the behaviour of the HTS array

  14. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  15. A new approach for AC loss reduction in HTS transformer using auxiliary windings, case study: 25 kA HTS current injection transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Aligholizadeh, Reza

    2008-01-01

    AC loss is one of the important parameters in HTS (high temperature superconducting) AC devices. Among the HTS AC power devices, the transformer is an essential part in the electrical power system. The AC losses in an HTS tape depend on the magnetic field. One of the techniques usually adopted to mitigate the unwanted magnetic field is using a system of coils that produce a magnetic field opposite to the incident one, reducing the total magnetic field. In this paper adding two auxiliary windings to the HTS transformer to produce this opposite magnetic field is proposed. The proper use of these auxiliary windings could reduce the leakage flux and, therefore, the AC loss. A mathematical model is used to describe the behaviour of a transformer operating with auxiliary windings, based on the theory of electromagnetic coupled circuits. The influence of the auxiliary windings on the leakage field is studied by the finite element method (FEM) and the AC loss of an HTS transformer was calculated. Also, the simulation results show that employing auxiliary windings will improve the HTS transformer efficiency.

  16. A new approach for AC loss reduction in HTS transformer using auxiliary windings, case study: 25 kA HTS current injection transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Aligholizadeh, Reza

    2008-01-01

    AC loss is one of the important parameters in HTS (high temperature superconducting) AC devices. Among the HTS AC power devices, the transformer is an essential part in the electrical power system. The AC losses in an HTS tape depend on the magnetic field. One of the techniques usually adopted to mitigate the unwanted magnetic field is using a system of coils that produce a magnetic field opposite to the incident one, reducing the total magnetic field. In this paper adding two auxiliary windings to the HTS transformer to produce this opposite magnetic field is proposed. The proper use of these auxiliary windings could reduce the leakage flux and, therefore, the AC loss. A mathematical model is used to describe the behaviour of a transformer operating with auxiliary windings, based on the theory of electromagnetic coupled circuits. The influence of the auxiliary windings on the leakage field is studied by the finite element method (FEM) and the AC loss of an HTS transformer was calculated. Also, the simulation results show that employing auxiliary windings will improve the HTS transformer efficiency

  17. A new approach for AC loss reduction in HTS transformer using auxiliary windings, case study: 25 kA HTS current injection transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Aligholizadeh, Reza [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    AC loss is one of the important parameters in HTS (high temperature superconducting) AC devices. Among the HTS AC power devices, the transformer is an essential part in the electrical power system. The AC losses in an HTS tape depend on the magnetic field. One of the techniques usually adopted to mitigate the unwanted magnetic field is using a system of coils that produce a magnetic field opposite to the incident one, reducing the total magnetic field. In this paper adding two auxiliary windings to the HTS transformer to produce this opposite magnetic field is proposed. The proper use of these auxiliary windings could reduce the leakage flux and, therefore, the AC loss. A mathematical model is used to describe the behaviour of a transformer operating with auxiliary windings, based on the theory of electromagnetic coupled circuits. The influence of the auxiliary windings on the leakage field is studied by the finite element method (FEM) and the AC loss of an HTS transformer was calculated. Also, the simulation results show that employing auxiliary windings will improve the HTS transformer efficiency.

  18. Three-phase AC synchronous motor with high-temperature superconductor (HTS) rotor windings and HTS bearings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumueller, H.W.; Nick, W.; Frank, M.; Massek, P.; Hasselt, P. van; Thummes, G.; Haefner, H.U.; Kummeth, P.; Werfel, F.; Frauenhofer, J.; Senger, R.; Schmidt, W.

    2003-06-01

    The project involved the design, construction and testing of a 3000 kW converter-fed synchronous motor as a development prototype with - HTS rotor windings, - closed-circuit cooling system, - stator air-gap winding and - high-gradient HTS magnetic bearing. The project objective was to create the conditions necessary for the construction of an application-oriented model(∼2 MW) that would be suitable for field tests and provide a starting point for subsequent series expansion. The main focus was fixed on feasibility and function issues relating to the various components, particularly during operation of the overall system in the test bay. These ambitious targets were achieved within the scope of project-based cooperation. This has been demonstrated especially in test bed operation of the machine since spring 2001, in the course of which the motor produced a maximum continuous rating of 450 kW - significantly above the specified value - while the short-time rating could be increased up to 600 kW. Throughout testing the motor demonstrated excellent performance characteristics that are markedly indifferent to load fluctuations and indicative of important operating advantages to subsequent users of such HTS motors. Loss calculations showed that, in terms of efficiency, this prototype already represents an approximately 1% improvement over the conventional motors or generators currently available. The robustness of the cooling concept developed as part of the project was also convincingly demonstrated during the comprehensive test phase, which has been ongoing since spring 2001. The innovative pulse-tube coolers developed by our partner companies Leybold and TransMIT promise further advantages over current commercial GM-coolers. Despite considerable problems with materials the team successfully built and operated a contactless HTS magnet bearing (based on YBCO stator cylinders from partner company ATZ) that is currently one of the world's largest in terms of bearing

  19. HTS cables open the window for large-scale renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geschiere, A; Willen, D; Piga, E; Barendregt, P

    2008-01-01

    In a realistic approach to future energy consumption, the effects of sustainable power sources and the effects of growing welfare with increased use of electricity need to be considered. These factors lead to an increased transfer of electric energy over the networks. A dominant part of the energy need will come from expanded large-scale renewable sources. To use them efficiently over Europe, large energy transits between different countries are required. Bottlenecks in the existing infrastructure will be avoided by strengthening the network. For environmental reasons more infrastructure will be built underground. Nuon is studying the HTS technology as a component to solve these challenges. This technology offers a tremendously large power transport capacity as well as the possibility to reduce short circuit currents, making integration of renewables easier. Furthermore, power transport will be possible at lower voltage levels, giving the opportunity to upgrade the existing network while re-using it. This will result in large cost savings while reaching the future energy challenges. In a 6 km backbone structure in Amsterdam Nuon wants to install a 50 kV HTS Triax cable for a significant increase of the transport capacity, while developing its capabilities. Nevertheless several barriers have to be overcome

  20. Levitation characteristics in an HTS maglev launch assist test vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Qiu Ming; Liu Yu; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Chen Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of finding a low-cost, safe, and reliable way to reduce costs of space launch, a maglev launch assist vehicle (Maglifter) is proposed. We present a permanent magnet-high temperature superconductor (PM-HTS) interaction maglev system for the Maglifter, which consists of a cryostat with multi-block YBaCuO bulks and a flux-collecting PM guideway. We obtain an optimum bulk arrangement by measuring and analysing the typical locations of HTSs above the PM guideway. We also measure the levitation abilities of the arrangement at different field cooled heights (FCHs) and different measuring distances (MDs), and find that the lower FCH and the lower MD both cause more magnetic flux to penetrate the HTSs, and then cause stronger lateral stability. A demonstration PM-HTS maglev test vehicle is built with four maglev units and two PM guideways with the length of 7 m. Its levitation characteristics in different FC and loading conditions are demonstrated. By analysing the maglev launch assist process, we assess that the low FC is useful for increasing the lateral stability of the Maglifter

  1. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Saito, A.; Ohshima, S. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  2. Modeling and Dynamics of HTS Motors for Aircraft Electric Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Vepa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methodology of how a dynamic model of a conventional permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM may be modified to model the dynamics of a high-temperature superconductor (HTS machine is illustrated. Simulations of a typical PMSM operating under room temperature conditions and also at temperatures when the stator windings are superconducting are compared. Given a matching set of values for the stator resistance at superconducting temperature and flux-trapped rotor field, it is shown that the performance of the HTS PMSM is quite comparable to a PMSM under normal room temperature operating conditions, provided the parameters of the motor are appropriately related to each other. From these simulations, a number of strategies for operating the motor so as to get the propeller to deliver thrust with maximum propulsive efficiency are discussed. It is concluded that the motor–propeller system must be operated so as to deliver thrust at the maximum propulsive efficiency point. This, in turn, necessitates continuous tracking of the maximum propulsive efficiency point and consequently it is essential that the controller requires a maximum propulsive efficiency point tracking (MPEPT outer loop.

  3. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning

  4. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  5. Dynamic response of HTS composite tapes to pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerovich, V; Sokolovsky, V; Prigozhin, L; Rozman, D

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic voltage-current characteristics of an HTS Ag/BiSCCO composite tape are studied both experimentally and theoretically. The tape is subjected to pulsed currents with different shapes and magnitudes and voltage traces are measured using the four-point method with different locations of potential taps on the sample surface. Clockwise and anticlockwise hysteresis loops are obtained for the same sample depending on the location of the potential taps. The dynamic characteristics deviate substantially from the DC characteristic, especially in the range of low voltages where a criterion for the critical current value is usually chosen (1-10 μV cm -1 ). The critical current determined from dynamic characteristics and its change with the pulse magnitude depend on the location of the potential taps and on the curve branch chosen for the critical current determination (ascending or descending). The theoretical analysis is based on a model of the magnetic flux diffusion into a composite tape for a superconductor described by the flux creep characteristic. Numerical simulation based on this model gives results in good agreement with the experimental ones and explains the observed peculiarities of the dynamic characteristics of HTS composite tapes. The difference between the magnetic diffusion into a tape and a slab is discussed

  6. Magnetizing of permanent magnet using HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole containing the HTS bulk magnet, generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnetic plates inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the HTS bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the 'rewritten' magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated. (author)

  7. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  8. Risk factors in the internationalization process of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Kubíčková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time characterized by globalizing market, increasing competition, accelerating change and the occurrence of many risks it is necessary for businesses, which want to remain competitive, to be able to respond flexibly to the changes in a timely manner and to identify and manage risks. Companies try to diversify business risks, such as the loss of market share in the domestic market, by entering the foreign markets and participating in international trade. Involvement in the internationalization process cannot be understood only as an opportunity to achieve greater profits and a competitive advantage, it is necessary to consider potential risks accompanying this process, because engaging in the internationalization process may bring the companies many different specific risks. It would be useful for companies to identify the factors of failure resulting from internationalization. Identifying the barriers to internationalization, the main risk factors associated with it and designing their possible prevention or elimination could provide SMEs an impetus to enter foreign markets. Although the risk is a frequently discussed issue in the international discussion, only few studies were strictly focused on risk management in the internationalization process. Risk management is a broad discipline that requires a specific knowledge in practice. However, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises are often unable to identify the potential risks of the internationalization process and therefore are not able to manage the risks. This is due to the fact that SMEs usually do not have managers with a deep knowledge of risk management and, moreover, these managers also often lack experience with foreign markets. Unfortunately, the surveys of SMEs conclude that the poorly predicted risks of entering foreign markets are one of the most common causes of failure of SMEs internationalization process.The main objective of this paper is to identify

  9. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  10. An analysis of e-business adoption by Indonesian manufacturing SMEs: A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptadi, Singgih; Pratama, Hanggar; Sudirman, Iman; Aisha, Atya Nur; Bernadhi, Brav Deva

    2017-11-01

    Many researches had shown IT contribution to business. Considering the contribution of SMEs to Indonesia economy, improving the competitiveness of SMEs is a concern in Indonesia development. Many studies had shown many IT projects failed to provide business performance. So, it is important to understand the pattern of e-business that provides business performances of a company. Using business process approach, we had studied SMEs' e-business initiatives in the form of "which business processes that had been supported with IT" by SMEs and business performances that SMEs gained from these e-business initiatives. But, we have not studied the intensity of implemented IT for SMEs' business processes. This paper presents a conceptual framework that relates the business performance and the intensity of e-business adoption. We also propose some antecedents that may relate to the intensity of e-business adoption.

  11. SMES COMPETITIVENESS IN AN INTEGRATED ECONOMY: A PRELIMINARY STUDY FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suseno Hr Matrutty

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN Economic Community (AEC offers both opportunities and challenges to Indonesian Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Highly competitive SMEs are likely to exploit opportunities from AEC by expanding their markets and securing raw materials at lower costs. On the contrary, the increasingly intense competition is likely to marginalize less competitive SMEs in their own domestic market. This study aims to analyze the SMEs competitiveness in anticipating AEC. Using 64 SMEs that already export their products or have potentials to export as the sample; this research shows that Indonesian SMEs exhibit a high competitiveness level from the perspective of the production factor, the availability of related and supporting industries factor (especially in relation to the availability of raw and supporting materials, and the demand factor. However, SME owners acknowledge that AEC intensify competition and the government has not provided adequate facilities to improve the SME competitiveness.

  12. Interferogram reduction and interpretation as applied to the optical analysis of the 10 kJ LASL laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hall, W.S.; Liberman, I.; Lawrence, G.

    1978-01-01

    The LASL 10 kJ Eight-Beam CO 2 Laser Fusion System, currently under construction, has approximately one hundred optical elements per beam. The nominal system is diffraction limited and degradations in performance are primarily caused by imperfect components as well as alignment errors. Consequently, analysis and predictions for the system are very much dependent on the proper description of the imperfect components. The approach taken at LASL has been to characterize the components interferometrically. Interferograms of the various components are made at the 633 nm He--Ne wavelength. Detailed results of the analysis for one complete leg of the eight-beam system is presented

  13. Marketing management capabilities of SMEs: an empirical analysis in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Alessandro; Carraresi, Laura; Stranieri, Stefanella

    2008-01-01

    SMEs, that represent the greater part of European food firms producing traditional food products (TFPs), meet difficulties in adapting their strategies to market changes, and in competing with big enterprises. Marketing management capabilities play a key role in good SMEs performance in the market. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the marketing capabilities of SMEs that produce TFPs. The theoretical framework considers the Market Orientation approach and marketing management capabilit...

  14. Actual cash financing situation of SMEs in Romania and further recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocsana Tonis (Bucea-Manea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is experiencing a revolution in the digital and mobile technologies, with more information available more quickly and for more media than ever before. In this context, SMEs can turn to cloud solution. Although the advantages of using the cloud are compelling for SMEs still involves financial costs. In Romania the rate of access to funds is very low. In this context, SMEs need additional assistance to obtain funding.

  15. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Competences and Innovativeness of Successors in Family SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letonja Marina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In the recent period, scholarly interest for family entrepreneurship and succession has been increasing while the question of innovative capability of family SMEs and of innovativeness of founders and successors is relatively unexplored. Little is known about the factors, which are positively correlated, or affect innovativeness of successors in family SMEs. This research explores the relationship between entrepreneurial competences of the founders in family SMEs and innovativeness of their successors.

  16. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlan Rohaizan; Engku Abu Bakar Engku Muhammad Nazri; Mahmud Fatimah; Ng Hooi Keng

    2016-01-01

    Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 ...

  17. A STUDY OF ORGANISATIONAL DETERMINANTS AND INNOVATION PRACTICES IN DUBAI SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    YAHYA AL-ANSARI; JUN XU; SIMON PERVAN

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of established organisational determinants of innovation practice in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the emerging market of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Drawing upon data from 200 SMEs, the findings suggest that management orientation, technology orientation, alliance and cooperation and market orientation are important antecedents to SMEs' innovative practices, but question the importance of organisational culture. This study is the first to exa...

  18. An Integrated Information System to Support Supply Chain Management & Performance in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Budiarto, Dekeng Setyo; Prabowo, Muhammad Agung; Herawan, Tutut

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relation between the level of supply chain management (SCM) adoption and small & medium enterprises (SMEs) performance. SCM adoption level it is expected to facilitate SMEs in improving their efficiency, thus they can obtain their competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses primary data in the form of questionnaires. This study only takes the SMEs engaged in commerce (retail) business in order to avoid bias in IT ...

  19. Promotion Influence in Sales Advance and in Increasing the Image to the SMEs in Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Arapi

    2013-01-01

    The promotion as an important element of marketing mix plays a key role in marketingmanagement regard, in every enterprise, and also for SMEs. The SMEs in Kosova aregiving more and more importance to the promotion, and this factor, beside the salesadvance for their products, is important to increase their image. What is the impact of thepromotion in SMEs longevity; respectively ëhat are the advantages and disadvantages ofpromotion application compared with the other traditional advertisement ...

  20. Designing Online Marketplace To Resolve Marketing Problem For Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Hermawan; Aniek Murniati

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to design an online marketplace to provide solutions to problems faced by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), the difficulty to market their products online. One of the problems faced by SMEs is difficult to market their products online. One of the solutions that we provide is by designing an online marketplace to solve marketing problems effectively. We found that SMEs have attempted to market their products through social media such as facebook, twitter and others. In additi...

  1. ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR SMEs BY CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarigul, Hasmet

    2013-01-01

    Credit guarantee schemes assist banks in lending to SMEs by overcoming collateral problems. The guarantees are used to share the risk between the bank and the guarantee institution in an agreed ratio. Thus, the bank’s risk and operation costs are lowered and its returns increased. This encourages banks to lend to SMEs who are unable to provide adequate collateral. In our study, we investigate the relationship between SMEs, banks and CGSs. We also aimed to explain the functioning of CGSs...

  2. E-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing countries: evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Rita; Day, John

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of e-commerce adoption by SMEs in developing countries and, in particular, the extent of the adoption of e-commerce by Indonesian SMEs. It identifies the e-commerce benefits realized by these SMEs and investigates the relationship between the levels of e-commerce adoption and the benefits thus realized. The study was motivated by the limited studies related to e-commerce adoption by SMEs, especially in developing countries. In addition, it seems that mos...

  3. The focus of marketing communication efforts of smes within south Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallier Safura Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication is seen as a vital activity for the survival and success of SMEs. Traditionally tools such as pamphlets, local newspapers, posters and business cards were primarily used to promote SMEs. Today, however, the communication landscape has evolved due to technological advancements. As a result, there are many more communication tools that can be used by SMEs to conduct marketing communication activities of the business. The focus of this study is thus to determine the usage of traditional and technology-enabled marketing communication tools employed by SMEs in South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from SMEs in South Africa. The results of this study indicate that most SMEs make use of e-media such as websites and e-mails as marketing communication tools. This article provides insight into the marketing communication tools that are being used by SMEs in South Africa which will contribute to the understanding of SMEs marketing practices. Studies suggest that there are many similarities regarding the challenges faced by SMEs globally and as such the findings of this study can be applied universally.

  4. An affective e-commerce design for SMEs product marketing based on kansei engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habyba, A. N.; Djatna, T.; Anggraeni, E.

    2018-04-01

    One of the SMEs problems in Indonesia in this information technology era is the inability to control the market. SMEs can use the e-commerce website to improve their competitiveness. It can be used as a marketing tool for SMEs to promote their products and expands the SMEs markets especially for the agroindustry SMEs where located in district area that still rely on local markets to sell their product. Some SMEs e-commerce websites have been developed in Indonesia but can not significantly increased the sales of SMEs product. Furthemore, the design of it is only able to meet the consumer need in function and usability. The development of e-commerce design should pay attention in high affective quality. This is because the affective responses effect the user’s perception of cognitive quality, usability and ease of use of e-commerce. This study is aimed to make e-commerce that can meet the affective needs of users. The result of Kansei words selection and extraction using TF-IDF are four design concepts of e-commerce website. The formulation of new SMEs e-commerce website design is resulted from the integration of four design concepts and four design elements. The “Natural-Formal” concept has the greatest value than other concepts after QTT-1 analysis. This concept can implemented as the new SMEs e-commerce website design.

  5. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  6. Generic Challenges and Automation Solutions in Manufacturing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube Hansen, David; Malik, Ali Ahmad; Bilberg, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Evermore research is conducted on smart manufacturing, digital manufacturing and other aspects of what is expected from the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Most of the research of Industry 4.0 is currently a better fit for large corporations than for SMEs, which in Europe...... of the project, identifies a correlation between the challenges, age and size of the companies. The identified correlation lay ground for an Industry 4.0 light concept, targeting the identified generic challenges of companies employing 10-50 people. The solutions presented are based on cloud computing, Internet...... however represent 98% of the manufacturing industry. In general, SMEs produce high-mix low-volume products, which require a high degree of flexibility. Historically flexibility and automation have been contradictory, but as automation becomes smarter, digitalized and less expensive, this may change which...

  7. HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION - A CHALLENGE FOR SMES ECONOMIC PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Dan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and configurate human resources development strategies for the employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs that activate in the tourism field of activity (hotels and other accomodation establishments, restaurants, passenger trasnport, travel agencies, cultural turism agencies. As knowledge role in the contemporany economy is increasing and defining the economical and social context as knowledge-based ones, we shall consider the research frame as the knowledge-based economy. Moreover, in order to better highlight weaknesses and strenghts of the human resources management approaches and to define recommendations, our research theme is developped as comparative study: similarities and differences within SMEs human resources management practices in Romania and other European Union's country members (the example of Spain was considered.

  8. The Economic Crisis and its Effects on SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela Hodorogel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Romania has ended a high growth cycle. The world economic crisis is worsening with every passing day and Romania increasingly feels the effects of this economic downturn. The sector of small and medium enterprises (SMEs is the most dynamic in the Romanian economy, but it will also be one of the first to be hit by the global financial crisis the ripples of which have reached Romania as well. SMEs are now considered the most sensitive sector and worst affected by the economic climate. The economic crisis has prompted the member states of the European Union, too, to adopt packages of measures to counteract the effect of the crisis. Here below I will exemplify with the cases of Romania, the Italian Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Hungary.

  9. The tangible and intangible Processes of Internationalization: the Argentinean SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Keen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the concepts of tangible and intangible internationalization using a data from Argentinean SMEs. The findings suggest that managers may have to make a strategic commitment to upgrade and expand firms’ resources and capabilities to achieve long term internationalization. The results offer evidence that becoming an international company is not only about having a physical presence in a foreign market. It is important to re-focus the firms’ outlook from competing in a protected domestic market to competing in markets with a strong presence of international companies. In addition, managers may have to shift their focus from short-term rent and profit seeking to long-term internationalization. This research also contributes to the study of internationalization of SMEs as it further expands the concept of internationalization by including a long-term perspective where the company can be international without having a physical presence in a foreign market

  10. The Global Economic Crisis. Challenges for SMEs in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela HODOROGEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The economy of the European Union (EU has left behind the downturn and is gradually recovering. In 2010, both the EU and the Eurozone posted economic growth, mostly because Germany did better than expected. All considered, the German economy is growing at a faster pace than in the last two decades. Recession, however, has persisted in states like Greece, Romania and Latvia, and analysts expect growth rates, especially in Eastern Europe, to remain low in the next period. Recovery in this part of Europe largely depends on a pickup in the activity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, which were seriously affected by the credit crunch the economic crisis entailed. The adverse impact on most SMEs causes a decline in the development rate and a rise in the number of bankruptcies. But the growth of the German economy, however, has a beneficial effect on companies in Central and East European states as well.

  11. Entrepreneurial Competencies: SMEs Performance Factor in the Challenging Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzairu Muhammad Gwadabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Myriad of challenges engulfed the Nigerian business milieu. Business activities become more complex and competitive which renders the environment not only difficult for business success but resulting to the increasing failure of SMEs in the country. However, entrepreneurs need to develop strategies to survive in the dwindling economy. It is the duty of the entrepreneurs to interact with the external environmental dynamisms, which require them to be competent in many dimensions. This review proposes a set of competencies that can equip the entrepreneurs with necessary skills and tactics to excel in a challenging economy like that of Nigeria. The paper highlights the conceptualization and synergy between competencies and entrepreneurship on SMEs performance through three distinct paths: entrepreneurial traits, innovation and entrepreneurial marketing.

  12. TQM and market orientation's impact on SMEs' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Abdollahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the impact of total quality management (TQM as well as market orientation on organizational performance on some Iranian small and medium enterprises (SMEs. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts in city of Shiraz, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study determines that three components of market orientation including intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness through TQM influences on organizational performance components including financial and non-financial performance as well as efficiency. In addition, TQM components including training, process management, supplier quality management, employee relationships, quality of data and reports and top management commitment influence positively on organizational performance in SMEs.

  13. The challenges of globalization for smes in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ionela Cretoiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation offers humankind a new vision both on international economic relations and on international affairs, which have gained momentum and turned over time. The international economic relations seen from the perspective of the global economy’s globalization have expanded and acquired new meanings, the evolution towards such a global economy involving intra-regional relationships and partnerships development that have arisen between multinational companies. On the ground of these transformations, SMEs face a number of challenges due to the evolution of economic, social and cultural conditions of globalization. This paper investigates, using a field survey type research, the ways in which globalization affects the activity of SMEs from the perspective of the managers in Moldova perspective.

  14. Power system control experiments using 1 MJ SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shigeyuki

    1993-01-01

    Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., developed a 1 MJ Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system composed of a pulsive superconducting magnet (1000 A, 2 H) and experimental researches connecting this system to a simulated power system composed of four generators, fluctuating load and some transmission lines were carried out in the laboratory of Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., since 1989. The purpose of this experimental researches are to investigate the effects of SMES adapting in power system control use. This paper describes the results and confirmed effects of four kinds of experiments as the following, cut-off peak demand, load leveling effect for fluctuating load, improvement of dynamic stability and frequency control effect in isolated power system. (orig.)

  15. A NEW CLASSIFICATION OF SMES IN THE DIGITAL ECONOMY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly dynamic and competitive environment as the online one, SMEs need to adapt and change their behavior, requiring a rethinking of classification criteria. Social media is changing the way people interact, but also changing organizations and how they operate. Social networks are no longer just a simple tool to create a network of friends; they have become a destination for business. We can also talk of a new world of business, a new way of working; the freelancers have a share of the increasingly significant. Cloud computing is the support for all changes in the current environment, providing the tools necessary to conduct activities anywhere. Given the mentioned arguments, we consider that the classification of SMEs according to a new set of criteria: operating environment, geographical area, type of employees in the company or how they organize marketing activities.

  16. Control Management and Business Performances: The Malaysian Family SMEs Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wong Sek Khin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between control management and family business performance in the Malaysian context. It has two objectives, the first being to determine the relationship of organizational credit control policy and procedures, employee development and motivation, and intelligence collection systems to subsequent collection reports in Malaysian family SMEs. The second objective is to investigate the moderating effect of participation in decision-making and work effort towards innovation and business performance. This is a descriptive study involving 90 senior executives employed in 90 Malaysian family SMEs/firms. A correlation analysis from this study confirmed previous researchers’ observations that high-level organizational commitment to credit control management is linked to improvements in business performance. The results suggest that three components – credit policy, employee development, and intelligence collection systems – are the most important predictors for the efficiency and effectiveness of credit control management.    

  17. The Transaction Footprints of Scottish Food And Drink SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copus Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey approach to measuring the “transaction footprints” of rural small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Combined with a graphical presentation of results, this contributes to the evidence base on the roles of local and global linkages. Findings suggest that the food and drink industry of Scotland is relatively localised in its input and sales interaction pattern, although substantial variations, associated with product specialisms, remoteness/accessibility, input purchasing and marketing strategies, exist. Localised SMEs have weathered the recession slightly better, but more outward-looking in firms tend to have greater optimism about the future. Transaction footprint analysis should be viewed as component of an ongoing process of re-mapping the network infrastructure of the rural economy, alongside analysis of untraded interdependencies, and institutional networks in the realm of governance.

  18. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  19. The internationalization of SMEs operating in the engineering industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Procházková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the national economies of EU countries has been always growing. For these reasons, the increasing attention is paid to small and medium-sized enterprises also in the Czech economy. The paper is focused on the globalization of small and medium enterprises, in particular, identifying the key success factors of small and medium-sized businesses that operate in the engineering industry. For the purpose of fulfilling the objective of the article, the level of success of SMEs in foreign markets is established with the aggregate indicator of success. Subsequently the results of the primary research among the Czech engineering companies are presented, based on this research the factors affecting the success of these entities of engineering industry in foreign markets are defined.

  20. Race-track coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, E., E-mail: ueno-eisaku@sei.co.jp; Kato, T.; Hayashi, K.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Sumitomo Electric manufactured the HTS field coils for a 3 MW HTS ship motor. • The motor was developed and successfully passed the loading test by Kawasaki Heavy. • We tested and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of coils. - Abstract: Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS), Sumitomo Electric has been developing silver-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wire and products. Ship propulsion motors are one of the most promising applications of HTS. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. (SEI) has recently manufactured 24 large racetrack coils, using 70 km long DI-BSCCO wires, for use in a 3 MW HTS motor developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI). The 3 MW HTS motor, using our newly developed racetrack coils, has successfully passed the loading test. It is particularly important that the HTS field coils used in ship propulsion motors can withstand the expansive forces repeatedly applied to them. As racetrack type coils have straight sections, the support mechanism they require to withstand expansive forces is very different from that of circular coils. Therefore, we ran tests and obtained the basic data to evaluate the 20-year durability of racetrack coils against the repeatedly applied expansive forces expected in domestic ship propulsion motors.

  1. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: Hansang80@korea.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-Hee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Naeson-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-080 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to study lightning response of the HTS cable. ► The analytic model has been developed for the HTS cable in the Icheon substation. ► Well-designed surge arrester has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  2. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A model of an HTS DC power cable was developed using real time digital simulator. •The simulations of the HTS DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system were performed. •The transient analysis results of the HTS DC power cable were presented. -- Abstract: The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system

  3. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau, E-mail: thanchau7787@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@cwnu.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-Dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeongmo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 105 Munji-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •A model of an HTS DC power cable was developed using real time digital simulator. •The simulations of the HTS DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system were performed. •The transient analysis results of the HTS DC power cable were presented. -- Abstract: The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  4. Accelerating the introduction of HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Russell

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems, is successfully pursuing the development of electric power and industrial devices, incorporating significant high-temperature superconducting (HTS) components or subsystems, through its innovative Superconducting Partnership Initiative (SPI). The objective of the SPI is to accelerate the commercial introduction of the HTS products for a broad range of electric power and industrial applications. DOE's approach to accomplishing the SPI objective is to support cost shared projects carried out by industry led teams. DOE will fund projects to develop HTS devices that are either in (1) the research and development stage (Phase 1), (2) the pre-commercialization stage (Phase II), or (3) the commercial entry stage (Phase III). DOE's industry partners must contribute at least half a project's costs. These teams will include capabilities needed to develop the device as well as to develop the business plan for the commercial product introduction. DOE's partners consist of vertically integrated teams consisting of equipment manufacturers, HTS wire and coil suppliers, national laboratories, and end users, primarily utilities. These partners carry out the multi-year technology development efforts, consisting generally of design, construction, and testing of the HTS system. Finally, commercialization of HTS products will be discussed primarily in terms of benefits these products will have over competing products based upon conventional conductors and the critical need for affordable, practical HTS materials and conductors for these applications. .

  5. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Md Daud; Alam, Syed Shah; Abdul Hamid, Roshayati bt

    2017-01-01

    The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantag...

  6. Marketing orientation vs. innovativeness of SMEs of the Podlaskie province

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdys, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of marketing orientation on the innovation level among Small and Medium Size (SMEs) from Podlaskie Province. A survey utilizing a questionnaire was conducted among 137 companies in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Altogether 3 hypotheses concerning marketing orientation and innovativeness level have been examined with the use of the hierarchical regression techniques. The relation between three types of marketing orientation and innovativeness has been analy...

  7. Social Enterprises and Employment: Mainstreaming SMEs and Employment Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzona, Leonardo Jr. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that mainstreaming small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and social enterprises (SEs) into various international treaties will require the assumption of positive externalities, which markets cannot fully evaluate. To show this, the possible influence that SEs may have on SME development and, eventually, on employment will be discussed. SEs are small- and medium-sized commercial businesses providing valuable social service to customers and sustainable jobs and training for up t...

  8. Professionalization influences on Thai family SMEs internationalization activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kotanut, Varitha

    2012-01-01

    Professionalisation is what has occurred in many family businesses. Recently, Thai family SMEs has become more and more internationalised. My dissertation studied how professionalisation influence firms' internationalisation process, including personnel from whom they acquired relevant skills, specific market knowledge, and experiences that enable growth of the company. These personnel may also affect the firm's managerial system. Each firm may change their governance, strategy, and control s...

  9. Overcoming Barriers to Technology Adoption in Small Manufacturing Enterprises (SMEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    7 3.4 Adopting a Control-System-Modeling Tool.................................................8 3.5 Adapting Ecommerce and Manufacturing Execution...productivity and efficiency improvements. SMEs frequently lack the necessary technical knowledge, staff, and resources to take advantage of new techniques...FEA) tool into their exist- ing 3D CAD system and to optimize their design process to take advantage of the new soft- ware. Based on the results

  10. Design Management Capability and Product Innovation in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Mesa, Ana Isabel; ALEGRE VIDAL, JOAQUIN; CHIVA GOMEZ, RICARDO; Gutiérrez Gracia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Purpose The aim of this paper is to present design management as a dynamic capability and to analyze its mediating role between organizational learning capability and product innovation performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling is used to test the research hypotheses based on data from the Italian and Spanish ceramic tile industries. The data are derived from the responses of 182 companies (50 percent of the targ...

  11. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  12. A Methodology for Quality Problems Diagnosis in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto N. Teixeira; Isabel S. Lopes; Sérgio D. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a new methodology to be used by SMEs (Small and Medium enterprises) to characterize their performance in quality, highlighting weaknesses and area for improvement. The methodology aims to identify the principal causes of quality problems and help to prioritize improvement initiatives. This is a self-assessment methodology that intends to be easy to implement by companies with low maturity level in quality. The methodology is organized in six different steps which include...

  13. Industry 4.0 Concept Introduction into Construction SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotarski, Piotr; Paslawski, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    The article presents a general idea of Industry 4.0 concept with the introduction presenting descriptions of the most important aspects in terms of production and construction industry development. The importance of the SME sector is stressed showing that this group of companies plays significant role in the European economy. The main objective of the article is to define and show possible research areas connected with the introduction of Industry 4.0 concept into SMEs with the main focus on the construction sector. For this purpose, an analysis was made, based on the most recent literature, to point out actual needs in the SMEs sector in terms of its evolution into 4.0 level. What is more, the analysis was performed based on the most popular articles published in journals available in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Core Collection database regarding Industry 4.0 concept in the last decade showing the actual change of interest in this filed, taking into account possibility of usage of this concept in the construction and production sector. Authors tried to describe current knowledge regarding Industry 4.0 introduction for SMEs. Performed analysis showed that there is a wide spectrum of disciplines that are affected by the Industry 4.0 that needs to be examined considering introduction into SMEs. Study also showed that multidiscipline approach was not investigated so far to create special rules, procedures and methods and know-how designed for introduction of main principles of Industry 4.0 in the SME sector. Authors came to the conclusions that there should be more stress put into research in this field especially taking into account the huge potential which lies in SME sector in terms of global economic strength.

  14. Challenges and Success Factors of ERP Systems in Australian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, great potential is envisaged for ERP systems in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, and software vendors have been repackaging their ERP systems for SMEs with a recent focus on cloud-based systems. While cloud ERP offers the best solution for SMEs without the overheads of the huge investment and management costs that are associated with traditional ERP systems, the SME sector faces many challenges in their adoption. Traditional ERP studies have predominantly focused on large organizations, and gaps in the literature indicate that both vendor and consumer perspectives require more understanding with new technology offerings for SMEs. This paper describes some of the common challenges, such as cost effectiveness, alignment between software and business processes, customized governance and training, which form the major SME constraints for ERP system adoption. Due to the dynamic nature of SME businesses, best practice guidelines for an SME’s ERP implementation could be arrived at through closer investigation of its business requirements in order to avoid misfits. This forms the main objective of the study. We identify key success factors of ERP implementation in an Australian SME as a case study. These target success factors are then compared to the actual outcomes achieved. Factors such as business process alignment with the ERP system, meeting customer and stakeholder needs and reducing recurring and maintenance costs were key to the success of ERP implementation for the Australian SME. In particular, the IT and business strategy alignment with a customer focus and flexible reporting features of ERP systems has resulted in business agility.

  15. Wire rope superconducting cable for diurnal load leveling SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a wire rope cable for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is discussed. The superconducting wires in the rope permit the passage of large currents in the relatively small conductors of the windings and hence cause large electromagnetic forces to act on the rope. The diameter of the rope, from a strength point of view, can be considerably reduced by supporting the rope at various points along its length

  16. Exploring a Sense of Intellectual Property Valuation for Indian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh; Minakshi Paliwal

    2014-01-01

    As intellectual property (IP) has become an integral part of business strategy, the valuation of these assets has become more and more critical. Consequently, the strategic decisions of Indian SMEs also increasingly depend on understanding the economics affecting the value of these assets and most crucially appraising the approximate value of their IP. In this light, the paper reviews the principal approaches and methods used to evaluate an IP asset and proposes a framework to help the Indian...

  17. Conceptualising how SMEs incorporate green content in their websites

    OpenAIRE

    Craig M. Parker; Emilia Bellucci; Luba Torlina; Ambika Zutshi; Bardo Fraunholz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework on how Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) can proactively incorporate content relating to their ecological responsibility (or green) activities in their websites. SME studies offer limited guidance on, and conceptualisation of, how organisations can incorporate different types of content into their website designs. This paper addresses this problem by presenting the results of an exploratory, qualitative content analysis of Australian SME websites where emerge...

  18. Preliminary design of a 150 kJ repetitive plasma focus for the production of 18-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumini, Marco; Mostacci, Domiziano; Rocchi, Federico; Frignani, Michele; Tartari, Agostino; Angeli, Ergisto; Galaverni, Dario; Coli, Ugo; Ascione, Bernardino; Cucchi, Giorgio

    2006-06-01

    Experiments in the past five years have demonstrated production of short-lived radioisotopes with a Plasma Focus device, using the so-termed Endogenous Mode. So far radioisotope activities of only a few microcuries have been obtained from single discharges in small scale Plasma Focus machines (capacitor bank energies of approximately 7 kJ). It is expected that higher activities could be obtained with larger bank energies, operating at high pulse repetition rates, e.g. 1 Hz. However, many scientific and technological issues must be addressed for a high-energy Plasma Focus device to run at one pulse per second. Aim of this paper is to present preliminary results pertaining to the plasma, electrical, fluid-dynamical, thermal, material and mechanical design of a 150 kJ Plasma Focus, capable of a repetition rate of 1 Hz, that will be operated at 30 kV with a 350 μF capacitor bank and a maximum total current of 1.5 MA. This device will be used to breed 18-F for the synthesis of drugs used in positron-emission medical examinations, such as FDG for PET.

  19. Preliminary design of a 150 kJ repetitive plasma focus for the production of 18-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumini, Marco; Mostacci, Domiziano; Rocchi, Federico; Frignani, Michele; Tartari, Agostino; Angeli, Ergisto; Galaverni, Dario; Coli, Ugo; Ascione, Bernardino; Cucchi, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Experiments in the past five years have demonstrated production of short-lived radioisotopes with a Plasma Focus device, using the so-termed Endogenous Mode. So far radioisotope activities of only a few microcuries have been obtained from single discharges in small scale Plasma Focus machines (capacitor bank energies of approximately 7 kJ). It is expected that higher activities could be obtained with larger bank energies, operating at high pulse repetition rates, e.g. 1 Hz. However, many scientific and technological issues must be addressed for a high-energy Plasma Focus device to run at one pulse per second. Aim of this paper is to present preliminary results pertaining to the plasma, electrical, fluid-dynamical, thermal, material and mechanical design of a 150 kJ Plasma Focus, capable of a repetition rate of 1 Hz, that will be operated at 30 kV with a 350 μF capacitor bank and a maximum total current of 1.5 MA. This device will be used to breed 18-F for the synthesis of drugs used in positron-emission medical examinations, such as FDG for PET

  20. Conceptualising how SMEs incorporate green content in their websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Parker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework on how Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs can proactively incorporate content relating to their ecological responsibility (or green activities in their websites. SME studies offer limited guidance on, and conceptualisation of, how organisations can incorporate different types of content into their website designs. This paper addresses this problem by presenting the results of an exploratory, qualitative content analysis of Australian SME websites where emergent themes are interpreted using framing and legitimacy theories. It describes three dimensions (location, presentation, and specificity which comprise the framework, under which the themes are grouped. The paper outlines how scholars can use the framework to develop models and carry out evaluations regarding how SMEs embed green content, and potentially other specific content types, in their websites. It also summarises how the framework can assist SMEs (or website developers serving them make informed decisions regarding framing their websites as green, or de-emphasising this content, by paying attention to its location (e.g. homepage, navigation bars and presentation (e.g. how paragraphs, images, etc are used within webpages. The legitimacy or credibility of the green content can be enhanced using different types of specificity (e.g. statistics, detail of processes and actions, and third-party substantiation.

  1. Strategic thinking as a tool for technological innovation in smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Luz Mendoza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to design strategies that allow smes to watch from one strategic thinking technological innovation, in order to meet the financial core objective to grow and be competitive in the market. The article illustrates how smes can get enterprise development from a planned technological innovation from its institutional philosophy, it imposes a challenge for these companies, the establishment of an action plan and building articulated development scenarios involve and benefit all stakeholders generating competitive advantages. The study was conducted using a survey of 95 businesses in La Guajira department, having as strategy exposed by Daft (2005 who finds that competitive strategy is about being different, select a number of different activities that other been selected to offer a unique mix of value. The research results suggest that smes do not have a department that demonstrates technological structure that have made a process for the development and successful commercialization of new or improved products, either that these companies think the strategies from its institutional philosophy, putting into practice the strategic thinking.

  2. E-Business Initiatives in Indonesian Manufacturing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Saptadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of information technology (IT in improving companies’ competitiveness, including small and medium enterprises (SMEs, has been widely accepted. But, the IT investment will be in vain, if SMEs do not align their business and IT. There is a need to develop a framework of business-IT alignment. The framework development requires an understanding of the patterns of IT implementation in supporting SMEs’ business (e-business initiatives. This paper presents an empirical study on e-business initiatives in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs. The study uses 41 business processes that are grouped into three business focuses: supplier side, internal side and customer side. Based on the complexity of IT support to business processes, supplier side score, internal side score, customer side score and global score can be calculated. These scores are used to develop e-business initiative groups by using cluster analysis. After validated using discriminant analysis, the cluster analysis gives five e-business initiatives. First initiative is e-business implementation in three sides of business focuses, although in the early stage. Second initiative is IT implementation with internal side focus. Third initiative is e-business with customer side focus. The fourth is initiative that focuses on internal and customer side. The last is e-business initiative that balances and extends IT implementation on the three sides of business focuses. Then, this paper explains the differences between e-business initiatives.

  3. Fast SMES for generation of high power pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengst, K.P.; Salbert, H.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for generation of high power pulses based on a fast SMES has been developed and a model of a power modulator for linear accelerators was built. The basic function of the modulator that generates 2 ms long, approximately 1 MW power pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz is described in this paper. A modular construction of the SMES that consists of up to six coils has been chosen to meet the demands of several applications in high energy physics and energy distribution. The rate of change of magnetic field achieved during ramping of the magnet was more than 60 T/s without a quench. The magnet was designed with respect to the high AC losses during repetitive ramping of the SMES. The suitability of mixed matrix superconductors instead of more expensive net frequency wires for this kind of AC stress was investigated. The applied mixed matrix Cu/CuNi/NbTi wire and the construction of a single coil is described

  4. Strategies for refinancing of SMEs in Bangladesh: Problems & constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitav Saha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, there has been a significant change in the world trade regime, too. The WTO techniques agreements limit the use of certain trade measures as quantitative restrictions and subsidies. Such development has also implication for a country's strategy in supporting its domestic industry in including SMEs. WTO agreements cover not only the traditional goods sector but also new sectors like services and intellectual property rights. There is a tendency for considering these newly included sectors as constraints to trade prospects of a poor country like Bangladesh. There are certain other areas where improvements pro­vide genuine incentives to SMEs and contribute to their enhanced competitiveness. Improved infrastructure, better law and order situation, and efficient ports and transportation are likely to impact favorably upon the SMEs sector and such things may be no less important than mere policy supported incentives. However, these provisions have now become realities. Bangladesh should continue its efforts to make the world community appreciate the difficult economic situation of the LDCs and to help to attain var­ious trade preferences and conces­sions. Its long-run economic pros­perity critically depends on success or otherwise of its efforts to turn the challenges of globalization opportunities. This will create a strong and potential base for economic development, which will in turn accelerate the process of poverty reduction, and reduction of unemployment, create employment opportunities as well as accelerate the overall economic growth of the country.

  5. Study of Government Support System in SMEs: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Bux Marri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises have created its own place and value universally, no matter how tough global competition is there in international market. This research work was undertaken to assess the increase in importance of SMEs in growing nations such as Pakistan and to highlight the importance of SMEs. This paper is validated through research work undertaken by domestic and worldwide scholars. Research work was carried out in enterprises of Sindh, province of Pakistan, using questionnaire and personal discussions with business owners/entrepreneurs of enterprises. Their response was very positive on parameters which were focused towards taxation policies (Rebate, government technological support, financial support and loan facilities. In addition to this, the results were further investigated and measured through statistical measures such as mean/average, which indicate that majority of enterprises, were not happy with country\\'s administration in terms of support they receive. Whereas, there are noticeable indications that government\\'s assistance to small and medium enterprises is very necessary at every stage. Enterprises which have received assistance from their governments have proved to be successful in developing nations.

  6. Usable and accessible websites in SMEs. Challenges for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Díaz, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive environment in which Internet occupies a prominent place, transferring a brand from the offline to the online environment has become a vital issue for companies. Usability and accessibility have become crucial to enable adequate online brand communication. Ensuring websites are usable and accessible will facilitate web navigation, will improve the company’s image, and will favour loyalty towards the brand.This article presents the results of an investigation measuring the extent to what small and medium enterprises (SMEs employ usability and accessibility as supporting pillars of brand in the online environment to communicate with their audiences. The results indicate that usability is in fact taken into account by SMEs, but it is seen more as a technological element than as a promotion tool for the brand. Accessibility, on the other hand, is of secondary concern in the design of websites analysed, since they are not certified by any standard and are not fully accessible. Thus, it can be argued that the concern to transmit the brand online is incipient but, currently, SMEs do not take advantage of all the potential offered by the Web.

  7. n value and Jc distribution dependence of AC transport current losses in HTS conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Jun; Sawai, Yusuke; Nakayama, Haruki; Tsukamoto, Osami; Miyagi, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Compared with LTS materials, HTS materials have some peculiarities affecting AC loss characteristics of the conductors. We measured the AC transport current losses in YBCO thin film coated conductors and a Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape. Comparing the measured data with analytical calculations, the dependence of the AC transport current losses on the n value and critical current density distributions are studied. It is shown that, considering the n values and J c distributions, the peculiarities in the HTS materials can be taken into consideration and the transport current losses in HTS conductors can be calculated by the same analytical method used for LTS

  8. Static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Cui, Chenyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiqing; Zhao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS-PMG (permanent magnetic guideway) system were studied theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are two types of guidance force that exist in the HTS-PMG system, which are sensitive to the levitation gap and the arrangement of YBCO bulks around the central axis of the PMG. An optimized YBCO array was used to stabilize the system, which enabled a side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev vehicle to run stably at 102 km h-1 on a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter.

  9. The electrical characteristics of solid insulators for 154 kV class HTS transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, H.G.; Choi, J.H.; Pang, M.S.; Kim, W.J.; Kim, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    HTS transformer, without any loss of insulation lifetime due to the reduction in terms of size and weight, can increase the overload capacity, and have some benefits such as the improvement in efficiency, minimization of environmental pollution, and convenient spatial arrangement, which contribute a lot to electric power system operation. However, for practical insulation design of the HTS transformer, it is necessary to establish the research on electrical properties LN 2 as well as solid insulators. These solid insulators have been used as main insulations for HTS transformer. In this paper, we discussed breakdown and V-t characteristics of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) and pressboard in LN 2 .

  10. Development of magnetic drug delivery system using HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, T.; Fukui, S.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the method which the magnetic seeded drug is injected into a blood vessel and then controlled and accumulated by a magnet located outside of the human body. A high accumulation efficiency of the drug to a local diseased part and reduction in side-effects to normal organs are expected by using MDDS. The most important element in MDDS is a magnetic field generator. The high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet which can generate high magnetic field and magnetic field gradient extending to a point distant from the magnet in several ten millimeters is necessary to achieve the MDDS. In this study, the computer simulation and model experiment were conducted in order to confirm the applicability of MDDS to ovary of the cow body

  11. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay; Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta; Seri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb_3Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb_3Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb_3Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb_3Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb_3Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb_3Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  12. Social media as marketing tool for SMEs: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerta Rugova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social media is a phenomenon that has transformed the interaction and communication of individuals throughout the world. Especially, social networking websites are very popular and have become daily practice in a lot of people’s lives. These sites have made significant impact on the individual’s life. However, social media is not only a communication tool for amusement, but it is also an important part of marketing strategies in business life. There is a constant rise in social networking and therefore impact of social networks is becoming stronger every day, into each kind of business. Social media are often used as a source of information and spread of knowledge changing people’s views and opinions. They belong among very important business marketing tactics and help to create new business opportunities, develop a stronger market position or modify consumer’s behaviour. Therefore, in developed countries, social media are gaining popularity and are increasingly used in regular operations of many companies, including start-ups, small, medium-sized, and large organizations. But it seems that in emerging economies such as Kosovo, Albania and other neighbour countries, marketing over social media is not taken that seriously, especially by SMEs. There are some companies who have shown interest and have created their presence, yet there is no serious focus in this innovative marketing tool. The study deals with the issue of social media and its influence on SMEs. It classifies social media and explores the possibilities and challenges of social networks in business. The authors describe features and the evolution of social media, including major social networking sites that came into existence during the 21st century. The purpose of the paper is to review the academic literature on the opportunities and challenges of using social media from SMEs, as well as identifying factors that drive social media marketing adoption and usage in SMEs. This

  13. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  14. Efficient analysis for nonlinear microwave characteristics of high-power HTS thin film microstrip resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedar, Ashutosh; Kataria, N D

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear effects of high-T c superconducting (HTS) thin film in high-power applications. A nonlinear model for complex surface impedance has been proposed for the efficient analysis of the nonlinearity of HTS thin films. Further, using the developed model, analysis of HTS-MSR has been done using the spectral domain method (SDM). The SDM formulation has been modified to account for finite conductivity and thickness of HTS films by incorporating a complex resistive boundary condition. The results have been validated with the experiments performed with microstrip resonators (MSRs) based on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films made by a laser ablation technique on LaAlO 3 substrates, characterized for their characteristics, namely, resonant frequency and quality factor measured as a function of temperature and input RF power. A close agreement between the theoretical and measured results has been achieved validating the analysis

  15. AC losses in horizontally parallel HTS tapes for possible wireless power transfer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Boyang; Geng, Jianzhao; Zhang, Xiuchang; Fu, Lin; Li, Chao; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Qihuan; Ma, Jun; Gawith, James; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the concept of using horizontally parallel HTS tapes with AC loss study, and the investigation on possible wireless power transfer (WPT) applications. An example of three parallel HTS tapes was proposed, whose AC loss study was carried out both from experiment using electrical method; and simulation using 2D H-formulation on the FEM platform of COMSOL Multiphysics. The electromagnetic induction around the three parallel tapes was monitored using COMSOL simulation. The electromagnetic induction and AC losses generated by a conventional three turn coil was simulated as well, and then compared to the case of three parallel tapes with the same AC transport current. The analysis demonstrates that HTS parallel tapes could be potentially used into wireless power transfer systems, which could have lower total AC losses than conventional HTS coils.

  16. Study and operating conditions of HTS Josephson arrays for metrological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A.; Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Cerri, R.; Klushin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report an experimental study of metrological properties of high-temperature superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions. The work is mainly based on a direct comparison against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the measurements, we observed at nanovolt level the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results of low sensitivity techniques, confirming that our method is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was also applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current, providing insights on the behavior of the HTS array

  17. Conceptual Design of a Single Phase 33 MVA HTS Transformer with a Tertiary Winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, W. S.; Hahn, S. Y.; Hwang, Y. I.; Choi, K. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a 3 phase, 100 MVA, 154 kV class HTS transformer substituting for a 60 MVA conventional transformer. The power transformer of 154 kV class has a tertiary winding besides primary and secondary windings. So the HTS transformer should have the 3rd superconducting winding. In this paper, we designed conceptually the structure of the superconducting windings of a single phase 33 MVA transformer. The electrical characteristics of the HTS transformer such as % impedance and AC loss vary with the arrangement of the windings and gaps between windings. We analyzed the effects of the winding parameters, evaluated the cost of each design, and proposed a suitable HTS transformer model for future power distribution system.

  18. Transient analysis of an HTS DC power cable with an HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Yang, Byeongmo

    2013-11-01

    The operational characteristics of a superconducting DC power cable connected to a highvoltage direct current (HVDC) system are mainly concerned with the HVDC control and protection system. To confirm how the cable operates with the HVDC system, verifications using simulation tools are needed. This paper presents a transient analysis of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC power cable in connection with an HVDC system. The study was conducted via the simulation of the HVDC system and a developed model of the HTS DC power cable using a real time digital simulator (RTDS). The simulation was performed with some cases of short circuits that may have caused system damage. The simulation results show that during the faults, the quench did not happen with the HTS DC power cable because the HVDC controller reduced some degree of the fault current. These results could provide useful data for the protection design of a practical HVDC and HTS DC power cable system.

  19. Coating of Titanium Nitride on Stainless Steel Targets by a 4 kJ Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, M.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2012-08-01

    Titanium nitride thin films were deposited on stainless steel (SS316L) targets by using a 4 kJ plasma focus device. The corresponding energy flux delivered to SS316L surface is estimated to be 2.69 × 1013 kev cm-3 ns-1. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the formation of a nanocrystalline titanium nitride coating on the surface of targets. Thickness of the elements found on the surface of treated samples which are obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis (RBS) were (×1015 at/cm2) .45% Ti, 50% N and 5% Fe. Scanning electron microscopy was used to indicate changes in surface morphology. Existence of grains in different size confirms the formation of TiN crystals on the surface of targets.

  20. A robust and stable PLC based control system for 40kJ/25kV EMM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vijay; Saroj, P.C.; Kulkarni, M.R.; Kumar, Satendra, E-mail: vijay9819420563@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the PLC based control system developed for a 40kJ/25kV Electro-magnetic machining (EMM) system. In EMM system large capacitor banks is charged with high voltage to store large energy and the banks is made to discharge into a coil within few milli-seconds using a triggered spark gaps. During discharge of the capacitor large surges and transients are generated in the system. The control system monitors/controls and interlocks all the units of the system for proper operation. The control system is the only subsystem which is electrically connected to all the low and high voltage subsystems. Care should be taken at the signal interfacing with the control system to protect the control system. (author)