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Sample records for kirschner wire fixation

  1. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept.

    Sahu, Ramji Lal

    2013-09-01

    Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  2. Fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees. A comparison of Kirschner wires, fibrin sealant, and polydioxanone pins.

    Plaga, B R; Royster, R M; Donigian, A M; Wright, G B; Caskey, P M

    1992-03-01

    We compared fibrin sealant, polydioxanone (PDS) pins and Kirschner wires in the fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbit knees. Standardised osteochondral fractures of the right medial femoral condyle were made in 56 adult New Zealand white rabbits. There were equal groups of control knees, and those which had Kirschner-wire, fibrin-sealant or PDS-pin fixation. No external immobilisation was used. One animal from each group was killed at two, three and four weeks. The remaining rabbits were killed at six weeks. A fracture which healed with less than 1 mm of displacement was considered a success. There was successful healing in 29% of the control group, in all of the Kirschner-wire group, in 50% of the fibrin-sealant group, and in 86% of the PDS-pin group. The use of PDS pins appears to be a reliable alternative to the use of metal in the fixation of osteochondral fractures in rabbits.

  3. Buried Versus Exposed Kirschner Wires Following Fixation of Hand Fractures: l Clinician and Patient Surveys.

    2018-04-01

    Fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges are common. Placement of Kirschner wires (K-wires) is the most common form of surgical fixation. After placement, a key decision is whether to bury the end of a K-wire or leave it protruding from the skin (exposed). A recent systematic review found no evidence to support either approach. The aim of study was to investigate current clinical practice, understand the key factors influencing clinician decision-making, and explore patient preferences to inform the design of a randomized clinical trial. The steering group developed surveys for hand surgeons, hand therapists, and patients. Following piloting, they were distributed across the United Kingdom hand surgery units using the Reconstructive Surgery Trials Network. A total of 423 hand surgeons, 187 hand therapists, and 187 patients completed the surveys. Plastic surgeons and junior surgical trainees preferred to leave K-wires not buried. Ease of removal correlated with a decision to leave wires exposed, whereas perceived risk of infection correlated with burying wires. Cost did not affect the decision. Hand therapists were primarily concerned about infection and patient-related outcomes. Patients were most concerned about wire-related problems and pain. This national survey provides a new understanding of the use of K-wires to manage hand fractures in the United Kingdom. A number of nonevidence-based factors seem to influence the decision to bury or leave K-wires exposed. The choice has important clinical and health economic implications that justify a randomized controlled trial.

  4. Plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy has greater risk for hallux valgus recurrence than Kirschner wire fixation.

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between feet fixed with Kirschner wires and those fixed with a plate and screws. Between December 2008 and November 2009, 53 patients (62 feet) were treated with proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Thirty-four patients (41 feet) were stabilised with Kirschner wires (K-wire group) and 19 patients (21 feet) were stabilised with a locking plate (plate group). Clinical results were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographic parameters were compared between these groups. Recurrence rate at the last follow-up was compared between the K-wire and plate groups. Mean AOFAS score was lower in the plate group, however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in AOFAS score at the last follow-up. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were significantly larger in the plate group at the last follow-up. Mean 1-2 metatarsal (MT) distance on immediately postoperative radiographs was significant larger in the plate group. Four (9.8 %) of the 41 feet in the K-wire group and 7 (33.3 %) of the 21 feet in the plate group showed hallux valgus recurrence at the last follow-up. The plate group had a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the K-wire group. Fixation of proximal chevron osteotomy using a plate and screws has a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than fixation using Kirschner wires.

  5. A novel closed reduction with extension block and flexion block using Kirschner wires and microscrew fixation for mallet fractures.

    Shimura, Haruhiko; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Nimura, Akimoto

    2014-03-01

    Some patients with mallet fractures who undergo extension block pinning complain of exposed wires, which delay their return to sports and causes inconvenience while performing tasks that require the use of hands during the early postoperative period. The purpose of this retrospective study was to present and evaluate a novel surgical procedure for mallet fractures. We treated 20 patients (14 males and six females; mean age, 38.4 years; range 17-68 years) with displaced mallet fractures involving >30 % of the articular surface using the closed reduction and microscrew fixation between January 2009 and January 2012. The distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) joint was immobilized with a splint for 1-3 weeks on an individual case basis. According to Wehbe and Schneider's classification, there were 12 type IB, six type IIB, and two type IA fractures. The mean follow-up duration was 12.6 months (range 6-31 months). Bone union was achieved in all patients within a mean period of 6.8 weeks, with no incidence of infection, skin necrosis, permanent nail deformity, or secondary osteoarthritis. Only two complications-temporary nail ridging in one patient and a dorsal bump caused by the screw in one patient-were observed. Minimum postoperative displacement was observed in one patient, for whom immobilization with a splint was continued for 4 weeks. Articular incongruity was <1.0 mm in four patients and 1.0-2.0 mm in two patients. Mean DIP joint extension loss was 6.5° and mean flexion was 67.8°. The surgical outcomes were excellent in seven patients, good in nine, and fair in four according to Crawford's evaluation criteria. Our novel surgical procedure combining closed reduction with extension block and flexion block using Kirschner wires and microscrew fixation produces good clinical results with relatively few complications.

  6. Kirschner Wire Migration to the Cervical Spine: A Complication of Clavicular Fixation in a Child

    KK Tan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a broken K-wire migrating to the cervical spine from the right clavicle in a 9-year-old child. The initial diagnosis, fracture of the clavicle with an acromioclavicular joint dislocation, was treated by open reduction and K-wiring. One K-wire broke and migrated to the neck, posterolateral to the C6 vertebra. The K-wire was removed percutaneously under image intensif ication. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation in children is rare since the distal clavicle does not ossify until the age of 18 or 19 years meaning that almost all closed fractures of the clavicle in children can be treated non- operatively.

  7. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly

  8. Mini-plate versus Kirschner wire internal fixation for treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures in Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-04-11

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of mini-plate versus Kirschner wire (K-wire) internal fixation on the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. Databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese VIP, PubMed, and Embase were retrieved for studies on mini-plate (case group) versus K-wire (control group) internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. The odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the effects of dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 18 studies involving 1,375 metacarpal or phalangeal fracture patients (709 cases and 666 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in fracture healing time (SMD = -1.28; 95% CI: -1.81, -0.76), postoperative infection rate (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.39), complication incidence (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.38), and surgery time (SMD = 1.57; 95% CI: 0.76, 2.37) between the case and the control group, while no significant difference was found in hospital stays between these two groups (SMD = 0.43; 95% CI: -0.34, 1.20; P = 0.27). For the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population, mini-plate has advantages of shorter healing time and lower infection rate and complication incidence compared with K-wire internal fixation, while a longer surgery time than K-wire. In conclusion, mini-plate is prior than K-wire internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population.

  9. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  10. Fratura supracondiliana de úmero em crianças: fixação com dois fios de Kirschner cruzados Supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children: fixation with two crossed Kirschner wires

    Roni Azevedo Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e apresentar os resultados de fraturas supracondilianas instáveis de úmero em crianças, tratadas cirurgicamente com redução e fixação percutânea com dois fios de Kirschner cruzados. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal com 20 crianças, considerando sexo, idade na época da fratura e no momento da análise, lateralidade, tipo e mecanismo de fratura, complicações pós-operatórias, variáveis radiográficas e clínicas. RESULTADOS: Observaram-se 10 fraturas à esquerda e 10 à direita. A idade na fratura variou de dois a 13 anos (média 5,9 anos ± 2,48. Três fraturas foram classificadas como tipo II e 17 do tipo III. O tempo de seguimento variou de quatro meses a três anos. O ângulo de Baumann variou de 69 a 100 (média 78,3, sendo observada a presença de cúbito varo em quatro pacientes (com valores variando de 84 a 100. Segundo os critérios de Flynn modificados, obtiveram-se 20 casos satisfatórios, 17 excelentes (85%, dois bons (10% e um regular (5%. Dois pacientes apresentaram déficit da amplitude de movimento, dois parestesia no território cubital e uma criança apresentou neuropraxia transitória do nervo ulnar por seis semanas. CONCLUSÃO: A fixação percutânea com dois fios de Kirschner cruzados, quando realizada com visualização direta e isolamento do nervo ulnar, permite bons resultados.OBJECTIVE: To analyze and present the surgical results from unstable supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children, treated by means of reduction and percutaneous fixation using two crossed Kirschner wires. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 children, taking into consideration sex, age at the time of the fracture, age at the time of the assessment, side affected, type and mechanism of trauma, postoperative complications and radiographic and clinic variables. RESULTS: Ten fractures were observed in the left arm and ten in the right arm. The age at the time of the fracture ranged from 2

  11. UK DRAFFT - A randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius

    Brown Jaclyn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires and volar plate fixation using fixed-angle screws (locking-plates. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if there is a difference in the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation one year following K-wire fixation versus locking-plate fixation for adult patients with a dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius. Methods/design All adult patients with an acute, dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius, requiring operative fixation are potentially eligible to take part in this study. A total of 390 consenting patients will be randomly allocated to either K-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The surgery will be performed in trauma units across the UK using the preferred technique of the treating surgeon. Data regarding wrist function, quality of life, complications and costs will be collected at six weeks and three, six and twelve months following the injury. The primary outcome measure will be wrist function with a parallel economic analysis. Discussion This pragmatic, multi-centre trial is due to deliver results in December 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31379280 UKCRN portfolio ID 8956

  12. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  13. Migration of a Broken Kirschner Wire after Surgical Treatment of Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Sabri Batın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire (K-wire is one of the commonly used implants in orthopaedics practice. Migration of the wire is one of the most frequently reported complications after fixation by the K-wire. In particular, it has been reported that a greater range of motion in the shoulder, negative intrathoracic pressure associated with respiration, gravitational force, and muscular activities may cause migration from the upper extremities. In general, thin and long foreign bodies with smooth surfaces that are localized within the tendon sheath and at an upper extremity can migrate more readily and can reach longer distances. Here, we present a patient with long-term migration of a broken K-wire who underwent fixation for acromioclavicular joint dislocation 5 years ago.

  14. [Effectiveness of mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire in treatment of comminuted Jones fracture].

    Yan, Rongliang; Qu, Jiafu; Cao, Lihai; Liu, Hongda; Chen, Jianghua; Gao, Yan; Peng, Yi

    2018-05-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire in treatment of comminuted Jones fracture. Between January 2011 and October 2016, 25 cases with comminuted Jones fracture were treated with mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire. There were 9 males and 16 females with an average age of 31.4 years (range, 16-66 years). The fractures located on the left side in 11 cases and on the right side in 14 cases. The causes of injury included spraining in 21 cases, falling down in 3 cases, and bruise in 1 case. The bone fragment of all cases was more than 3 pieces. The fracture line was mostly Y-shape or T-shape. Twelve of them were combined with other fractures. The time from injury to operation was 1-9 days (mean, 5 days). The mini locking plate and Kirschner wire were removed at 9-12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, the pain was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and the function by the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. All incisions healed by first intention. All cases were followed up 12-36 months with an average of 21.7 months. Fracture union was observed in all patients without complications such as nonunion, delayed union, and malunion. The fracture union time was 8-12 weeks (mean, 9.4 weeks). At 12 months postoperatively, the VAS score was 1.15±0.87; the AOFAS score was 89.45±6.24, and the results were excellent in 14 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case, with an excellent and good rate of 92%. The procedure of mini locking plate combined with Kirschner wire for comminuted Jones fracture has such advantages as convenient operation, more rigid fixation, high rate of fracture healing, and good functional recovery in foot.

  15. A prospective study of dynamic treatment of fracture phalanx and metacarpals of the hand with Kirschner-wire fixation/external fixator and finger splint: Daycare management (30 cases

    Rahul Madhukar Salunkhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures of the phalanx and metacarpals are some of the most frequently encountered orthopedics injuries and constitute between 14-28% of all visits to emergency department which comprises 46% of the hand fracture and out of that mostly involved are the proximal phalanx and metacarpal neck fracture are most common and then the middle and distal phalanx and the base of metacarpal. The commonest complication with surgical treatment were stiff painful joints due to prolonged immobilization at fracture sites. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of metacarpal and phalanx fracture on day care basis. Materials And Methods: In our study we treated 30 patients who came to our hospital by fixation either with K wire or external fixation or hybrid fixation under local anaesthesia depending on the type of fracture between 2013 to 2014 with the average age 28 years with the youngest being 18 years and the oldest being 41 years with transverse, spiral, oblique closed fracture, grade 1 compound fracture, intraarticular, extraarticular, comminuted and non comminuted fracture of phalanx and metacarpals.These were day care treatment. Patient was allowed to begin his daily routine work from post operative day l. During this course the operated site was protected with splinting. Results: Clinical Outcomes were assessed as Excellent, Good, Satisfactory and Poor. Radiological assessment was done by taking x-ray to check radiological union.There were 24 cases had excellent outcome, 5 cases had good outcome and only 1 case had satisfactory outcome which occurred due to mal-union. There were 3 cases of pin-tract infection which subsided with oral antibiotics, and 3 cases of malunion. Conclusion: This was a day care procedure, patient were admitted, treated and discharged on the same day & encouraged to begin mobilization of the joints of hands from day 1.

  16. [Kirschner wire osteosynthesis for fractures in childhood: bury wires or not? : Results of a survey on care reality in Germany].

    Schneidmueller, D; Kertai, M; Bühren, V; von Rüden, C

    2018-02-20

    Kirschner wire osteosynthesis is considered to be the standard technique for surgical fixation of displaced supracondylar humeral and distal radial fractures in children. The Kirschner wires can be left exposed or buried under the skin. Advantages of the epicutaneous technique are, e. g. the efficiency (cost, effort) and the possibility for wire removal without the necessity of a second anesthesia. On the other hand, there is a concern about higher infection rates as well as traumatization of the children due to externally visible wires. A web-based survey of members of the DGU, DGOU, DGOOC, and the pediatric traumatology section of the DGU (SKT) was performed to evaluate current treatment concepts in Germany. The pros and cons for each technique were recorded and the need for a clinical study was examined. In addition, a cost analysis was performed for both methods. The results from the literature are summarized and discussed. A total of 710 questionnaires were evaluated. The majority of the respondents were trauma surgeons working in a hospital (80%). The buried technique was superior in both fracture groups (supracondylar humeral fractures 73% and distal radius fractures 69%), whereas a relevant difference could be found depending on the profession. The main reason for the subcutaneous technique was anxiety or observed higher infections using the epicutaneous technique. In Germany, the majority of wires are buried under the skin due to a fear of higher infection rates. In addition, other influencing factors such as pain and traditional approaches play a significant role. With respect to the results in the literature as well as a possible improvement of efficiency and avoidance of a second anesthesia, a multicentric clinical study seems necessary in the future to compare both techniques.

  17. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft ...

    Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be ...

  18. Spinal kirschner wire migration after surgical treatment of clavicular fracture or acromioclavicular joint dislocation: Report of a case and meta-analysis

    Hermann Adonis N'da

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is the most used device for clavicular and acromioclavicular joint dislocation fixation. Although wire migrations have been extensively reported, spinal migrations remain rare. Moreover, the mechanism of migration is still elusive. The aim of the present paper is to describe a single case of cervical spine migration of a K-wire followed by meta-analysis. Twelve cases of spinal K-wire have been reported in the last 20years, with less than 2 cases per year. Clavicular fixation was the main initial procedure with 66.67% of cases. The average time between surgery and migration was 25.5months. C7-T1 and T2-T3 were the prominent level of migration with each 33.33% of cases, where the migration was transversal in 72.73% of cases. The neural foramen was the most penetrating site of the K-wire in the spine (75% of cases. In all cases the wire was removed via direct access surgery by gentle pulling out along its axis under view control. The greater range of motion in the shoulder seems to be the main mechanism of all kinds of migrations. Keywords: Acromioclavicular joint dislocation, Clavicular fracture, Kirschner wire migration

  19. Minimally Invasive Calcaneal Displacement Osteotomy Site Using a Reference Kirschner Wire: A Technique Tip.

    Lee, Moses; Guyton, Gregory P; Zahoor, Talal; Schon, Lew C

    2016-01-01

    As a standard open approach, the lateral oblique incision has been widely used for calcaneal displacement osteotomy. However, just as with other orthopedic procedures that use an open approach, complications, including wound healing problems and neurovascular injury in the heel, have been reported. To help avoid these limitations, a percutaneous technique using a Shannon burr for calcaneal displacement osteotomy was introduced. However, relying on a free-hand technique without direct visualization at the osteotomy site has been a major obstacle for this technique. To address this problem, we developed a technical tip using a reference Kirschner wire. A reference Kirschner wire technique provides a reliable and accurate guide for minimally invasive calcaneal displacement osteotomy. Also, the technique should be easy to learn for surgeons new to the procedure. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Kirschner wire as a transverse-axis guide to improve acetabular cup positioning.

    Ishidou, Y; Hirotsu, M; Setoguchi, T; Nagano, S; Kakoi, H; Yokouchi, M; Yamamoto, T; Komiya, S

    2016-04-01

    To compare cup-positioning accuracy in total hip arthroplasty (THA) with or without use of a Kirschner wire as a transverse-axis guide for pelvic alignment. Records of 18 men and 73 women (mean age, 60 years) who underwent primary THA with (n=49) or without (n=42) use of a Kirschner wire as a transverse-axis guide for pelvic alignment were reviewed. A 2.4-mm Kirschner wire as a transversea-xis guide was inserted to the anterior superior iliac spine and was parallel to a line linking the left and right anterior superior iliac spine. The safe zone for cup positioning was defined as 30º to 50° abduction and 10º to 30º anteversion. Of the 5 operative surgeons, 2 were classified as experienced (total surgical volume >300) and 3 as inexperienced (total surgical volume of cup in the safe zone was compared in patients with or without use of the transverse-axis guide and in experienced and inexperienced surgeons. For inexperienced surgeons, the use of the transverse-axis guide significantly improved the proportion of patients with the cup in the safe zone from 90% to 100% for abduction, from 50% to 82.4% for anteversion, and from 40% to 82.4% for both. Patients with the cup inside or outside the safe zone were comparable in terms of body height, weight, BMI, subcutaneous fat thickness, incision length, and acetabular cup size. The use of the transverse-axis guide improved the accuracy of cup positioning by inexperienced surgeons.

  1. Low-Cost Intra-Articular Distraction Technique Using Kirschner Wires and a Toothed Lamina Spreader.

    Shymon, Stephen Joseph; Harris, Thomas Gregory

    We describe a low-cost (instrument cost) technique for joint distraction using 2 Kirschner wires and a toothed lamina spreader in lieu of a Hintermann distractor. The described technique allows for temporary intra-articular distraction and visualization and preservation of the articular surface with extra-articular instrumentation. The technique can also allow for closed reduction and percutaneous treatment in cases of soft tissue compromise. Additionally, the technique uses common orthopedic surgical instruments, leading to a minimal learning curve for novice surgeons. We have found this distraction technique to be most effective for intra-articular preparation of hindfoot and midfoot arthrodeses and for navicular fracture reduction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence of Treatment for Infection of Buried Versus Exposed Kirschner Wires in Phalangeal, Metacarpal, and Distal Radial Fractures.

    Ridley, Taylor J; Freking, Will; Erickson, Lauren O; Ward, Christina Marie

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether there is a difference in the incidence of infection between exposed and buried K-wires when used to treat phalangeal, metacarpal, and distal radius fractures. We conducted a retrospective review identifying all patients aged greater than 16 years who underwent fixation of phalangeal, metacarpal, or distal radius fractures with K-wires between 2007 and 2015. We recorded patient demographic data, fracture location, number of K-wires used, whether K-wires were buried or left exposed, and duration of K-wire placement. A total of 695 patients met inclusion criteria. Surgeons buried K-wires in 207 patients and left K-wires exposed in 488. Infections occurred more frequently in exposed K-wire cases than in buried K-wire ones. Subgroup analysis based on fracture location revealed a significantly increased risk of being treated for infection when exposed K-wires were used for metacarpal fractures. Patients with exposed K-wires for fixation of phalangeal, metacarpal, or distal radius fractures were more likely to be treated for a pin-site infection than those with K-wires buried beneath the skin. Metacarpal fractures treated with exposed K-wires were 2 times more likely to be treated for a pin-site infection (17.6% of exposed K wire cases vs 8.7% of buried K wire cases). Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is Closed Manipulative Reduction and Percutaneous Kirschner Wiring of Supracondylar Humeral Fracture in Children as Day-Care Surgery a Safe Procedure ?

    Ashok R Nayak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Supracondylar fracture of the humerus is a common injury in children. It accounts for 60% of fractures around the elbow children. If the fracture is not treated properly it may give rise to many complications like malunion, Volkmann’s ischemic contracture, nerve injury, arterial injury, skin slough, heterotopic bone formation , and stiffness of elbow. The management of displaced supracondylar fracture of the elbow is one of the most difficult of the many fractures seen in children. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anatomical and functional results of treatment of supracondylar fractures of humerus with closed reduction and percutaneous ‘K’ wire fixation as a day care procedure and record associated complications, thus decreasing the cost of treating these fractures and hospitalization. METHODS: Fifty displaced closed extension type supracondylar fractures (Gartland’s type III of the humerus in children were treated by closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires. All the patients selected for this study had been treated in a day care unit and were discharged in the same evening and followed up at 3 and 6 weeks and 3 months. Open fractures, fractures with neurovascular complications and children older than 15 yrs were excluded. The final results were evaluated by Flynn’s criteria. RESULTS: The majority (72%, of the patients had fracture displaced posteomedially, Fourty one of the fifty patients had satisfactory results. The majority of the patients were male, and the average age was 8-9 years. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous fixation of supracondylar humerus done as a day care procedure is an acceptable modality of treatment and reduces the duration of hospital stay for the patient.

  4. Closed reduction of displaced or dislocated mandibular condyle fractures in children using threaded Kirschner wire and external rubber traction.

    Kim, J H; Nam, D H

    2015-10-01

    Most surgeons agree that closed treatment provides the best results for condylar fractures in children. Nevertheless, treatment of the paediatric mandibular condyle fracture that is severely displaced or dislocated is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following the treatment of displaced or dislocated condylar fractures in children using threaded Kirschner wire and external rubber traction. This procedure can strengthen the advantage of closed reduction and make up for the shortcomings of open reduction. From March 1, 2005 to December 25, 2011, 11 children aged between 4 and 12 years with displaced or dislocated mandibular condyle fractures were treated using threaded Kirschner wire and external rubber traction under portable C-arm fluoroscopy. All patients had unilateral displaced or dislocated condylar fractures. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 42 months (mean 29.3 months). Normal occlusion and pain-free function of the temporomandibular joint, without deviation or limitation of jaw opening, was achieved in all patients. This closed reduction technique in displaced or dislocated condylar fractures in children offers a reliable solution in preventing the unfavourable sequelae of closed treatment and the open technique, such as altered morphology, functional disturbances, and facial nerve damage. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Design and clinical application of the drilling guide in the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation with closed reduction and Kirschner fixation].

    Zhou, Song; Hao, Yong-qiang; Shi, Xiao-lin; Zhao, Huan-li; Gao, Kai-tuo; Sun, Jin-xu

    2011-03-01

    To investigate a drilling guide in the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation with closed reduction and Kirschner fixation and explore the therapeutic effect. From June 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation (Tossy III) were treated with closed reduction and Kirschner fixation using a self-designed drilling guide as well as percutaneous repair of acromioclavicular joint. Among the patients, 24 patients were male and 12 patients were female,ranging in age from 20 to 61 years, averaged 38.6 years. The duration from injury to operation ranged from 3.5 to 72 h,with a mean of 15.2 h. No clavicle fracture was found in all cases. The operative time, intra-operative bleeding and therapeutic effects were observed. There were no complications including neurovascular problems. The mean operating time were 20 min,mean blood loss were about 10 ml. According to the observation of postoperative X-ray examination, all Kirschners in acromioclavicular joint were in place. All Kirschners were removed in 6 postoperative weeks. All the patients were followed up ranging from 2 to 26 months (averaged 14.3 months). According to the Karlsson standard,22 patients got an excellent result, 13 good and 1 poor. This method has following advantages: easy operation and fixation; minimum injuries to articular surface; and which would be widely used in clinical practice.

  6. External wire-frame fixation of digital skin grafts: a non-invasive alternative to the K-wire insertion method.

    Huang, Chenyu; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-08-01

    The current skin graft fixation methods for digits, including the Kirschner wire insertion technique, can be limited by inadequate or excessive fixation and complications such as infection or secondary injuries. Therefore, the external wire-frame fixation method was invented and used for skin grafting of digits. This study aimed to investigate external wire-frame fixation of digital skin grafts as a non-invasive alternative to the K-wire insertion method. In 2005-2012, 15 patients with burn scar contractures on the hand digits received a skin graft that was then fixed with an external wire frame. The intra-operative time needed to make the wire frame, the postoperative time to frame and suture removal, the graft survival rate, the effect of contracture release and the complications were recorded. In all cases, the contracture release was 100%. The complete graft survival rate was 98.6%. Four patients had epithelial necrosis in wire-frame fixation is simple, minimally invasive and a custom-made technique for skin grafting of the fingers. It was designed for its potential benefits and the decreased risk it poses to patients with scar contractures on their fingers. It can be implemented in three phases of grafting, does not affect the epiphyseal line or subsequent finger growth and is suitable for children with multi-digit involvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug-eluting Ti wires with titania nanotube arrays for bone fixation and reduced bone infection

    Gulati, Karan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Losic, Dusan

    2011-10-01

    Current bone fixation technology which uses stainless steel wires known as Kirschner wires for fracture fixing often causes infection and reduced skeletal load resulting in implant failure. Creating new wires with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing approach to address some of these problems. This study presents the use of titanium [Ti] wires with titania nanotube [TNT] arrays formed with a drug delivery capability to design alternative bone fixation tools for orthopaedic applications. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures was synthesised on the surface of a Ti wire by electrochemical anodisation and loaded with antibiotic (gentamicin) used as a model of bone anti-bacterial drug. Successful fabrication of TNT structures with pore diameters of approximately 170 nm and length of 70 μm is demonstrated for the first time in the form of wires. The drug release characteristics of TNT-Ti wires were evaluated, showing a two-phase release, with a burst release (37%) and a slow release with zero-order kinetics over 11 days. These results confirmed our system's ability to be applied as a drug-eluting tool for orthopaedic applications. The established biocompatibility of TNT structures, closer modulus of elasticity to natural bones and possible inclusion of desired drugs, proteins or growth factors make this system a promising alternative to replace conventional bone implants to prevent bone infection and to be used for targeted treatment of bone cancer, osteomyelitis and other orthopaedic diseases.

  8. [Kirschner wire transfixation of unstable ankle fractures: indication, surgical technique and outcomes].

    Marvan, J; Džupa, V; Bartoška, R; Kachlík, D; Krbec, M; Báča, V

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to assess treatment outcomes in patients undergoing K-wire transfixation of unstable ankle fractures and compare the results with those of patients in whom it was possible to perform primary one-stage osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between 2009 and 2012, a total of 358 patients (191 women and 167 men) had surgery for unstable ankle fracture. At 1-year follow-up, their subjective feelings, objective findings and ankle radiographs were evaluated. The fractures were categorised according to the Weber classification. A patient group treated by one-stage osteosynthesis, a group with definitive transfixation and a group of patients in whom temporary transfixation was converted to definitive osteosynthesis were assessed and compared. RESULTS The group treated by one-stage osteosynthesis included 278 patients with an average age of 47 years; the group of 20 patients with definitive transfixation had an average age of 67 years, and the group of 60 patients who had temporary transfixation with subsequent conversion to internal osteosynthesis were 55 years on average. In the group with one-stage osteosynthesis, 223 (80%) ankle fractures on post-injury radiographs were associated with minor joint dislocations and 55 (20%) with major dislocations. On the other hand, the radiographs of the patients treated by temporary transfixation and delayed open reduction with internal fixation showed major dislocations in 38 (63%) and minor dislocations in the rest of the patients (37%); the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (pfractures were most frequent in the group with temporary transfixation (60%) and least frequent in the group with primary osteosynthesis (44%); also this difference was statistically significant (p=0.032). At one-year follow-up, in the group with one-stage osteosynthesis, 220 patients (79%) had no radiographic signs of posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis while, in the group with temporary

  9. Forty-five-degree or higher insertion angles are required to penetrate the opposite cortex in bicortical applications of Kirschner wires: an in vitro study on sheep bones.

    Colak, Mehmet; Gurer, Burak; Sungur, Mehmet Ali; Eskandari, Metin Manouchehr

    2012-04-01

    Slippage of the wires over the opposite cortex from the endosteal side is frequent and can lead to insufficient stability. This in vitro biomechanical study was planned to investigate the angle of wire insertion that leads to trans cortex perforation. Long bones of sheep were cut longitudinally into two pieces and half bones were stabilised on a frame. Three orthopaedic surgeons performed the experiment using ten wires of four different diameters at two different drilling speeds. Each wire was introduced from the endosteal side at angles starting at 30° in 5° increments until perforation. When perforation was achieved, the angle was recorded. To determinate the critical angle of perforation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses was performed. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical comparisons. Kirschner-wire insertion angles of ≥ 45° provided perforation with a percentage of 83.9 %. Wire diameter, drilling speed and surgeon variables had no effect on perforation angles (p > 0.05). If preoperative evaluation of fractures to be fixed by K wires reveals the need for oblique wire insertion angle < 45°, a standard trocar-tip K wire application would lead to slippage of the wire tip on the endosteal surface of the opposite cortex. According to this study, the operative plan should be changed if such obliquity of the K wire is mandatory during bicortical applications.

  10. Less-invasive stabilization of rib fractures by intramedullary fixation: a biomechanical evaluation.

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William; Fitzpatrick, Daniel; Madey, Steven

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated intramedullary fixation of rib fractures with Kirschner wires and novel ribs splints. We hypothesized that rib splints can provide equivalent fixation strength while avoiding complications associated with Kirschner wires, namely wire migration and cutout. The durability, strength, and failure modes of rib fracture fixation with Kirschner wires and rib splints were evaluated in 22 paired human ribs. First, intact ribs were loaded to failure to determine their strength. After fracture fixation with Kirschner wires and rib splints, fixation constructs were dynamically loaded to 360,000 cycles at five times the respiratory load to determine their durability. Finally, constructs were loaded to failure to determine residual strength and failure modes. All constructs sustained dynamic loading without failure. Dynamic loading caused three times more subsidence in Kirschner wire constructs (1.2 mm +/- 1.4 mm) than in rib splint constructs (0.4 mm +/- 0.2 mm, p = 0.09). After dynamic loading, rib splint constructs remained 48% stronger than Kirschner wire constructs (p = 0.001). Five of 11 Kirschner wire constructs failed catastrophically by cutting through the medial cortex, leading to complete loss of stability and wire migration through the lateral cortex. The remaining six constructs failed by wire bending. Rib splint constructs failed by development of fracture lines along the superior and interior cortices. No splint construct failed catastrophically, and all splint constructs retained functional reduction and fixation. Because of their superior strength and absence of catastrophic failure mode, rib splints can serve as an attractive alternative to Kirschner wires for intramedullary stabilization of rib fractures, especially in the case of posterior rib fractures where access for plating is limited.

  11. Exposed versus buried wires for fixation of lateral humeral condyle fractures in children: a comparison of safety and efficacy.

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Siow, Hua Ming

    2011-10-01

    Displaced fractures of the lateral condyle of the humerus are usually treated with open reduction and fixation with smooth Kirschner wires. These may be passed through the skin and left exposed or buried subcutaneously. Exposed wires may be removed in the outpatient clinic, whereas buried wires require a formal procedure under anaesthesia. This advantage may be offset if there is a higher rate of complications with exposed wires. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of exposed and buried wires. Retrospective cohort. Children with lateral condyle fractures of the humerus who had undergone surgery were identified from our departmental database. Case records and X-rays of 75 patients were reviewed. Forty-two patients had buried wires and 33 had exposed wires. There were no serious complications in either group. In the exposed wires group, 1 patient had a superficial wound infection that was treated effectively with 1 week of oral antibiotics, while 2 patients had hypergranulation of pin tracts treated with topical silver nitrate. None of the patients showed loss of reduction, deep infection, or any other complications requiring additional procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of complications between the buried and exposed groups. We conclude that open reduction and exposed wiring is a safe and effective option for lateral condyle fractures, and recommend a period of 4 weeks of K-wire fixation followed by 2 weeks of backslab immobilisation as adequate for union with minimal risk of infection.

  12. A Prospective Study of Distal Metatarsal Chevron Osteotomies with K-Wire Fixations to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities

    Baig, Usman; Tariq, Ali; Din, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Methods This case series consisted of 20 patients who had chevron osteotomy from January 2015 to January 2016. The clinical assessment was measured by The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), and radiologic assessment was determined by preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Results The patients’ mean age was 56 years. Out of 20 patients, 19 were female, and one was male. The mean AOFAS improved from 51 preoperatively to 82 postoperatively. The HVA improved from 26° preoperatively to 14°. There were five complications including four Kirschner (K)-wire complications. Conclusion Distal chevron osteotomy is a reliable and time-tested procedure. The K-wire fixation has a relatively high complication rate. We planned to use other methods of fixation and then compared them with K-wires fixation results for future studies. PMID:29167752

  13. Intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy after transpedicular positioning of Kirschner-wire versus conventional intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopic control: A retrospective study of 345 patients and 1880 pedicle screws

    Ghassan Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Retrospective study. Objective: The aim was to find out whether intraoperative three-dimensional imaging after transpedicular positioning of Kirschner wire (K-wire in lumbar and thoracic posterior instrumentation procedures is of benefit to the patients and if this technique is accurately enough to make a postoperative screw position control through computer tomography (CT dispensable. Patients and Methods: Lumbar and thoracic posterior instrumentation procedures conducted at our department between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, including patients who underwent intraoperative three-dimensional scan after transpedicular positioning of the K-wire and group B, including patients who underwent only intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopy. An early postoperative CT of the instrumented section was done in all cases to assess the screw position. The rate of immediate intraoperative correction of the K-wires in cases of mal-positioning, as well as the rate of postoperative screw revisions, was measured. Results: In general, 345 patients (1880 screws were reviewed and divided into two groups; group A with 225 patients (1218 screws and group B with 120 patients (662 screws. One patient (0.44% (one screw [0.082%] of group A underwent postoperative screw correction while screw revisions were necessary in 14 patients (11.7% (28 screws [4.2%] of group B. Twenty-three patients (10.2% (28 K-wires [2.3%] of group A underwent intraoperative correction due to primary intraoperative detected K-wire mal-position. None of the corrected K-wires resulted in a corresponding neurological deficit. Conclusion: Three-dimensional imaging after transpedicular K-wire positioning leads to solid intraoperative identification of misplaced K-wires prior to screw placement and reduces screw revision rates compared with conventional fluoroscopic control. When no clinical deterioration emerges, a

  14. K-wire and tension band wire fixation in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation.

    Chen, Qing-yu; Cheng, Shao-wen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhong-qin; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-quan; Shen, Yue; Ying, Xiao-zhou; Cheng, Xiao-jie; Lv, Chuan-zhu; Peng, Lei

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation by K-wire and tension band wire fixation, and to improve the safety and stability of this technique. This study consisted of 9 cases, 6 males and 3 females with the mean age of 25 years (range, 9-62 years). The causes were traffic accident in 7 cases, falling in 1 case and fight in 1 case. The duration from injury to operation was 2 hours to 7 days. There were 5 left dislocations and 4 right dislocations; 8 anterior dislocations and 1 posterior dislocation, including one combined with left scapular fracture and one with left olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires and tension band wires were performed to treat dislocations. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months, 10 months on average. According to Rockwood's rating scale on postoperative sternoclavicular joint, 8 cases achieved excellent outcomes with an average score of 13.88, and the rest case achieved a good outcome with the score of 12. Anatomical reduction was obtained in all cases. There were no such postoperative complications as severe infection, injury to blood vessel and nerve, failure of fixation, etc. Patients were all satisfied with the anatomical reduction and functional recovery. The technique of K-wire and tension band wire fixation is safe, simple, effective, less invasive and has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery. It is effective in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation though it has some disadvantages.

  15. Dorgan's lateral cross-wiring of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children: A retrospective review.

    Queally, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    The currently accepted treatment for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children is closed reduction and fixation with percutaneous Kirschner wires. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review a novel cross-wiring technique where the cross-wire configuration is achieved solely from the lateral side, thereby reducing the risk of ulnar nerve injury.

  16. K-wire and tension band wire fixation in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation

    CHEN Qing-yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation by K-wire and tension band wire fixation, and to improve the safety and stability of this technique. Methods: This study consisted of 9 cases, 6 males and 3 females with the mean age of 25 years (range, 9-62 years. The causes were traffic accident in 7 cases, falling in 1 case and fight in 1 case. The duration from injury to operation was 2 hours to 7 days. There were 5 left dislocations and 4 right dislocations; 8 anterior dislocations and 1 posterior dislocation, including one combined with left scapular fracture and one with left olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires and tension band wires were performed to treat dislocations. Results: All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months, 10 months on average. According to Rockwood’s rating scale on postoperative sternoclavicular joint, 8 cases achieved excellent outcomes with an average score of 13.88, and the rest case achieved a good outcome with the score of 12. Anatomical reduction was obtained in all cases. There were no such postoperative complications as severe infection, injury to blood vessel and nerve, failure of fixation, etc. Patients were all satisfied with the anatomical reduction and functional recovery. Conclusions: The technique of K-wire and tension band wire fixation is safe, simple, effective, less invasive and has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery. It is effective in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation though it has some disadvantages. Key words: Sternoclavicular joint; Dislocations; Bone wires; Fracture fixation, internal

  17. The Ilizarov external fixator: what remains of the wire pretension after dynamic loading?

    Renard, A.J.S.; Schutte, B.G.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maintenance of wire pretension in an Ilizarov external fixator is dependent on the torque applied to the fixation bolts. We therefore measured immediately after surgery the clinically applied torques. The median value was only 10 N m (range 8-14N m). We wondered whether this value is

  18. Comparative analysis of treatment outcomes in patients with femoral neck fracture using monolateral wire and half-pin fixator of the authors' design and transosseous fixation wires

    Allakhverdiev A.S.

    2014-12-01

    fractures of the proximal femur. Two groups of patients were studied: duration of surgery, duration of osteosynthesis, complications, and outcomes (in terms of one year after the dismantling clips using the modified scale Luboshyce — Mattis — Schwartzberg. Results. Fracture repair was achieved in 40 patients (62,5% of the 1st group. The following complications were observed in this group: non-union and pseudarthrosis — in 21 (32,8% case; aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in 3 (4,7% cases; hip ankyloses — in one (1,6% case, breakage and migration of wires into the joint cavity and smaller pelvis — 3 (4,7% patients and cutting out of wires from the femoral head was observed in 3 (4,7% cases. Totally 61 complication were revealed. In the second group of the patients non-union was found in one patient (64 years old. Complications were observed in 6 patients of this group — pint-tract infection, moderate secondary displacement of the fragments (the patient fell down on the operated limb and wire breakage. Conclusion. The efficiency of the femoral neck osteosynthesis with application of elaborated monolateral wire- and half-pin fixator made up 95,7% of the positive outcomes (in osteosynthesis using bunch of wires with llizarov frame fixation the same 60,9% of the positive outcomes.

  19. History of internal fixation (part 1): early developments with wires and plates before World War II.

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Though the date at which an orthopaedic implant was first used cannot be ascertained with any certainty, the fixation of bone fracture using an iron wire was reported for the first time in a French manuscript in 1775. The first techniques of operative fracture treatment were developed at the end of the 18th and in the beginning of the 19th centuries. The use of cerclage wires to fix fractures was the most frequent fixation at this time. The French Berenger-Feraud (1832-1900) had written the first book on internal fixation. However internal fixation of fractures could not become a practical method before Lister had ensured the safety of open reduction and internal fixation in the treatment of fractures. Lister is not only the father of asepsis; he also used metal wires to fix even closed fractures. The first internal fixation by means of a plate and screws was described by Carl Hansmann in 1858 in Hamburg. Nevertheless, Arbuthnot Lane (1892) and Albin Lambotte (1905) are considered to be the founders of this method, which was further developed by Sherman in the first part of the 20th century.

  20. Fixation of Trochanteric Fragments in Cementless Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture: Cerclage Wiring.

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Park, Chan Ho; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an option for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients. There is a raising concern regarding cable-grip related complications for the fixation of trochanteric fragments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate outcome of cementless HA with fixation for the trochanteric fragments using monofilament wires in unstable intertrochanteric fracture. We reviewed 92 cementless bipolar HAs using a grit-blasted long stem design for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in 91 elderly patients with a mean age of 81.7 years. During the arthroplasty, trochanteric fracture fragments were fixed using 1 or 2 vertical wires and transverse wires. We evaluated the clinical outcomes such as abductor power, ambulatory ability and wire-related complications, and radiologic outcomes including the union of the trochanteric fragment and subsidence of stem. Sixty-two patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 59 months) postoperatively. The mean abductor power and Koval category was 4.1 (range, 3 to 5) and 4.6 (range, 1 to 6). The wire was broken in 3 hips (4.8%) and the nonunion of the greater trochanter occurred in 1 hips (1.6%). Two stems subsided by 3 mm and 8 mm, respectively, during postoperative 6 weeks, after which the subsidence was not progressive. Cerclage wiring of the trochanter using monofilament wire leads to acceptable outcome in cementless HA for senile patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Cerclage wiring using a monofilament wire is recommended for the fixation of trochanteric fragments.

  1. [Intramedullary osteosynthesis of distal metacarpal fractures with curved wires].

    Schlageter, M; Winkel, R; Porcher, R; Haas, H G

    1997-07-01

    When intramedullary pinning is used to treat metacarpal fractures, as recently described by Förstner (1994) and Foucher (1995), the closed reduction technique developed by Jahss (1938) is applied in the same way as for conservative fracture treatment. It is not always possible to achieve complete anatomical reduction using this closed technique. The intramedullary pinning technique, that we have applied since 1989, involves a Kirschner wire which is bent at one end. Apart from reducing the fracture, the pre-set Kirschner wire serves as a butressing internal fixator. The elastic clamping of the wire acts as an internal wire spring splint, permitting early mobilisation. We have operated on 62 metacarpal fractures using the above-mentioned technique over a period of 6 years until 1995. Anatomic reduction was realized in 50 of 62 fractures. In the follow-up of 32 fractures, we noticed four complications: one infection, two paraesthesias, and one non-union.

  2. The initial safe range of motion of the ankle joint after three methods of internal fixation of simulated fractures of the medial malleolus.

    Shimamura, Yoshio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Kume, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Mutsuhiro; Iwase, Hideaki

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the safe passive range of ankle motion for inter-bone stiffness after internal fixation under load but there is a lack of information about the safe range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation in the absence of loading. The present study was designed to assess the effect of ankle movement on inter-bone displacement characteristics of medial malleolus fractures following three types of internal fixation to determine the safe range of motion. Five lower legs obtained during autopsy were used to assess three types of internal fixation (two with Kirschner-wires alone; two with Kirschner-wires plus tension band wiring; and, one with an AO/ASIF malleolar screw alone). Following a simulated fracture by sawing through the medial malleolus the displacement between the fractured bone ends was measured during a passive range of movement with continuous monitoring using omega (Omega) shaped transducers and a biaxial flexible goniometer. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Inter-bone displacement was not proportional to the magnitude of movement throughout the range of ankle motion as, when separation exceeded 25 microm, there was increasingly wide separation as plantar-flexion or dorsal-flexion was increased. There was no statistical significant difference between the small amount of inter-bone displacement observed with three types of fixation within the safe range of dorsal-flexion and plantar-flexion for early rehabilitation. However the inter-bone separation when fixation utilized two Kirschner-wires alone tended to be greater than when using the other two types of fixation during dorsal-flexion and eversion. The present study revealed a reproducible range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation which was estimated to be within the range of 20 degrees of dorsal-flexion and 10 degrees of plantar-flexion without eversion. Also, internal fixation with two Kirschner-wires alone does not seem to

  3. Anatomic Assessment of K-Wire Trajectory for Transverse Percutaneous Fixation of Small Finger Metacarpal Fractures: A Cadaveric Study.

    Grandizio, Louis C; Speeckaert, Amy; Kozick, Zach; Klena, Joel C

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this cadaveric study is to evaluate the trajectory of percutaneous transverse Kirschner wire (K-wire) placement for fifth metacarpal fractures relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for the treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. Using 12 unmatched fresh human upper limbs, we evaluated the trajectory of percutaneous transverse K-wire placement relative to the sagittal profile of the fifth metacarpal in order to develop a targeting strategy for treatment of fifth metacarpal fractures. The midpoint of the small and ring finger metacarpals in the sagittal plane was identified at 3 points. At each point, a K-wire was inserted from the small finger metacarpal into the midpoint of the ring finger metacarpal ("center-center" position). The angle of the transverse K-wire relative to the table needed to achieve a center-center position averaged 20.8°, 18.9°, and 16.7° for the proximal diaphysis, middiaphysis, and the collateral recess, respectively. Approximately 80% of transversely placed K-wires obtained purchase in the long finger metacarpal. These results can serve as a guide to help surgeons in the accurate placement of percutaneous K-wires for small finger metacarpal fractures and may aid in surgeon training.

  4. ARTHROSCOPIC FIXATION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL AVULSION FRACTURES USING FIBRE WIRE WITH OR WITHOUT ENDOBUTTON

    Satyajeet Jagtap

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL avulsion fracture is commonly associated with knee injuries and its management is controversial ranging from conservative treatment to various modalities in arthroscopic fixation. The aim of our study is to assess the clinical and radiological results of arthroscopic fixation using fibre wire with or without Endobutton in the management of ACL avulsion fractures using a simpler technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen patients (10 males and 5 females who underwent arthroscopic fixation with standard anteromedial and anterolateral ports using fibre wire with or without Endobutton (9 cases only fibre wire was used, 6 cases Endobutton was used in addition for displaced ACL avulsion fractures (Meyers and McKeever’s classification grade 2, grade 3 and grade 4 were analysed. The average age was 26.1 years with a mean follow up of 1 year. All patients were assessed clinically by calculating their Lysholm scores, Lachman test and the radiological union was assessed in the follow up radiographs. Study Design- Retrospective observational case series. RESULTS The mean Lysholm score was 94.93 ± 2.81 (mean ± SD. In 14 patients, Lachman test was negative at the end of final follow up while 1 patient had grade I laxity compared to normal knee. At final followup, all the patients were able to return to their preinjury activity level except one who had an extension lag, underwent arthrolysis subsequently and is improving. CONCLUSION Arthroscopic fixation using this technique of using fibre wire with or without Endobutton is a safe and reliable technique for producing clinicoradiological outcome in displaced ACL avulsion fractures.

  5. Interfragmental fixation of rostral mandibular fracture with cerclage wire in a thoroughbred English horse

    ÇETİNKAYA, Mehmet Alper; DEMİRUTKU, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The patient in this study was a 20-year-old thoroughbred gelding. After clinical and radiographical assessments, a bilateral rostral mandibular body fracture was determined. Fracture stabilization was achieved via a bilateral interfragmentary cerclage wire application. The horse started to use its jaw within 24 h of surgery. Postoperative radiographs were taken until month 6, at different periods, and fracture healing was evaluated. Fixation materials were left in place. Fracture healing occu...

  6. [Effectiveness comparison of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator and double plate internal fixation in treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures].

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Xu; Zhong, Zeli; Wu, Chao; Tan, Lun

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator with double plate internal fixation in the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures. Between January 2014 and April 2016, 30 patients with type C (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation, AO/ASIF) humeral intercondylar fractures were treated. Kirschner wire suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator was used in 14 cases (group A), and double plate internal fixation in 16 cases (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury cause, disease duration, injury side, and type of fracture between 2 groups ( P >0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time and hospitalization stay between 2 groups ( P >0.05). But the intraoperative blood loss in group A was significantly less than that in group B ( P internal fixation removal, the intraoperative blood loss, and VAS score at 1 day and 3 days after operation in group A were significant better than those in group B ( P external fixator and double plate internal fixation for the treatment of type C humeral intercondylar fractures have ideal outcome in elbow function. But the suspension fixation plus hinged external fixator is better than double plate internal fixation in intraoperative blood loss, postoperative VAS score, and time of internal fixation removal.

  7. Distal fingertip replantation without skeletal fixation.

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2005-01-01

    The replantation of fingertip amputation (through the nail bed) requires repair of the artery and vein on the palmar side. These structures are present in different planes, with the artery being deeper and the veins superficial. The authors believe that vascular repair in such cases is facilitated by stabilization of the amputated part by nail-bed repair alone. This provides a certain degree of flexibility, which allows for easier placement of clamps in the limited space available. Although Kirschner wires were not used for bony fixation, bony union was achieved in all five cases in which this technique was used.

  8. A biomechanical evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible wire in cervical spine fixation.

    Scuderi, G J; Greenberg, S S; Cohen, D S; Latta, L L; Eismont, F J

    1993-10-15

    In a bovine cervical spine model, the ultimate and fatigue strengths as well as relative magnetic resonance imaging artifact produced by titanium, cobalt chrome, and stainless-steel wires in various gauges were assessed. Single-cycle and fatigue strength of wire constructs were measured. Although larger wires generally had greater static strength, fatigue strength was mixed. Sixteen-gauge titanium, and all stainless-steel models (22-gauge braided, 18-gauge, and Songer cable) withstood 10,000 cycles without failure, whereas all other constructs rarely could withstand a similar 10,000 cycles. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on calf cervical spines instrumented with the various materials. Titanium exhibited the least artifact, stainless-steel showed the greatest artifact, and cobalt chrome an intermediate amount. Although titanium wire produces the least amount of magnetic resonance imaging artifact, it remains a poor choice for implant fixation because its notch sensitivity reduces its fatigue resistance compared with stainless steel, which remains the more dependable choice.

  9. Wiring Techniques for the Fixation of Trochanteric Fragments during Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Intertrochanteric Fracture: Clinical Study and Technical Note.

    Lee, Joong-Myung; Cho, Yongsuk; Kim, Junhyun; Kim, Dong-Won

    2017-03-01

    Femoral intertrochanteric fractures are common in the elderly. Appropriate surgical fixation of trochanteric fracture fragments can restore normal anatomical structure and ambulation, and can aid in the recovery of biomechanical function of the hip. We evaluated clinical outcomes of bipolar hemiarthroplasty using a wiring technique for trochanteric fracture fragment fixation. From September 2006 to February 2015, a total of 260 cases underwent simultaneous bipolar hemiarthroplasty and wire fixation. A total of 65 patients (69 hips) with an average age of 78 years and more than one year of follow-up was included in the study. Using pre-, postoperative and follow-up radiograms, we evaluated wire fixation failure and also assessed changes in walking ability. Loosening or osteolysis around the stem was not observed; however, we did observe bone growth around the stem (54 cases), cortical hypertrophy (6 cases), a wide range of sclerotic lines but no stem subsidence (1 case), wire breakage (9 cases), and fracture fragment migration with no significant functional deficiency (2 cases). Our study showed that additional wiring for trochanteric fracture fragment fixation following bipolar hemiarthroplasty can help restore normal anatomy. The added stability results in faster rehabilitation, and good clinical and radiographic outcomes. We recommend this procedure in this type of fracture.

  10. Randomized prospective study of olecranon fracture fixation: cable pin system versus tension band wiring.

    Liu, Q-H; Fu, Z-G; Zhou, J-L; Lu, T; Liu, T; Shan, L; Liu, Y; Bai, L

    2012-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared the effectiveness of the cable pin system (CPS) versus tension band wiring (TBW) for olecranon fracture fixation. Patients with acute transverse or slight oblique olecranon fractures were randomly divided into two groups: one fixed by CPS and the other by TBW. Clinical outcome data were collected and analysed following a mean duration of 21 months. The mean ± SD fracture healing time was significantly shorter in the CPS group (n = 30; 9.73 ± 2.02 weeks) compared with the TBW group (n = 32; 11.13 ± 2.21 weeks). One patient in the CPS group and seven patients in the TBW group experienced postoperative complications; this difference was statistically significant. The mean ± SD Mayo Elbow Performance Score in the CPS group was significantly higher (88.67 ± 6.42) than that in the TBW group (80.78 ± 11.99). Logistic regression analysis showed an association between fixation method and fracture healing time, complications and elbow function. Internal fixation by CPS is an effective method for olecranon fracture and is associated with a shorter healing time, fewer complications and better function than TBW.

  11. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  12. Open reduction and internal fixation of patellar fractures with tension band wiring through cannulated screws.

    Malik, Mudasir; Halwai, Manzoor Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of a relatively new technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures with tension band wiring (TBW) through parallel cannulated compression screws. A total of 30 patients with displaced transverse patellar fracture were enrolled in this prospective study. Of the 30 patients, 20 patients had trauma due to fall, 5 due to road traffic accident, 2 due to fall of heavy object on the knee, 2 due to forced flexion of knee, and 1 had fracture due to being beaten. All 30 patients were treated with vertical skin exposure, fracture open reduction, and internal fixation by anterior TBW through 4.0 mm cannulated screws. The postoperative rehabilitation protocol was standardized. The patients were followed postsurgery to evaluate time required for radiographic bone union, knee joint range of motion (ROM), loss of fracture reduction, material failure, and the overall functional result of knee using Bostman scoring. All the fractures healed radiologically, at an average time of 10.7 weeks (range, 8-12 weeks). The average ROM arc was 129.7 degrees (range, 115-140 degrees). No patient had loss of fracture reduction, implant migration, or material failure. The average Bostman score was 28.6 out of 30. Anterior TBW through cannulated screws for displaced transverse fractures is safe and effective alternative treatment. Good functional results and recovery can be expected. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. An External Wire Frame Fixation Method of Skin Grafting for Burn Reconstruction.

    Yoshino, Yukiko; Ueda, Hyakuzoh; Ono, Simpei; Ogawa, Rei

    2017-06-28

    The skin graft is a prevalent reconstructive method for burn injuries. We have been applying external wire frame fixation methods in combination with skin grafts since 1986 and have experienced better outcomes in percentage of successful graft take. The overall purpose of this method was to further secure skin graft adherence to wound beds in hard to stabilize areas. There are also location-specific benefits to this technique such as eliminating the need of tarsorrhaphy in periorbital area, allowing immediate food intake after surgery in perioral area, and performing less invasive fixing methods in digits, and so on. The purpose of this study was to clarify its benefits and applicable locations. We reviewed 22 postburn patients with skin graft reconstructions using the external wire frame method at our institution from December 2012 through September 2016. Details of the surgical technique and individual reports are also discussed. Of the 22 cases, 15 (68%) were split-thickness skin grafts and 7 (32%) were full-thickness skin grafts. Five cases (23%) involved periorbital reconstruction, 5 (23%) involved perioral reconstruction, 2 (9%) involved lower limb reconstruction, and 10 (45%) involved digital reconstruction. Complete (100%) survival of the skin graft was attained in all cases. No signs of complication were observed. With 30 years of experiences all combined, we have summarized fail-proof recommendations to a successful graft survival with an emphasis on the locations of its application.

  14. Internal Fixation of Transverse Patella Fractures Using Cannulated Cancellous Screws with Anterior Tension Band Wiring

    Khan I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anterior tension band wiring technique using two cannulated cancellous screws in patients with transverse (AO34-C1 or transverse with mildly comminuted (AO34-C2 patellar fractures. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of 25 patients with transverse fracture or transverse fracture with mildly comminuted patella fractures. All the patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using two parallel cannulated screws and 18G stainless steel wire as per the tension band principle. Results: There were eighteen males (72% and seven females (28%. The age group ranged from 24 to 58 years, with mean age of 38 years. The most common mode of injury was fall (72% followed by road traffic accident (20% and violent quadriceps contraction (8%. Transverse fracture was present in 60% and transverse fracture with mild comminution in 40% of patients. Mean time to achieve union was 10.7 weeks (range 8-12 weeks. Mean ROM at three months was 113.8 degree (90-130 and at final follow up this improved to 125.4 degrees (range 100-140. There was one case of knee stiffness and no case of implant failure was observed. Patients were evaluated using Bostman scoring, the mean score at three months being 26.04 which improved to 27.36 at the end of final follow up at one year. Conclusion: Cannulated cancellous screws with anterior tension band wiring is a safe, reliable and reproducible method in management of transverse patellar fractures, with less chances of implant failure and soft tissue irritation.

  15. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  16. An alternative graft fixation technique for scaphoid nonunions treated with vascular bone grafting.

    Korompilias, Anastasios V; Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Gkiatas, Ioannis; Beris, Alexandros E

    2014-07-01

    To present our experience with vascularized bone grafting based on the 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery for the management of established scaphoid nonunion and to investigate the efficacy of graft immobilization with a combination of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation. A retrospective chart and radiographic review was conducted for patients with the diagnosis of scaphoid nonunion of the proximal pole or the waist treated with the 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery-based vascularized graft and fixed with a combination of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation between 2007 and 2011. We observed 23 consecutive patients for a mean of 34 ± 4 months. All patients were males with mean age of 25 ± 5 years. All patients had scaphoid nonunion and associated humpback deformity. The mean duration of nonunion was 7 ± 1 months. All scaphoid nonunions united after the index procedure at a mean of 10 ± 1 weeks. Two patients had avascular necrosis of the proximal pole based on the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings. After surgery, deformity correction was achieved in all patients, as recorded by the decrease in the lateral intrascaphoid angle and the increase in the dorsal scaphoid angle. At the last follow-up, no patients reported wrist pain. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score improved significantly from 32 ± 12 before the operation to 5 ± 3 at the last postoperative visit. All patients showed statistically significant improvement in the range of motion and the grip strength of the involved wrist. The results of this study support the combined use of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation for fixation of a 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery-based vascular bone graft in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relative strength of tailor's bunion osteotomies and fixation techniques.

    Haddon, Todd B; LaPointe, Stephan J

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of data is available on the mechanical strength of fifth metatarsal osteotomies. The present study was designed to provide that information. Five osteotomies were mechanically tested to failure using a materials testing machine and compared with an intact fifth metatarsal using a hollow saw bone model with a sample size of 10 for each construct. The osteotomies tested were the distal reverse chevron fixated with a Kirschner wire, the long plantar reverse chevron osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, a mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, the mid-diaphyseal sagittal plane osteotomy fixated with 2 screws, and an additional cerclage wire and a transverse closing wedge osteotomy fixated with a box wire technique. Analysis of variance was performed, resulting in a statistically significant difference among the data at p chevron was statistically the strongest construct at 130 N, followed by the long plantar osteotomy at 78 N. The chevron compared well with the control at 114 N, and they both fractured at the proximal model to fixture interface. The other osteotomies were statistically and significantly weaker than both the chevron and the long plantar constructs, with no statistically significant difference among them at 36, 39, and 48 N. In conclusion, the chevron osteotomy was superior in strength to the sagittal and transverse plane osteotomies and similar in strength and failure to the intact model. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nickel-Titanium Wire as Suture Material: A New Technique for the Fixation of Skin.

    Li, Haidong; Song, Tao

    2018-01-29

    To introduce nickel-titanium wire as suture material for closure of incisions in cleft lip procedures. Closure of skin incisions using nickel-titanium wire as suture material, with postoperative follow-up wound evaluation. There was excellent patient satisfaction and good cosmetic outcome. Nickel-titanium wire is an excellent alternative for suture closure of cleft lip surgical incisions.

  19. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures.

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status.

  20. Two Extension Block Kirschner Wires’ Technique for Bony Mallet Thumb

    Yutaka Mifune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mallet fingers with an avulsion fracture of the distal phalanx or rupture of the terminal tendon of the extensor mechanism is known as a common injury, while mallet thumb is very rare. In this paper, the case of a 19-year-old woman with a sprained left thumb sustained while playing basketball is presented. Plain radiographs and computed tomography revealed an avulsion fracture involving more than half of the articular surface at the base of the distal phalanx. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation were performed using the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique under digital block anesthesia. At 4 months postoperatively, the patient had achieved excellent results according to Crawford’s evaluation criteria and had no difficulties in working or playing basketball. Various conservative and operative treatment strategies have been reported for management of mallet thumb. We chose the two extension block Kirschner wires’ technique to minimize invasion of the extensor mechanism and nail bed and to stabilize the large fracture fragment.

  1. Cerclage wire and lag screw fixation of the lateral malleolus in supination and external rotation fractures of the ankle.

    Bajwa, Amarjit S; Gantz, D E

    2005-01-01

    Wound dehiscence and exposed lateral hardware can occur after open reduction internal fixation of lateral malleolus. The bulk of a lateral plate and the minimum soft tissue over the lateral malleolus may contribute to this situation. The objective of this study was to evaluate a series of patients with lateral malleolar fractures treated with operative reduction using minimal hardware. We wanted to observe whether there was any loss of reduction and whether there were any incidences of soft tissue disruption. Fifty-two patients with long spiral fracture of the lateral malleolus in a supination-external rotation injury were treated with two or three 3.5-mm lag screws inserted 1 cm apart and 1 or 2 circlage wires. Less rigid fixation was supplemented with a below-the-knee plaster cast. All patients were followed up until clinical and radiological evidence of fracture healing at 6, 10, and 14 weeks postoperatively. By 10 weeks, all patients were full weight bearing, although most patients still limped. At 14 weeks' follow-up, there were no infections or wound dehiscences. All patients were able to return to their activities of daily living. All the fractures had united without loss of original position. Two fractures of the posterior bone spikes seen during surgery united uneventfully. Long spiral fractures of the lateral malleolus of the ankle can be treated successfully with 2 or 3 lag screws and circlage wires without compromising the outcome of the fracture healing.

  2. Plating versus wiring for fixation of traumatic rib and sternal fractures

    Mostafa Kamel Abd-Elnaim

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Plating of rib and sternal fractures had better outcome than wiring, regarding better chest wall stability and restoration of chest contour; also it had shorter intensive care unit, hospital and ventilator days.

  3. [Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation in the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures].

    Chuanjun, Chen; Xiaoyang, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation during the surgical reduction of sagittal mandibular condylar fractures. Twenty-four sagittal fractures of the mandibular condyle in18 patients were fixed by two appliances: intramedullary with one long-screw osteosynthesis or Kirschner wire and extramedullary with one micro-plate. The radiologically-recorded post-operative stability-associated com-plications included the screw/micro-plate loosening, micro-plate twisting, micro-plate fractures, and fragment rotation. The occluding relations, the maximalinter-incisal distances upon mouth opening, and the mandibular deflection upon mouth opening were evaluated based on follow-up clinical examination. Postoperative panoramic X-ray and CT scans showed good repositioning of the fragment, with no redislocation or rotation, no screw/plate loosening, and no plate-twisting or fracture. Clinical examination showed that all patients regained normal mandibular movements, ideal occlusion, and normal maximal inter-incisal distances upon mouth opening. Extramedullary fixation combined with intramedullary fixation is highly recommended for sagittal condylar fractures because of the anti-rotation effect of the fragment and the reasonable place-ment of the fixation appliances.

  4. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of displaced Supracondylar Fractures of Humerus with Crossed K-wires via Medial Approach

    S Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the medial approach for open reduction and internal fixation of Gartland type 3 displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus in children. A prospective, single centre study of on displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in 42 children was carried out at our institute. All fractures were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via medial approach. The mean follow-up was 12 months and patients were assessed according to Flynn’s criteria. No patients had post-operative ulnar nerve injury. Cubitus varus was not seen in any patient. Superficial pin tract infection occurred in three patients that subsided with anti-septic dressings and antibiotics. No deep infection occurred. 88.09 % patients showed satisfactory results as per Flynn’s criteria. The medial approach provides an excellent view of the supracondylar area. The approach is convenient due to a lower risk for ulnar nerve injury and better acceptability of the medial incisional scar.

  5. Radiographic changes in the operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation – tight rope technique vs. K-wire fixation

    Horst, Klemens; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Andruszkow, Hagen; Gradl, Gertraud; Kobbe, Philipp; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Operative treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular joint luxation is common. A new option is made available by the tight rope technique. It claims to provide adequate outcome with the use of a minimally invasive technique. First clinical studies justified its medical use, but the equivalence to established surgical methods remains unclear. We therefore analyzed radiographic data from patients that were treated with the tight rope system (TR) and compared them to those treated with K-wires (KW) fixation. Retrospective study with inclusion criteria: surgery for acromioclavicular joint luxation between 2004 and 2011, classified as Rockwood type III, no concomitant injury, first event injury. We compared pre- and post-operative X-rays with those taken at the end of treatment. Clinical data from follow-ups and radiographic data were evaluated. The main outcome variable was the remaining distance between the acromion and clavicle (ACD), as well as the coracoid process and clavicle (CCD). 27 patients (TR: n=16; KW: n=11) with comparable demographics and injury severity were included. Surgery reduced ACD (TR: p=0.002; KW: p<0.001) and CCD (TR: p=0.001; KW: p=0.003). Heterotopic ossification or postoperative osteolysis was not significantly associated with either one of the procedures. Three patients (18.75%) in the TR group showed impaired wound healing, migrating K-wires were recorded in 2 patients (18.2%) and impingement syndrome occurred in 1 patient (9.1%) with K-wires. Posttraumatic arthritis was not seen. There was a loss of reduction in 2 cases within the TR-group (12.51%) and 1 in the KW-group (9.1%). At last follow up, ACD and CCD were wider in both groups compared to the healthy side. This study shows that the Tight rope system is an effective alternative in the treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular luxation and comparable to the established methods

  6. [Case control study on therapeutic effects of dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation and cross K-wires fixation for the treatment of Pilon fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint].

    Miao, Dao-yi; Yang, Guo-jing; Zhang, Ling-zhou; Wu, Jian-wei

    2015-10-01

    To compare the clinical effects and safety of dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation and cross K-wires fixation for the treatment of close Pilon fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. From June 2012 to June 2014, totally 41 patients (45 fingers) with close interphalangeal joint Pilon fracture were treated by dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation or cross K-wires fixation, and all the patients were followed up. In the dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation group (group A), there were 21 patients with 22 fingers, including 12 males and 9 females, with an average of (30.6±5.6) years old. In the cross K-wires fixation group (group B), there were 20 patients with 23 fingers, including 11 males and 9 females, with an average of (30.1±5.3) years old. Regular re-examination of X-ray was performed to evaluate the active range of joint motion, fracture healing time, infection rate and postoperative joint motion pain. According to the evaluation criteria of upper extremity function issued by the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association, the excellent and good cases of group A was up to 19 and 13 for group B. The evaluation results has significant differences (Z=2.558, P=0.011). The excellent and good rate of group A was obviously higher than that of group B. The average bone union time of group A was (7.9±2.1) weeks, and (8.1±2.3) weeks for group B. There was no significant difference on the mean healing time (t=-0.304, P=0.762). The infection fingers of group A was 5, and 1 for group B. The difference between the results was statistically significant (χ2=3.287, Pexternal fixtor combined with limited internal fixation is a reliable and effective method to treat Pilon fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. It allows early postoperative functional rehabilitation and restores the joint function.

  7. Open reduction-internal fixation of a navicular body fracture with dorsal displacement of the first and second cuneiforms: a case report.

    Andersen, Robert C; Neiderer, Katherine; Martin, Billy; Dancho, James

    2013-01-01

    Body fractures of the tarsal navicular are relatively uncommon. To date, there is little literature discussing a navicular body fracture with dorsal subluxation of the first and second cuneiforms over the navicular. This case study presents a 30-year-old patient with this injury. He underwent open reduction internal fixation of the navicular body fracture successfully but failed adequate reduction of the navicular cuneiform joint after ligamentous reconstruction. After revisional surgery, he also failed 6 weeks of percutanous pinning with Kirschner-wire fixation. When comparing the literature of a similar injury, the Lisfranc fracture disclocation, the same principles may apply. One should consider rigid open reduction internal fixation or even primary fusion to treat disclocation of the naviculocuneiform joint following a navicular body fracture.

  8. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    Michael W. Downey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing. The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288.

  9. External fixation of femoral defects in athymic rats: Applications for human stem cell implantation and bone regeneration

    Terasa Foo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate animal model is critical for the research of stem/progenitor cell therapy and tissue engineering for bone regeneration in vivo. This study reports the design of an external fixator and its application to critical-sized femoral defects in athymic rats. The external fixator consists of clamps and screws that are readily available from hardware stores as well as Kirschner wires. A total of 35 rats underwent application of the external fixator with creation of a 6-mm bone defect in one femur of each animal. This model had been used in several separate studies, including implantation of collagen gel, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or bone morphogenetic protein-2. One rat developed fracture at the proximal pin site and two rats developed deep tissue infection. Pin loosening was found in nine rats, but it only led to the failure of external fixation in two animals. In 8 to 10 weeks, various degrees of bone growth in the femoral defects were observed in different study groups, from full repair of the bone defect with bone morphogenetic protein-2 implantation to fibrous nonunion with collagen gel implantation. The external fixator used in these studies provided sufficient mechanical stability to the bone defects and had a comparable complication rate in athymic rats as in immunocompetent rats. The external fixator does not interfere with the natural environment of a bone defect. This model is particularly valuable for investigation of osteogenesis of human stem/progenitor cells in vivo.

  10. A biomechanical comparison of the Rogers interspinous and the Lovely-Carl tension band wiring techniques for fixation of the cervical spine.

    Brasil, A V; Coehlo, D G; Filho, T E; Braga, F M

    2000-07-01

    The authors conducted a biomechanical study in which they compared the uses of the Rogers interspinous and the Lovely-Carl tension band wiring techniques for internal fixation of the cervical spine. An extensive biomechanical evaluation (stiffness in positive and negative rotations around the x, y, and z axes; range of motion in flexion-extension, bilateral axial rotation, and bilateral bending; and neutral zone in flexion-extension, bilateral axial rotation, and lateral bending to the right and to the left) was performed in two groups of intact calf cervical spines. After these initial tests, all specimens were subjected to a distractive flexion Stage 3 ligamentous lesion. Group 1 specimens then underwent surgical fixation by the Rogers technique, and Group 2 specimens underwent surgery by using the Lovely-Carl technique. After fixation, specimens were again submitted to the same biomechanical evaluation. The percentage increase or decrease between the pre- and postoperative parameters was calculated. These values were considered quantitative indicators of the efficacy of the techniques, and the efficacy of the two techniques was compared. Analysis of the findings demonstrated that in the spines treated with the Lovely-Carl technique less restriction of movement was produced without affecting stiffness, compared with those treated with the Rogers technique, thus making the Lovely-Carl technique clinically less useful.

  11. Fluoroscopically guided closed reduction and internal fixation of fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle: prospective clinical study of the technique and results in ten dogs.

    Cook, J L; Tomlinson, J L; Reed, A L

    1999-01-01

    To report a technique for fluoroscopically guided closed reduction with internal fixation of fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle (FLHC) and determine the long-term results in 10 clinical cases. Prospective clinical case study. Ten dogs with 11 fractures. Fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle were stabilized with transcondylar screws and Kirschner wires. Closed reduction and implant placement were achieved using intraoperative fluoroscopic guidance. After fracture repair, postoperative radiographs were evaluated for articular alignment and implant placement. Dogs were evaluated after surgery by means of lameness scores, elbow range of motion (ROM), radiographic assessment, and owner evaluation of function. Postoperative reduction was considered anatomic in 6 fractures with all other fractures having ROM values between affected and unaffected elbows. All of the dogs in this study regained 90-100% of full function, based on owner assessment. Fluoroscopic guidance for closed reduction and internal fixation of FLHC in dogs is an effective technique.

  12. Wire fixation osteosynthesis for the emergency treatment of patients with mandible fractures: A report of three cases

    Juan Francisco Oré Acevedo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, titanium plates and screws are the gold standard osteosynthesis treatment of facial bone fractures. Techniques considerer obsoletes like surgical wires osteosynthesis are not used anymore, but it is necessary to bear in mind the possibility of using wire for the treatment of cases in emergency, and in which we do not have immediately available sterile implants such as plates and screws. Objectives: Describe the mandibular osteosynthesis with surgical wire as an acceptable surgical treatment when plates and screws are not avaliable. Description: Three cases of patients with mandible fractures were presented, treated on emergency with wire. Two cases were the gunshot injuries and the remaining one suffered a recreational accident. Which required immediate treatment due to the magnitude of the damage, bone exposure and persistence of active bleeding. Conclusions: The use of surgical wire for the treatment of mandibular fractures should not be ignored and is a good alternative for situations where titanium plates and screws are not available due to economic reasons or access. The surgical outcome is stable and allows restoring partially mandibular anatomy and function looking forward a future reconstruction.

  13. Open Reduction With K-Wire Stabilization of Fracture Dislocations of the Mandibular Condyle: A Retrospective Review.

    Haghighi, Kayvon; Manolakakis, Manolis G; Balog, Connor

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of direct transcortical stabilization of fracture dislocations of the mandibular condyle (FDMCs) using narrow-diameter non-threaded Kirschner wire (K-wire). This retrospective review reports on the treatment outcomes for 12 patients (15 fractures) with FDMCs treated with open reduction using transcortical 0.027-inch K-wire stabilization. Postoperative parameters of relevance included infection, facial nerve function, hardware removal, mandibular range of motion, and radiographic determination of fracture union. Three patients had bilateral FDMCs and 9 had unilateral FDMCs (age range at time of injury, 14 to 72 yr; mean age, 32 yr). Postoperative follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 2 years. Four patients required removal of K-wire hardware for different reasons. K-wires were removed because of infection in 1 patient. Another patient required removal because of migration of the pin into the joint space. One pin was removed electively and another was removed for nonspecific postoperative symptoms that resolved after pin removal. Persistent facial nerve deficit was observed in 1 patient. Open reduction with transcortical K-wire stabilization can achieve satisfactory outcomes for the treatment of FDMC. Further investigation is needed in determining the efficacy of this fixation technique in the management of FDMC. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scalp Wound Closure with K wires: An alternative easier method to scalp wound closure.

    Ramesh, S; Ajik, S

    2012-12-01

    Scalp defects and lacerations present a reconstructive challenge to plastic surgeons. Many methods have been described from the use of skin grafting to rotation flaps. Here we present a method of closure of a contaminated scalp wound with the use of Kirschner wires. In our case, closure of scalp laceration was made possible with the use of 1.4 Kirschner wires and cable tie/ zip tie fasteners. The duration to closure of wound was 10 days. In reconstructing the scalp defect, this method was found to adhere to principles of scalp reconstruction. There were no post operative complications found from the procedure. On initial application on the edge of the wound, tension applied caused the K wires to cut through the wound edge. On replacement of K wires 1cm away from wound edge the procedure was not plagued by any further complication. In conclusion we find scalp closure with Kirschner wires are a simple and effective method for scalp wound closure.

  15. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2018-02-01

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of block

  16. A clinical evaluation of alternative fixation techniques for medial malleolus fractures.

    Barnes, Hayley; Cannada, Lisa K; Watson, J Tracy

    2014-09-01

    Medial malleolus fractures have traditionally been managed using partially threaded screws and/or Kirschner wire fixation. Using these conventional techniques, a non-union rate of as high as 20% has been reported. In addition too many patients complaining of prominent hardware as a source of pain post-fixation. This study was designed to assess the outcomes of medial malleolar fixation using a headless compression screw in terms of union rate, the need for hardware removal, and pain over the hardware site. Saint Louis University and Mercy Medical Center, Level 1 Trauma Centers, St. Louis, MO. After IRB approval, we used billing records to identify all patients with ankle fractures involving the medial malleolus. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patients with medial malleolar fractures treated with headless compression screw fixation. Our inclusion criteria included follow-up until full weight bearing and a healed fracture. Follow-up clinical records and radiographs were reviewed to determine union, complication rate and perception of pain over the site of medial malleolus fixation. Sixty-four ankles were fixed via headless compression screws and 44 had adequate follow-up for additional evaluation. Seven patients had isolated medial malleolar fractures, 23 patients had bimalleolar fractures, and 14 patients had trimalleolar fractures. One patient (2%) required hardware removal due to cellulitis. One patient (2%) had a delayed union, which healed without additional intervention. Ten patients (23%) reported mild discomfort to palpation over the medial malleolus. The median follow-up was 35 weeks (range: 12-208 weeks). There were no screw removals for painful hardware and no cases of non-union. Headless compression screws provide effective compression of medial malleolus fractures and result in good clinical outcomes. The headless compression screw is a beneficial alternative to the conventional methods of medial malleolus fixation. Copyright

  17. [Pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator to treat leg open fracture with soft tissue defect].

    Luo, Zhongchun; Lou, Hua; Jiang, Junwei; Song, Chunlin; Gong, Min; Wang, Yongcai

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the clinical results of treating leg open fracture with soft tissue defect by pedicle flap transfer in combination with external fixator. From May 2004 to June 2007, 12 cases of leg open fracture with soft tissue defect, 9 males and 3 females aged 18-75 years, were treated. Among them, 8 cases were caused by traffic accidents, 2 crush, 1 falling and 1 mechanical accident. According to the Gustilo Classification, there were 2 cases of type II, 5 of type IIIA and 5 of type IIIB. There were 2 cases of upper-tibia fracture, 3 of middle-tibia and 7 of middle-lower. The sizes of soft tissue defect ranged from 5 cm x 3 cm to 22 cm x 10 cm.The sizes of exposed bone ranged from 3 cm x 2 cm to 6 cm x 3 cm. The course of the disease was 1-12 hours. Fracture fixation was reached by external fixators or external fixators and limited internal fixation with Kirschner wire. The wounds with exposed tendons and bones were repaired by ipsilateral local rotation flap, sural neurocutaneous flap and saphenous nerve flap. The size of selected flap ranged from 5 cm x 4 cm to 18 cm x 12 cm. Granulation wounds were repaired by skin grafting or direct suture. All patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years. All patients survived, among whom 2 with the wound edge infection and 1 with the distal necrosis were cured by changing the dressing, 8 with pin hole infection were treated by taking out the external fixator, 1 with nonunion received fracture healing after bone graft in comminuted fracture of lower tibia, 2 suffered delayed union in middle-lower tibia fracture. The ROM of ankle in 3 cases was mildly poor with surpass-joint fixation, with plantar extension of 0-10 degrees and plantar flexion of 10-30 degrees, while the others had plantar extension of 10-20 degrees and plantar flexion of 30-50 degrees. The method of pedicle flap transfer combined with external fixator is safe and effective for the leg open fracture with soft tissue defect.

  18. Triceps-sparing approach for open reduction and internal fixation of neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children.

    Rizk, Ahmed Shawkat

    2015-06-01

    Supracondylar humeral fractures are one of the most common skeletal injuries in children. In cases of displacement and instability, the standard procedure is early closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. However, between 10 and 20 % of patients present late. According to the literature, patients with neglected fractures are those patients who presented for treatment after 14 days of injury. The delay is either due to lack of medical facilities or social and financial constraints. The neglected cases are often closed injuries with no vascular compromise. However, the elbow may still be tense and swollen with abrasions or crusts. In neglected cases, especially after early appearance of callus, there is no place for closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Traditionally, distal humeral fractures have been managed with surgical approaches that disrupt the extensor mechanism with less satisfactory functional outcome due to triceps weakness and elbow stiffness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of delayed open reduction using the triceps-sparing approach and Kirschner wire fixation for treatment of neglected, displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children. This prospective study included 15 children who had neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures. All patients were completely evaluated clinically and radiologically before intervention, after surgery and during the follow-up. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 49 months, with a mean period of 17 months. Functional outcome was evaluated according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and Mark functional criteria. All fractures united in a mean duration of 7.2 weeks (range 5-10 weeks) with no secondary displacement or mal-union. Excellent results were found at the last follow-up in 13 of the 15 patients studied (86.66 %), while good results were found in two patients (13.33 %) according to the MEPI scale. According to the Mark

  19. Stabilization of Olecranon Fractures by Tension Band Wiring or Plate Osteosynthesis: A Retrospective Study of 41 Cases.

    Fournet, Alexandre; Boursier, Jean-François; Corbeau, Solène; Decambron, Adeline; Viateau, Véronique; Fayolle, Pascal; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Leperlier, Dimitri; Manassero, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

     This article aimed to describe olecranon fracture in dogs and cats and their stabilization with tension band wiring or plate osteosynthesis, and to evaluate complications associated with each technique.  Medical records of cats and dogs that had been surgically treated for olecranon fractures with either tension band wiring or plate osteosynthesis were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical technique, complications and long-term outcomes were assessed.  Forty-one olecranon fractures were included. Fractures were articular, comminuted and open in 90, 31 and 27% of cases, respectively. Tension band wiring and plate osteosynthesis were performed in 22 and 19 fractures, respectively. Complications occurred more commonly after tension band wiring (74%) compared with plate osteosynthesis (27%) ( p  = 0.002) and these were probably related to it being used in comminuted fractures ( p  = 0.01) or to errors in technique. Minor complications included Kirschner wires migration ( n  = 5), pain ( n  = 3), osteomyelitis ( n  = 3), skin breakdown ( n  = 3) and seroma ( n  = 1). Implant failure requiring further fixation ( n  = 4) was observed only in the tension band wiring group. Other major complications included skin wound debridement and closure ( n  = 1) and chronic lameness requiring implant removal ( n  = 7). Long-term functional outcomes were excellent regardless of the technique used.  Plate osteosynthesis should be performed for olecranon fracture repair if technically feasible. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  20. Comparison of novel ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tape versus conventional metal wire for sublaminar segmental fixation in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Takahata, Masahiko; Ito, Manabu; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Kotani, Yoshihisa; Sudo, Hideki; Ohshima, Shigeki; Minami, Akio

    2007-08-01

    Retrospective study. To compare the surgical outcomes of posterior translational correction and fusion using hybrid instrumentation systems with either sublaminar Nesplon tape or sublaminar metal wire to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Nesplon tape, which consists of a thread of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fibers, has advantages over metal wire: (1) its soft and flexible properties avoid neural damage and (2) its flat configuration avoids focal distribution of the stresses to lamina; however, the efficacy of Nesplon tape in the correction of spinal deformity is as yet, still unclear. Thirty AIS patients at a single institution underwent posterior correction and fusion using hybrid instrumentation containing hook, pedicle screw, and either sublaminar polyethylene taping (15) or sublaminar metal wiring (15). Patients were evaluated preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at a 2-year follow-up according to the radiographic changes in curve correction, operating time, intraoperative blood loss, complications, and the Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire (SRS-24) score. The average correction rate was 63.0% in the Nesplon tape group and 59.9% in the metal wire group immediately after surgery (P = 0.62). Fusion was obtained in all the patients without significant correction loss in both groups. There was no significant difference in operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative SRS-24 scores between the 2 groups. Complications were superficial skin infection in a single patient in the Nesplon tape group, and transient sensory disturbance in 1 patient and temporal superior mesenteric artery syndrome in another patient in the metal wire group. The efficacy of Nesplon tape in correction of deformity is equivalent to that of metal wire, and fusion was completed without significant correction loss. The soft and flexible properties and flat configuration of Nesplon tape make this a safe application for the treatment

  1. [Treatment of calcaneal avulsion fractures with twinfix suture anchors fixation].

    Zhao, Bin-xiu; Wang, Kun-zheng; Wang, Chun-sheng; Xie, Yue; Dai, Zhi-tang; Liu, Gang; Liu, Wei-dong

    2011-06-01

    For the calcaneal avulsion fracture, the current method is more commonly used screws or Kirschner wire to fix fracture fragment. This article intended to explore the feasibility and clinical efficacy for the treatment of avulsion fractures with TwinFix suture anchors. From July 2007 to November 2010, 21 patients were reviewed, including 15 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 49 to 65 years,with a mean of 58.7 years. Twelve patients had nodules in the right heel and 9 patients had nodules in the left heel. All the patients had closed fractures. The typical preoperative symptoms of the patients included pain in the upper heel and weak in heel lift. Body examination results: palpable sense of bone rubbing in the back of the heel, and swelling in the heel. Surgery treatment with TwinFix suture anchors performed as follows : to fix TwinFix suture anchors into the calcaneal body, then to drill the fracture block, to make the double strand suture through the fracture holes, to knot the suture eachother to fix the block, and to use stitch to fix the remaining suture in the Achilles tendon in order to improve the block fixation. The criteria of the AOFAS Foot and Ankle Surgery by the United States Association of ankle-rear foot functional recovery was used to evaluate the Achilles tendon. Total average score was (95.5 +/- 3.12) points, including pain items of(38.5 +/- 2.18) points,the average score of functional items of (49.5 +/- 3.09) points,and power lines of 10 points in all patients. Twenty-one patients got an excellent result, 16 good and 5 poor. The methods of treatment for the calcaneal avulsion fractures with TwinFix suture anchors is a simple operation, and have excellent clinical effect, which is worthy of promotion.

  2. Treatment of displaced talar neck fractures using delayed procedures of plate fixation through dual approaches.

    Xue, Youdi; Zhang, Hui; Pei, Fuxing; Tu, Chongqi; Song, Yueming; Fang, Yue; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of talar neck fractures is challenging. Various surgical approaches and fixation methods have been documented. Clinical outcomes are often dissatisfying due to inadequate reduction and fixation with high rates of complications. Obtaining satisfactory clinical outcomes with minimum complications remains a hard task for orthopaedic surgeons. In the period from May 2007 to September 2010, a total of 31 cases with closed displaced talar neck fractures were treated surgically in our department. Injuries were classified according to the Hawkins classification modified by Canale and Kelly. Under general anaesthesia with sufficient muscle relaxation, urgent closed reduction was initiated once the patients were admitted; if the procedure failed, open reduction and provisional stabilisation with Kirschner wires through an anteromedial approach with tibiometatarsal external fixation were performed. When the soft tissue had recovered, definitive fixation was performed with plate and screws through dual approaches. The final follow-up examination included radiological analysis, clinical evaluation and functional outcomes which were carried out according to the Ankle-Hindfoot Scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS), patient satisfaction and SF-36. Twenty-eight patients were followed up for an average of 25 months (range 18-50 months) after the injury. Only two patients had soft tissue complications, and recovery was satisfactory with conservative treatment. All of the fractures healed anatomically without malunion and nonunion, and the average union time was 14 weeks (range 12-24 weeks). Post-traumatic arthritis developed in ten cases, while six patients suffered from avascular necrosis of the talus. Secondary procedures included three cases of subtalar arthrodesis, one case of ankle arthrodesis and one case of total ankle replacement. The mean AOFAS hindfoot score was 78 (range 65-91). According to the SF-36, the average score of the

  3. Arthroscopic suture fixation in patients with a tibial intercondylar eminence fracture using a simple device to penetrate the anterior cruciate ligament

    Masato Aratake

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Displaced tibial intercondylar eminence fractures require early reduction and stable fixation to prevent nonunion, knee instability, and a lack of extension. Many types of surgical procedure are recommended including arthrotomy or an arthroscopic technique to stabilize the fracture segment using Kirschner wire, screws, staples, and suture fixation. However, contemporary arthroscopic techniques and devices can facilitate intra-articular surgery and have been applied to the treatment of this fracture. In our current report, we describe a simple suture fixation method under arthroscopy for the treatment of tibial intercondylar eminence fractures. We treated eight knees of eight patients. One patient had a Type II fracture and seven patients had a Type III fracture according to Meyer's classification. Following the arthroscopic inspection of concomitant injuries, debridement of hematoma, and reduction of the fragment, two nonabsorbable sutures (Ethibond No. 2, Johnson & Johnson, Somerville, NJ, USA were advanced through the suture passer device, which is used to penetrate the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL near to the insertion site of the displaced fragment. Two surgical sutures were pulled out by the suture retriever from the anterior proximal tibia hole and were fixed to the tibia cortex bone with a double-spike plate. At follow-up, radiographic examinations showed that bone union was achieved in all cases. All but one patient could resume normal activities with no restrictions and no ligamentous instability. All knees had a negative Lachman's test and showed a gain of stable ligament function by KT2000 arthrometer evaluation. One patient had an insignificant extension limitation and experienced slight pain after walking but these symptoms were minimal. In conclusion current arthroscopic surgery techniques for tibial intercondylar fractures can be easily performed and reproducibly achieve secure fixation and early mobilization of the knee.

  4. Comparative study on the treatment of Rockwood type III acute acromioclavicular dislocation: Clinical results from the TightRope® technique vs. K-wire fixation.

    Horst, K; Garving, C; Thometzki, T; Lichte, P; Knobe, M; Dienstknecht, T; Hofman, M; Pape, H-C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to address the inconsistency regarding the operative treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint separation. We compared results after single- and double TightRope ® reduction with results after acromioclavicular transfixation via K-wires only and additional ligament augmentation in acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations graded Rockwood type III, and hypothesized that the TightRope ® technique leads to better clinical and radiological results. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study and included 42 consecutive patients (mean age 43 years [24-66]) diagnosed and operatively treated between 2004 and 2012 (mean follow-up was 54.6 months [15-118]). Specific shoulder scores as well as scores reflecting the patients' overall mental and physical health status were used. Radiological evaluation was also performed. The SF12 test revealed comparability between all subgroups. Specific shoulder tests and a visual analogue scale demonstrated comparable results. Radiographic measurements showed a significant reduction in the AC distance and CC distance after surgery in all subgroups. The early complication rate was 9.5% for all patients, while late complications occurred in 14.3% of all cases. Compared to the established methods, the operative TightRope ® procedures represent a safe alternative in Rockwood III injuries. All investigated techniques predominantly led to good and excellent clinical results in acute Rockwood type III AC joint instabilities. Avoidance of material removal and shorter hospital stays appear to speak in favour for the TightRope ® technique. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cable pin system versus K-wire tension band fixation for patella fractures in Chinese Han population: A meta-analysis.

    Zha, Kun; Liu, Guo-Hui; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Yi; Wu, Qi-Peng

    2017-10-01

    This meta-analysis compared the therapeutic effect of cable pin system (CPS) with K-wire tension band (KTB) in the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese WanFang and Chinese VIP were searched for studies on CPS versus KTB in the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population. Literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed, and meta-analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's REVMAN 5.3 software. A total of 932 patients from 15 studies were included in this meta-analysis (426 fractures treated with CPS and 506 fractures treated with KTB). There were significant differences in duration of hospital stay [mean difference (MD)=-1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI):-1.71 to-0.43], fracture healing time (MD=-1.23; 95% CI:-1.68 to-0.77), flexion degree of knee joint at 6th month after operation (MD=14.82; 95% CI: 10.93 to 18.71), incidence of postoperative complication [risk ratio (RR)=0.16; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.27] and excellent-good rate of Böstman score (RR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.16) between the CPS group and KTB group, while no significant difference was found in operative time between the two groups (MD=-4.52; 95% CI:-11.70 to 2.67). For the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population, limited evidence suggests that the CPS is more suitable than the KTB when considering the hospital stay, fracture healing time, flexion degree of knee at 6th month after operation, incidence of postoperative complication and excellent-good rate of Böstman joint score. Due to the limitation of high quality evidence and sample size, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to validate the findings in the future.

  6. Biomecânica de quatro técnicas de fixação da fratura em quatro partes da cabeça umeral Biomechanics of four techniques for fixation of the four-part humeral head fracture

    Elpídio da Graça

    2013-02-01

    were significantly more rigid than the assemblies with the Kirschner wires and the 3.5mm diameter screws. CONCLUSION: The four fixation techniques were able to bear loads compatible with the physiological demand, but those with higher relative stiffness should be preferred for clinical application. Laboratory investigation.

  7. Fijación del tórax batiente con alambres de Kirschner: Quince años de experiencia

    Jorge Martínez Cabrera

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer las principales características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de evaluar un nuevo método de tratamiento, se estudió una serie consecutiva de 54 pacientes ingresados en el Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay" entre enero de 1984 y diciembre de 1998 con el diagnóstico de tórax batiente, a los cuales se les aplicó la estabilización de la pared costal con alambres de Kirschner. El tórax batiente se produjo con más frecuencia en el sexo masculino entre la cuarta y la quinta décadas de la vida, provocado fundamentalmente por accidentes del tránsito. Se evidenció una alta asociación entre tórax batiente y otras lesiones torácicas y extratorácicas que influyeron en la mortalidad. Las defunciones (25 % se relacionaron fundamentalmente con traumatismos craneoencefálicos graves. En 52 pacientes se logró la estabilización de la pared costal con el uso de los alambres de Kirschner, sin aparecer complicaciones significativas con su empleo, lo que demostró sus ventajas sobre otros métodosWith the objective of finding out the main epidemiological and clinical features and of evaluating a new method of treatment, we made a study on 54 patients admitted to "Dr Carlos J. Finlay" Military Hospital from january 1984 to December 1998, who had been diagnosed with flail chest and applied the stabilization of the rib wall with Kirschmer wires. The flail chest was most frequent in males aged 40-50 years fundamentally due to traffic accidents. There was high correlation between flail chest and other thoracic and extra-thoracic injures that affected mortality. Deaths (25% were mainly related with serious cranioencephalic traumas. Stabilization of rib wall using Kirschmer wires were possible in 52 patients without any significant complications. This proved the advantages of this method over the others

  8. A Modified Technique of Fixation for Proximal Femoral Valgus Osteotomy in Abnormal Bone: A Report of Two Cases

    Logheswaren S

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ideal size of intramedullary device to fix corrective osteotomy of proximal femur in abnormal bone in children and small patients may not be easily available. We report the successful use of Rush rod in combination with multiple Kirschner wires to fix the corrective osteotomy of coxa vara and shepherd crook deformity in two patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and fibrous dysplasia. The union was achieved on time, neck shaft angle and rotation were maintained.

  9. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling.

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert

    2017-07-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wire Chamber

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Wire chamber

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. wire chamber

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  13. Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006)

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Chinn, Clark A.

    2007-01-01

    Many innovative approaches to education such as problem-based learning (PBL) and inquiry learning (IL) situate learning in problem-solving or investigations of complex phenomena. Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) grouped these approaches together with unguided discovery learning. However, the problem with their line of argument is that IL and…

  14. variability in olecranon ao fracture fixation: a radiological study

    ABSTRACT. Background: Tension Band Wire(TBW) fixation of olecranon fracture is a commonly used technique by ... There are many classification systems of this injury of which the Mayo is ... backing out by as much as three times in comparison with those ..... “K” wire. A blinded randomized control outcome based clinical.

  15. wire chamber

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Wire chamber

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. wire chamber

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model: Tumor eradication and related problems

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Krishchenko, Alexander P.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we consider the ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model which was created for studying the immune response to tumors under special types of immunotherapy. New ultimate upper bounds for compact invariant sets of this model are given, as well as sufficient conditions for the existence of a positively invariant polytope. We establish three types of conditions for the nonexistence of compact invariant sets in the domain of the tumor-cell population. Our main results are two types of conditions for global tumor elimination depending on the ratio between the proliferation rate of the immune cells and their mortality rate. These conditions are described in terms of simple algebraic inequalities imposed on model parameters and treatment parameters. Our theoretical studies of ultimate dynamics are complemented by numerical simulation results.

  20. Redução fechada e fixação esquelética externa tipo II para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia Closed reduction and type-II external skeletal fixation for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Marcelo Meller Alievi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A redução fechada e o fixador esquelético externo tipo II foram avaliados para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia. Foram utilizadas doze aves adultas. Os pombos foram anestesiados com a associação de xilazina e cetamina e, em seguida, foi realizada fratura do tibiotarso direito através de pressão digital sobre a diáfise do membro. Quatro pinos de Kirschner, dois proximais e dois distais ao foco da fratura, foram inseridos através de ambas as corticais ósseas e, após redução fechada da fratura, conectados externamente por duas barras de acrílico autopolimerizável, uma na face lateral e outra na face medial do membro. Em cinco aves, foi observado radiograficamente desvio ósseo angular, porém, a função do membro não foi afetada. O tempo médio e o desvio padrão para a cicatrização óssea foram 24,8 ± 4,89 dias. Os resultados demonstram que a redução fechada e o fixador esquelético externo tipo II são efetivos para o tratamento de fraturas de tibiotarso em pombos domésticos (Columba livia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of closed reduction and type-II external skeletal fixation for treatment of tibiotarsus fractures in domestic pigeons (Columba livia. Twelve adult domestic pigeons were used. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine and ketamine hydrochloride; the right tibiotarsus was manually fractured by digital pressure applied at the mid-diaphysis. Four Kirschner wires were placed through both cortices of the bone, two proximal and two distal to the fracture site, and, after closed reduction of the fracture, they were stabilized by two acrilic bars, one in the lateral and another in the medial surface of the tibiotarsus. Abnormalities in bone angulation were observed radiographically in five birds; however, the function of the limb was not noticeably impaired. The mean time ± standard deviation for fracture healing was 24.8 ± 4.89 days. The results of this

  1. Ilizarov fixation.

    Pemberton, C; Swanepoel, S

    1993-12-01

    Professor Gavanit Ilizarov, a Russian, was practising medicine in Siberia and although not trained as a surgeon he was becoming increasingly faced with orthopaedic problems. As he had no means of treating many of these, he devised his own system based on Kurstner wires and rings but using bicycle spokes and modified clutch rings. This was in 1951. He continued to make modifications over the years and, as the system has been introduced to the rest of the world, others, too, have added their own adaptations. There are now 42 components which go to make up the Ilizarov system. By using various combinations of these components it is possible to build a frame to treat a variety of orthopaedic problems i.e. deformities, non-unions and limb lengthening.

  2. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  3. An in-vitro biomechanical study of different fixation techniques for the extended trochanteric osteotomy in revision THA.

    Zhu, Zhonglin; Ding, Hui; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Guangzhi

    2013-04-09

    The wire fixation and the cable grip fixation have been developed for the extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO) in the revision of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Many studies reported the postoperative performance of the patients, but with little quantitative biomechanical comparison of the two fixation systems. An in-vitro testing approach was designed to record the loosening between the femoral bed and the greater trochanter after fixations. Ten cadaveric femurs were chosen in this study. Each femur underwent the THA, revision by ETO and fixations. The tension to the greater trochanter was from 0 to 500N in vertical and lateral direction, respectively. The translation and rotation of the greater trochanter with respect to the bony bed were captured by an optical tracking system. In the vertical tension tests, the overall translation of the greater trochanter was observed 0.4 mm in the cable fixations and 7.0 mm in the wire fixations. In the lateral tension tests, the overall motion of the greater trochanter was 2.0 mm and 1.2° in the cable fixations, while it was 6.2 mm and 5.3° in the wire fixations. The result was significantly different between the two fixation systems. The stability of the proximal femur after ETO using different fixations in the revision THA was investigated. The cable grip fixation was significantly more stable than the wire fixation.

  4. Circumferential wires as a supplement to intramedullary nailing in unstable trochanteric hip fractures

    Ban, Ilija; Birkelund, Lasse; Palm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures is challenging. Application of a circumferential wire may facilitate bone contact and avoid postoperative fracture displacement. However, the use of circumferential wires remains controversial due to possible disturbance of the blood supply to the under......Fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures is challenging. Application of a circumferential wire may facilitate bone contact and avoid postoperative fracture displacement. However, the use of circumferential wires remains controversial due to possible disturbance of the blood supply...... to the underlying bone. We evaluated the results of applied circumferential wires, concentrating mainly on complications and reoperations....

  5. Pacemaker wires

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  6. Artrodese do punho com fixação mínima preservando as articulações carpometacarpianas Wrist arthrodesis with minimal internal fixation preserving the carpometacarpal joints

    Arlindo Gomes Pardini Júnior

    2010-01-01

    structures. In general, the results are very satisfactory, particularly for pain relief, and in the majority of cases, there is considerable functional improvement. Various techniques are described, with different methods of internal fixation, most of which include the carpometacarpal joints (CMJ in the fusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate the results of wrist arthrodesis through a technique which is simpler, more biological, more inexpensive, and does not involve the carpometacarpal joints. METHODS: 15 patients with wrist arthrodesis were evaluated (6 with sequelae of trauma, 4 Rheumatoid Arthritis, 3 Kienbock's grade IV, 1 Preiser and 1 panarthrosis. The technique consisted of the use of an iliac bone plate and internal fixation with Kirschner wires, avoiding the carpometacarpal joints. RESULTS: The evaluation was based on consolidation time (93% in 7 weeks; movements of the fingers and pronosupination; pinch and grasp strength; functional evaluation through the DASH questionnaire, pain and patient satisfaction. In general, the results were similar to those of other, more aggressive techniques, and the non-inclusion of the carpometacarpal joints did not affect the final result. CONCLUSION: wrist arthrodesis with fixation using Kirschner wires and the use of an iliac bone plate, preserving the carpometacarpal joints, gives good or excellent results which are similar to those of other techniques described. However it presents major advantages over other methods: it is less aggressive, less expensive, and does not have the inconvenience and complications associated the use of plates and screws.

  7. Optimizing pediatric interdental fixation by use of a paramedian palatal fixation site.

    McNichols, Colton H; Hatef, Daniel A; Cole, Patrick D; Hollier, Larry H

    2012-03-01

    Condylar fractures are the most common injury seen in pediatric mandibular trauma. These injuries often cannot be adequately stabilized by conservative techniques such as splinting. The pediatric condyle fracture often requires a period of intermaxillary fixation. Because of the characteristics of the developing dentition, circumdental wiring is often not possible. Surgeons commonly achieve interdental stabilization by the connection of a circum-mandibular wire and a second wire placed through a drill hole in the piriform aperture. This method can be problematic in the young patient whose palatal suture is still patent. In this brief technical note, the use of a paramedian drill hole through the palate posterior to the maxillary incisors is described. It is believed that this method is superior to other techniques because it avoids injury to the deciduous tooth buds and allows for the maxillary wire to be seated in more structurally sound tissues.

  8. CSF coccidioides complement fixation

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003526.htm CSF coccidioides complement fixation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CSF coccidioides complement fixation is a test that checks ...

  9. Intrascleral IOL Fixation.

    Jacob, Soosan

    2017-01-01

    Intrascleral sutureless intraocular lens (IOL) fixation utilizes direct haptic fixation within the sclera in eyes with deficient capsular support. This has advantages of long-term stability, good control of tilt and decentration, and lesser pseudophakodonesis. This review summarizes various techniques for intrascleral haptic fixation, results, complications, adaptations in special situations, modifications of the technique, combination surgeries, and intrascleral capsular bag fixation techniques (glued capsular hook). Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  10. ARTHRODESIS OF THE FIRST METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND HALLUX VALGUS: CHOICE OF TECHNIQUE OF ARTHRODESIS FIXATION, COMPLICATIONS AND LONG-TERM RESULTS

    V. P. Pavlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study results of arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (I MPT joint in patients with rheumatoidarthritis (RA and hallux valgus, assess methods of arthrodesis fixation, reveal complications and analyze longterm results.Subjects and methods. Authors observed 86 patients with RA, female : male ratio 3.2:1, mean age was 53.8±9.5 years (from 18 to 75 years; 80 from them had seropositive and 6 – seronegative RA. 72 patients had low, and 14 –moderate activity of the disease. II stage of RA was revealed in 31.4%, III – in 62.8%, IV – in 5.8%; 52.3% of  patients had I and 47.7% – II functional class. All patients  ad hallux valgus as a component of typical deformation of the forefoot – digitis V rheumaticus (DVR. Standard global reconstructive operation (SGRO and its modification (MGRO were used. Both techniques included arthrodesis of the I MTP joint where fusion of bones was fixed with Kirschner wire and compression clamps in groups A and B respectively. Results of surgical treatmentwere assessed separately for I and II–V toes. The present work provides solely the results of the I MTP joint arthrodesis.Results. Assessment of the I MTP joint with hallux valgus before and 2.3±1.5 years after operation based on AOFAS comprised 35.51±8.16/82.32±6.09 in the group A and 39.93±6.65/82.26±5,59 in the group B. Inefficiency of arthrodesis of the I MTP joint was observed in 3 patients from the group B (2.15%. Before operation, 3 from 141 feet had hallux valgus of the II stage (21–40°; III (41–60° and IV (>60° stages of hallux valgus were recorded in 90 and48 feet respectively. Following 2.3 years after arthrodesis normal I MTP joints (10–11° were observed in 131 feet whereas, that of the II stage of hallux valgus (12–20° – in 10 feet.Conclusion. High efficacy of arthrodesis of the I MTP joint in patients with RA and hallux valgus and, subsequently, low failure rate (2.15% were achieved as

  11. Application of irradiated wire

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  12. Failure analysis of the fractured wires in sternal perichronal loops.

    Chao, Jesús; Voces, Roberto; Peña, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    We report failure analysis of sternal wires in two cases in which a perichronal fixation technique was used to close the sternotomy. Various characteristics of the retrieved wires were compared to those of unused wires of the same grade and same manufacturer and with surgical wire specifications. In both cases, wire fracture was un-branched and transgranular and proceeded by a high cycle fatigue process, apparently in the absence of corrosion. However, stress anlysis indicates that the effective stress produced during strong coughing is lower than the yield strength. Our findings suggest that in order to reduce the risk for sternal dehiscence, the diameter of the wire used should be increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Noncontextual Wirings

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  14. There is more variation within than across domains: an interview with Paul A. Kirschner about applying cognitive psychology based instructional design principles in mathematics teaching and learning

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Verschaffel, Lieven; Star, Jon; Van Dooren, Wim

    2018-01-01

    In this interview we asked Paul A. Kirschner about his comments and reflections regarding the idea to apply cognitive psychology-based instructional design principles to mathematics education and some related issues. With a main focus on cognitive psychology, educational psychology, educational

  15. There Is More Variation "within" than "across" Domains: An Interview with Paul A. Kirschner about Applying Cognitive Psychology-Based Instructional Design Principles in Mathematics Teaching and Learning

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Verschaffel, Lieven; Star, Jon; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-01-01

    In this interview we asked Paul A. Kirschner about his comments and reflections regarding the idea to apply cognitive psychology-based instructional design principles to mathematics education and some related issues. With a main focus on cognitive psychology, educational psychology, educational technology and instructional design, this…

  16. Miniplate fixation of Le Fort I osteotomies.

    Rosen, H M

    1986-12-01

    The use of rigid, internal, three-dimensional fixation using vitallium bone plates in 28 consecutive Le Fort I osteotomies is presented. A minimum follow-up period of 6 months was required for inclusion in this patient group. Maxillary movements included advancements (17), intrusions (9), lengthenings (5), and retrusions (2). The majority of maxillae were moved in more than one plane of space. Technical details, complications, and relapse potential are discussed. Advantages of rigid plate fixation include marked reductions in the length of intermaxillary fixation with light training elastics only. Immediate postoperative airway problems are thereby eliminated. Six months of follow-up would appear to indicate a low potential for osseous relapse when compared to wire osteosynthesis, regardless of the direction of maxillary movement. The major disadvantage is the decreased ability of postoperative orthodontics to move dento-osseous segments if skeletal occlusal disharmony persists postoperatively. For this reason, close attention to preoperative planning and operative technique is critical for the success of this fixation method.

  17. Guide to radiation fixatives

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    This report identifies and then characterizes a variety of substances available in the market place for potential effectiveness as a fixative on radiologically contaminated surfaces. The substances include both generic chemicals and proprietary products. In selecting a fixative for a particular application, several attributes of the fixative may be relevant to the choice. These attributes include: toxicity, durability, and cleanliness and removability. In addition to the attributes of the fixative, one should also take into account certain characteristics of the site to be treated. These characteristics relate to climate, nature of the surface, use to which the treated surface will be put, subsequent cleanup operations, and type of neighboring surfaces. Finally, costs and potential environmental effects may influence the decision. A variety of fixatives are evaluated with respect to these various attributes and summarized in a reference table

  18. Modified tension band wiring of medial malleolar ankle fractures.

    Georgiadis, G M; White, D B

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-two displaced medial malleolar ankle fractures that were treated surgically using the modified tension band method of Cleak and Dawson were retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 25 months. The technique involves the use of a screw to anchor a figure-of-eight wire. There were no malreductions and all fractures healed. Problems with the technique included technical errors with hardware placement, medial ankle pain, and asymptomatic wire migration. Despite this, modified tension band wiring remains an acceptable method for fixation of selected displaced medial malleolar fractures. It is especially suited for small fracture fragments and osteoporotic bone.

  19. A STUDY ON FRACTURE FIXATION OF DISTAL END OF RADIUS BY PERCUTANEOUS PINNING

    Kiran Kumar L

    2016-07-01

    within the normal functional range (minimum 30°, 24 (96.66% had pronation within the normal functional range (minimum 50°, 26 (86.66% had supination within the normal functional range (minimum 50°, 20 (66.66% had radial deviation within the normal functional range (minimum 15°, and all patients had ulnar deviation within the normal functional range (minimum 15°. 29 (96.66% patients had grip strength more than 60% compared to the opposite side. 1(3.33% had significant loss of grip strength (>60% compared to the opposite side. 7 patients had pain in the distal radioulnar joint. None patients had stiffness of the wrist. 1 patient (3.33% had a superficial wound infection and two (6.66% patients had pin tract infection. None of the patients had median nerve injury or arthritic changes as described by Knirk and Jupiter. There were no intraoperative complications. The study had 16.66% excellent, 80% good, 3.33% fair, and 0% poor result. CONCLUSIONS Kirschner wire fixation is a simple and reliable and effective method for maintenance of reduction in distal radius fractures especially in young adults. Unstable distal radius fractures, which may have a tendency to redisplace, plaster, pinning is a relatively effective method of fixation for reducible extra-articular fractures, simple intra-articular fractures that are nondisplaced, and in patients with good bone quality for restoration of preinjury anatomical alignment and there by the functional outcome in the management of distal radius fractures and allows early rehabilitation without jeopardising the fracture alignment. The functional end results have a direct relationship with the anatomical end results particularly in young adults though sometimes good functional results can be obtained even when anatomical results are poor due to innate mobility of wrist joint in elderly people. Pinning demonstrates good reproducible outcomes with minimal risk in appropriately selected fracture patterns. This technique can provide

  20. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  1. Removal of a broken guide wire entrapped in a fractured femoral neck

    ZHU Qing-hua

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Guide wire plays an important role in the fixation of femoral neck fracture with dynamic hip screw (DHS. Breakage of a guide wire during operation is a very rare condition. We met such a dilemma in DHS fixation of a 54-year-old male patient who sustained Garden type IV frac-ture of the right femoral neck. The distal end of the guide wire broke and was entrapped in the fractured femoral neck. We tried to get the broken part out by a cannulated drill. Reaming was started with the cannulated drill slowly rotat-ing around the guide K-wire until the reamer fully contained the target under fluoroscope. A bone curette was used to get the broken wire out but failed, so we had to use the cannuated drill to dredge this bone tunnel. Finally the bro-ken wire end was taken out, mixed with blood and bone fragments. Through the existing drilling channel, DHS fixa-tion was easily finished. The patient had an uneventful re-covery without avascular necrosis of femoral head or non-union of the fracture at one year’s follow-up. A few methods can be adopted to deal with the broken guide wire. The way used in our case is less invasive but technically challenging. When the guide wire is properly positioned, this method is very practical and useful. Key words: Femoral neck fractures; Bones wires; Complications

  2. The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures.

    McGreal, G

    2012-02-03

    We use a braided polyester suture in place of cerclage wire in tension band fixations. The objective of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of this technique. Sixteen cadaveric patellae were fractured and repaired by modified tension band fixation. Eight were fixed using eighteen gauge stainless steel wire as a tension band and eight using braided polyester. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing. Polyester was 75.0% as strong as wire. For dynamic testing, the patellae of seven cadaveric knees were fractured and then fixed with polyester tension bands. These were mounted in a device capable of extending the knees from 90 degrees to neutral against an applied force. None of the fixations failed. Three of the specimens fixed using 18 gauge stainless steel wire were compared with three fixed using polyester over 2000 cycles of knee flexion and extension. Polyester performed as well as wire. We conclude that polyester is an acceptable alternative to wire in tension band fixation.

  3. Comparison of Internal Fixations for Distal Clavicular Fractures Based on Loading Tests and Finite Element Analyses

    Rina Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to apply strong and stable internal fixation to a fracture of the distal end of the clavicle because it is unstable, the distal clavicle fragment is small, and the fractured region is near the acromioclavicular joint. In this study, to identify a superior internal fixation method for unstable distal clavicular fracture, we compared three types of internal fixation (tension band wiring, scorpion, and LCP clavicle hook plate. Firstly, loading tests were performed, in which fixations were evaluated using bending stiffness and torsional stiffness as indices, followed by finite element analysis to evaluate fixability using the stress and strain as indices. The bending and torsional stiffness were significantly higher in the artificial clavicles fixed with the two types of plate than in that fixed by tension band wiring (P<0.05. No marked stress concentration on the clavicle was noted in the scorpion because the arm plate did not interfere with the acromioclavicular joint, suggesting that favorable shoulder joint function can be achieved. The stability of fixation with the LCP clavicle hook plate and the scorpion was similar, and plate fixations were stronger than fixation by tension band wiring.

  4. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  5. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  6. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  7. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  8. Results of application of external fixation with different types of fixators

    Grubor Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extra-focal or external fixation is the method of fracture fixation through the healthy part of the bone using pins or wires. Objective. The aim was to determine which external splints (Ortofix, Mitković, Charnley and Ilizarov had the best biomechanical properties in primary stabilization of spiral, transverse and commutative bone fractures. Methods. To determine the investigation methodology of biomechanical characteristics of the external fixator we used mathematical and computer simulator (software, juvidur physical model and clinical examination. Results. Values of advancing fragments in millimetres obtained by the study of mathematical and computer simulator (software: Charnley - 0.080 mm, Mitković M 20 - 0.785 mm, Ilizarov - 2.245 mm and Ortofix - 1.400 mm. In testing the juvidur model the following values were obtained: the external fixator Mitković M20 - 1.380 mm, Ortofix - 1.470 mm, Ilizarov - 2.410 mm, and Charnley - 2.510 mm. Clinical research of biomechanical characteristics of the effect of vertical force yielded the following results: Mitković M20 - 0.89 mm, Ortofix - 0.14 mm, Charnley - 0.80 mm and Ilizarov - 1.23 mm. Conclusion. When determining the total number of the stability test splints under the effect of vertical force (compression and force effect in antero-posterior, later-lateral plane of cross, spiral and comminuted long bone fractures, the best unified biomechanical stability was shown by the following external fixators: firstly, Mitković M20 (0.93mm, secondly, Charnley fixator (1.14 mm, thirdly, Ortofix (1.22 mm, and fourthly, Ilizarov (1.60 mm.

  9. Water Desalination with Wires

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  10. PS wire chamber

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  12. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2001-01-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  13. Late Migration of Threaded Wire (Schanz Screw from Right Distal Clavicle to the Cervical Spine

    Chun-Hao Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 49-year-old man who had undergone osteosynthesis to treat right distal clavicular fracture with a threaded wire (Schanz screw. The wire could not be removed due to its firm fixation within the bone. Eight years later, migration of the broken wire to the right 7th cervical vertebra punctured the lamina, with no spinal cord injury noted. The threaded wire was extracted from the C7 lamina emergently. No complication occurred after pin removal or during the 1-year postoperative follow-up.

  14. The Stability of Double Jaw Surgery: A Comparison of Rigid Fixation versus Skeletal Wire Fixation

    1988-08-01

    surgical and follow-up changes in the proximal segment length as measured from articulare to gonion, and found a +3.6 mm distraction during surgery... distraction during surgery (Epker, Wolford and Fish 1978; Schendel and Epker 1980; Worms et al. 1980), (3) counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible...primarily at the muscle-tendon interface. Other authors have implicated condylar distraction *(Epker et al. 1978; Schendel and Epker 1980; Worms et al

  15. A Novel Handmade External Fixator for Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fractures

    Davod Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The value of external fixation in complex hand injuries is well established. Expenses and technical difficulties of commercial mini external fixator sets have led to the innovation of handmade external fixators. These fixators are used as versatile facilities to treat certain hand fractures. Usually, these structures are made by k-wires crossed filled with cement plastic tube. However, these fixators have multiple deficiencies that should be addressed. Objectives In this study, we described in detail the surgical technique of a handmade concrete like mini external fixator and report its clinical use and results. Methods Our handmade external fixator was applied for 52 patients with 56 fractures. Only 5% of the fractures were closed, non-comminuted extra-articular, and the other 51 fractures were more complex injuries. The mean follow up time was 9.3 months. At the end of the follow up, radiologic and functional assessment (DASH: Disability of arm, shoulder and hand and TAM: Total active motion was evaluated. Results All 56 fractures were united completely. None of the cases experienced pin loosening or reduction loss. Of the fractures, 8.9% malunited due to fracture complexity. The mean dash score was 3.76. TAM was excellent in 45% of the fractures; it was good in 7% and fair in 4%. Conclusions This type of handmade external fixator is simple, lightweight, and cheap. Furthermore, all implements are readily available in most operating fields. The probability of loosening has been greatly diminished because of the concrete like structure. Easy and fast assembly and good clinical and functional results are the other advantages of this technique. Due to the less complication and benefits, this technique could be used for many phalangeal and metacarpal fractures with confidence.

  16. Modified fixation with pinning and external fixation components for feline femur multiple-lined fracture: A case report

    Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.; Matuhashi, A.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year-old female Japanese domestic cat, weighing 3kg, was referred to us because of right hind leg lameness occuring for 3 days' duration. Radiography of the affected leg revealed severe femoral diaphysial comminuted fracture. The affected leg was treated using wire with an intramedullary Stainman pin being placed completely through the femur. After suturing the wound, both ends of the intramedullary pin exposed both proximally and distally were fixed with external fixation components (two double clamps, two single clamps, two short rods and one long rod) to prevent the pin from rotation. There was a slight gait problem due to the external apparatus and no post-operative infection. The function of the right hind leg gradually recovered. The intramedullary pin and external fixative apparatus were removed on the 52nd day after surgery. This modified fixation appears to offer versatility in the treatment of various fractures in smaller dogs and cats

  17. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , noncomminuted fractures. External fixation uses external bars for stabilization, whereas internal fixation is realized by subcutaneous placement of locking plates. Both of these "biologic" osteosynthesis methods allow a minimally invasive approach and do not compromise fracture hematoma and periosteal blood...

  18. Sacroiliac Screw Fixation

    E.W. van den Bosch

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to evaluate three major aspects of the use of sacroiliac screws in patients with unstable pelvic ring fractures: the optimal technique for sacroiliac screw fixation, the reliability of peroperative fluoroscopy and the late results. We focused on the questions

  19. Towards plant wires

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  20. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  1. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  3. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  4. Isotopes in biological dinitrogen fixation

    1978-10-01

    Nineteen papers were presented at the conference. Some topics discussed are as follows: biochemistry and genetics of dinitrogen fixation; genetics of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis and of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria; studies on nonsymbiotic dinitrogen fixation in grass-bacteria associations and blue--green algae; use of /sup 15/N and /sup 13/N for the assay of dinitrogen fixation; effects of management practices on dinitrogen fixation; economy of C and N in nitrogen-fixing legumes; and survey of international and national programs on dinitrogen fixation. (HLW)

  5. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation: a Dog Bone button fixation alone versus Dog Bone button fixation augmented with acromioclavicular repair-a finite element analysis study.

    Sumanont, Sermsak; Nopamassiri, Supachoke; Boonrod, Artit; Apiwatanakul, Punyawat; Boonrod, Arunnit; Phornphutkul, Chanakarn

    2018-03-20

    Suspension suture button fixation was frequently used to treat acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) dislocation. However, there were many studies reporting about complications and residual horizontal instability after fixation. Our study compared the stability of ACJ after fixation between coracoclavicular (CC) fixation alone and CC fixation combined with ACJ repair by using finite element analysis (FEA). A finite element model was created by using CT images from the normal shoulder. The model 1 was CC fixation with suture button alone, and the model 2 was CC fixation with suture button combined with ACJ repair. Three different forces (50, 100, 200 N) applied to the model in three planes; inferior, anterior and posterior direction load to the acromion. The von Mises stress of the implants and deformation at ACJs was recorded. The ACJ repair in the model 2 could reduce the peak stress on the implant after applying the loading forces to the acromion which the ACJ repair could reduce the peak stress of the FiberWire at suture button about 90% when compared to model 1. And, the ACJ repair could reduce the deformation of the ACJ after applying the loading forces to the acromion in both vertical and horizontal planes. This FEA supports that the high-grade injuries of the ACJ should be treated with CC fixation combined with ACJ repair because this technique provides excellent stability in both vertical and horizontal planes and reduces stress to the suture button.

  6. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  8. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  9. Biomechanical Comparison of External Fixation and Compression Screws for Transverse Tarsal Joint Arthrodesis.

    Latt, L Daniel; Glisson, Richard R; Adams, Samuel B; Schuh, Reinhard; Narron, John A; Easley, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Transverse tarsal joint arthrodesis is commonly performed in the operative treatment of hindfoot arthritis and acquired flatfoot deformity. While fixation is typically achieved using screws, failure to obtain and maintain joint compression sometimes occurs, potentially leading to nonunion. External fixation is an alternate method of achieving arthrodesis site compression and has the advantage of allowing postoperative compression adjustment when necessary. However, its performance relative to standard screw fixation has not been quantified in this application. We hypothesized that external fixation could provide transverse tarsal joint compression exceeding that possible with screw fixation. Transverse tarsal joint fixation was performed sequentially, first with a circular external fixator and then with compression screws, on 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs. The external fixator was attached in abutting rings fixed to the tibia and the hindfoot and a third anterior ring parallel to the hindfoot ring using transverse wires and half-pins in the tibial diaphysis, calcaneus, and metatarsals. Screw fixation comprised two 4.3 mm headless compression screws traversing the talonavicular joint and 1 across the calcaneocuboid joint. Compressive forces generated during incremental fixator foot ring displacement to 20 mm and incremental screw tightening were measured using a custom-fabricated instrumented miniature external fixator spanning the transverse tarsal joint. The maximum compressive force generated by the external fixator averaged 186% of that produced by the screws (range, 104%-391%). Fixator compression surpassed that obtainable with screws at 12 mm of ring displacement and decreased when the tibial ring was detached. No correlation was found between bone density and the compressive force achievable by either fusion method. The compression across the transverse tarsal joint that can be obtained with a circular external fixator including a tibial ring exceeds that

  10. Accurate guide wire of lag screw placement in the intertrochanteric fractures: a technical note.

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Liao; Li, Xiaodong; Feng, Kai; Tang, Jian; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-01

    Cephalomedullary fixations are commonly used in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. In clinical practice, one of the difficulties is when we exit the guide wire in a wrong position of femoral neck and insert near the hole again, the guide wire often flow into the previous track. This study develops a surgical technique to direct the guide wire to slip away the previous track and slip into a right position. When guide wire is exited to the cortex of femoral, we let the wire in and out at the cortical layer for several times to enlarge the entry hole. After that, electric drill is inverted, rubbed and entered slowly at a right angle. When guide wire encountered new resistance, the electric drill is turned back instantly. This technique can help trauma and orthopedic surgeons to obtain precision placement of the lag screw after the first try is failed.

  11. Fixation distance and fixation duration to vertical road signs.

    Costa, Marco; Simone, Andrea; Vignali, Valeria; Lantieri, Claudio; Palena, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration. Road signs were gazed at a much closer distance than their visibility distance. In a second study a staircase procedure was used to test the presentation-time threshold that lead to a 75% accuracy in road sign identification. The threshold was 35 ms, showing that short fixations to a road signs could lead to a correct identification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Remodeled articular surface after surgical fixation of patella fracture in a child

    Moruf Babatunde Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patella fracture is uncommon in pediatric age group and their patella is better preserved in any class of patella fracture. We reported a case of a 13-year-old male with right patella fracture nonunion. He had open reduction and internal fixation using tension band wire device. Fracture union was monitored with serial radiographs and he was followed up for 60 weeks. There was articular surface step after surgical fixation of the patella fracture. At 34 weeks postoperative, there was complete remodeling of the articular surface with good knee function after removal of the tension band wire. Children have good capacity of bone remodeling after fracture. Little retropatella step in a child after patella fracture surgical fixation will remodel with healing.

  13. Towards plant wires.

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  15. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  16. Copper wire bonding

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  17. Preliminary experience with biodegradable implants for fracture fixation

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodegradable implants were designed to overcome the disadvantages of metal-based internal fixation devices. Although they have been in use for four decades internationally, many surgeons in India continue to be skeptical about the mechanical strength of biodegradable implants, hence this study. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done to assess the feasibility and surgeon confidence level with biodegradable implants over a 12-month period in an Indian hospital. Fifteen fractures (intra-articular, metaphyseal or small bone fractures were fixed with biodegradable implants. The surgeries were randomly scheduled so that different surgeons with different levels of experience could use the implants for fixation. Results: Three fractures (one humeral condyle, two capitulum, were supplemented by additional K-wires fixation. Trans-articular fixator was applied in two distal radius and two pilon fractures where bio-pins alone were used. All fractures united, but in two cases the fracture displaced partially during the healing phase; one fibula due to early walking, and one radius was deemed unstable even after bio-pin and external fixator. Conclusions: Biodegradable -implants are excellent for carefully selected cases of intra-articular fractures and some small bone fractures. However, limitations for use in long bone fractures persist and no great advantage is gained if a "hybrid" composite is employed. The mechanical properties of biopins and screws in isolation are perceived to be inferior to those of conventional metal implants, leading to low confidence levels regarding the stability of reduced fractures; these implants should be used predominantly in fracture patterns in which internal fixation is subjected to minimal stress.

  18. [Domestic external fixator application in the treatment of limb deformities: 7 289 cases application report].

    Qin, S H; Guo, B F; Zheng, X J; Jiao, S F; Xia, H T; Peng, A M; Pan, Q; Zang, J C; Wang, Z J

    2017-09-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical application and effects of domestic external fixator in the treatment of patients with malformations of limbs. Methods: A total of 7 289 patients with malformation of limbs who had been operated in Qin Sihe orthopedic surgery team from January 1989 to June 2016 were retrospective analyzed. The patients were treated with domestic external fixator, including 4 033 males and 3 256 females, aging from 2 to 82 years with a mean age of 23.4 years. There were 2 732 patients using Ilizarov external fixator, 4 713 patients using hybrid external fixator, 57 patients using monobrachial external fixator, 232 patients using Ilizarov external fixator and hybrid external fixator. The Ilizarov, hybrid and monobrachial external fixator were used in 67, 65 and 0 patients on the upper limbs and in 2 665, 4 616 and 57 patients on the lower limbs. There were 3 028 patients operated on the left limbs, 3 260 patients operated on the right limbs and 1 001 patients operated on the bilateral limbs. The top three types of diseases were sequelae of poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy and post-traumatic stress disorder peromely. Deformity types inclued talipes equinovarus, knee flexion deformity, cavus foot and so on. Results: All the patients were followed up for a period of 2.5 months to 22.4 years, with an average follow-up time of 5.4 years. All of the external fixators were used for single once, and there was no substitute for external fixator quality problem. All the patients were completed surgery goal until removing external fixation except 1 patient gave up treatment and 1 removed the fixator because of metal allergy. The common complications included wire or pin infection and joint movement limitation and so on. Conclusions: The domestic external fixator developed and produced based on the characteristics of Chinese limb deformity disability. The domestic external fixator can be used to treat kinds of limb deformities with the advantages of practical

  19. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  20. Complement fixation test to C burnetii

    ... complement fixation test; Coxiella burnetii - complement fixation test; C burnetii - complement fixation test ... a specific foreign substance ( antigen ), in this case, C burnetii . Antibodies defend the body against bacteria, viruses, ...

  1. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach].

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K

    2008-12-01

    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and

  2. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  3. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  4. Wire core reactor for NTP

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  5. Wired to freedom

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  6. Electric wiring domestic

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  7. Modern wiring practice

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  8. REVISION ANKLE SYNDESMOSIS FIXATION - FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME AFTER TIGHTROPE ® FIXATION

    Sendhilvelan Rajagopalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Syndesmotic disruptions are often seen in ankle fractures. Malreduction of these fractures can result in arthritis and instability. A proportion of these patients with malreduction require revision fixation. This study presents the results of revision fixation in such patients, using the Ankle TightRope ® (Arthrex system. METHODS Between January 2000 to December 2009, 124 patients who underwent ankle fracture fixations with syndesmotic stabilisation were analysed. Out of 124 patients, 8 patients were diagnosed with failure of primary stabilisation (based on radiological and clinical criteria and subjected to revision fixation using the Ankle TightRope ® (Arthrex system. Followup was done at periodic time intervals of 3, 6 and 12 months. Both clinical and radiological assessment was performed. Complications and duration of hospital stay was recorded. Functional evaluation was performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS scoring system. RESULTS Five patients had good results, one satisfactory and two had poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Ankle TightRope ® fixation is an alternative method of stabilisation in patients who require revision syndesmosis fixation. Further studies are required to evaluate this method of revision stabilisation as compared to screws.

  9. Adjacent-segment disease after thoracic pedicle screw fixation.

    Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Agarwal, Prateek

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw fixation is a technique widely used to treat conditions ranging from spine deformity to fracture stabilization. Pedicle screws have been used traditionally in the lumbar spine; however, they are now being used with increasing frequency in the thoracic spine as a more favorable alternative to hooks, wires, or cables. Although safety concerns, such as the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after cervical and lumbar fusions, have been reported, such issues in the thoracic spine have yet to be addressed thoroughly. Here, the authors review the literature on ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation and report their own experience specifically involving the use of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. METHODS Select references from online databases, such as PubMed (provided by the US National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health), were used to survey the literature concerning ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation. To include the authors' experience at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to determine the incidence of complications over a 13-year period in 123 consecutive adult patients who underwent thoracic pedicle screw fixation. Children, pregnant or lactating women, and prisoners were excluded from the review. By comparing preoperative and postoperative radiographic images, the occurrence of thoracic ASD and disease within the surgical construct was determined. RESULTS Definitive radiographic fusion was detected in 115 (93.5%) patients. Seven incidences of instrumentation failure and 8 lucencies surrounding the screws were observed. One patient was observed to have ASD of the thoracic spine. The mean follow-up duration was 50 months. CONCLUSIONS This long-term radiographic evaluation revealed the use of pedicle screws for thoracic fixation to be an effective stabilization modality. In particular, ASD seems to be less of a problem in the

  10. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  11. A World without Wires

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  12. 3D Wire 2015

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  13. Wire chamber conference

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  14. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  15. Practical wiring in SI units

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  16. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  17. "Floating arm" injury in a child with fractures of the proximal and distal parts of the humerus: a case report

    Güven Melih

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Simultaneous supracondylar humerus fracture and ipsilateral fracture of the proximal humerus in children is rare. Case presentation A 10-year-old Turkish boy with an extension type supracondylar humerus fracture and ipsilateral fracture at the proximal metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction of the humerus was treated by closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. Closed reduction was performed using a Kirschner wire as a "joystick" to manipulate the humeral shaft after some swelling occurred around the elbow and shoulder. Conclusion The combination of fractures at the proximal and distal parts of the humerus can be termed as "floating arm" injury. Initial treatment of this unusual injury should be focused on the supracondylar humerus fracture. However, closed reduction can be difficult to perform with the swelling around the elbow and shoulder. A temporary Kirschner wire can be used as a "joystick" to fix and reduce the fracture.

  18. Permanganate Fixation of Plant Cells

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.

    1959-01-01

    In an evaluation of procedures explored to circumvent some of the problems of osmium tetroxide-fixation and methacrylate embedding of plant materials, excised segments of root tips of Zea mays were fixed for electron microscopy in potassium permanganate in the following treatment variations: unbuffered and veronal-acetate buffered solutions of 0.6, 2.0, and 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at pH 5.0, 6.0, 6.7, and 7.5, and temperatures of 2–4°C. and 22°C. After fixation the segments were dehydrated, embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned, and observed or photographed. The cells of the central region of the rootcap are described. The fixation procedures employing unbuffered solutions containing 2.0 to 5.0 per cent KMnO4 at a temperature of 22°C. gave particularly good preservation of cell structure and all membrane systems. Similar results were obtained using a solution containing 2.0 per cent KMnO4, buffered with veronal-acetate to pH 6.0, and a fixation time of 2 hours at 22°C. The fixation procedure utilizing veronal-acetate buffered, 0.6 per cent KMnO4 at 2–4°C. and pH 6.7 also gave relatively good preservation of most cellular constituents. However, preservation of the plasma membrane was not so good, nor was the intensity of staining so great, as that with the group of fixatives containing greater concentrations of KMnO4. The other fixation procedures did not give satisfactory preservation of fine structure. A comparison is made of cell structures as fixed in KMnO4 or OsO4. PMID:14423414

  19. Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves.

    Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Singh, Gaj Raj; Setia, Harish Chandra

    2010-07-01

    To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF). Clinical report. Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg). Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf. Both calves had good weight bearing with moderate lameness postoperatively. Fracture healing occurred by day 60 in 1 calf and by day 30 in calf 2. The CEF was well maintained and tolerated by both calves through fracture healing. Joint mobility and limb usage improved gradually after CEF removal. CEF provided a stable fixation of tibial fractures and healing within 60 days and functional recovery within 90 days. CEF can be safely and successfully used for the management of selected tibial fractures in calves.

  20. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  1. The Micro Wire Detector

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  2. Superconducting magnet wire

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  3. Twisting wire scanner

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  4. Twisting wire scanner

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  5. Wire chamber gases

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  6. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  7. [Growth and deformity after in situ fixation of slipped capital femoral epiphysis].

    Druschel, C; Placzek, R; Funk, J F

    2013-08-01

    For mild to moderate slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in situ fixation is the current treatment standard. However, concerning the implant selection (screw versus k-wires) as well as the prophylactic stabilisation of the non-affected hip, controversies still exist. The aim of this study was to analyse femoral residual growth and femoral deformities after in situ fixation of SCFE either with k-wires or screws. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the radiographs of adolescents treated for SCFE in our department between 01/2003 and 02/2011. To evaluate femoral growth the articulo-trochanteric distance, centro-trochanteric distance, caput-collum-diaphyseal angle, pin-joint ratio and pin-physis ratio were determined. The femoral deformity was assessed by measuring the sphericity of the femoral head. Degenerative changes were evaluated in the final radiographs. Statistical analysis was performed concerning differences between therapeutically and prophylactically treated hips as well as stabilisations with k-wires and screws. A total of 22 patients (female : male = 14 : 8, mean age girls: 11 ± 1 years, boys: 13 ± 2 years) with 26 slipped capital femoral epiphyses was analysed. K-wires were used for fixation in 4 hips each therapeutically and prophylactically, 22 hips with SCFE and 14 non-affected hips were stabilised with screws. Treatment with screws did not lead to significantly earlier physeal closure than k-wire pinning. Regarding the femoral growth parameters a significant decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance and CCD angle was detectable in all groups. The pin-joint ratio revealed an adequate residual growth in 58 % of the therapeutically and in 72 % of the prophylactically treated hips without significant difference between k-wires and screws. The pin-physis ratio demonstrated similar values. Regarding the femoral deformity the SCFE hips resulted in a significantly reduced sphericity, which remained unchanged during follow-up. The

  8. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  9. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    CC Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  10. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  11. Review of wire chamber aging

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  12. A STUDY ON THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPLACED FRACTURES OF PATELLA USING MODIFIED TENSION BAND WIRING

    Hari Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patella is an important component of the extensor mechanism of the knee. A patella fracture constitutes 1% of all skeletal fractures resulting from either direct or indirect trauma. Any improper and inadequate treatment would inevitably lead to a disability which would be most perceptibly felt in a country like India, where squatting is important activity in daily life. The goal of treatment is to regain the continuity of the extensor mechanism and congruity of patellofemoral a rticulation so that the normal function of the knee can be restored. Several techniques have been described for internal fixation of fractures of patella. The ideal fixation for the fracture patella is that it should be strong enough to allow early mobiliz ation, reduce posttraumatic stiffness and perhaps help the healing of the articular surface . AIMS: To analyze the functional outcome of displaced transverse fractures of the patella treated by Modified Tension Band Wiring principle (Muller using A. Dutta & S. K. Gupta Scoring System. To extend the application of Modified Tension Band wiring for minimally comminuted fractures of patella and assesses the results. CONCLUSION : The present study shows that modified tension band wiring (Muller is an effective p rocedure in the management of displaced transverse patellar fractures, with excellent to good results. Minimally comminuted patellar fractures also yielded excellent to good results with Modified tension band wiring as an extended application. The results in the present study are comparable to other modifications of Tension Band Wiring principle. The surgery of Modified Tension Band Wiring gives rigid fixation and helps in early mobilization. Regular and scheduled post- operative physiotherapy plays an impor tant role in the functional outcome.

  13. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from

  14. Wire communication engineering

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  15. The Micro Wire Detector

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  16. Wiring regulations in brief

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  17. Stabilized superconductive wires

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  18. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  20. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  1. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  2. Analysis and an overview of fixators in medicine and the methods of processing materials for producing fixators

    Dalibor Milojko Đenadić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixator is a medical device that provides support to fractured biological structures. Metal biomaterials are mainly used for replacing broken or damaged hard tissues such as bones because of their high strenght, toughness and corrosion resistance. Materials such as stainless steel, titanium and aluminium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, cobalt and chromium alloys, composite materials and other biocompatible materials are used in orthopedy for the stabilization of connective tissue injuries or as a substitute for the bone tissues. Fixators are classified according to the place of installation to external and internal fixators. Widely used medical fixators are pins, rods plates, screws, pipes, wires, nails and external fixators. Conventional and non-conventional methods of processing are used in the production process for all types of fixators. Introduction Fixators are medical devices manufactured to support damaged biological structures. In the field of orthopedic surgery that deals with skeletal disorders such as bone, spine, joints, muscles and tendons injuries and diseases, various metals, titanium and cobalt alloys etc. are used to stabilize the supporting tissue injuries or as a substitute for bone tissues. Metallic implants are frequently used in orthopedic surgery as joint prosthesis (hip, knee and elbow fracture fixation devices (plates, screws, external fixators and devices for the fixation of the spine. In principle, fixators are devided into external and internal ones, depending on the place of installation (outside or inside the body. The most common types of medical fixators are pins, rods and plates. This paper presents some of the most common materials used for the production of fixators, their processing and possibilties of use in medicine for various purposes. Types of fixators and materials used for their production Nowadays, biocompatible materials are usually used for the production of fixators and implants. These materials show good

  3. Surgical treatment and a unique management of rostral mandibular fracture with cerclage wire in a horse.

    Naddaf, Hadi; Sabiza, Soroush; Kavosi, Narges

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year-old Arabian colt was presented for a major gingiva wound at the right rostral part of mandible. After clinical assessments, rostral mandibular fracture was determined. Stabilization of fractured region was achieved via cerclage wire application under general anesthesia. Fixation wires were left in place for 6 weeks. A 3 -month follow up revealed complete fracture healing. The purpose of this case report was to give clinical information about rostral mandibular fractures and treatment of these fractures and nutrition protocol in a horse, as this fracture is of the most common type of jaw fracture sustained by young horses.

  4. Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation

    Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs

  5. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  6. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  7. Fractures of the distal clavicle: comparison between two surgical treatment methods

    José Carlos Souza Vilela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and radiographic results from osteosynthesis of fractures of the lateral third of the clavicle, using two methods: T plates or anchors together with Kirschner wires.METHODS: Fifteen patients of mean age 34.3 years (range: 19-57 and mean follow-up 22.7 months (range: 14-32 were evaluated. In nine cases, a T plate was used; and in six cases, coracoclavicular fixation was used with anchors in the coracoid process and Kirschner wires through the acromioclavicular joint. The evaluation included the Constant score, personal satisfaction and radiographic assessment.RESULTS: Both types of treatment achieved consolidation in all cases. Group 1 presented a higher Constant score (83.4 than that of Group 2 (76.4 (p = 0.029. Neither of the techniques presented any severe complications, and mild complications were only observed in Group 2 (80%, mostly consisting of migration of the Kirschner wire and superficial infection.CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of fractures of the distal clavicle using T plates provided the same consolidation rate as shown by coracoclavicular fixation with anchors in the coracoid process and Kirschner wires through the acromioclavicular joint, and better clinical results.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III evidence was obtained. Comparative retrospective study and therapeutic study were performed.

  8. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  9. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  10. Control wiring diagrams

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  11. Electroplated superconducting wire

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  12. Anterior fixation of the axis.

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Fontes, Ricardo B V

    2010-09-01

    Although anterior fixation of the axis is not commonly performed, plate fixation of C2 is an important technique for treating select upper cervical traumatic injuries and is also useful in the surgical management of spondylosis. To report the technique and outcomes of C2 anterior plate fixation for a series of patients in which the majority presented with symptomatic degenerative spondylosis. Forty-six consecutive patients underwent single or multilevel fusions over a 7-year period; 30 of these had advanced degenerative disease manifested by myelopathy or deformity. Exposure was achieved with rostral extension of the standard anterior cervical exposure via careful soft tissue dissection, mobilization of the superior thyroid artery, and the use of a table-mounted retractor. It was not necessary to remove the submandibular gland, section the digastric muscle, or make additional skin incisions. Screws were placed an average of 4.6 mm (+/- 2.3 mm) from the inferior C2 endplate with a mean sagittal trajectory of 15.7 degrees (+/- 7.6 degrees). Short- and long-term procedure-related mortality was 4.4%, and perioperative morbidity was 8.9%. Patients remained intubated an average of 2.5 days following surgery. Dysphagia was initially reported by 15.2% of patients but resolved by the 8th postoperative week in all patients. Arthrodesis was achieved in all patients available for long-term follow-up. Multilevel fusions were not associated with longer hospitalization or morbidity. Anterior plate fixation of the axis for degenerative disease can be accomplished with acceptable morbidity employing an extension of the standard anterolateral route.

  13. Smaller Fixation Target Size Is Associated with More Stable Fixation and Less Variance in Threshold Sensitivity.

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The aims of this randomized observational case control study were to quantify fixation behavior during standard automated perimetry (SAP with different fixation targets and to evaluate the relationship between fixation behavior and threshold variability at each test point in healthy young participants experienced with perimetry. SAP was performed on the right eyes of 29 participants using the Octopus 900 perimeter, program 32, dynamic strategy. The fixation targets of Point, Cross, and Ring were used for SAP. Fixation behavior was recorded using a wearable eye-tracking glass. All participants underwent SAP twice with each fixation target in a random fashion. Fixation behavior was quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA and the frequency of deviation from the fixation target. The BCEAs (deg2 of Point, Cross, and Ring targets were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.02, respectively. In all cases, BCEA increased significantly with increasing fixation target size (p < 0.05. The logarithmic value of BCEA demonstrated the same tendency (p < 0.05. A positive correlation was identified between fixation behavior and threshold variability for the Point and Cross targets (ρ = 0.413-0.534, p < 0.05. Fixation behavior increased with increasing fixation target size. Moreover, a larger fixation behavior tended to be associated with a higher threshold variability. A small fixation target is recommended during the visual field test.

  14. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  15. Hybrid external fixation in high-energy elbow fractures: a modular system with a promising future.

    Lerner, A; Stahl, S; Stein, H

    2000-12-01

    Severe, high-energy, periarticular elbow injuries producing a "floating joint" are a major surgical challenge. Their reconstruction and rehabilitation are not well documented. Therefore, the following reports our experience with treating such injuries caused by war wounds. Seven adults with compound open peri- and intra-articular elbow fractures were treated in hybrid ring tubular fixation frames. After debridement, bone stabilization, and neurovascular reconstructions, early controlled daily movements were started in the affected joint. These seven patients had together seven humeral, five radial, and six ulnar fractures. All fractures united at a median time of 180 days. No deep infection developed. The functional end results assessed by the Khalfayan functional score were excellent in two, good in one, and fair in four of these severely mangled upper extremities. None was amputated. The Mangled Extremity Severity Score has been shown to be unable to provide a reliable assessment for severe high-energy limb injuries surgically managed with the modular hybrid thin wire tubular external fixation system. This hybrid system is a very useful addition to the surgical armamentarium of orthopedic trauma surgeons. It both allows complex surgical reconstructions and reduces the incidence of deep infections in these heavily contaminated injuries. The hybrid circular (thin wire) external fixation system is very modular and may provide secure skeletal stabilization even in cases of severely comminuted juxta-articular fractures on both sides of the elbow joint (floating elbow) with severe damage to soft tissues. This fixation system allows individual fixation of forearm bone fractures, thus allowing the preservation of pronation-supination movements.

  16. Bioactivity and osteointegration of hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel and titanium wires used for intramedullary osteosynthesis.

    Popkov, Arnold V; Gorbach, Elena N; Kononovich, Natalia A; Popkov, Dmitry A; Tverdokhlebov, Sergey I; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V

    2017-08-01

    A lot of research was conducted on the use of various biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. Our study investigated the effects of nanostructured calcium-phosphate coating on metallic implants introduced into the bone marrow canal. Stainless steel or titanium 2-mm wires (groups 1 and 2, respectively), and hydroxyapatite-coated stainless steel or titanium wires of the same diameter (groups 3 and 4, respectively) were introduced into the tibial bone marrow canal of 20 dogs (each group = 5 dogs). Hydroxyapatite coating was deposited on the wires with the method of microarc oxidation. Light microscopy to study histological diaphyseal transverse sections, scanning electron microscopy to study the bone marrow area around the implant and an X-ray electron probe analyzer to study the content of calcium and phosphorus were used to investigate bioactivity and osteointegration after a four weeks period. Osteointegration was also assessed by measuring wires' pull-off strength with a sensor dynamometer. Bone formation was observed round the wires in the bone marrow canal in all the groups. Its intensity depended upon the features of wire surfaces and implant materials. Maximum percentage volume of trabecular bone was present in the bone marrow canals of group 4 dogs that corresponded to a mean of 27.1 ± 0.14%, while it was only 6.7% in group 1. The coating in groups 3 and 4 provided better bioactivity and osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium wires showed the highest degree of bone formation around them and greater pull-off strength. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating of metallic wires induces an expressed bone formation and provides osteointegration. Hydroxyapatite-coated wires could be used along with external fixation for bone repair enhancement in diaphyseal fractures, management of osteogenesis imperfecta and correction of bone deformities in phosphate diabetes.

  17. Comparative evaluation of in vitro mechanical properties of different designs of epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation systems.

    Tyagi, Surbhi Kuldeep; Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Srivastava, Tuhin; Tyagi, Kanti Prakash; Monsang, Shongsir Warson

    2014-03-01

    To compare in vitro biomechanical properties of different designs of epoxy-pin external skeletal fixator (ESF) constructs. Mechanical testing study. Four epoxy-pin ESF design constructs (uniplanar [EU], multiplanar-I [EM-I], multiplanar-II [EM-II], and circular [EC]) were mechanically tested in compression, bending, and torsion. Four different designs of free-form epoxy-pin external fixator constructs were developed using 1.5 mm K-wires and epoxy resin mounted in an ultra-high density polyethylene rod (20 mm diameter). Three-point fixation was done in each fragment, and the distance between fixation wires, and between the rod and the side bars was kept constant in all the designs. A 5 mm gap was maintained at the center of the fixation rod to simulate an unstable fracture condition. The fixator constructs (n = 12 of each design) were subjected to mechanical testing in axial compression, bending, or torsion. Load-deformation curves were generated and mechanical properties were compared between construct types. EU was the weakest design. Under compression, constructs EM-I, EM-II, and EC were similar. Under bending, EM-I and EM-II had similar strength, whereas EC was strongest. Under torsion, EC was strongest, followed by EM-II, EM-I, and EU; EM-II provided double the rotational stability of EM-I. Overall, EC followed by EM-II epoxy-pin fixator designs had better mechanical strength. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  19. Modeling birds on wires.

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  1. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  2. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  3. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  4. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  5. Polymeric media for tritium fixation. Supplement I

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the fixation of tritium as TH or THO in two different polymeric media are described. The complete procedure for THO fixation in a polyureylene-polyurethane polumer, including polymer molding procedures and leach tests is presented. The catalytic tritiation of polystyrene under very mild conditions using a rhodium catalyst is also described. Thermal stabilities and cost estimates for the polymers examined under this program are discussed. Organic polymers were found to have attractive features for the fixation and storage of concentrated tritium wastes due to the convenience of fixation procedures and favorable properties of the resulting media

  6. Modeling fixation locations using spatial point processes.

    Barthelmé, Simon; Trukenbrod, Hans; Engbert, Ralf; Wichmann, Felix

    2013-10-01

    Whenever eye movements are measured, a central part of the analysis has to do with where subjects fixate and why they fixated where they fixated. To a first approximation, a set of fixations can be viewed as a set of points in space; this implies that fixations are spatial data and that the analysis of fixation locations can be beneficially thought of as a spatial statistics problem. We argue that thinking of fixation locations as arising from point processes is a very fruitful framework for eye-movement data, helping turn qualitative questions into quantitative ones. We provide a tutorial introduction to some of the main ideas of the field of spatial statistics, focusing especially on spatial Poisson processes. We show how point processes help relate image properties to fixation locations. In particular we show how point processes naturally express the idea that image features' predictability for fixations may vary from one image to another. We review other methods of analysis used in the literature, show how they relate to point process theory, and argue that thinking in terms of point processes substantially extends the range of analyses that can be performed and clarify their interpretation.

  7. Methanotrophy induces nitrogen fixation during peatland development

    Larmola, Tuula; Leppänen, Sanna M.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aarva, Maija; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tiirola, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) accumulation rates in peatland ecosystems indicate significant biological atmospheric N2 fixation associated with Sphagnum mosses. Here, we show that the linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N2 fixation may constitute an important mechanism in the rapid accumulation of N during the primary succession of peatlands. In our experimental stable isotope enrichment study, previously overlooked methane-induced N2 fixation explained more than one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland stages, where the highest N2 fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged moss vegetation. PMID:24379382

  8. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  9. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. Methods The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion fo...

  10. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  11. Migration of trochanteric cerclage cable debris to the knee joint

    Kathleen M. Kollitz, BS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrating orthopedic hardware has widely been reported in the literature. Most reported cases of migrating hardware involve smooth Kirschner wires or loosening/fracture of hardware involved with joint stabilization/fixation. It is unusual for hardware to migrate within the soft tissues. In some cases, smooth Kirschner wires have migrated within the thoracic cage—a proposed mechanism for this phenomenon is the negative intrathoracic pressure. While wires have also been reported to gain access to circulation, transporting them over larger distances, the majority of broken or retained wires remain local. We report a case of a 34-year-old man in whom numerous fragments of braided cable migrated from the hip to the knee.

  12. [Comparison of external fixation with or without limited internal fixation for open knee fractures].

    Li, K N; Lan, H; He, Z Y; Wang, X J; Yuan, J; Zhao, P; Mu, J S

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics and methods of different fixation methods and prevention of open knee joint fracture. Methods: The data of 86 cases of open knee joint fracture admitted from January 2002 to December 2015 in Department of Orthopaedics, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University were analyzed retrospectively.There were 65 males and 21 females aged of 38.6 years. There were 38 cases treated with trans articular external fixation alone, 48 cases were in the trans articular external fixation plus auxiliary limited internal fixation group. All the patients were treated according to the same three stages except for different fixation methods. Observation of external fixation and fracture fixation, fracture healing, wound healing and treatment, treatment and related factors of infection control and knee function recovery. χ(2) test was used to analyze data. Results: Eleven patients had primary wound healing, accounting for 12.8%. Seventy-five patients had two wounds healed, accounting for 87.2%. Only 38 cases of trans articular external fixator group had 31 cases of articular surface reduction, accounting for 81.6%; Five cases of trans articular external fixator assisted limited internal fixation group had 5 cases of poor reduction, accounting for 10.4%; There was significant difference between the two groups (χ(2)=44.132, P external fixation group, a total of 23 cases of patients with infection, accounted for 60.5% of external fixation group; trans articular external fixation assisted limited internal fixation group there were 30 cases of patients with infection, accounting for the assistance of external fixator and limited internal fixation group 62.5%; There was significant difference between the two groups(χ(2)=0.035, P >0.05). Five cases of fracture nonunion cases of serious infection, patients voluntarily underwent amputation. The Lysholm Knee Scale: In the external fixation group, 23 cases were less than 50 points, accounting for 60

  13. A compact multi-wire-layered secondary winding for Tesla transformer.

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Jian-Cang; Li, Rui; Wu, Xiao-Long; Xu, Xiu-Dong; Qiu, Xu-Dong; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Peng-Cheng

    2017-05-01

    A compact multi-wire-layered (MWL) secondary winding for a Tesla transformer is put forward. The basic principle of this winding is to wind the metal wire on a polymeric base tube in a multi-layer manner. The tube is tapered and has high electrical strength and high mechanical strength. Concentric-circle grooves perpendicular to the axis of the tube are carved on the surface of the tube to wind the wire. The width of the groove is basically equal to the diameter of the wire so that the metal wire can be fixed in the groove without glue. The depth of the groove is n times of the diameter of the wire to realize the n-layer winding manner. All the concentric-circle grooves are connected via a spiral groove on the surface of the tube to let the wire go through. Compared with the traditional one-wire-layered (OWL) secondary winding for the Tesla transformer, the most conspicuous advantage of the MWL secondary winding is that the latter is compact with only a length of 2/n of the OWL. In addition, the MWL winding has the following advantages: high electrical strength since voids are precluded from the surface of the winding, high mechanical strength because polymer is used as the material of the base tube, and reliable fixation in the Tesla transformer as special mechanical connections are designed. A 2000-turn MWL secondary winding is fabricated with a winding layer of 3 and a total length of 1.0 m. Experiments to test the performance of this winding on a Tesla-type pulse generator are conducted. The results show that this winding can boost the voltage to 1 MV at a repetition rate of 50 Hz reliably for a lifetime longer than 10 4 pulses, which proves the feasibility of the MWL secondary winding.

  14. A new adjustable parallel drill guide for internal fixation of femoral neck fracture: a developmental and experimental study.

    Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Tuntarattanapong, Pakjai; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin

    2016-01-11

    Internal fixation is one treatment for femoral neck fracture. Some devices and techniques reported improved accuracy and decreased fluoroscopic time. However, these are not widely used nowadays due to the lack of available special instruments and techniques. To improve the surgical procedure, the authors designed a new adjustable drill guide and tested the efficacy of the device. The authors developed a new adjustable drill guide for cannulated screw guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation. Eight orthopaedic surgeons performed the experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of this device. Each surgeon performed guide wire insertion for multiple screw fixation in six synthetic femurs: three times with the new device and three times with the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic time, operative time and surgeon satisfaction were evaluated. In the operations with the new adjustable drill guide, the fluoroscopic and operative times were significantly lower than the operations with the conventional technique (p level of satisfaction of this device was also statistically significantly better (p = 0.02) than the conventional technique. The fluoroscopic and operative times with the new adjustable drill guide were reduced for multiple screw fixation of femoral neck fracture and the satisfaction of the surgeons was good.

  15. Improper tube fixation causing a leaky cuff

    Gupta Babita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaking endotracheal tube cuffs are common problems in intensive care units. We report a case wherein the inflation tube was damaged by the adhesive plaster used for tube fixation and resulted in leaking endotracheal tube cuff. We also give some suggestions regarding the tube fixation and some remedial measures for damaged inflation system.

  16. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    A study was made to determine whether retorted shale additions would significantly affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation. Results indicate that small additions of the shale may stimulate plant growth but with higher concentrations plants are stressed, resulting in a decreased biomass and a compensatory effect of an increased number of nodules and N/sub 2/ fixation potential. (JMT)

  17. Staple fixation for akin proximal phalangeal osteotomy in the treatment of hallux valgus interphalangeus.

    Neumann, Julie A; Reay, Kathleen D; Bradley, Kendall E; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-04-01

    The Akin proximal phalangeal osteotomy is commonly used in conjunction with metatarsal osteotomies to treat hallux valgus. Multiple fixation methods including suture, wire, screw, and staple fixation have been described. The aims of this study were to assess the intraoperative and postoperative complications and to evaluate short-term postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent Akin osteotomy with staple fixation. Forty-four patients (51 feet) with painful hallux valgus were retrospectively reviewed at an average of 40.4 ± 15.8 (range, 25.9 to 79.9) weeks following an Akin osteotomy with staple fixation. Patient reported preoperative and postoperative Visual Analog Score (VAS) (0 to 10, 0 = no pain) was recorded. Level of activity was reported postoperatively. Hallux valgus angles (HVAs), intermetatarsal angles (IMAs), and hallux valgus interphalangeus angles (IPAs) were evaluated on preoperative as well as final postoperative radiographs. Postoperative clinical and radiographic examinations were used to evaluate for complications. Mean VAS improved from 4.4 ± 2.6 to 1.0 ± 1.2 (P hallux valgus correction with improvement in pain and hallux valgus deformity with a low risk for complications. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  19. EFFECT OF EMBEDDING METHODS VERSUS FIXATIVE TYPE ON KARYOMETRIC MEASURES

    BOON, ME; VANDERPOEL, HG; TAN, CJA; KOK, LP

    The influence of fixation and embedding methods in seven urologic tumor samples was studied karyometrically for 12 preparatory techniques. Routine histologic formalin fixation was compared with Carbowax and Kryofix fixatives. Also, histologic material was studied embedded in paraffin and plastic

  20. Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography

    Aslam, Muhammad Ovais; Ramadan, Salwa; Al-Adwani, Muneera

    2012-01-01

    To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.

  1. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  2. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  3. Polymeric media for tritium fixation

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and leach testing of several polymeric media for tritium fixation are presented. Tritiated bakelite, poly(acrylonitrile) and polystyrene successfully fixed tritium. Tritium leach rates at the tracer level appear to be negligible. Advantages and disadvantages of the processes are discussed, and further bench-scale investigations underway are reported. Rough cost estimates are presented for the different media and are compared with alternate approaches such as deep-well injection and long-term tank storage. Polymeric media costs are high compared to deep-well storage and are of the same order of magnitude per liter of water as for isotopic enrichment. With this limitation, polymeric media can be economically feasible only for highly concentrated tritiated wastes. It is recommended that the bakelite and polystyrene processes be examined on a larger scale to permit more accurate cost analysis and process design. (auth)

  4. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  5. Negative pressure wound therapy and external fixation device: a simple way to seal the dressing.

    Bulla, Antonio; Farace, Francesco; Uzel, André-Pierre; Casoli, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Negative pressure therapy is widely applied to treat lower limb trauma. However, sealing a negative pressure dressing in the presence of an external fixation device may be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, screws, pins, wires, etc, may preclude the vacuum, preventing the plastic drape to perfectly adhere to the foam. To maintain the vacuum, we tried to prevent air leaking around the screws putting bone wax at the junction between the pins and the plastic drape. This solution, in our hands, avoids air leakage and helps maintain vacuum in a fast and inexpensive way.

  6. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  7. Treatment of unstable distal radius fractures with Ilizarov circular, nonbridging external fixator.

    Tyllianakis, Minos; Mylonas, Spyros; Saridis, Alkis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2010-03-01

    Unstable distal radius fractures remain a challenge for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We present a retrospective follow-up study (mean follow-up 12.5 months) of 20 patients with 21 unstable distal radius fractures that were reduced in a closed manner and stabilized with a nonbridging Ilizarov external fixator. Subsequent insertion of olive wires for interfragmentary compression was performed in cases with intra-articular fractures. According to the overall evaluation proposed by Gartland and Werley scoring system 12 wrists were classified as excellent, 6 as good, 2 as fair and 1 as poor. Grade II pin-tract infection in distal fracture fragment was detected in 3 wires from a total of 78 (3.8%) and in 4 half pins out of a total of 9 (44.4%). Pronation was the most frequently impaired movement. This was restricted in 4 patients (19%) in whom a radioulnar transfixing wire was applied. Symptoms of irritation of superficial sensory branch of the radial nerve occurred in 3 patients with an olive wire applied in a closed manner in the distal fragment. Ilizarov method yields functional results comparable to that of other methods whilst it avoids wrist immobilization, open reduction and reoperation for implant removal. The method is associated with a low rate of major complication and satisfactory functional outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Locking plate fixation provides superior fixation of humerus split type greater tuberosity fractures than tension bands and double row suture bridges.

    Gaudelli, Cinzia; Ménard, Jérémie; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, G-Yves; Petit, Yvan; Rouleau, Dominique M

    2014-11-01

    This paper aims to determine the strongest fixation method for split type greater tuberosity fractures of the proximal humerus by testing and comparing three fixation methods: a tension band with No. 2 wire suture, a double-row suture bridge with suture anchors, and a manually contoured calcaneal locking plate. Each method was tested on eight porcine humeri. A osteotomy of the greater tuberosity was performed 50° to the humeral shaft and then fixed according to one of three methods. The humeri were then placed in a testing apparatus and tension was applied along the supraspinatus tendon using a thermoelectric cooling clamp. The load required to produce 3mm and 5mm of displacement, as well as complete failure, was recorded using an axial load cell. The average load required to produce 3mm and 5mm of displacement was 658N and 1112N for the locking plate, 199N and 247N for the double row, and 75N and 105N for the tension band. The difference between the three groups was significant (Prow (456N) and tension band (279N) (Prow (71N/mm) and tension band (33N/mm) (Pbiomechanical fixation for split type greater tuberosity fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immaturity of Visual Fixations in Dyslexic Children.

    TIADI eBi Kuyami Guy Aimé

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, behavioral studies recording visual fixations abilities in dyslexic children are scarce. The object of this paper is to explore further the visual fixation ability in dyslexics compared to chronological age-matched and reading age-matched non-dyslexic children. Fifty-five dyslexic children from 7 to 14 years old, fifty-five chronological age-matched non-dyslexic children and fifty-five reading age-matched non-dyslexic children participated to this study. Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2. The fixation task consisted in fixating a white-filled circle appearing in the centre of the screen for 30 seconds. Results showed that dyslexic children produced a significantly higher number of unwanted saccades than both groups of non-dyslexic children. Moreover, the number of unwanted saccades significantly decreased with age in both groups of non-dyslexic children, but not in dyslexics. Furthermore, dyslexics made more saccades during the last 15 sec of fixation period with respect to both groups of non-dyslexic children. Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an immaturity of the cortical areas controlling the fixation system.

  10. Sutureless Intrascleral Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation.

    Karadag, Remzi; Celik, Haci Ugur; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Rapuano, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    To review sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens (IOL) fixation methods. Review of published literature. Sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation methods are newer and have been developed to eliminate the suture-related complications of sutured scleral fixation methods such as suture-induced inflammation or infection and IOL dislocation or subluxation due to suture degradation or suture breakage. Sutureless intrascleral fixation methods aim for intrascleral haptic fixation to achieve stability of the IOL. Various methods of sutureless scleral fixation have been described. Using a needle, a blade, or a trochar, sclerostomies are created in all techniques for intraocular access. Some surgeons prefer to create scleral tunnels, whereas others use scleral flaps for scleral fixation of haptics. The stability of IOLs is attained by the scar tissue formed around the haptics. Short-term results of these new methods are acceptable; studies including more cases with longer follow-up are needed to determine their long-term success. [J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;32(9):586-597.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Titanium mesh as a low-profile alternative for tension-band augmentation in patella fracture fixation: A biomechanical study.

    Dickens, Aaron J; Salas, Christina; Rise, LeRoy; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Taha, Mahmoud Reda; DeCoster, Thomas A; Gehlert, Rick J

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simple biomechanical study to compare the fixation strength of titanium mesh with traditional tension-band augmentation, which is a standard treatment for transverse patella fractures. We hypothesised that titanium mesh augmentation is not inferior in fixation strength to the standard treatment. Twenty-four synthetic patellae were tested. Twelve were fixed with stainless steel wire and parallel cannulated screws. Twelve were fixed with parallel cannulated screws, augmented with anterior titanium mesh and four screws. A custom test fixture was developed to simulate a knee flexed to 90°. A uniaxial force was applied to the simulated extensor mechanism at this angle. A non-inferiority study design was used to evaluate ultimate force required for failure of each construct as a measure of fixation strength. Stiffness of the bone/implant construct, fracture gap immediately prior to failure, and modes of failure are also reported. The mean difference in force at failure was -23.0 N (95% CI: -123.6 to 77.6N) between mesh and wire constructs, well within the pre-defined non-inferiority margin of -260 N. Mean stiffness of the mesh and wire constructs were 19.42 N/mm (95% CI: 18.57-20.27 N/mm) and 19.49 N/mm (95% CI: 18.64-20.35 N/mm), respectively. Mean gap distance for the mesh constructs immediately prior to failure was 2.11 mm (95% CI: 1.35-2.88 mm) and 3.87 mm (95% CI: 2.60-5.13 mm) for wire constructs. Titanium mesh augmentation is not inferior to tension-band wire augmentation when comparing ultimate force required for failure in this simplified biomechanical model. Results also indicate that stiffness of the two constructs is similar but that the mesh maintains a smaller fracture gap prior to failure. The results of this study indicate that the use of titanium mesh plating augmentation as a low-profile alternative to tension-band wiring for fixation of transverse patella fractures warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. 14CO2 fixation pattern of cyanobacteria

    Erdmann, N.; Schiewer, U.

    1985-01-01

    The 14 CO 2 fixation pattern of three cyanobacteria in the light and dark were studied. Two different chromatographic methods widely used for separating labelled photosynthetic intermediates were compared. After ethanolic extraction, a rather uniform fixation pattern reflecting mainly the β-carboxylation pathway is obtained for all 3 species. Of the intermediates, glucosylglycerol is specific and high citrulline and low malate contents are fairly specific to cyanobacteria. The composition of the 14 CO 2 fixation pattern is hardly affected by changes in temperature or light intensity, but it is severely affected by changes in the water potential of the medium. (author)

  13. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  14. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  15. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  16. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading

  17. Divergent dislocation of the ring and little finger carpometacarpal joints--a rare injury pattern.

    Dillon, John

    2012-02-03

    Hand injuries due to longitudinal forces in the line of the metacarpals demonstrate unusual dislocation patterns. We describe a case of volar intra-articular fracture dislocation of the ring finger carpometacarpal joint in association with a pure dorsal dislocation of the little finger carpometacarpal joint. Open reduction supplemented with Kirschner wire fixation restored normal carpometacarpal joint anatomical relations and achieved an excellent clinical result.

  18. Neglected isolated scaphoid dislocation

    Jong-Ryoon Baek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of isolated scaphoid dislocation in a 40-year-old male that was undiagnosed for 2 months. The patient was treated by open reduction, Kirschner wire fixation, interosseous ligament repair using a suture anchor and Blatt's dorsal capsulodesis. At 6 years followup, his radiographs of wrist showed a normal carpal alignment with a scapholunate gap of 3 mm and no evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of the scaphoid.

  19. [Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].

    Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi

    2003-03-01

    Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.

  20. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The...

  1. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical...

  2. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  3. Unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures: treatment by internal fixation using AO mini-fragment plates and screws.

    Mumtaz, Mohammad Umar; Farooq, Muneer Ahmad; Rasool, Altaf Ahmad; Kawoosa, Altaf Ahmad; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dhar, Shabir Ahmad

    2010-07-01

    Accurate open reduction and internal fixation for metacarpal and phalangeal fractures of the hand is required in less than 5% of the patients; otherwise, closed treatment techniques offer satisfactory results in most of these cases as these fractures are stable either before or after closed reduction. AO mini-fragment screws and plates, when used in properly selected cases, can provide rigid fixation, allowing early mobilization of joints and hence good functional results while avoiding problems associated with protruding K-wires and immobilization. The advantages of such internal fixation urged us to undertake such a study in our state where such hand injuries are commonly seen. Forty patients with 42 unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using AO mini-fragment screws and plates over a period of three years in a prospective manner. The overall results were good in 78.5% of cases, fair in 19% of cases and poor in 2.5% of cases, as judged according to the criteria of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. This technique is a reasonable option for treating unstable metacarpal and phalangeal fractures as it provides a highly rigid fixation, which is sufficient to allow early mobilization of the adjacent joints, thus helping to achieve good functional results.

  4. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  5. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  6. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  7. Fixation probability on clique-based graphs

    Choi, Jeong-Ok; Yu, Unjong

    2018-02-01

    The fixation probability of a mutant in the evolutionary dynamics of Moran process is calculated by the Monte-Carlo method on a few families of clique-based graphs. It is shown that the complete suppression of fixation can be realized with the generalized clique-wheel graph in the limit of small wheel-clique ratio and infinite size. The family of clique-star is an amplifier, and clique-arms graph changes from amplifier to suppressor as the fitness of the mutant increases. We demonstrate that the overall structure of a graph can be more important to determine the fixation probability than the degree or the heat heterogeneity. The dependence of the fixation probability on the position of the first mutant is discussed.

  8. Fixation of Selenium by Clay Minerals and Iron Oxides

    Hamdy, A. A.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1977-01-01

    In studying Se fixation, soil components capable of retaining Se were investigated. The importance of Fe hydrous oxides in the fixation of Se was established. The clay minerals common to soils, such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite, all exhibited Se fixation, but greater fixation occ...

  9. Biomechanical Evaluation of Standard Versus Extended Proximal Fixation Olecranon Plates for Fixation of Olecranon Fractures.

    Boden, Allison L; Daly, Charles A; Dalwadi, Poonam P; Boden, Stephanie A; Hutton, William C; Muppavarapu, Raghuveer C; Gottschalk, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Small olecranon fractures present a significant challenge for fixation, which has resulted in development of plates with proximal extension. Olecranon-specific plates with proximal extensions are widely thought to offer superior fixation of small proximal fragments but have distinct disadvantages: larger dissection, increased hardware prominence, and the increased possibility of impingement. Previous biomechanical studies of olecranon fracture fixation have compared methods of fracture fixation, but to date there have been no studies defining olecranon plate fixation strength for standard versus extended olecranon plates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical utility of the extended plate for treatment of olecranon fractures. Sixteen matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric elbows were used. Of the 16, 8 matched pairs received a transverse osteotomy including 25% and 8 including 50% of the articular surface on the proximal fragment. One elbow from each pair was randomly assigned to a standard-length plate, and the other elbow in the pair received the extended-length plate, for fixation of the fracture. The ulnae were cyclically loaded and subsequently loaded to failure, with ultimate load, number of cycles, and gap formation recorded. There was no statistically significant difference between the standard and extended fixation plates in simple transverse fractures at either 25% or 50% from the proximal most portion of the articular surface of the olecranon. Standard fixation plates are sufficient for the fixation of small transverse fractures, but caution should be utilized particularly with comminution and nontransverse fracture patterns.

  10. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  11. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  12. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  13. Strain-stress analysis of lower limb with applied fixator

    Mrázek M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares physiological state of tibia before and after application of an external fixator. The fixator systems’ models but also model of tibia are loaded in the direction of body axis. The paper is focused on the examination of differences in stiffness before and after the application of fixation. Two types of axial external fixators are compared. Both fixators differ in their construction. The first fixator is two-frame and fixation rods are used for fixing the bone tissue (variant I. The second one is fixed into tibia with screws (variant II. We have found out that the two-frame external fixator has much bigger stiffness during limb fixation than the fixator with one body. Much higher deformations compared to physiological state of tibia occur in the variant II.

  14. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  15. Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire

    Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.

  16. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  17. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  18. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  19. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  20. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  1. REPARATIVE OSTEOGENESIS DURING TREATMENT OF FRACTURE UNDER TRANSOSSEOUS OSTEOSYNTHESIS AND INTRAMEDULLARY INSERTION OF WIRES WITH HYDROXYAPATITE COATING

    Iurii M. Irianov, Arnold V. Popkov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Tatiana Iu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of improving medical care for patients with the locomotor system injuries is very important especially last time. Material and Methods: Canine open comminuted tibial fractures modelled experimentally, wires with hydroxyapatite coating inserted intramedullary, osteosynthesis performed with the Ilizarov fixator. Regenerated bones investigated 14-360 days after surgery using the techniques of light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray electron probe microanalysis for histologic sections . Results: It has been found that a zone of active reparative osteo- and angiogenesis forms around the wires, as well as a bone sheath with the properties of osteogenesis conductor and inductor. Fracture consolidation occurs early according to the primary type without cartilaginous and connective tissue formation in bone adhesion. Presented morphological characteristics endovasal angiogenesis. Conclusion: The results of the study evidence of the positive effect of intramedullary wires with hydroxyapatite coating on the course and intensity of reparative osteogenesis during fracture healing

  2. Management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation: A case series of 30 cases

    Samar K Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of high velocity trauma is a challenging problem because of morbidity of trauma and sometime residual problems of failure of proper healing of fractures with the restriction of movements of knee, shortening, and added risk of compartment syndrome in the proximal tibia fracture. There is always risk of post-operative infection and infected non-union in extensive open surgical procedure and internal fixation. Hence, there is always look out for the middle path procedure for a solution to the above said problems with the added advantage of less hospital stay and early return to work by minimal invasive procedure and stabilization of fracture reduction by multiple K-wire fixation with a frame applied externally. Stabilization of fracture with reduced pain allows early movements of neighbouring joint knee and ankle; hence, reduces the chances of fracture diseases. With this we have been stimulated to take-up the study of managing the proximal tibia fracture by mini external fixator. Aim: The aim of this study was to manage proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixator and evaluate the results and efficacy of this method. Material and Method: A total of 30 patients having proximal tibial fractures admitted at our center between 2008 and 2010 were taken and the procedure carried out was closed manipulative reduction and stabilization with mini external fixator. All acute proximal tibia fractures including tibial plateau fractures above 17 years of age of either sex were included in the study. Fracture more than 3 weeks old were excluded from the study. Result: Out of 30 cases 13 were excellent, 14 cases good, and 3 showed fair. It was found that type 5 and 6 of Schatzker′s classification have lesser outcome type of fractures Conclusion: We have found that management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation method has a better outcome. Early mobilization of knee in the proximal tibia fractures after

  3. Nitrogen fixation in denitrified marine waters.

    Camila Fernandez

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria, whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria. Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP, a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m(-2 d(-1 than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m(-2 d(-1. Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions.

  4. Nitrogen Fixation in Denitrified Marine Waters

    Fernandez, Camila; Farías, Laura; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an essential process that biologically transforms atmospheric dinitrogen gas to ammonia, therefore compensating for nitrogen losses occurring via denitrification and anammox. Currently, inputs and losses of nitrogen to the ocean resulting from these processes are thought to be spatially separated: nitrogen fixation takes place primarily in open ocean environments (mainly through diazotrophic cyanobacteria), whereas nitrogen losses occur in oxygen-depleted intermediate waters and sediments (mostly via denitrifying and anammox bacteria). Here we report on rates of nitrogen fixation obtained during two oceanographic cruises in 2005 and 2007 in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP), a region characterized by the presence of coastal upwelling and a major permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Our results show significant rates of nitrogen fixation in the water column; however, integrated rates from the surface down to 120 m varied by ∼30 fold between cruises (7.5±4.6 versus 190±82.3 µmol m−2 d−1). Moreover, rates were measured down to 400 m depth in 2007, indicating that the contribution to the integrated rates of the subsurface oxygen-deficient layer was ∼5 times higher (574±294 µmol m−2 d−1) than the oxic euphotic layer (48±68 µmol m−2 d−1). Concurrent molecular measurements detected the dinitrogenase reductase gene nifH in surface and subsurface waters. Phylogenetic analysis of the nifH sequences showed the presence of a diverse diazotrophic community at the time of the highest measured nitrogen fixation rates. Our results thus demonstrate the occurrence of nitrogen fixation in nutrient-rich coastal upwelling systems and, importantly, within the underlying OMZ. They also suggest that nitrogen fixation is a widespread process that can sporadically provide a supplementary source of fixed nitrogen in these regions. PMID:21687726

  5. Comparison of circummandibular wiring with resorbable bone plates in pediatric mandibular fractures.

    Saikrishna, D; Gupta, Nimish

    2010-06-01

    Pediatric patients present a unique challenge to maxillofacial surgeons in terms of their treatment planning as well as in their functional and nutritional needs which are different from that of adult patients. Early literature has advocated conservative closed management of pediatric fractures to prevent complications. However recent advances in maxillofacial surgery has enabled us to use biodegradable plates and screws, which overcomes the limitations of metallic plates. We present a comparison of two cases of parasymphysis fracture treated with circum-mandibular wiring and biodegradable plate fixation their outcome in terms of fracture healing and functional stability.

  6. Accuracy of fit of 3-to-3 retainers after adhesive fixation using a neodymium-iron-boron magnet chain.

    Hahn, Wolfram; Wasser-Merkel, Wiebke; Lange, Katharina; Gruber, Rudolf M; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Ihlow, Dankmar

    2011-10-01

    Six-base retainers are often used to prevent tertiary crowding. To minimize shear stress on the retainer, these should be fitted as precisely as possible. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fit of 6-base retainers after adhesive fixation using a neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnet chain or a resin positioning aid. A 6-base retainer was prepared for 40 pseudo-anonymous lower jaw models (2 × 20). Temporary fixation was performed with a resin positioning aid or a NdFeB magnet chain. The adhesive fixation of the retainers was randomized. The area and vertical distance between wire and teeth were determined by histomorphometry. The results were evaluated by ANOVA. The probability of error was specified as 5%. With the magnetic chain method, the area was significantly smaller than with the positioning aid (p = 0.0125). The difference between the two methods was ca. 1.3 mm². Moreover, the measured distance was affected significantly by the method used (p NdFeB magnet chain is used even though the wire is not as precisely positioned as it would be with a custom-made positioning aid.

  7. In vitro biomechanical properties of 2 compression fixation methods for midbody proximal sesamoid bone fractures in horses.

    Woodie, J B; Ruggles, A J; Litsky, A S

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate 2 methods of midbody proximal sesamoid bone repair--fixation by a screw placed in lag fashion and circumferential wire fixation--by comparing yield load and the adjacent soft-tissue strain during monotonic loading. Experimental study. 10 paired equine cadaver forelimbs from race-trained horses. A transverse midbody osteotomy of the medial proximal sesamoid bone (PSB) was created. The osteotomy was repaired with a 4.5-mm cortex bone screw placed in lag fashion or a 1.25-mm circumferential wire. The limbs were instrumented with differential variable reluctance transducers placed in the suspensory apparatus and distal sesamoidean ligaments. The limbs were tested in axial compression in a single cycle until failure. The cortex bone screw repairs had a mean yield load of 2,908.2 N; 1 limb did not fail when tested to 5,000 N. All circumferential wire repairs failed with a mean yield load of 3,406.3 N. There was no statistical difference in mean yield load between the 2 repair methods. The maximum strain generated in the soft tissues attached to the proximal sesamoid bones was not significantly different between repair groups. All repaired limbs were able to withstand loads equal to those reportedly applied to the suspensory apparatus in vivo during walking. Each repair technique should have adequate yield strength for repair of midbody fractures of the PSB immediately after surgery.

  8. Graft fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Brand, J; Weiler, A; Caborn, D N; Brown, C H; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    Cruciate ligament reconstruction has progressed dramatically in the last 20 years. Anatomic placement of ligament substitutes has fostered rehabilitation efforts that stress immediate and full range of motion, immediate weightbearing, neuromuscular strength and coordination, and early return to athletic competition (3 months). This has placed extreme importance on secure graft fixation at the time of ligament reconstruction. Current ligament substitutes require a bony or soft tissue component to be fixed within a bone tunnel or on the periosteum at a distance from the normal ligament attachment site. Fixation devices have progressed from metal to biodegradable and from far to near-normal native ligament attachment sites. Ideally, the biomechanical properties of the entire graft construct would approach those of the native ligament and facilitate biologic incorporation of the graft. Fixation should be done at the normal anatomic attachment site of the native ligament (aperture fixation) and, over time, allow the biologic return of the histologic transition zone from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified fibrocartilage, to bone. The purpose of this article is to review current fixation devices and techniques in cruciate ligament surgery.

  9. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Gani, Naseem ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertrochanteric” fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58–90 years) with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country. PMID:21808680

  10. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Naseem ul Gani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertro-chanteric” fractures remain unsuitable for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertro-chanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet’s point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  11. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of polymer cable ties versus standard wire closure of midline sternotomy.

    Marasco, Silvana F; Fuller, Louise; Zimmet, Adam; McGiffin, David; Seitz, Michael; Ch'ng, Stephanie; Gangahanumaiah, Shivanand; Bailey, Michael

    2018-04-16

    Midline sternotomy remains the most common access incision for cardiac operations. Traditionally, the sternum is closed with stainless steel wires. Wires are well known to stretch and break, however, leading to pain, nonunion, and potential deep sternal wound infection. We hypothesized that biocompatible plastic cable ties would achieve a more rigid sternal fixation, reducing postoperative pain and analgesia requirements. A prospective, randomized study compared the ZIPFIX (De Puy Synthes, West Chester, Pa) sternal closure system (n = 58) with standard stainless steel wires (n = 60). Primary outcomes were pain and analgesia requirements in the early postoperative period. Secondary outcome was sternal movement, as assessed by ultrasound at the postoperative follow-up visit. Groups were well matched in demographic and operative variables. There were no significant differences between groups in postoperative pain, analgesia, or early ventilatory requirements. Patients in the ZIPFIX group had significantly more movement in the sternum and manubrium on ultrasound at 4 weeks. ZIPFIX sternal cable ties provide reliable closure but no demonstrable benefit in this study in pain or analgesic requirements relative to standard wire closure after median sternotomy. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  13. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  14. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  15. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  16. Loads applied to fixations for chain stretching

    Ahrens, K; Brychta, P

    1985-06-01

    The chains of scraper chain conveyors must be pre-stretched during standstill in order to compensate the elongations occurring during operation. They require frequent retensiening in order to meet the varying operational requirements. During tensioning, the chains are fixed in a point in the top run by means of fixation elements. The authors present a method for calculating the retaining force needed in the fixations. There are three different initial conditions of the chain before trensioning: Tensionsfree chain, pretensioned chain (stressed chain), slack chain. In all three cases, it is important to find out whether or nor the tensioning drive reaches full speed. The method of calculation is illustrated by the example of a scraper chain conveyor; it enables the establishment of rules for tensioning without damaging the chain and is a good basis for the dimensioning of new types of fixation elements.

  17. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  18. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  19. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  20. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  1. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  2. DETECTORS: Vienna - beyond the wire

    Krammer, Manfred; Regler, Meinhard

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, at the fourth Vienna Wire Chamber Conference, Georges Charpak, the inventor of the multiwire proportional chamber, had confidently announced ''Les funérailles des chambres à fils''. Was this the writing on the wall for the conference series as well as this type of detector technology? The demand for detector innovation, coupled with imaginative thinking on the part of the organizers, have kept the Vienna venue at the forefront of the physics calendar. An additional boost to the success of the series was certainly the Nobel Prize awarded to Georges Charpak in 1992. While the major topic naturally is still wire chambers, alternative technologies are also covered. However in fields like calorimetry or ring imaging Cherenkovs, a sample of only a few prominent detectors were presented, giving some participants the impression of a biased selection. The fact that silicon detectors, electronics and track reconstruction strategies were, with the exception of the invited talks, restricted to poster presentations led to the same conclusion. As a result the organizing committee saw that it will have to revise its brief for the next conference. The conference opened with philosophical thoughts by Nobel Prizewinner Georges Charpak. The first day at Vienna is traditionally devoted to applications of gaseous detectors outside high energy physics. L. Shektman gave an overview of wire chambers for medical imaging. Further applications in medicine and in other fields like biology and space science were described by subsequent speakers. The exciting idea of flying a spectrometer on a balloon to study the fraction of electrons and positrons in cosmic rays attracted a lot of attention. The next day covered wire chambers in general. V. Polychronakos presented applications of cathode strip chambers in muon spectrometers for experiments at CERN's LHC proton-proton detector. Certainly the challenges of LHC for detector development dominated many

  3. Tricortical cervical inter-body screw fixation.

    Goel A

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tricortical method of screw implantation for anterior cervical interbody plate fixation is described. The screws are placed obliquely such that they engage the anterior cortex of the body and traverse through the cortices adjoining the disc space. By this method the screws not only hold the plate firmly with a tricortical purchase, but by virtue of their course stabilize the two adjoining vertebral bodies by themselves. Sixteen patients were treated by this method. In three of these cases only tricortical screws without the metal plate were used for fixation. The advantages of the technique are discussed.

  4. Cosmetic arm lengthening with monorail fixator.

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Singh, Balvinder; Garg, Mohit; Khatkar, Vipin; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence. Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb. We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up. Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand. The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable, and thus becomes an effective treatment option.

  5. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  6. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  7. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  8. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  9. Transient improvements in fixational stability in strabismic amblyopes following bifoveal fixation and reduced interocular suppression.

    Raveendran, Rajkumar Nallour; Babu, Raiju J; Hess, Robert F; Bobier, William R

    2014-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that fixational stability of the amblyopic eye in strabismics will improve when viewing provides both bifoveal fixation and reduced inter-ocular suppression by reducing the contrast to the fellow eye. Seven strabismic amblyopes (Age: 29.2 ± 9 years; five esotropes and two exotropes) showing clinical characteristics of central suppression were recruited. Interocular suppression was measured by a global motion task. For each participant, a balance point was determined which defined contrast levels for each eye where binocular combination was optimal (interocular suppression minimal). When the balance point could not be determined, this participant was excluded. Bifoveal fixation was established by ocular alignment using a haploscope. Participants dichoptically viewed similar targets (a cross of 2.3° surrounded by a square of 11.3°) at 40 cm. Target contrasts presented to each eye were either high contrast (100% to both eyes) or balanced contrast (attenuated contrast in the fellow fixing eye). Fixation stability was measured over a 5 min period and quantified using bivariate contour ellipse areas in four different binocular conditions; unaligned/high contrast, unaligned/balance point, aligned/high contrast and aligned/balance point. Fixation stability was also measured in six control subjects (Age: 25.3 ± 4 years). Bifoveal fixation in the strabismics was transient (58.15 ± 15.7 s). Accordingly, fixational stability was analysed over the first 30 s using repeated measures anova. Post hoc analysis revealed that for the amblyopic subjects, the fixational stability of the amblyopic eye was significantly improved in aligned/high contrast (p = 0.01) and aligned/balance point (p suppression. However, once initiated, bifoveal fixation is transient with the strabismic eye drifting away from foveal alignment, thereby increasing the angle of strabismus. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Trochanteric Fixation With a Third-Generation Cable-Plate System: An Independent Experience.

    Stewart, Andrew D; Abdelbary, Hesham; Beaulé, Paul E

    2017-09-01

    Greater trochanteric fracture/nonunion can be a devastating complication with significant functional impact after total hip arthroplasty, and their fixation remains a challenge because of the significant forces being transmitted as well as the poor bone quality often associated with these fractures. The objective of this study is to investigate the rates of reoperation and trochanteric nonunion using a third-generation cable-plate system at one center. Thirty-five patients, mean age 72.9 years (range 46-98 years) with 24 women and 11 men, underwent fixation of their fractured greater trochanter using a third-generation cable-plate system. The indications were: periprosthetic fracture (n = 17), complex primary arthroplasty (n = 5), and complex revision arthroplasty (n = 13). Primary outcomes included rates of reoperation and radiographic union. At a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, trochanteric union rate was 62.9% with nonunion rate of 31.4%, and fibrous union in 5.7%. In regard to quality of initial apposition, only 40% achieved a perfect bone on bone reduction. Ten patients (28.6%) had evidence of wire breakage. Five patients (14.3%) required reoperation and removal of the internal fixation because of lateral hip pain. Fixation of the trochanteric fractures remains a challenge with a relatively high reoperation rate. Poor bone quality and capacity to maintain a stable reduction continue to make this complication after total hip arthroplasty a difficult problem to solve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  12. No Higher Risk of CRPS After External Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures - Subgroup Analysis Under Randomised Vitamin C Prophylaxis.

    Zollinger, Paul E; Kreis, Robert W; van der Meulen, Hub G; van der Elst, Maarten; Breederveld, Roelf S; Tuinebreijer, Wim E

    2010-02-17

    Operative and conservative treatment of wrist fractures might lead to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I.In our multicenter dose response study in which patients with distal radial fractures were randomly allocated to placebo or vitamin C in a daily dose of 200mg, 500mg or 1500mg during 50 days, an operated subgroup was analyzed.48 (of 427) fractures) were operated (11.2%). Twenty-nine patients (60%) were treated with external fixation, 14 patients (29%) with K-wiring according to Kapandji and five patients (10%) with internal plate fixation. The 379 remaining patients were treated with a plaster.In the operated group of patients who received vitamin C no CRPS (0/37) was seen in comparison with one case of CRPS (Kapandji technique) in the operated group who received placebo (1/11 = 9%, p=.23). There was no CRPS after external fixation.In the conservatively treated group 17 cases of CRPS (17/379 = 4.5%) occurred in comparison with one in case of CRPS in the operated group (1/48 = 2.1%, p=.71).External fixation doesn't necessarily lead to a higher incidence of CRPS in distal radial fractures. Vitamin C may also play a role in this. This subgroup analysis in operated distal radial fractures showed no CRPS occurrence with vitamin C prophylaxis.

  13. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  14. Spin correlations in quantum wires

    Sun, Chen; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2015-04-01

    We consider theoretically spin correlations in a one-dimensional quantum wire with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (RDI). The correlations of noninteracting electrons display electron spin resonance at a frequency proportional to the RDI coupling. Interacting electrons, upon varying the direction of the external magnetic field, transit from the state of Luttinger liquid (LL) to the spin-density wave (SDW) state. We show that the two-time total-spin correlations of these states are significantly different. In the LL, the projection of total spin to the direction of the RDI-induced field is conserved and the corresponding correlator is equal to zero. The correlators of two components perpendicular to the RDI field display a sharp electron-spin resonance driven by the RDI-induced intrinsic field. In contrast, in the SDW state, the longitudinal projection of spin dominates, whereas the transverse components are suppressed. This prediction indicates a simple way for an experimental diagnostic of the SDW in a quantum wire. We point out that the Luttinger model does not respect the spin conservation since it assumes the infinite Fermi sea. We propose a proper cutoff to correct this failure.

  15. Bird on a (live) wire

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  16. Fixation Characteristics of Severe Amblyopia Subtypes: Which One is Worse?

    Koylu, Mehmet Talay; Ozge, Gokhan; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet; Ceylan, Osman Melih; Akıncıoglu, Dorukcan; Ayyıldız, Onder

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in macular sensitivity and fixation patterns in different subtypes of severe amblyopia. This case-control study enrolled a total of 73 male adults, including 18 with pure strabismic severe amblyopia, 19 with pure anisometropic severe amblyopia, 18 with mixed (strabismic plus anizometropic) severe amblyopia, and 18 healthy controls. MP-1 microperimetry was used to evaluate macular sensitivity, location of fixation, and stability of fixation. Mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in all amblyopia subtypes when compared with healthy controls. Intergroup comparisons between amblyopia subtypes revealed that mean macular sensitivity, stability of fixation, and location of fixation were significantly worse in pure strabismic and mixed amblyopic eyes when compared with pure anisometropic amblyopic eyes. Strabismus seems to be a worse prognostic factor in severe amblyopia than anisometropia in terms of fixation characteristics and retinal sensitivity.

  17. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  18. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  19. Biodegradable interlocking nails for fracture fixation

    van der Elst, M.; Bramer, J. A.; Klein, C. P.; de Lange, E. S.; Patka, P.; Haarman, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Serious problems such as stress shielding, allergic reactions, and corrosion are associated with the use of metallic fracture fixation devices in fractured long bones. Metal implants often are removed during a second retrieval operation after fracture healing has completed. A biocompatible implant

  20. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-27

    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  1. Large fluctuations and fixation in evolutionary games

    Assaf, Michael; Mobilia, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We study large fluctuations in evolutionary games belonging to the coordination and anti-coordination classes. The dynamics of these games, modeling cooperation dilemmas, is characterized by a coexistence fixed point separating two absorbing states. We are particularly interested in the problem of fixation that refers to the possibility that a few mutants take over the entire population. Here, the fixation phenomenon is induced by large fluctuations and is investigated by a semiclassical WKB (Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin) theory generalized to treat stochastic systems possessing multiple absorbing states. Importantly, this method allows us to analyze the combined influence of selection and random fluctuations on the evolutionary dynamics beyond the weak selection limit often considered in previous works. We accurately compute, including pre-exponential factors, the probability distribution function in the long-lived coexistence state and the mean fixation time necessary for a few mutants to take over the entire population in anti-coordination games, and also the fixation probability in the coordination class. Our analytical results compare excellently with extensive numerical simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our treatment is superior to the Fokker–Planck approximation when the selection intensity is finite

  2. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    Faust, H.

    1986-05-01

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  3. The effect of fixation on esterases

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1984-01-01

    The localization of reaction product for non-specific esterase from fresh and aldehyde treated glandular tissue was examined. The electrophoretical studies showed a selective inhibition of certain isoenzymes and a change in mobility of some bands caused by aldehyde fixation. In sections a granular...

  4. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  5. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  6. Plasma catalysis for nitrogen fixation reactions

    Patil, B.S.; Wang, Q.; Hessel, V.; Lang, J.; Stankiewicz, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    The preferences for localized chemicals production and changing scenarios of renewable electricity cost gives a renewed boost to plasma-assisted valuable chemicals production. Especially, plasma-assisted nitrogen fixation for fertilizer production has the potential to largely change the energy

  7. Comparative study of fixation density maps

    Engelke, U.; Liu, H.; Wang, Junle; Callet, Le P.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Zepernick, H.-J.; Maeder, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fixation density maps (FDM) created from eye tracking experiments are widely used in image processing applications. The FDM are assumed to be reliable ground truths of human visual attention and as such, one expects a high similarity between FDM created in different laboratories. So far, no studies

  8. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  9. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2014-01-01

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation

  10. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  11. External fixation combined with delayed internal fixation in treatment of tibial plateau fractures with dislocation.

    Tao, Xingguang; Chen, Nong; Pan, Fugen; Cheng, Biao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of external fixation, delayed open reduction, and internal fixation in treating tibial plateau fracture with dislocation.Clinical data of 34 patients diagnosed with tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation between January 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Fifteen patients in group A underwent early calcaneus traction combined with open reduction and internal fixation and 19 in group B received early external fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation. Operation time, postoperative complication, bone healing time, knee joint range of motion, initial weight-bearing time, Rasmussen tibial plateau score, and knee function score (HSS) were statistically compared between 2 groups.The mean follow-up time was 18.6 months (range: 5-24 months). The mean operation time in group A was 96 minutes, significantly longer than 71 minutes in group B (P  .05). In group A, initial weight-bearing time in group A was (14.0 ± 3.6) weeks, significantly differing from (12.9 ± 2.8) weeks in group B (P  0.05). Rasmussen tibial plateau score in group A was slightly lower than that in group B (P > .05). The excellent rate of knee joint function in group A was 80% and 84.21% in group B (P > .05).External fixation combined with delayed open reduction and internal fixation is a safer and more efficacious therapy of tibial plateau fracture complicated with dislocation compared with early calcaneus traction and open reduction and internal fixation.

  12. [Treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation].

    Wei, Sheng-wang; Shi, Zhan-ying; Hu, Ju-zheng; Wu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    To discuss the clinical effects of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation in the treatment of pediatric distal femur fractures. From January 2008 to June 2014, 17 children of distal femur fractures were treated by external fixator combined with limited internal fixation. There were 12 males and 5 females, aged from 6 to 13 years old with an average of 10.2 years, ranged in the course of disease from 1 h to 2 d. Preoperative diagnoses were confirmed by X-ray films in all children. There were 11 patients with supracondylar fracture , and 6 patients with intercondylar comminuted fracture. According to AO/ASIF classification, 9 fractures were type A1, 5 cases were type A2,and 3 cases were type C1. The intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative radiological examination, lower limbs length and motion of knee joints were observed. Knee joint function was assessed by KSS score. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 38 months with an average of 24.4 months. No nerve or blood vessel injury was found. One case complicated with the external fixation loosening, 2 cases with the infection of pin hole and 3 cases with the leg length discrepancy. Knee joint mobility and length measurement (compared with the contralateral), the average limited inflexion was 10 degrees (0 degrees to 20 degrees), the average limited straight was 4 degrees (0 degrees to 10), the average varus or valgus angle was 3 degrees (0 degrees to 5 degrees). KSS of the injured side was (96.4 +/- 5.0) points at final follow-up, 16 cases got excellent results and 1 good. All fractures obtained healing and no epiphyseal closed early was found. External fixator combined with limited internal fixation has advantages of simple operation, reliable fixation, early functional exercise in treating pediatric distal femurs fractures.

  13. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Pure silver nanoparticles in double distilled water were generated via simple physical method using pure (99.9%) silver wires with 0.2 mm diameter. These wires have been exploded in water by bringing them into sudden contact with pure (99.9%) silver plate when subjected to a potential difference of 36 V DC. High current.

  14. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  15. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    2010-01-28

    ... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585

  16. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F.D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  17. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  18. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  19. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  20. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  1. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  2. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Gibson, E. D.; Ostenson, J. E.; Schmidt, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb 3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb 3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting

  4. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  5. [Case-control study on measurement of coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligament injuries during internal fixation operation for the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocation of Tossy type III].

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Sun, Peng; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Qi, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    To study measurement methods of acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament injuries,its therapeutic effects and complications during internal fixation operation for the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III. From July 2003 to May 2012,127 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III were treated with wire fixation from coracoid process to clavicle or hook-plate fixation. The patients were divided into group A (63 cases) and group B (64 cases) according to whether acromioclavicular ligament and coracoclavicular ligament were repaired or not. In group A (ligaments repaired), there were 39 males and 24 females with an average age of (33.25 +/- 8.46) years old (ranged from 17 to 59 years). And in group B (no ligaments repaired), there were 41 males and 23 females with an average age of (34.10 +/- 7.19) years (ranged from 19 to 57 years). The operation times, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative infections, internal fixation failure, recurrence and other complications, together with therapeutic effects were compared between two groups. The outcome was analyzed according to Karlsson standard. In group A, 54 patients got an excellent result and 9 good according to Karlsson standard;the average operative time was (55.90 +/- 26.56) min; the average intraoperative bleeding amount was (99.80 +/- 50.30) ml; 1 patient had wire broken without re-dislocation at 16 weeks after operation, 3 patients got wound fat liquefaction and recovered after treatment, 1 patient had pain after shoulder joint motion and pain disappeared after implants were taken out. In group B, 52 patients got an excellent result and 12 good according to Karlsson standard; the average operative time was (49.50 +/- 23.14) min; the average intraoperative bleeding amount was (87.30 +/- 46.41) ml; 2 patients got wound fat liquefaction, and 2 patients had pain after shoulder joint motion. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged

  6. Treatment of Rigid Hammer-Toe Deformity: Permanent Versus Removable Implant Selection.

    Doty, Jesse F; Fogleman, Jason A

    2018-03-01

    Hammer-toe deformities that fail nonoperative treatment can be successfully addressed with proximal interphalangeal joint resection arthroplasty or fusion. The goal of surgery is to eliminate the deformity and rigidly fix the toe in a well-aligned position. Hammer-toe correction procedures can be performed with temporary Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for 3 to 6 weeks with high success rates. Pain relief with successful hammer-toe correction approaches 90%; patient satisfaction rates approximate 84%. Although complication rates are rare in most series, there remains a concern regarding exposed temporary K-wire fixation, which has led to the development of multiple permanent internal fixation options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  8. Single wire drift chamber design

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  9. Primary ankle arthrodesis for neglected open weber B ankle fracture dislocation.

    Thomason, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    Primary ankle arthrodesis used to treat a neglected open ankle fracture dislocation is a unique decision. A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 5-day-old open fracture dislocation of his right ankle. After thorough soft tissue debridement, primary arthrodesis of the tibiotalar joint was performed using initial Kirschner wire fixation and an external fixator. Definitive soft tissue coverage was later achieved using a latissimus dorsi free flap. The fusion was consolidated to salvage the limb from amputation. The use of primary arthrodesis to treat a compound ankle fracture dislocation has not been previously described.

  10. Circummandibular Wires for Treatment of Dentoalveolar Fractures Adjacent to Edentulous Areas: A Report of Two Cases.

    Maloney, Karl

    2015-09-01

    In general, dentoalveolar fractures are a common injury seen in emergency departments, dental offices, and oral and maxillofacial surgery practices. These injuries can be the result of direct trauma or indirect trauma. Direct trauma more often causes trauma to the maxillary dentition due to the exposure of the maxillary anterior teeth. Indirect trauma is usually the result of forced occlusion secondary to a blow to the chin or from a whiplash injury. Falls are the most common mechanism of injury seen in the pediatric group. In adolescents, many of these fractures are sustained during sporting activities. However, the use of mouth guards and other protective equipment has decreased this number. Most adult injuries are caused by motor vehicle accidents, contact sports, falls, bicycles, interpersonal violence, medical/dental mishaps, and industrial accidents. Early intervention to reduce and stabilize the fracture is required to establish a bony union and ensure correct function. Most dentoalveolar fractures have bilateral stable adjacent dentition and are treated with a closed technique utilizing an acid-etch/resin splint followed by splint removal at 4 weeks. Other inferior stabilization treatments used are arch bars and other wiring techniques. It is widely accepted that semirigid stabilization techniques, such as an acid-etch/resin splint or wiring procedures, are adequate to treat dentoalveolar fractures. This is in contrast to the treatment of mandible fractures where AO principles of rigid fixation are often followed. Fractures that are unable to be reduced sometimes necessitate an open reduction followed by internal fixation, sometimes using a secondary splint for mobile teeth. In those rare cases when there are not stable adjacent teeth bilaterally other modalities must be considered. In the present report, two cases are presented where circummandibular wires were used to treat fractured mandibular dentoalveolar segments adjacent to edentulous areas.

  11. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  12. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  13. Nitrogen fixation improvement in Faidherbia albida

    Toure, O.; Dasilva, M.C.; Badji, S.; Dianda, M.; Ndoye, I.; Gueye, M.

    1998-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment investigated growth, N accumulation and N 2 fixation (using the 15 N-dilution method) by Faidherbia albida in comparison with three species of Acacia, with Parkia biglobosa and Tamarindus indica as non-fixing reference plants. Faidherbia albida was mediocre in comparison with A. seyel, therefore seven provenances of the former were examined in a second pot experiment to investigate within-species variability for the same performance components; a provenance from Kabrousse, Senegal, showed particular promise in terms of dry weight and N accumulation, and fixation of N. This promise was confirmed with a 15-month field experiment, but revealed that there is opportunity for further improvement in N 2 -fixing ability. Faidherbia albida is a slow-growing tree, therefore further field experiments with provenance Kabrousse should be longer term in scope. The data indicate that trenching of the 15 N-labelled area may not be necessary. (author)

  14. Intrasacral rod fixation for pediatric lumbopelvic fusion.

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports the authors' 19 years experience with pediatric intrasacral rod fixation. After insertion of two cannulated screws in S1 with and an original template guiding them into the anterior third of the endplate, two short fusion rods were inserted into the sacrum according to Jackson's technique distally to S3. In neuromuscular scoliosis, pelvic obliquity was reduced by connecting the proximal and distal constructs, distraction or compression, and in situ rod bending. In children with high-grade spondylolisthesis, lumbosacral kyphosis was reduced by rotation of the sacrum and in situ bending. There were no direct neurological or vascular injuries. The main complication was infection (7%). No pseudarthrosis or significant loss of correction at the lumbosacral junction was observed during follow-up. Intrasacral rod fixation appears to be safe and reliable for lumbopelvic fusion in pediatric patients.

  15. Scaphoid Fracture Fixation with an Acutrak? Screw

    Loving, Vilert A.; Richardson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of fixation of a scaphoid fracture using an Acutrak? screw. This screw is cannulated and headless, which allows it to be implanted below the surface of the bone. It uses the same concept of variable thread pitch as the Herbert screw, but unlike the Herbert screw, is fully threaded, with continuously varying pitch along its length. This variable pitch creates constant compression across a fracture as the screw is advanced, and gives the screw its unique appearance. This featur...

  16. Susceptibility to corrosion and in vitro biocompatibility of a laser-welded composite orthodontic arch wire.

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Zhao, Shuang; Yu, Wenwen; Sun, Daqian

    2014-01-01

    Composite arch-wire (CoAW) is an arch wire formed by solder connection of nickel titanium shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biocompatibility of CoAW as an important foundation for its clinical application. The electrochemical corrosion and ion release behavior of CoAW upon immersion in solutions simulating oral cavity conditions were measured to evaluate the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Murine L-929 cells were co-cultured with CoAW extract to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the corrosion products in vitro. Polarization tests indicated that CoAW is resistant to corrosion in the tested artificial saliva (AS)-based solutions (chloric solution, simple AS, fluorinated AS, and protein-containing AS), and the amount of toxic copper ions released after immersion was lower than average daily dietary intake levels. The cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated the in vitro biocompatibility of CoAW. Based on the combined advantages of its base materials CoAW, with its resistance to biocorrosion and in vitro cytocompatibility, is a promising alternative material for use in orthodontic fixation applications.

  17. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  18. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  19. Plastic deformation of 2D crumpled wires

    Gomes, M A F; Donato, C C; Brito, V P; Coelho, A S O

    2008-01-01

    When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected through channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper this packing process is investigated but using plastic wires which give rise to completely irreversible structures of different morphology. In particular, the plastic deformation from circular to oblate configurations of crumpled wires is experimentally studied, obtained by the application of an axial strain. Among other things, it is shown that in spite of plasticity, irreversibility and very large deformations, scaling is still observed.

  20. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    T. Moore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20  m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell’s high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  1. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  2. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described

  3. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  4. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  5. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  6. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  7. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture ( I 2 =8%, RR =0.77(95% CI 0.65-0.91, Z =3.10, P 0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  8. Effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures.

    Han, L R; Jin, C X; Yan, J; Han, S Z; He, X B; Yang, X F

    2015-03-31

    This study compared the efficacy between external fixator combined with palmar T-plate internal fixation and simple plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures. A total of 61 patients classified as type C according to the AO/ASIF classification underwent surgery for comminuted distal radius fractures. There were 54 and 7 cases of closed and open fractures, respectively. Moreover, 19 patients received an external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation, and 42 received simple plate internal fixation. All patients were treated successfully during 12-month postoperative follow-up. The follow-up results show that the palmar flexion and dorsiflexion of the wrist, radial height, and palmar angle were significantly better in those treated with the external fixator combined with T-plate compared to those treated with the simple plate only (P 0.05). Hence, the effectiveness of external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation for the treatment of comminuted distal radius fractures was satisfactory. Patients sufficiently recovered wrist, forearm, and hand function. In conclusion, compared to the simple T-plate, the external fixator combined with T-plate internal fixation can reduce the possibility of the postoperative re-shifting of broken bones and keep the distraction of fractures to maintain radial height and prevent radial shortening.

  9. Comparison of screw fixation with elastic fixation methods in the treatment of syndesmosis injuries in ankle fractures.

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Donmez, Ferdi; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Cakmak, Selami; Mutlu, Serhat; Guler, Olcay

    2015-07-01

    17 patients with ankle syndesmosic injury were treated with a 4.5mm single cortical screw fixation (passage of screw 4 cortices) and 15 patients were treated with single-level elastic fixation material. All patients were evaluated according to the AOFAS ankle and posterior foot scale at the third, sixth and twelfth months after the fixation. The ankle range of movement was recorded together with the healthy side. The Student's t test was used for statistical comparisons. No statistical significant difference was observed between the AOFAS scores (p>0.05). The range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion motion of the elastic fixation group at the 6th and 12th months were significantly better compared to the screw fixation group (pankle syndesmosis injuries. The unnecessary need of a second surgical intervention for removal of the fixation material is another advantageous aspect of this method of fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The use of twin-ring Ilizarov external fixator constructs: application and biomechanical proof-of principle with possible clinical indications

    Magnissalis Evangelos A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In peri- or intra-articular fractures of the tibia or femur, the presence of short metaphyseal bone fragments may make the application of an Ilizarov external fixator (IEF challenging. In such cases, it may be necessary to bridge the adjacent joint in order to ensure stable fixation. The twin-ring (TR module of circular external fixation is proposed as an alternative method that avoids joint bridging, without compromising stability of fixation. The aim of this study is to present the experimental tests performed to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the single- and TR IEF modules. The clinical application of the TR module in select patients is also presented and the merits of this technique are discussed. Methods In this experimental study, the passive stiffness and stability of the single-ring (SR and twin-ring (TR IEF modules were tested under axial and shear loading conditions. In each module, two perpendicular wires on the upper surface and another two wires on the lower surface of the rings were used for fixation of the rings on plastic acetal cylinders simulating long bones. Results In axial loading, the main outcome measure was stiffness and the SR module proved stiffer than the TR. In shear loading, the main outcome measure was stability, the TR module proving more stable than the SR. Discussion The TR configuration, being stiffer in shear loading, may make joint bridging unnecessary when an IEF is applied. If it is still required, TR frames allow for an earlier discontinuation of bridging; either case is in favour of a successful final outcome. Conclusion The application of the TR module has led to satisfactory clinical outcomes and should be considered as an alternative in select trauma patients treated with an IEF. Biomechanically, the TR module possesses features which enhance fracture healing and at the same time obviate the need for bridging adjacent joints, thereby significantly reducing patient

  11. Design and application of hybrid maxillomandibular fixation for facial bone fractures.

    Park, Kang-Nam; Oh, Seung-Min; Lee, Chang-Youn; Kim, Jwa-Young; Yang, Byoung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    A novel maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) procedure using a skeletal anchorage screw (SAS) (in the maxilla) and an arch bar (in the mandible), which we call "hybrid maxillomandibular fixation," was explored in this study. The aims of the study were to examine the efficacy of our hybrid MMF method and to compare periodontal tissue health and occlusal rehabilitation among 3 MMF methods. In total, 112 patients who had undergone open reduction at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery between September 2005 and December 2012 were selected for this study. The participants were assigned to one of the following groups: SAS (maxilla), SAS (mandible), SAS-arch bar, or arch bar-arch bar. Periodontal health was evaluated using the Gingival Index, and the perioperative occlusal reproducibility was evaluated using a score of 1 to 3. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests (Student t test or 1-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey test). In the Gingival Index comparison performed 1 month after the surgery, only the group using the arch bars and wiring was significantly different from the other groups (P fractures. In addition, it overcomes many problems presented by previous MMF methods.

  12. Hybrid external fixation of the proximal tibia: strategies to improve frame stability.

    Roberts, Craig S; Dodds, James C; Perry, Kelvin; Beck, Dennis; Seligson, David; Voor, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    To determine the specific frame construction strategies that can increase the stability of hybrid (ring with tensioned wires proximally connected by bars to half-pins distally) external fixation of proximal tibia fractures. DESIGN Repeated measures biomechanical testing. Laboratory. Composite fiberglass tibias. Using the Heidelberg and Ilizarov systems, external fixators were tested on composite fiberglass tibias with a 1-cm proximal osteotomy (OTA fracture classification 41-A3.3) in seven frame configurations: unilateral frames with 5-mm diameter half-pins and 6-mm diameter half-pins; hybrid (as described above), with and without a 6-mm anterior proximal half-pin; a "box" hybrid (additional ring group distal to the fracture connected by symmetrically spaced bars to the proximal rings) with and without an anterior, proximal half-pin; and a full, four-ring configuration. Each configuration was loaded in four positions (central, medial, posterior, and posteromedial). Displacement at point of loading of proximal fragment. The "box" hybrid was stiffer than the standard hybrid for all loading positions. The addition of an anterior half-pin stiffened the standard hybrid and the "box" hybrid. The most dramatic improvements in the stability of hybrid frames used for proximal tibial fractures result from addition of an anterior, proximal half-pin.

  13. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  14. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    Zhan, T. R.; Chui, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures

  15. Diamond wire cutting of heat exchangers

    Beckman, T.R.; Bjerler, J.

    1991-01-01

    With the change-out of equipment at nuclear power plants comes large quantities of low level contaminated metallic waste. Of particular concern are large heat exchangers, preheaters and steam generators. These bulky items consume huge volumes of burial space. The need for volume reduction and recycling of these metals has created new demands for 'how' to cut heat exchangers into useful sizes for decontamination, melting or compaction. This paper reviews the cutting solution provided by a diamond wire system, with particular regard for cutting of a Ringhals Preheater Bundle at Studsvik Nuclear in 1989. The background of diamond wire sawing is discussed and basic components of wire sawing are explained. Other examples of wire cutting decommissioned components are also given. (author)

  16. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  17. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  18. Angular response of hot wire probes

    Di Mare, L; Jelly, T O; Day, I J

    2017-01-01

    A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined. (paper)

  19. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  20. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  1. Fusion Surgery Required for Recurrent Pediatric Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation after Failure of Temporary Fixation with Instrumentation

    Yoshiyuki Matsuyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In cases of chronic irreducible and recurrent unstable atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF, closed reduction and its maintenance are often unsuccessful, requiring surgical treatment. The purpose of the present report is to describe a rare case of pediatric AARF that required multiple treatments. A 6-year-old boy was diagnosed as having type 2 AARF. After conservative treatment, the patient was treated with temporary fixation surgery (C1-C2 Magerl without a bone graft in consideration of motion preservation after screw removal. AARF recurred after the screw removal and required fusion surgery (Magerl–Brooks with an iliac bone graft. Ultimately, bone union was achieved and the screws were removed 11 months after the surgery. We recommend surgeons be cautious when choosing temporary fixation surgery for AARF in small children. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal time before screw removal.

  2. Pseudoaneurysm of the deep femoral artery caused by a guide wire following femur intertrochanteric fracture with a hip nail: A case report

    Ji Wan Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An 85-year-old woman developed severe swelling and pain in the proximal thigh after internal fixation of an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur with a hip nail. In order to identify the causes and determine the effective treatment, angiography was performed. The results of the angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of a branch of deep femoral artery. Endovascular embolization was used to treat the pseudoaneurysm. After reviewing all possible causes, we found a mistake in insertion of a guide wire for hip nail. Using intraoperative fluoroscopic images, we found the mal-positioned guide wire located posterior to trochanter on lateral view of hip. This case study reminds us that pseudoaneurysm can occur in a guide wire during hip nailing. Surgeons can avoid this complication with confirmation of lateral and anteroposterior view of hip.

  3. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    2010-07-01

    .... Receptacles on a two-wire, single-phase portable or vehicle-mounted generator rated not more than 5kW, where the circuit conductors of the generator are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded... wiring shall be grounded: (i) Three-wire DC systems. All 3-wire DC systems shall have their neutral...

  5. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  6. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is

  7. Occipitocervical fusions in children. Retrospective analysis and technical considerations.

    Rodgers, W B; Coran, D L; Emans, J B; Hresko, M T; Hall, J E

    1999-07-01

    This report presents a retrospective analysis of the authors' experience with occipitocervical fusions in children and adolescents during the last 2 decades. A description of an operative technique devised by the senior author (JEH), and a comparison of the results using this and other methods of fusion are given. Twenty-three patients underwent occipitocervical fusion. Fifteen of the patients were operated on using the authors' technique. To achieve stable fixation of the distal cervical vertebra a threaded Kirschner wire was passed transversely through the spinous process; occipital fixation was achieved by the traditional method of wiring corticocancellous bone graft to the skull through burr holes. The occipital wires then were wrapped around the Kirschner wire and the graft was cradled in the resulting nest. Halo immobilization was used in 10 patients for an average of 12.5 weeks (range, 6-24 weeks). Twenty-two patients achieved successful fusion at an average followup of 5.8 years (range, 1-14.33 years). Several complications, including transient quadriplegia in one patient, pseudarthrosis in two (one of which persists), hardware fixation failure in one, unintended distal extension of the fusion, pneumonia, wound infection, halo pin infection, skin breakdown under the halo vest, hydrocephalus, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and traumatic fusion fracture were encountered. Results using the technique described herein are comparable with or better than the results reported in the previous literature, and the results of the patients in this series in whom the technique was not used.

  8. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  9. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  10. Endoscope-Assisted Transoral Fixation of Mandibular Condyle Fractures: Submandibular Versus Transoral Endoscopic Approach.

    Hwang, Na-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hwan; You, Hi-Jin; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Kim, Deok-Woo

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, endoscope-assisted transoral approach for condylar fracture treatment has attracted much attention. However, the surgical approach is technically challenging: the procedure requires specialized instruments and the surgeons experience a steep learning curve. During the transoral endoscopic (TE) approach several instruments are positioned through a narrow oral incision making endoscope maneuvering very difficult. For this reason, the authors changed the entry port of the endoscope from transoral to submandibular area through a small stab incision. The aim of this study is to assess the advantage of using the submandibular endoscopic intraoral approach (SEI).The SEI approach requires intraoral incision for fracture reduction and fixation, and 4 mm size submandibular stab incision for endoscope and traction wires. Fifteen patients with condyle neck and subcondyle fractures were operated under the submandibular approach and 15 patients with the same diagnosis were operated under the standard TE approach.The SEI approach allowed clear visualization of the posterior margin of the ramus and condyle, and the visual axis was parallel to the condyle ramus unit. The TE approach clearly shows the anterior margin of the condyle and the sigmoid notch. The surgical time of the SEI group was 128 minutes and the TE group was 120 minutes (P >0.05). All patients in the TE endoscope group were fixated with the trocar system, but only 2 lower neck fracture patients in the SEI group required a trocar. The other 13 subcondyle fractures were fixated with an angulated screw driver (P <0.05). There were no differences in complication and surgical outcomes.The submandibular endoscopic approach has an advantage of having more space with good visualization, and facilitated the use of an angulated screw driver.

  11. Tracking with wire chambers at the SSC

    Hanson, G.G.; Gundy, M.C.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-07-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tacking systems that meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 13 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab

  12. Charge Transport Along Phenylenevinylene Molecular Wires

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A model to calculate the mobility of charges along molecular wires is presented. The model is based on the tight-binding approximation and combines a quantum mechanical description of the charge with a classical description of the structural degrees of freedom. It is demonstrated that the average mobility of charge carriers along molecular wires can be obtained by time-propagation of states which are initially localised. The model is used to calculate the mobility of charg...

  13. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  14. Deformable wire array: fiber drawn tunable metamaterials

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated.......By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated....

  15. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    Hanson, G.G.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs

  16. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  17. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  18. Induced Voltage in an Open Wire

    Morawetz, K.; Gilbert, M.; Trupp, A.

    2017-07-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law has been considered and solved concerning the question which voltage will be induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of the magnetic field and the enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field with respect to the wave vector contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a spatially homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models of the Maxwell equations for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications.

  19. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  20. Impedance Characterisation of the SPS Wire Scanner

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091911; Prof. Sillanpää, Mika

    As a beam diagnostic tool, the SPS wire scanner interacts with the proton bunches traversing the vacuum pipes of the Super Proton Synchrotron particle accelerator. Following the interaction, the bunches decelerate or experience momentum kicks off-axis and couple energy to the cavity walls, resonances and to the diagnostic tool, the scanning wire. The beam coupling impedance and, in particular, the beam induced heating of the wire motivate the characterisation and redesign of the SPS wire scanner. In this thesis, we characterise RF-wise the low frequency modes of the SPS wire scanner. These have the highest contribution to the impedance. We measure the cavity modes in terms of resonance frequency and quality factor by traditional measurement techniques and data analysis. We carry out a 4-port measurement to evaluate the beam coupling to the scanning wire, that yields the spectral heating power. If combined with the simulations, one is able to extract the beam coupling impedance and deduce the spectral dissipa...

  1. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF 4 /iC 4 H 10 gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF 4 -rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF 4 , acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF 4 /iC 4 H 10 gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C 2 H 6 . Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl 3 F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds

  2. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  3. Management and follow up of tibial plateau fractures by ′T′ clamp external fixator and limited internal fixation

    Thimmegowda M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial plateau fractures are difficult to treat especially when soft tissue is compromised by open reduction and internal fixation. Many methods have be1en tried in the past to manage these cases of which external fixation were shown to be effective as they limit the soft tissue and wound complications. Methods: Complex tibial plateau fractures of sixteen patients were treated by closed reduction, fixation of articular fragments by screws and application of unilateral external fixator. The external fixator was kept in place till fracture united clinically and radiologically. The patients were followed up for at least one year to assess the function of the knee joint Results: The average duration of external fixation was 13 weeks. All the fractures healed. Pin track infection (five patients and instability (six patients of the knee were encountered with this procedure. The average duration of follow up was 62 weeks. The mean range of motion was 1250 arc. The IOWA knee score averaged 90.3 points. Conclusions: External fixation with limited internal fixation may be effective in the management of complex tibial plateau fractures which requires further support from studies with large sample size. ′T′ clamp external fixation with limited Internal fixation is the procedure of choice when alignment, stability, early mobilisation is required in a soft tissue compromised tibial plateau fractures.

  4. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    2010-09-30

    ... Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire; Notice of Commission Determination To... within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos. 6,260,781; 6...

  5. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  6. Supplemental Analysis Survey of C&P Telephone Inside Wiring.

    1986-10-01

    telephone company facilities in 1984. In 1985, among other actions favorable to deregulation and detariffing of inside wiring, the FCC proposed to detariff ...installation of inside wiring, detariff the maintenance of all inside wiring, treat all inside wiring as customer premise equipment and pass ownership...85-148, 50 Fed. let. 13991 (April 9, 1985), pToposing to detariff the installation of simple inside wiring and also to detariff the maintenance of all

  7. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  8. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    Dubey, Rachit; Dave, Akshat; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  9. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  10. Bilateral Laparoscopic Totally Extraperitoneal Repair Without Mesh Fixation

    Dehal, Ahmed; Woodward, Brandon; Johna, Samir; Yamanishi, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mesh fixation during laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair is thought to be necessary to prevent recurrence. However, mesh fixation may increase postoperative chronic pain. This study aimed to describe the experience of a single surgeon at our institution performing this operation. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who underwent bilateral laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair without mesh fixation for ing...

  11. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion

    Agrawal Hemendra Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration. Key words: Femur; Ilizarov technique; External fixators

  12. Rib Fracture Fixation: Indications and Outcomes.

    Senekjian, Lara; Nirula, Raminder

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are a frequently identified injury in the trauma population. Not only are multiple rib fractures painful, but they are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pneumonia in particular can be devastating, especially to an elderly patient, but other complications such as prolonged ventilation and increased intensive care and hospital durations of stay have a negative impact on the patient. Computed tomography scan is the best modality to diagnosis rib fractures but the treatment of fractures is still evolving. Currently patient care involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes pain control, aggressive pulmonary therapy, and possibly surgical fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen fixation on a coral reef

    Mague, T.H.; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1975-06-01

    Benthic, heterocystous blue-green algae (genera Calothrix, Hormothamnion and Nostoc) from Eniwetok Atoll were found to reduce acetylene at rapid rates. Slight acetylene reduction was associated with samples of Rhizoclonium (Chlorophyceae) and Oscillatoria (a cyanophyte lacking heterocysts), but this may have been due to contamination by epiphytes. There was virtually no acetylene reduction by phytoplankton, and nutrient enrichment experiments failed to selectively increase the numbers or activity of N/sub 2/-fixing algae in surface water samples. The Nostoc required light for acetylene reduction. Nitrogen fixation by this species could have supplied up to 11 ..mu..g N/cm/sup 2//day to the ecosystem. (auth)

  14. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    . The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas...... of ideas produced per group and the groups' fixation ratios, adding to the quantity breads novelty debate. Finally, the study also provided further evidence of the hypothesis by Agogué et al (2011) that example solutions constructed from restrictive partitions have a greater fixation affect....

  15. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Wiring. Course: Electrical Wiring Rough-In.

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of two individualized courses included in an electrical wiring curriculum, this course covers electrical installations that are generally hidden within the structure. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Outlet and Switch Boxes, (2) Wiring, (3) Service Entrance, and (4) Signal and Low Voltage Systems. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  16. Effect of discrete wires on the implosion dynamics of wire array Z pinches

    Lebedev, S. V.; Beg, F. N.; Bland, S. N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Dangor, A. E.; Haines, M. G.; Kwek, K. H.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    A phenomenological model of wire array Z-pinch implosions, based on the analysis of experimental data obtained on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) generator [I. H. Mitchell , Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)], is described. The data show that during the first ∼80% of the implosion the wire cores remain stationary in their initial positions, while the coronal plasma is continuously jetting from the wire cores to the array axis. This phase ends by the formation of gaps in the wire cores, which occurs due to the nonuniformity of the ablation rate along the wires. The final phase of the implosion starting at this time occurs as a rapid snowplow-like implosion of the radially distributed precursor plasma, previously injected in the interior of the array. The density distribution of the precursor plasma, being peaked on the array axis, could be a key factor providing stability of the wire array implosions operating in the regime of discrete wires. The modified ''initial'' conditions for simulations of wire array Z-pinch implosions with one-dimension (1D) and two-dimensions (2D) in the r--z plane, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes, and a possible scaling to a larger drive current are discussed

  17. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  18. Percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation: salvage of failed percutaneous odontoid screw fixation for odontoid fracture

    Wu, Ai-Min; Jin, Hai-Ming; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the outcomes and safety of using percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation as a salvage technique for odontoid fracture if percutaneous odontoid screw fixation fails. Methods Fifteen in 108 odontoid fracture patients (planned to be treated by percutaneous anterior odontoid screw fixation) were failed to introduce satisfactory odontoid screw trajectory. To salvage this problem, we chose the percutaneous anterior C1/2 trans...

  19. Theory of wire number scaling in wire-array Z pinches

    Desjarlais, M.P.; Marder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed-power-driven Z pinches, produced by imploding cylindrical arrays of many wires, have generated very high x-ray radiation powers (>200 TW) and energies (2 MJ). Experiments have revealed a steady improvement in Z-pinch performance with increasing wire number at fixed total mass and array radius. The dominant mechanism acting to limit the performance of these devices is believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which broadens the radially imploding plasma sheath and consequently reduces the peak radiation power. A model is presented which describes an amplification over the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate brought about by kink-like forces on the individual wires. This amplification factor goes to zero as the number of wires approaches infinity. This model gives results which are in good agreement with the experimental data and provides a scaling for wire-array Z pinches. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110} α or {112} α slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  1. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...... decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...

  2. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF METACARPAL AND PHALANGAL FRACTURES

    Krunoslav Margić

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. In past three years we have used smallexternal fixator in the treatment of: 18 closed fractures of metacarpalbones, 15 phalangeal fractures, four dislocated fracturesof MCP and five of PIP joint, ten arthrodesis, five replantations/revascularisations, two pathological fractures, and infew post-traumatic infection of bones and joints.Results. Results were graded as excellent (completely normalfunction, very good (15° deficit of total ROM, good (30° deficitof total ROM; can flex the fingers to the palm, and poor.Excellent result was obtained in the treatment of all 18 metacarpalfractures. The final results in the treatment of 12 closedfragmentated fractures of phalanges were as follows: excellent3, very good 2, good 2 and five poor results (three patientsin this group have fallen on their hands causing refractureand reoperation. Three of four fractures of MCP joint andfour of five fractures involving PIP joint have good mobility.In eight of ten patients arthrodeses are stable and withoutpain. In two cases pathological fractures were first stabilizedand than the tumor was evacuated and grafted with minimaldissection; booth have good results.Conclusion. Author suggests that, in selected cases, with applicationof small external fixator reasonable good results can beobtained.

  3. Biomechanics of lumbar cortical screw-rod fixation versus pedicle screw-rod fixation with and without interbody support.

    Perez-Orribo, Luis; Kalb, Samuel; Reyes, Phillip M; Chang, Steve W; Crawford, Neil R

    2013-04-15

    Seven different combinations of posterior screw fixation, with or without interbody support, were compared in vitro using nondestructive flexibility tests. To study the biomechanical behavior of a new cortical screw (CS) fixation construct relative to the traditional pedicle screw (PS) construct. The CS is an alternative to the PS for posterior fixation of the lumbar spine. The CS trajectory is more sagittally and cranially oriented than the PS, being anchored in the pars interarticularis. Like PS fixation, CS fixation uses interconnecting rods fastened with top-locking connectors. Stability after bilateral CS fixation was compared with stability after bilateral PS fixation in the setting of intact disc and with direct lateral interbody fixation (DLIF) or transforaminal lateral interbody fixation (TLIF) support. Standard nondestructive flexibility tests were performed in cadaveric lumbar specimens, allowing non-paired comparisons of specific conditions from 28 specimens (4 groups of 7) within a larger experiment of multiple hardware configurations. Condition tested and group from which results originated were as follows: (1) intact (all groups); (2) with L3-L4 bilateral PS-rods (group 1); (3) with bilateral CS-rods (group 2); (4) with DLIF (group 3); (5) with DLIF + CS-rods (group 4); (6) with DLIF + PS-rods (group 3); (7) with TLIF + CS-rods (group 2), and (8) with TLIF + PS-rods (group 2). To assess spinal stability, the mean range of motion, lax zone, and stiff zone at L3-L4 were compared during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. With intact disc, stability was equivalent after PS-rod and CS-rod fixation, except that PS-rod fixation was stiffer during axial rotation. With DLIF support, there was no significant difference in stability between PS-rod and CS-rod fixation. With TLIF support, PS-rod fixation was stiffer than CS-rod fixation during lateral bending. Bilateral CS-rod fixation provided about the same stability in cadaveric specimens

  4. New crosslinked polyvinyl chloride insulated wire by electron beam irradiation

    Takahata, Norio; Shingyouchi, Kazuo; Sato, Masakatsu; Sasaki, Hidemi; Terunuma, Haruji

    1978-01-01

    The polyvinyl chloride-coated wires crosslinked by electron beam irradiation have made rapid progress as electric and electronic wiring material and grown to hold a firm position in this field. In response to the requirements for wires with the advance of electronic equipments, Hitachi Cable Ltd. developed a peculiar graft polymer consisting of chlorinated polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. To this polymer, the characteristics of a very wide range from toughness to flexibility can be given, and the crosslinked polyvinyl chloride wires utilizing these characteristics were put in practical use. Many kinds of the wires were developed as follows; 105 deg. C rating crosslinked vinyl-coated wires authorized by UL and CSA standards, crosslinked vinyl-coated wires with excellent flexibility, high strength crosslinked vinyl-coated wires with thin coating and crosslinked vinyl-coated wires for automobiles. They are expected to be developed into other new fields and applications. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments

  6. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  7. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  8. Sensitive and simple method for measuring wire tensions

    Atac, M.; Mishina, M.

    1982-08-01

    Measuring tension of wires in drift chambers and multiwire proportional chambers after construction is an important process because sometimes wires get loose after soldering, crimping or glueing. One needs to sort out wires which have tensions below a required minimum value to prevent electrostatic instabilities. There have been several methods reported on this subject in which the wires were excited either with sinusoidal current under magnetic field or with sinusoidal voltage electrostatically coupled to the wire, searching for a resonating frequency with which the wires vibrate mechanically. Then the vibration is detected either visually, optically or with magnetic pick-up directly touching the wires. Any of these is only applicable to the usual multiwire chamber which has open access to the wire plane. They also need fairly large excitation currents to induce a detectable vibration to the wires. Here we report a very simple method that can be used for any type of wire chamber or proportional tube system for measuring wire tension. Only a very small current is required for the wire excitation to obtain a large enough signal because it detects the induced emf voltage across a wire. A sine-wave oscillator and a digital voltmeter are sufficient devices aside from a permanent magnet to provide the magnetic field around the wire. A useful application of this method to a large system is suggested

  9. Internal Versus External Fixation of Charcot Midfoot Deformity Realignment.

    Lee, Daniel J; Schaffer, Joseph; Chen, Tien; Oh, Irvin

    2016-07-01

    Internal and external fixation techniques have been described for realignment and arthrodesis of Charcot midfoot deformity. There currently is no consensus on the optimal method of surgical reconstruction. This systematic review compared the clinical results of surgical realignment with internal and external fixation, specifically in regard to return to functional ambulation, ulcer occurrence, nonunion, extremity amputation, unplanned further surgery, deep infection, wound healing problems, peri- or intraoperative fractures, and total cases with any complication. A search of multiple databases for all relevant articles published from January 1, 1990, to March 22, 2014, was performed. A logistic regression model evaluated each of the outcomes and its association with the type of fixation method. The odds of returning to functional ambulation were 25% higher for internal fixation (odds ratio [OR], 1.259). Internal fixation had a 42% reduced rate of ulcer occurrence (OR, 0.578). External fixation was 8 times more likely to develop radiographic nonunion than internal fixation (OR, 8.2). Internal fixation resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in extremity amputation (OR, 1.488), a 2-fold increase in deep infection (OR, 2.068), a 3.4-fold increase in wound healing complications (OR, 3.405), and a 1.5-fold increase in the total number of cases experiencing any complication (OR, 1.525). This was associated with a 20% increase in the need for unplanned further surgery with internal fixation (OR, 1.221). Although internal fixation may decrease the risk of nonunion and increase return to functional ambulation, it had a higher rate of overall complications than external fixation for realignment and arthrodesis of Charcot midfoot deformity. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e595-e601.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. A new route to process diamond wires

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  11. Longitudinal magnetic bistability of electroplated wires

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Garcia-Miquel, H.; Vazquez, M.; Svalov, A.V.; Vas'kovskiy, V.O.

    2002-01-01

    Fe 20 Ni 74 Co 6 and Fe 20 Ni 64 Co 16 1 μm thick magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu 98 Be 2 conductive wire have been investigated in as-deposited state, after heat treatment under longitudinal magnetic field for 1 h at 330 deg. C, and after rf-sputtering deposition of the additional 2 μm Fe 19 Ni 81 layer. Heat treatments and an additional layer deposition modify the shape of hysteresis loops. Magnetically bistable behaviour, observed after the field annealing at a temperature of 330 deg. C, is studied as a function of the length of the samples. This is the first report by our knowledge on the bistable behaviour of the electroplated wires. The bistability of these wires is promising for applications such as tagging or pulse generator applications

  12. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  13. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example of the g......In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  14. Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.

  15. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first...... of the two-way protocol. The transmit power is set high enough to enable successive decoding at the small cell base station where the downlink data to the user is first decoded and its contribution removed from the received signal followed by the uplink data from the user. The decoding of the second layer......, the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  16. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis.

    Rosenblum, Matthew K; Baltodano, Pablo A; Weinberg, Maxene H; Whipple, Lauren A; Gemmiti, Amanda L; Whipple, Richard E

    2017-11-01

    Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire's thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive.

  17. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  18. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  19. Josephson junctions of multiple superconducting wires

    Deb, Oindrila; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2018-05-01

    We study the spectrum of Andreev bound states and Josephson currents across a junction of N superconducting wires which may have s - or p -wave pairing symmetries and develop a scattering matrix based formalism which allows us to address transport across such junctions. For N ≥3 , it is well known that Berry curvature terms contribute to the Josephson currents; we chart out situations where such terms can have relatively large effects. For a system of three s -wave or three p -wave superconductors, we provide analytic expressions for the Andreev bound-state energies and study the Josephson currents in response to a constant voltage applied across one of the wires; we find that the integrated transconductance at zero temperature is quantized to integer multiples of 4 e2/h , where e is the electron charge and h =2 π ℏ is Planck's constant. For a sinusoidal current with frequency ω applied across one of the wires in the junction, we find that Shapiro plateaus appear in the time-averaged voltage across that wire for any rational fractional multiple (in contrast to only integer multiples in junctions of two wires) of 2 e /(ℏ ω ) . We also use our formalism to study junctions of two p -wave and one s -wave wires. We find that the corresponding Andreev bound-state energies depend on the spin of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles; this produces a net magnetic moment in such junctions. The time variation of these magnetic moments may be controlled by an external voltage applied across the junction. We discuss experiments which may test our theory.

  20. STUDY ON SPANNING EXTERNAL FIXATORS FOR PERIARTICULAR OPEN FRACTURES

    Prasanth Maddila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Open fractures which occur close to any fracture need immobilisation for the soft tissues to heal. Some open fractures are even fixed with provisional fixations to maintain the alignment of the fractures. The provisional fixation needs to be augmented with external support, which can be given by spanning external fixators across a joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study consists of 38 open fractures of the lower limbs, which are of Gustilo-Anderson’s type IIIB, an MT4 of AO-ASIF soft tissue injury classification essentially requiring open wound management as well as fracture fixation. Wound lavage and debridements are carried out till the soft tissues show granulations. The position in which joint is immobilised is functional and with access to open wound for dressings and inspection without any displacement of the fracture as well as creeping granulation tissue. RESULTS All the cases in our study are maintained with functional position till soft tissue cover is achieved and provisional fixation is done with definitive fixation after soft tissue cover with skin grafting. CONCLUSION Spanning external fixators are useful in maintaining functional positions as well as augmenting the provisional fixation of the compound fractures.

  1. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  2. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of double 4-hole straight plates provided the sufficient stability on the osteotomy site when compared with the other rigid fixation methods used in this study. Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular osteotomy ...

  4. Indications and outcome of Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of ...

    Background: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a well-established surgical treatment of fractures worldwide. However, the indications and modes of stabilization of long bone fractures vary and are evolving .The general trend now is towards fixation with locked intramedullary nail (i.m nail) rather than plate and ...

  5. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry.

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambert R B

    2011-03-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the prediction of fixations on mirror-symmetrical forms. The contrast model gives high response at the borders, whereas human observers consistently look at the symmetrical center of these forms. We propose a saliency model that predicts eye fixations using local mirror symmetry. To test the model, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with participants viewing complex photographic images and compared the data with our symmetry model and the contrast model. The results show that our symmetry model predicts human eye fixations significantly better on a wide variety of images including many that are not selected for their symmetrical content. Moreover, our results show that especially early fixations are on highly symmetrical areas of the images. We conclude that symmetry is a strong predictor of human eye fixations and that it can be used as a predictor of the order of fixation.

  6. Femoral fractures : indications an[d] biomechanics of external fixation

    A.H. Broekhuizen (Tom); B. van Linge

    1988-01-01

    textabstractInternal fixation can be carried out in various ways. For femoral shaft fractures, an (interlocking) nail is becoming increasingly popular, instead of open realignment of the fracture. External fixation, which has become a generally accepted method of treating fractures of the lower

  7. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion.

    Agrawal, Hemendra-Kumar; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Sharma, Vinod-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration.

  8. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry

    Kootstra, Geert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambertus

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  9. Predicting eye fixations on complex visual stimuli using local symmetry

    Kootstra, G.; de Boer, B.; Schomaker, L.R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  10. [Treatment of femoral neck fracture--preference to internal fixation].

    Minato, Izumi

    2011-03-01

    In the guidelines for the treatment of femoral neck fracture, prosthetic replacement is recommended in displaced one and internal fixation is in undisplaced one. However, in the long view, survived femoral head after internal fixation can be superior to prosthesis which will deteriorate as time goes by. Surgical method should be considered not only by type of fracture but general status of the patient.

  11. Safety screw fixation technique in a case of coracoid base fracture with acromioclavicular dislocation and coracoid base cross-sectional size data from a computed axial tomography study.

    Kawasaki, Yoshiteru; Hirano, Tetsuya; Miyatake, Katsutoshi; Fujii, Koji; Takeda, Yoshitsugu

    2014-07-01

    Coracoid base fracture accompanied by acromioclavicular joint dislocation with intact coracoclavicular ligaments is a rare injury. Generally, an open reduction with screw fixation is the first treatment choice, as it protects the important structures around the coracoid process. This report presents a new technique of screw fixation for coracoid base fracture and provides anatomic information on cross-sectional size of the coracoid base obtained by computed tomography (CT). An axial image of the coracoid base was visualized over the neck of the scapula, and a guidewire was inserted into this circle under fluoroscopic guidance. The wire was inserted easily into the neck of scapula across the coracoid base fracture with imaging in only 1 plane. In addition, 25 measurements of the coracoid base were made in 25 subjects on axial CT images. Average length of the long and short axes at the thinnest part of the coracoid base was 13.9 ± 2.0 mm (range 10.6-17.0) and 10.5 ± 2.2 mm (6.6-15.1), respectively. This new screw fixation technique and measurement data on the coracoid base may be beneficial for safety screw fixation of coracoid base fracture.

  12. Tightrope fixation of ankle syndesmosis injuries: clinical outcome, complications and technique modification.

    Naqvi, Gohar A

    2012-06-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injuries are complex and require anatomic reduction and fixation. Tightrope fixation is a relatively new technique and we present the largest series of syndesmosis fixation using Arthrex Tightrope™ (Naples, FL, USA).

  13. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  14. Basic characteristics of thin wire arc plasma

    Urushihara, K.; Endoh, N.; Ono, S.; Teii, S.; Ishimura, T.

    1998-01-01

    The investigated plasma was generated by applying an electric current of about 50 A to a copper wire of 48 μm diameter in air. The development in time of emission spectra was measured and relative line intensity ratios were used to determine the temperature. The extension of the plasma was measured with a movable electrostatic probe which was placed next to the thin wire, and the electron density was estimated using the known electron mobility. The electron temperature was typically about 8000 K. On the other hand, the electron density tended to decrease with time from about 3.10 16 cm -3

  15. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  16. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  17. Mesoscopic NbSe3 wires

    Zant, H.S.J. van der; Kalwij, A.; Mantel, O.C.; Markovic, N.

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated wire structures with (sub)micron sizes in the charge-density wave conductor NbSe 3 . Electrical transport measurements include complete mode-locking on Shapiro steps and show that the patterning has not affected the CDW material. Our mesoscopic wires show strong fluctuation and hysteresis effects in the low-temperature current-voltage characteristics, as well as a strong reduction of the phase-slip voltage. This reduction can not be explained with existing models. We suggest that single phase-slip events are responsible for a substantial reduction of the CDW strain in micron-sized systems. (orig.)

  18. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  19. Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Galla, Tobias; Dall’Asta, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed. (paper)

  20. Repair of pars defects by segmental transverse wiring for athletes with symptomatic spondylolysis: relationship between bony union and postoperative symptoms.

    Hioki, Akira; Miyamoto, Kei; Sadamasu, Aya; Nozawa, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Fushimi, Kazunari; Hosoe, Hideo; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2012-04-20

    Retrospective study of surgery for spondylolysis patients. To assess clinical outcome of bony union using multislice computed tomography after segmental wiring fixation. How bony union affects surgical outcome of spondylolysis repair is unclear. Forty-four athletes with symptomatic spondylolysis (33 men and 11 women; mean age, 24.2 ± 5.4 years) who underwent segmental wiring fixation were evaluated retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 85 ± 17 months. The level of spondylolysis was L5 in 42 cases, and both L4 and L5 in 2 cases, giving a total of 46 operative levels of vertebrae. Bony union using axial and sagittal reconstruction images of computed tomography, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for back pain, and complications were reviewed. State of bony union was classified as bilateral union, unilateral union, or nonunion. The total score and the improvement ratio of the JOA score were compared among the 3 groups. Bilateral bony union was obtained in 29 cases (31 of 46 vertebrae, 67.4%). Six cases (13%) showed unilateral union, and 9 cases (19.6%) showed nonunion. JOA score increased significantly after surgery in all groups, average improvement rate was 78.9% in the bilateral group, 63.6% in the unilateral group, and 29.8% in the nonunion group; differences among the 3 groups were significant (P spondylolysis repair.

  1. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  2. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 2

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shane M.; Godley, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis methods and test data is shown to be very good.

  3. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  4. Les aciers inoxydables dans les fixations

    CETIM

    2010-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, qui fait la synthèse de plusieurs travaux menés par le Cetim, propose une vue d'ensemble sur les aciers inoxydables utilisés pour les fixations. Au sommaire : les normes EN, ISO et ATSM qui s'y rapportent , les désignations symboliques , les nuances et caractéristiques mécaniques , les différentes formes de corrosion, les méthodes pour les détecter , les règles du métier , les mises en oeuvre. L'ouvrage comprend plusieurs fiches matériaux et des tableaux qui présentent les équivalences entre les désignations.

  5. Nitrogen fixation by legumes in retorted shale

    Hersman, L E; Molitoris, E; Klein, D A

    1981-01-01

    Although a soil-shale mixture was employed as the growth medium in this experiment, the results presentd are applicable to the proposed method of disposal mentioned earlier. Under field conditions, when covering the retorted shale with topsoil, some mixing of these materials might occur in the plant root region. In addition, it has been demonstrated that buried shale negatively affects enzyme activities in overburden surface soil. The occurrence of either of those events could affect symbiotic N/sub 2/ fixation in a manner similar to that reported in this paper. Researchers conclude that due to the varied effects of retorted shale on the legumes tested, further evaluation of other legumes may be necessary. Additional research would be required to determine which legumes have potential use for reclamation of retorted shale.

  6. Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    Laan, van der L.N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  7. External Fixation versus two-stage Open Reduction Internal Fixation of distal intra-articular Tibia fractures; a Systematic Review

    Ladeby Erichsen, Julie; Jensen, Carsten; Damborg, Frank Lindhøj

    Internal Fixation (ORIF) or External Fixation (EF). Method : A search was conducted using PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Central, Open Grey, Orthopaedic Proceedings and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies with level of evidence I-IV comparing EF with two-stage ORIF of DIATF in patients...

  8. Do you like what you see? : The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Hooge, Ignace T C; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  9. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator.

    Wang, Dong; Xiang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Qing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of tibial plafond fractures is challenging to foot and ankle surgeons. Open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator are 2 of the most commonly used methods of tibial plafond fracture repair. However, conclusions regarding the superior choice remain controversial. The present meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively compare the postoperative complications between open reduction and internal fixation and limited internal fixation combined with an external fixator for tibial plafond fractures. Nine studies with 498 fractures in 494 patients were included in the present study. The meta-analysis found no significant differences in bone healing complications (risk ratio [RR] 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 to 2.01, p = .58], nonunion (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.36, p = .82), malunion or delayed union (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.69, p = .59), superficial (RR 1.56, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.61, p = .50) and deep (RR 1.89, 95% CI 0.62 to 5.80) infections, arthritis symptoms (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.58, p = .18), or chronic osteomyelitis (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.84, p = .20) between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mini-Fragment Fixation Is Equivalent to Bicortical Screw Fixation for Horizontal Medial Malleolus Fractures.

    Wegner, Adam M; Wolinsky, Philip R; Robbins, Michael A; Garcia, Tanya C; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2018-05-01

    Horizontal fractures of the medial malleolus occur through application of valgus or abduction force through the ankle that creates a tension failure of the medial malleolus. The authors hypothesize that mini-fragment T-plates may offer improved fixation, but the optimal fixation construct for these fractures remains unclear. Forty synthetic distal tibiae with identical osteotomies were randomized into 4 fixation constructs: (1) two parallel unicortical cancellous screws; (2) two parallel bicortical cortical screws; (3) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 unicortical screws in the fragment and 2 bicortical screws in the shaft; and (4) a contoured mini-fragment T-plate with 2 bicortical screws in the fragment and 2 unicortical screws in the shaft. Specimens were subjected to offset axial tension loading on a servohydraulic testing system and tracked using high-resolution video. Failure was defined as 2 mm of articular displacement. Analysis of variance followed by a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test was used to assess for differences between groups, with significance defined as Pfragment T-plate constructs (239±83 N/mm and 190±37 N/mm) and the bicortical screw construct (240±17 N/mm) were not statistically different. The mean stiffness values of both mini-fragment T-plate constructs and the bicortical screw construct were higher than that of a parallel unicortical screw construct (102±20 N/mm). Contoured T-plate constructs provide stiffer initial fixation than a unicortical cancellous screw construct. The T-plate is biomechanically equivalent to a bicortical screw construct, but may be superior in capturing small fragments of bone. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(3):e395-e399.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  12. "Cold" Fixation: Reconciliation of Nitrogen Fixation Rates and Diazotroph Assemblages in the Arctic Ocean

    Fong, A. A.; Waite, A.; Rost, B.; Richter, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of biological nitrogen fixation are typically conducted in oligotrophic subtropical and tropical marine environments where concentrations of fixed inorganic nitrogen are low. To date, only a handful of nitrogen fixation studies have been conducted in high latitude marine environments, but further investigation is needed to resolve the distribution of cold ocean diazotrophic assemblages. Nitrogen fixation rates and nifH gene distributions were measured at seven stations from 5°E to 20°E, north of 81°N in the Arctic Ocean at the onset of summer 2015. Discrete water samples in ice-covered regions were collected from the sea surface to 200 m for 15N2-tracer additions and targeted nifH gene and transcript analyses. Previous work suggests that heterotrophic bacteria dominate diazotrophic communities in the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, additional nifH gene surveys of sinking particles were conducted to test for enrichment on organic matter-rich microenvironments. Together, these measurements aim to reconcile diazotrophic activity with microbial community composition, further elucidating how nitrogen fixers could impact current concepts in polar carbon and nutrient cycling.

  13. Experimental study on underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    Zhou Qing; Zhang Jun; Tan Xiangyu; Ren Baozhong; Zhang Qiaogen

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the physical process of underwater electrical wire explosion, electrical wire explosions with copper wires were investigated underwater using pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowsky coil and a voltage divider were used for current and voltage at the wire load, respectively. The shock wave pressure is measured with a piezoelectric pressure probe at the same distance. The current rise rate was adjusted by changing the applied voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire. The change of the current rise rate had a great effect on the process of underwater electrical wire explosion with copper wires. At last, the effect of discharge voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire were obtained on the explosion voltage and current as well as shock wave pressure. (authors)

  14. Acoustic Emission from Elevator Wire Ropes During Tensile Testing

    Bai, Wenjie; Chai, Mengyu; Li, Lichan; Li, Yongquan; Duan, Quan

    The acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to monitor the tensile testing process for two kinds of elevator wire ropes in our work. The AE signals from wire breaks were obtained and analyzed by AE parameters and waveforms. The results showed that AE technique can be a useful tool to monitor wire break phenomenon of wire ropes and effectively capture information of wire break signal. The relationship between AE signal characteristics and wire breaks is investigated and it is found that the most effective acoustic signal discriminators are amplitude and absolute energy. Moreover, the wire break signal of two kinds of ropes is a type of burst signal and it is believed that the waveform and spectrum can be applied to analyze the AE wire break signals.

  15. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  16. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...

  18. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  19. Brain Wiring in the Fourth Dimension.

    Wernet, Mathias F; Desplan, Claude

    2015-07-02

    In this issue of Cell, Langen et al. use time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to show how Drosophila photoreceptor growth cones find their targets. Based on the observed dynamics, they develop a simple developmental algorithm recapitulating the highly complex connectivity pattern of these neurons, suggesting a basic framework for establishing wiring specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Wire anode for isotope separation apparatus

    Janes, G.S.; Dotson, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In uranium enrichment, an electrode structure of thin, tensioned, parallel wires is claimed for use in applying an electric field to a region of a flowing uranium plasma including selectively ionized particles in order to accelerate the ionized particles for separate collection without interfering with the motion of neutral particles. 24 claims, 3 drawing figures

  1. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    Haberichter, W.; Spinka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM

  2. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  3. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  4. Cutting bubbles with a single wire

    Baltussen, M.W.; Segers, Q.I.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Many gas-liquid-solid contactors, such as trickle bed and bubble slurry columns, suffer from heat and mass transfer limitations. To overcome these limitations, new micro-structured bubble column reactor is proposed. In this reactor, a catalyst coated wire mesh is introduced in a bubble column to cut

  5. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  6. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  7. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  8. Spin polarization of electrons in quantum wires

    Vasilchenko, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system is calculated using density functional theory. It is shown that spontaneous ferromagnetic state in quantum wire occurs at low one-dimensional electron density. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically.

  9. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  10. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

    Julian eBudd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimise communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction and temporal (routing costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fibre tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for

  11. Processing of flexible high-Tc superconducting wires

    Lee, B.I.; Modi, V.

    1989-01-01

    Wires superconducting at temperatures above 77 K are produced by using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 materials. Flexibility was obtained by support from prefabricated fibers or a metallic coating on the extruded YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 wires. The microstructure, the T c and the critical current densities of the wires were determined. Processing variables and steps are described

  12. A Laser-Wire System for the International Linear Collider

    Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.; Qurshi, M.; Blair, G.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Driouichi, C.; Deacon, L.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Brachmann, A.; Frisch, J.; Ross, M.

    2009-01-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  13. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    2010-10-01

    ... control wiring must be— (1) Suitable for installation within in a switchboard enclosure and be rated at 90... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of...

  14. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  15. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  16. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  17. Domain observations of Fe and Co based amorphous wires

    Takajo, M.; Yamasaki, J.

    1993-01-01

    Domain observations were made on Fe and Co based amorphous magnetic wires that exhibit a large Barkhausen discontinuity during flux reversal. Domain patterns observed on the wire surface were compared with those found on a polished section through the center of the wire. It was confirmed that the Fe based wire consists of a shell and core region as previously proposed, however, there is a third region between them. This fairly thick transition region made up of domains at an angle of about 45 degree to the wire axis clearly lacking the closure domains of the previous model. The Co based wire does not have a clear core and shell domain structure. The center of the wire had a classic domain structure expected of uniaxial anisotropy with the easy axis normal to the wire axis. When a model for the residual stress quenched-in during cooling of large Fe bars is applied to the wire, the expected anisotropy is consistent with the domain patterns in the Fe based wire, however, shape anisotropy still plays a dominant role in defining the wire core in the Co based wire

  18. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating ... beam size measurements to extract the phase space of the electron and positron ... the laser-wire (LW), instead of a conventional solid wire.

  19. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  20. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...