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Sample records for kinetic chain analysis

  1. Kinetic analysis of a monoclonal therapeutic antibody and its single-chain homolog by surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rekha; Andrien, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments have become an emerging class of therapeutics since 1986. Their versatility enables them to be engineered for optimal efficiency and decreased immunogenicity, and the path to market has been set by recent regulatory approvals. One of the initial criteria for success of any protein or antibody therapeutic is to understand its binding characteristics to the target antigen. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been widely used and is an important tool for ligand-antigen binding characterization. In this work, the binding kinetics of a recombinant mAb and its single-chain antibody homolog, single-chain variable fragment (scFv), was analyzed by SPR. These two proteins target the same antigen. The binding kinetics of the mAb (bivalent antibody) and scFv (monovalent scFv) for this antigen was analyzed along with an assessment of the thermodynamics of the binding interactions. Alternative binding configurations were investigated to evaluate potential experimental bias because theoretically experimental binding configuration should have no impact on binding kinetics. Self-association binding kinetics in the proteins' respective formulation solutions and antigen epitope mapping were also evaluated. Functional characterization of monoclonal and single-chain antibodies has become just as important as structural characterization in the biotechnology field.

  2. Kinetic chain abnormalities in the athletic shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Aaron; Thigpen, Charles; Namdari, Surena; Baldwin, Keith

    2012-03-01

    Overhead activities require the shoulder to be exposed to and sustain repetitive loads. The segmental activation of the body's links, known as the kinetic chain, allows this to occur effectively. Proper muscle activation is achieved through generation of energy from the central segment or core, which then transfers the energy to the terminal links of the shoulder, elbow, and hand. The kinetic chain is best characterized by 3 components: optimized anatomy, reproducible efficient motor patterns, and the sequential generation of forces. However, tissue injury and anatomic deficits such as weakness and/or tightness in the leg, pelvic core, or scapular musculature can lead to overuse shoulder injuries. These injuries can be prevented and maladaptations can be detected with a thorough understanding of biomechanics of the kinetic chain as it relates to overhead activity.

  3. Electromyographic analysis of knee push up plus variations: what is the influence of the kinetic chain on scapular muscle activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, A; Van Praet, K; Pizzi, L; Van Herzeele, M; Cools, A

    2010-11-01

    First, to look for appropriate closed kinetic chain exercises to restore intramuscular imbalance between upper trapezius (UT) and serratus anterior (SA) in overhead athletes. Second, to determine the influence of using diagonal pattern muscle recruitment during knee push up plus (KPP) exercises on scapular electromyographic activity. Single group repeated-measures design. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-two physically active individuals in good general health who did not have a history of neck and/or shoulder injury or surgery nor participated in high-level overhead sports or performed upper limb strength training for more than 5 h/week. Interventions Subjects performed the standard KPP and six variations. Electromyographic activity of the three trapezius parts and the SA. Four exercises with a low UT/SA can be selected for rehabilitation of intramuscular balance: standard KPP, KPP with homolateral leg extension, KPP with a wobble board and homolateral leg extension and one-handed KPP. The use of a wobble board during KPP exercises and performance on one hand has no influence on SA electromyographic activity. Heterolateral leg extension during KPP stimulates lower trapezius activity, whereas homolateral leg extension stimulates SA activity. In case of intramuscular scapular imbalance, some exercises are preferable over others because of their low UT/SA ratio. The use of a kinetic chain approach during KPP exercises influences scapular muscle activity.

  4. Kinetics of the chain uranium decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.; Khariton, Yu.B.

    1984-01-01

    The development of chain reaction in uranium mass, when passing through the mass critical value, is studied. It is shown that thermal expanson is a powerful regulating factor, making the limit passing quite safe. The case of convergence of two uranium masses of precritical dimensions is considered in particular. The critical mass value is assessed and it is shown that its gradual increase above the critical value results in the reaction vibrational regime with the period inversely proportional to the square root of uranium supply rate. The role of delaying neutrons in the fission chain reaction development is pointed out

  5. Kinetic chain contributions to elbow function and dysfunction in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kibler, W; Sciascia, Aaron

    2004-10-01

    The elbow functions in throwing and other athletic activities as a link in the kinetic chain of force development, regulation, and transfer. Efficient function, with maximal performance and minimal injury risk, requires optimum activation of all the link in the kinetic chain. Injury is often associated with alterations in force production or regulation capabilities in links that may be distant to the site of injury. Evaluation of injured athletes should include screening examinations for these areas, and treatment and conditioning should also include these areas.

  6. The kinetics of nonequilibrium chain plasma-chemical oxidation in heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deminskii, M.A.; Potapkin, B.V.; Rusanov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of low-impurity components in air mixtures under heterogeneous conditions was studied. The principal kinetic features of the process were determined on the basis of theoretical analysis of plasma-chemical oxidation in heterogeneous media. The analysis also showed that low concentrations of impurities in liquid aerosol particles can be efficiently oxidized via a chain process induced by reactive species formed in the gas

  7. Fragmentation kinetics of a Morse oscillator chain under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stember, Joseph N.; Ezra, Gregory S.

    2007-01-01

    The bond dissociation kinetics of tethered atomic (Morse potential) chains under tensile stress is studied. Both RRKM (fully anharmonic, Monte Carlo) and RRK (harmonic appproximation) theory are applied to predict bond dissociation rate constants as a function of energy and tensile force. For chains with N ≥ 3 atoms a hybrid statistical theory is used involving a harmonic approximation for motion in the transition state for bond dissociation. For chains with N = 2-5 atoms, while the RRK approximation significantly overestimates the dissociation rate constant, the fully anharmonic RRKM rate is quite close to simulation results. For the N = 2 chain, a novel approach to the extraction of decay rate constants based on the classical spectral theorem is implemented. Good agreement between the RRKM and dynamical rate constants is obtained for N = 2 despite the fact that the reactant phase space contains a significant fraction of relatively short-lived trajectories

  8. Kinetics and thermodynamics of first-order Markov chain copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspard, P.; Andrieux, D. [Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Code Postal 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-28

    We report a theoretical study of stochastic processes modeling the growth of first-order Markov copolymers, as well as the reversed reaction of depolymerization. These processes are ruled by kinetic equations describing both the attachment and detachment of monomers. Exact solutions are obtained for these kinetic equations in the steady regimes of multicomponent copolymerization and depolymerization. Thermodynamic equilibrium is identified as the state at which the growth velocity is vanishing on average and where detailed balance is satisfied. Away from equilibrium, the analytical expression of the thermodynamic entropy production is deduced in terms of the Shannon disorder per monomer in the copolymer sequence. The Mayo-Lewis equation is recovered in the fully irreversible growth regime. The theory also applies to Bernoullian chains in the case where the attachment and detachment rates only depend on the reacting monomer.

  9. Thermal contact through a two-temperature kinetic Ising chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M.; Cornu, F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider a model for thermal contact through a diathermal interface between two macroscopic bodies at different temperatures: an Ising spin chain with nearest neighbor interactions is endowed with a Glauber dynamics with different temperatures and kinetic parameters on alternating sites. The inhomogeneity of the kinetic parameter is a novelty with respect to the model of Racz and Zia (1994 Phys. Rev. E 49 139), and we exhibit its influence upon the stationary non equilibrium values of the two-spin correlations at any distance. By mapping to the dynamics of spin domain walls and using free fermion techniques, we determine the scaled generating function for the cumulants of the exchanged heat amounts per unit of time in the long time limit.

  10. Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises for patellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiary, A H; Fatemi, E

    2008-02-01

    Conservative treatment of patellar chondromalacia has been the subject of several studies. One recommended treatment is a strengthening exercise of the quadriceps muscle, which may be performed in closed or open kinetic chains. This study was designed to compare the effect of straight leg raise (SLR) and semi-squat exercises on the treatment of patellar chondromalacia, which has not been done to date. 32 female university students with a diagnosis of patellar chondromalacia were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: SLR and semi-squat exercise. Before starting exercise protocols, Q angle, maximal isometric voluntary contraction force (MIVCF) of quadriceps, crepitation, circumference of thigh 5 and 10 cm above the patella and patellofemoral pain according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed. Both groups then followed a 3-week programme of quadriceps muscle strengthening exercises (SLR or semi-squat) starting with 20 exercises twice a day and increasing each session by 5 exercises every 2 days. All measurements were repeated at the end of each week and then again 2 weeks after the 3-week exercise programme. Reduced Q angle (mean differences (SD) 0.8 (0.3), p = 0.016) and crepitation (19.9 (8.5), p = 0.04), and an increase in the MIVCF of the quadriceps (15.8 (5.6), p = 0.01) and thigh circumference (1.5 (0.3), p = 0.001) were found in semi-squat group compared with SLR group. However, patellofemoral pain was decreased significantly in both groups. The results of this study indicate that semi-squat exercises (closed kinetic chain) are more effective than SLR exercise (open kinetic chain) in the treatment of patellar chondromalacia. More studies are needed to investigate the long-term effect of these types of exercise.

  11. Adsorption analysis equilibria and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Duong D

    1998-01-01

    This book covers topics of equilibria and kinetics of adsorption in porous media. Fundamental equilibria and kinetics are dealt with for homogeneous as well as heterogeneous particles. Five chapters of the book deal with equilibria and eight chapters deal with kinetics. Single component as well as multicomponent systems are discussed. In kinetics analysis, we deal with the various mass transport processes and their interactions inside a porous particle. Conventional approaches as well as the new approach using Maxwell-Stefan equations are presented. Various methods to measure diffusivity, such

  12. Evaporation Kinetics in Short-Chain Alcohols by Optical Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbrugh, Ian M.; Nishimura, S. Y.; Nishimura, A. M.

    2000-08-01

    The evaporation rates of volatile organic liquids may be determined through the observation of optical interference of spatially coincident light that is reflected from the top (air-liquid) and bottom (liquid-surface) of a liquid drop on a glass surface. As an example of what is possible with this technique, the evaporation for a series of short-chain alcohols and acetone was investigated. For 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and acetone, the kinetics of evaporation was determined to be zero order. For methanol and ethanol, the process was significantly higher than zero order.

  13. Kinetic parameters from thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    High performance polymeric materials are finding increased use in aerospace applications. Proposed high speed aircraft will require materials to withstand high temperatures in an oxidative atmosphere for long periods of time. It is essential that accurate estimates be made of the performance of these materials at the given conditions of temperature and time. Temperatures of 350 F (177 C) and times of 60,000 to 100,000 hours are anticipated. In order to survey a large number of high performance polymeric materials on a reasonable time scale, some form of accelerated testing must be performed. A knowledge of the rate of a process can be used to predict the lifetime of that process. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has frequently been used to determine kinetic information for degradation reactions in polymeric materials. Flynn and Wall studied a number of methods for using TGA experiments to determine kinetic information in polymer reactions. Kinetic parameters, such as the apparent activation energy and the frequency factor, can be determined in such experiments. Recently, researchers at the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratory suggested that a graph of the logarithm of the frequency factor against the apparent activation energy can be used to predict long-term thermo-oxidative stability for polymeric materials. Such a graph has been called a kinetic map. In this study, thermogravimetric analyses were performed in air to study the thermo-oxidative degradation of several high performance polymers and to plot their kinetic parameters on a kinetic map.

  14. LATIHAN CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN LEBIH BAIK DARIPADA OPEN KINETIC CHAIN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN FUNGSIONAL PADA OSTEOARTHRITIS LUTUT SETELAH PEMBERIAN MICRO WAVE DIATHERMY (MWD DAN TRANSCUTANEUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Susilawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis is a disease caused by degenerative factors that mostly found in musculoskeletal and knee osteoarthritis has the most common cause to limited motion and body function. People with osteoarthritis usually complain of pain, stifftess and limitation of function. This study aimed to determine closed kinetic chain exercise was better than open kinetic chain to increase functional capability of knee osteoarthritis after giving treatment micro wave diathermy (MWD and transcutaneus electrical nerve stimulation (TENS. The design of this research was true experimental pre-test and post-test with control group design, which the population was taken by purposively sampling. Division of the sample into two groups, group one consisted of 6 people. The first group was given MWD, TENS and Closed Kinetic Chain exercise and group two was given MWD, TENS and Open Kinetic Chain exercise. The frequency of exercise are 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects were all patients with knee osteoarthritis who had been diagnosed through assesment procedures conducted in General Hospital of Mataram–Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. Analysis of significance with Paired t-test (paired showed that in each group resulted in an increase in functional ability after treatment of knee osteoarthritis is significantly different (p<0.05. While a difference test in both groups after treatment using analysis test of Independent t-test (unpaired showed that the value of t = 2.748 and p = 0.021. So thah there was an increase functional capabilities of knee osteoarthritis after treatment (p<0.05. In conclution the treatment conducted in group one which was MWD, TENS and Closed Kinetic Chain proved improvement of the functional capabilities of  knee osteoarthritis better than treatment conducted in group two, namely the MWD, TENS and Open Kinetic Chain.

  15. Stepwise kinetic equilibrium models of quantitative polymerase chain reaction

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    Cobbs Gary

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous models for use in interpreting quantitative PCR (qPCR data are present in recent literature. The most commonly used models assume the amplification in qPCR is exponential and fit an exponential model with a constant rate of increase to a select part of the curve. Kinetic theory may be used to model the annealing phase and does not assume constant efficiency of amplification. Mechanistic models describing the annealing phase with kinetic theory offer the most potential for accurate interpretation of qPCR data. Even so, they have not been thoroughly investigated and are rarely used for interpretation of qPCR data. New results for kinetic modeling of qPCR are presented. Results Two models are presented in which the efficiency of amplification is based on equilibrium solutions for the annealing phase of the qPCR process. Model 1 assumes annealing of complementary targets strands and annealing of target and primers are both reversible reactions and reach a dynamic equilibrium. Model 2 assumes all annealing reactions are nonreversible and equilibrium is static. Both models include the effect of primer concentration during the annealing phase. Analytic formulae are given for the equilibrium values of all single and double stranded molecules at the end of the annealing step. The equilibrium values are then used in a stepwise method to describe the whole qPCR process. Rate constants of kinetic models are the same for solutions that are identical except for possibly having different initial target concentrations. Analysis of qPCR curves from such solutions are thus analyzed by simultaneous non-linear curve fitting with the same rate constant values applying to all curves and each curve having a unique value for initial target concentration. The models were fit to two data sets for which the true initial target concentrations are known. Both models give better fit to observed qPCR data than other kinetic models present in the

  16. Stepwise kinetic equilibrium models of quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbs, Gary

    2012-08-16

    Numerous models for use in interpreting quantitative PCR (qPCR) data are present in recent literature. The most commonly used models assume the amplification in qPCR is exponential and fit an exponential model with a constant rate of increase to a select part of the curve. Kinetic theory may be used to model the annealing phase and does not assume constant efficiency of amplification. Mechanistic models describing the annealing phase with kinetic theory offer the most potential for accurate interpretation of qPCR data. Even so, they have not been thoroughly investigated and are rarely used for interpretation of qPCR data. New results for kinetic modeling of qPCR are presented. Two models are presented in which the efficiency of amplification is based on equilibrium solutions for the annealing phase of the qPCR process. Model 1 assumes annealing of complementary targets strands and annealing of target and primers are both reversible reactions and reach a dynamic equilibrium. Model 2 assumes all annealing reactions are nonreversible and equilibrium is static. Both models include the effect of primer concentration during the annealing phase. Analytic formulae are given for the equilibrium values of all single and double stranded molecules at the end of the annealing step. The equilibrium values are then used in a stepwise method to describe the whole qPCR process. Rate constants of kinetic models are the same for solutions that are identical except for possibly having different initial target concentrations. Analysis of qPCR curves from such solutions are thus analyzed by simultaneous non-linear curve fitting with the same rate constant values applying to all curves and each curve having a unique value for initial target concentration. The models were fit to two data sets for which the true initial target concentrations are known. Both models give better fit to observed qPCR data than other kinetic models present in the literature. They also give better estimates of

  17. Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, H Robert; McCray, Alexa T

    2012-02-03

    Biomedical ontologies have become an increasingly critical lens through which researchers analyze the genomic, clinical and bibliographic data that fuels scientific research. Of particular relevance are methods, such as enrichment analysis, that quantify the importance of ontology classes relative to a collection of domain data. Current analytical techniques, however, remain limited in their ability to handle many important types of structural complexity encountered in real biological systems including class overlaps, continuously valued data, inter-instance relationships, non-hierarchical relationships between classes, semantic distance and sparse data. In this paper, we describe a methodology called Markov Chain Ontology Analysis (MCOA) and illustrate its use through a MCOA-based enrichment analysis application based on a generative model of gene activation. MCOA models the classes in an ontology, the instances from an associated dataset and all directional inter-class, class-to-instance and inter-instance relationships as a single finite ergodic Markov chain. The adjusted transition probability matrix for this Markov chain enables the calculation of eigenvector values that quantify the importance of each ontology class relative to other classes and the associated data set members. On both controlled Gene Ontology (GO) data sets created with Escherichia coli, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens annotations and real gene expression data extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), the MCOA enrichment analysis approach provides the best performance of comparable state-of-the-art methods. A methodology based on Markov chain models and network analytic metrics can help detect the relevant signal within large, highly interdependent and noisy data sets and, for applications such as enrichment analysis, has been shown to generate superior performance on both real and simulated data relative to existing state-of-the-art approaches.

  18. Kinetic chains: a review of the concept and its clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Ninad; Vargas, Oscar O Ortiz

    2011-08-01

    During the past decade, our understanding of biomechanics and its importance in rehabilitation has advanced significantly. The kinetic chain, a concept borrowed from engineering, has helped us better understand the underlying physiology of human movement. This understanding, in turn, has facilitated the development of new and more rational rehabilitation strategies. The kinetic chain concept has application in a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, including musculoskeletal medicine, sports medicine, and neurorehabilitation, as well as prosthetics and orthotics. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into the biomechanics related to the concept of kinetic chains, with a specific focus on closed kinetic chains and its clinical applications in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Kinetic Chain Revisited: New Concepts on Throwing Mechanics and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Samuel K; Jayabalan, Prakash; Kibler, W Ben; Press, Joel

    2016-03-01

    The overhead throwing motion is a complex activity that is achieved through activation of the kinetic chain. The kinetic chain refers to the linkage of multiple segments of the body that allows for transfer of forces and motion. The lower extremities and core provide a base of support, generating energy that is transferred eventually through the throwing arm and hand, resulting in release of the ball. The kinetic chain requires optimal anatomy, physiology, and mechanics and is involved in all 6 phases of overhead throwing: windup, stride, arm cocking, acceleration, deceleration, and follow-through. Breaks or deficits in the kinetic chain can lead to injury or decreased performance. Through an understanding of the mechanics and pathomechanics seen in each phase of throwing, the clinician can better evaluate and screen for potential kinetic chain deficits in the overhead throwing athlete. The purpose of this article is to review the biomechanics of the overhead throwing motion, the role of the kinetic chain in throwing, and the clinical evaluation and management of abnormal throwing mechanics and related injuries. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of lipid peroxidation kinetics. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden

    2008-01-01

    concentrations of reactants or different ways of initiating the re-  action. Nor has it been possible to predict the time dependence of the  products. The reason for these problems is the complicated structure  of the kinetic scheme, which includes a chain reaction. In this work  we perform an in depth analysis......  The kinetics of the lipid peroxidation reaction is only partly under-  stood. Although the set of reactions constituting the overall reaction  is believed to be known, it has not been possible to predict how the  reaction will respond to a change of one or more of the parameters, e.g.  initial...... of the importance of the individual  reaction steps and we introduce a new quasi-stationary concentration  method based on the assumption that one or more concentrations vary  much slower than the others. We show that it is justified to use a  quasi-stationary concentration approximation for the alkyl radical L...

  1. Analysis of kinetic reaction mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Turányi, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Chemical processes in many fields of science and technology, including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, process engineering, and systems biology, can be described by detailed reaction mechanisms consisting of numerous reaction steps. This book describes methods for the analysis of reaction mechanisms that are applicable in all these fields. Topics addressed include: how sensitivity and uncertainty analyses allow the calculation of the overall uncertainty of simulation results and the identification of the most important input parameters, the ways in which mechanisms can be reduced without losing important kinetic and dynamic detail, and the application of reduced models for more accurate engineering optimizations. This monograph is invaluable for researchers and engineers dealing with detailed reaction mechanisms, but is also useful for graduate students of related courses in chemistry, mechanical engineering, energy and environmental science and biology.

  2. Comparing the Effect of Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises in Patients Suffering From Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Firoozkoohi Moghadam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patellofemoral pain syndrome is one of the most prevalent problems in physically active people. The syndrome is a multifactorial disorder with different therapeutic approaches. Conservative treatment of the syndrome has been a crucial matter in different studies. Quadriceps muscle strengthening exercise is a recommended approach which is performed in forms of open and closed kinetic chain exercises. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of these exercises on this syndrome. Methods: Totally 30 women suffering from the syndrome aged 30-40 were randomly allocated into three groups: open, and closed kinetic chain exercises, and control group, as groups A, B, and C, respectively. Groups A and B participated in 28 sessions of exercises in a period of four weeks and group C did not do any exercise in this period. Before and after the period, pain and function of the participants were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS and Kujala patellofemoral scale, respectively. Data were analyzed using independent t test, dependent t test, and univariate variance analysis, while significance of data was determined at P < 0.05. Results: The study indicated that open kinetic chain exercises (group A for 4 weeks brought significant changes in relieving the pain along with improving the function (P = 0.001. Likewise, it was revealed a significant pain relief as well as function improvement in group B (P = 0.001. Comparing two groups illustrated that benefits of open kinetic chain exercises outweigh closed ones (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Overall, both exercises were efficient in relieving pain as well as improving function, however open kinetic chain exercises were more contributory.

  3. The role of chain carriers in fusion reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.; Krenciglowa, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    The role of chain carriers as contributors to multiplicative closed cycles in advanced fusion fuels is examined. Emphasis is placed on rate processes which can be used to characterize critical/supercritical/subcritical tendencies of arbitrary closed fusion cycles. Temporal trajectories for the chain carriers which describe both increasing and decreasing multiplicative processes have been found to exist and identified according to their fusion fuel cycle characteristics. Practical criteria to ensure the attainment of steady-state fusion reaction processes have been formulated in terms of fusion reaction rate relationships. (author)

  4. The soliton solution of BBGKY quantum kinetic equations chain for different type particles system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, M.Yu.; Avazov, U.; Hassan, T.

    2006-12-01

    In the present paper on the basis of BBGKY chain of quantum kinetic equations the chain of equations for correlation matrices is derived, describing the evolution of a system of different types particles, which interact by pair potential. The series, which is the solution of this chain of equations for correlation matrices, is suggested. Using this series the solution of the last chain of equations is reduced to a solution of a set of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous von-Neumann's kinetic equations (analogue of Vlasov equations for quantum case). The first and second equations of this set of equations coincide with the first and second kinetic equations of the set, which is used in plasma physics. For an potential in the form of Dirac delta function, the solution of von-Neumann equation is defined through soliton solution of nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Based on von-Neumann equation one can define all terms of series, which is a solution of a chain of equations for correlation matrices. On the basis of these correlation matrices for a system of different types of particles we can define exact solution of BBGKY chain of quantum kinetic equations

  5. A STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECT OF CLOSED AND OPEN KINETIC CHAIN EXERCISE WITH KINESIO TAPING FOR PATELLO FEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

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    Gitanjali Nandkumar Rangole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patello femoral pain syndrome is dull, aching pain anterior to knee which frequently activity related may be present in one or both knees with difficulty in walking, running. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of open kinetic chain exercise with Kinesio taping versus close kinetic chain exercise with kinesio taping for improving pain and functional mobility in subjects with unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome. Methods: An Experimental study design, 30 subjects with unilateral patellofemoral pain were selected and randomized 15 subjects into each two groups. Group-A received Open Kinetic chain exercise with Kinesio taping while Group-B received Close kinetic chain exercises with kinesio taping. The duration of intervention was 2 weeks. Outcome measure such as Functional mobility was measured using a Kujala questionnaire and pain was measured using a VAS scale before and after two weeks of intervention. Results: Analysis using Independent ‘t’ test and Mann Whitney U test found that there is statistically significant difference with p<0.000 when pre to post interventions means were compared within the groups. When post intervention means between the Group-A and Group-B were compared there is a significant statistical difference in VAS and functional mobility. Conclusion: The present study concluded that both Open kinetic chain exercise with kinesio taping and close kinetic chain exercise with kinesio taping are effective in improving functional mobility and Pain. However close kinetic chain exercises with Kinesio taping shown greater percentage of effect in improving pain and functional mobility than open kinetic chain exercise.

  6. Chain length distribution and kinetic characteristics of an enzymatically produced polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Non-processive enzymatic polymerization leads to a distribution of polymer chain lengths. A polymerization model was developed to investigate the relation between the extent of this distribution on one hand, and the polymerization start conditions and reaction kinetics on the other hand. The model

  7. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational...

  8. Statistical model of a flexible inextensible polymer chain: The effect of kinetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamenshchik, V. M.; Vozniak, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the holonomic constraints, the kinetic energy contribution in the partition function of an inextensible polymer chain is difficult to find, and it has been systematically ignored. We present the first thermodynamic calculation incorporating the kinetic energy of an inextensible polymer chain with the bending energy. To explore the effect of the translation-rotation degrees of freedom, we propose and solve a statistical model of a fully flexible chain of N +1 linked beads which, in the limit of smooth bending, is equivalent to the well-known wormlike chain model. The partition function with the kinetic and bending energies and correlations between orientations of any pair of links and velocities of any pair of beads are found. This solution is precise in the limits of small and large rigidity-to-temperature ratio b /T . The last exact solution is essential as even very "harmless" approximation results in loss of the important effects when the chain is very rigid. For very high b /T , the orientations of different links become fully correlated. Nevertheless, the chain does not go over into a hard rod even in the limit b /T →∞ : While the velocity correlation length diverges, the correlations themselves remain weak and tend to the value ∝T /(N +1 ). The N dependence of the partition function is essentially determined by the kinetic energy contribution. We demonstrate that to obtain the correct energy and entropy in a constrained system, the T derivative of the partition function has to be applied before integration over the constraint-setting variable.

  9. Social network analysis and supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with social network analysis and how it could be integrated within supply chain management from a decision-making point of view. Even though the benefits of using social analysis have are widely accepted at both academic and industry/services context, there is still a lack of solid frameworks that allow decision-makers to connect the usage and obtained results of social network analysis – mainly both information and knowledge flows and derived results- with supply chain management objectives and goals. This paper gives an overview of social network analysis, the main social network analysis metrics, supply chain performance and, finally, it identifies how future frameworks could close the gap and link the results of social network analysis with the supply chain management decision-making processes.

  10. Extracting a kinetic relation from the dynamics of a bistable chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qingze; Purohit, Prashant K

    2014-01-01

    We integrate Newton's second law for a chain of masses and bistable springs with a spinodal region with the goal of extracting a kinetic relation for propagating phase boundaries. Our numerical experiments correspond to the impact on a bar made of phase changing material. By reading off the spring extensions ahead and behind the phase boundaries in our numerical experiments, we compute a driving force and plot it as a function of the phase boundary velocity to get a kinetic relation. We then show that this kinetic relation results in solutions to Riemann problems in continuum bars that agree with the corresponding numerical experiments on the discrete mass–spring chain. We also integrate Langevin's equations of motion for the same chain of masses and springs to account for the presence of a heat bath at a fixed temperature. We find that the xt-plane looks similar to the purely mechanical numerical experiments at low temperatures but at high temperatures there is an increased incidence of random nucleation events. Using results from both impact and Riemann problems, we show that the kinetic relation is a function of the bath temperature. (paper)

  11. Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, Jason R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis presentation from the WPTO FY14-FY16 Peer Review. The project objective is to provide data and insights to inform investment strategies, policy, and other decisions to promote economic growth and manufacturing.

  12. Physical time scale in kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of continuous-time Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrinsky, Santiago A

    2011-03-01

    We rigorously establish a physical time scale for a general class of kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms for the simulation of continuous-time Markov chains. This class of algorithms encompasses rejection-free (or BKL) and rejection (or "standard") algorithms. For rejection algorithms, it was formerly considered that the availability of a physical time scale (instead of Monte Carlo steps) was empirical, at best. Use of Monte Carlo steps as a time unit now becomes completely unnecessary.

  13. MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.......g. changing external climate factors, in order to improve the indoor climate performance of the building. The derivation of equations of motion for such spatial mechanical systems is a challenging issue in scientific community. However, with new symbolic tools one can automatically derive equations in so......-called multibody system (MBS) formalism. The present paper considers MBS modeling of kinetic architectural structures using the software packages ADAMS. As a result, it is found that symbolic MBS simulation tools facilitate a useful evaluation environment for MBS users during a design phase of responsive kinetic...

  14. Molecular weight kinetics and chain scission models for dextran polymers during ultrasonic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yuanyuan; Zou, Qingsong; Hou, Dianzhi; Zhang, Yiping; Chen, Shan

    2017-01-20

    Ultrasonic degradation of six dextran samples with different initial molecular weights (IMW) has been performed to investigate the degradation behavior and chain scission mechanism of dextrans. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (D value) were monitored by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Results showed that Mw and D value decreased with increasing ultrasonic time, resulting in a more homologous dextran solution with lower molecular weight. A significant degradation occurred in dextrans with higher IMW, particularly at the initial stage of the ultrasonic treatment. The Malhotra model was found to well describe the molecular weight kinetics for all dextran samples. Experimental data was fitted into two chain scission models to study dextran chain scission mechanism and the model performance was compared. Results indicated that the midpoint scission model agreed well with experimental results, with a linear regression factor of R 2 >0.99. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Value chain analysis in quality management context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the description of value chain analysis, which is a strategic management tool attributed to Michel Porter, the paper aims to demonstrate that quality management applies this method, under specific forms. The paper's specific objectives are: to redefine the functions of value chain analysis in the context of quality management; to clarify the significance and the possibilities of measuring the value added; to present management tools and techniques needed to control and systematically improve performance. Research methodology is based on examples, previous studies and a case study that reveals the diversity of indicators for measuring the value added and analysis tools used in quality management.

  16. Kinetics of the Br2-CH3CHO Photochemical Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Shackelford, C. J.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was employed in conjunction with laser flash photolysis of Br2 to study the kinetics of the two elementary steps in the photochemical chain reaction nBr2 + nCH3CHO + hv yields nCH3CBrO + nHBr. In the temperature range 255-400 K, the rate coefficient for the reaction Br((sup 2)P(sub 3/2)) + CH3CHO yields CH3CO + HBr is given by the Arrhenius expression k(sub 6)(T) = (1.51 +/- 0.20) x 10(exp -11) exp(-(364 +/- 41)/T)cu cm/(molecule.s). At 298 K, the reaction CH3CO + Br2 yields CH3CBrO + Br proceeds at a near gas kinetic rate, k(sub 7)(298 K) = (1.08 +/- 0.38) x 10(exp -10)cu cm/(molecule.s).

  17. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  18. Kinetics of thermophilic, anaerobic oxidation of straight and branched chain butyrate and valerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of normal and branched chain butyrate and valerate are important in protein-fed anaerobic systems, as a number of amino acids degrade to these organic acids. Including activated and primary wastewater sludge digesters, the majority of full-scale systems digest feeds...... is also addressed, extending previous pure-culture and batch studies. A previously published mathematical model was modified to allow competitive uptake of i-valerate, and used to model a thermophilic manure digester operated over 180 days. The digester was periodically pulsed with straight and branched...

  19. Kinetics of Internal-Loop Formation in Polypeptide Chains: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Dana; Roitberg, Adrian; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    The speed of simple diffusional motions, such as the formation of loops in the polypeptide chain, places one physical limit on the speed of protein folding. Many experimental studies have explored the kinetics of formation of end-to-end loops in polypeptide chains; however, protein folding more often requires the formation of contacts between interior points on the chain. One expects that, for loops of fixed contour length, interior loops will form more slowly than end-to-end loops, owing to the additional excluded volume associated with the “tails”. We estimate the magnitude of this effect by generating ensembles of randomly coiled, freely jointed chains, and then using the theory of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten to calculate the corresponding contact formation rates for these ensembles. Adding just a few residues, to convert an end-to-end loop to an internal loop, sharply decreases the contact rate. Surprisingly, the relative change in rate increases for a longer loop; sufficiently long tails, however, actually reverse the effect and accelerate loop formation slightly. Our results show that excluded volume effects in real, full-length polypeptides may cause the rates of loop formation during folding to depart significantly from the values derived from recent loop-formation experiments on short peptides. PMID:17208979

  20. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. A kinetic theory description of the viscosity of dense fluids consisting of chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijn, Astrid S; Vesovic, Velisa; Jackson, George; Trusler, J P Martin

    2008-05-28

    An expression for the viscosity of a dense fluid is presented that includes the effect of molecular shape. The molecules of the fluid are approximated by chains of equal-sized, tangentially jointed, rigid spheres. It is assumed that the collision dynamics in such a fluid can be approximated by instantaneous collisions between two rigid spheres belonging to different chains. The approach is thus analogous to that of Enskog for a fluid consisting of rigid spheres. The description is developed in terms of two molecular parameters, the diameter sigma of the spherical segment and the chain length (number of segments) m. It is demonstrated that an analysis of viscosity data of a particular pure fluid alone cannot be used to obtain independently effective values of both sigma and m. Nevertheless, the chain lengths of n-alkanes are determined by assuming that the diameter of each rigid sphere making up the chain can be represented by the diameter of a methane molecule. The effective chain lengths of n-alkanes are found to increase linearly with the number C of carbon atoms present. The dependence can be approximated by a simple relationship m=1+(C-1)3. The same relationship was reported within the context of a statistical associating fluid theory equation of state treatment of the fluid, indicating that both the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and viscosity yield the same value for the chain lengths of n-alkanes.

  2. Effect of surfactant chain length on drug release kinetics from microemulsion-laden contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Desai, Ankita R; Choksi, Harsh H; Patil, Rahul J; Ranch, Ketan M; Vyas, Bhavin A; Shah, Dinesh O

    2017-05-30

    The effect of surfactant chain lengths [sodium caprylate (C 8 ), Tween 20 (C 12 ), Tween 80 (C 18 )] and the molecular weight of block copolymers [Pluronic F68 and Pluronic F 127] were studied to determine the stability of the microemulsion and its effect on release kinetics from cyclosporine-loaded microemulsion-laden hydrogel contact lenses in this work. Globule size and dilution tests (transmittance) suggested that the stability of the microemulsion increases with increase in the carbon chain lengths of surfactants and the molecular weight of pluronics. The optical transmittance of direct drug-laden contact lenses [DL-100] was low due to the precipitation of hydrophobic drugs in the lenses, while in microemulsion-laden lenses, the transmittance was improved when stability of the microemulsion was achieved. The results of in vitro release kinetics revealed that drug release was sustained to a greater extent as the stability of microemulsion was improved as well. This was evident in batch PF127-T80, which showed sustained release for 15days in comparison to batch DL-100, which showed release up to 7days. An in vivo drug release study in rabbit tear fluid showed significant increase in mean residence time (MRT) and area under curve (AUC) with PF-127-T80 lenses (stable microemulsion) in comparison to PF-68-SC lenses (unstable microemulsion) and DL-100 lenses. This study revealed the correlation between the stability of microemulsion and the release kinetics of drugs from contact lenses. Thus, it was inferred that the stable microemulsion batches sustained the release of hydrophobic drugs, such as cyclosporine from contact lenses for an extended period of time without altering critical lens properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical kinetic functional sensitivity analysis: Elementary sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, M.; Rabitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is considered for kinetics problems defined in the space--time domain. This extends an earlier temporal Green's function method to handle calculations of elementary functional sensitivities deltau/sub i//deltaα/sub j/ where u/sub i/ is the ith species concentration and α/sub j/ is the jth system parameter. The system parameters include rate constants, diffusion coefficients, initial conditions, boundary conditions, or any other well-defined variables in the kinetic equations. These parameters are generally considered to be functions of position and/or time. Derivation of the governing equations for the sensitivities and the Green's funciton are presented. The physical interpretation of the Green's function and sensitivities is given along with a discussion of the relation of this work to earlier research

  4. The Kinetics of Myosin Light Chain Kinase Activation of Smooth Muscle Myosin in an In Vitro Model System

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Feng; Facemyer, Kevin C.; Carter, Michael S.; Jackson, Del R.; Haldeman, Brian D.; Ruana, Nick; Sutherland, Cindy; Walsh, Michael P.; Cremo, Christine R.; Baker, Josh E.

    2013-01-01

    During activation of smooth muscle contraction, one myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) molecule rapidly phosphorylates many smooth muscle myosin (SMM) molecules, suggesting that muscle activation rates are influenced by the kinetics of MLCK-SMM interactions. To determine the rate-limiting step underlying activation of SMM by MLCK, we measured the kinetics of calcium-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM)-MLCK-mediated SMM phosphorylation and the corresponding initiation of SMM-based F-actin motility in an in vi...

  5. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiie, T., E-mail: yoshiie@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka-fu 590-0494 (Japan); Kinomura, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka-fu 590-0494 (Japan); Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  6. Structural and kinetic mapping of side-chain exposure onto the protein energy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Schmidt, Kierstin L; Harbury, Pehr B; Marqusee, Susan

    2011-06-28

    Identification and characterization of structural fluctuations that occur under native conditions is crucial for understanding protein folding and function, but such fluctuations are often rare and transient, making them difficult to study. Native-state hydrogen exchange (NSHX) has been a powerful tool for identifying such rarely populated conformations, but it generally reveals no information about the placement of these species along the folding reaction coordinate or the barriers separating them from the folded state and provides little insight into side-chain packing. To complement such studies, we have performed native-state alkyl-proton exchange, a method analogous to NSHX that monitors cysteine modification rather than backbone amide exchange, to examine the folding landscape of Escherichia coli ribonuclease H, a protein well characterized by hydrogen exchange. We have chosen experimental conditions such that the rate-limiting barrier acts as a kinetic partition: residues that become exposed only upon crossing the unfolding barrier are modified in the EX1 regime (alkylation rates report on the rate of unfolding), while those exposed on the native side of the barrier are modified predominantly in the EX2 regime (alkylation rates report on equilibrium populations). This kinetic partitioning allows for identification and placement of partially unfolded forms along the reaction coordinate. Using this approach we detect previously unidentified, rarely populated conformations residing on the native side of the barrier and identify side chains that are modified only upon crossing the unfolding barrier. Thus, in a single experiment under native conditions, both sides of the rate-limiting barrier are investigated.

  7. Analysis of supply chain management of N1-EAM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jize; Liu Xujia; Liu Huanhuan

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management directly affect the safe and stable operation of nuclear power plants. China's nuclear power production management information system N1-EAM covers supply chain management business. This paper firstly N1-EAM supply chain management functions, advanced analysis of business processes, Qinshan area combined with supply chain management situation, the initial application of the proposed solutions. (authors)

  8. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  9. Immune adherence: a quantitative and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, T [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Research Inst.

    1978-09-01

    Quantitative and kinetic analysis of the immune-adherence reaction (IA) between C3b fragments and IA receptors as an agglutination reaction is difficult. Analysis is possible, however, by use of radio-iodinated bovine serum albumin as antigen at low concentrations (less than 200 ng/ml) and optimal concentration of antibody to avoid precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes with human erythrocytes without participation of complement. Antigen and antibody are reacted at 37/sup 0/C, complement is added, the mixture incubated and human erythrocytes added; after further incubation, ice-cold EDTA containing buffer is added and the erythrocytes centrifuged and assayed for radioactivity. Control cells reacted with heated guinea pig serum retained less than 5% of the added radioactivity. The method facilitates measurement of IA reactivity and permits more detailed analysis of the mechanism underlying the reaction.

  10. Entanglement in correlated random spin chains, RNA folding and kinetic roughening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Santalla, Silvia N; Ramírez, Giovanni; Sierra, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Average block entanglement in the 1D XX-model with uncorrelated random couplings is known to grow as the logarithm of the block size, in similarity to conformal systems. In this work we study random spin chains whose couplings present long range correlations, generated as gaussian fields with a power-law spectral function. Ground states are always planar valence bond states, and their statistical ensembles are characterized in terms of their block entropy and their bond-length distribution, which follow power-laws. We conjecture the existence of a critical value for the spectral exponent, below which the system behavior is identical to the case of uncorrelated couplings. Above that critical value, the entanglement entropy violates the area law and grows as a power law of the block size, with an exponent which increases from zero to one. Interestingly, we show that XXZ models with positive anisotropy present the opposite behavior, and strong correlations in the couplings lead to lower entropies. Similar planar bond structures are also found in statistical models of RNA folding and kinetic roughening, and we trace an analogy between them and quantum valence bond states. Using an inverse renormalization procedure we determine the optimal spin-chain couplings which give rise to a given planar bond structure, and study the statistical properties of the couplings whose bond structures mimic those found in RNA folding. (paper)

  11. A Model for the Interfacial Kinetics of Phospholipase D Activity on Long-Chain Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    7506–7513. 18. Zografi, G., R. Verger, and G. H. de Haas. 1971. Kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis of lecithin monolayers by phospholipase A. Chem...ChemBioChem. 9:2853–2859. 54. Albrecht, O., H. Gruler, and E. Sackmann. 1981. Pressure-composition phase diagrams of cholesterol/ lecithin , cholesterol...phosphatidic acid, and lecithin /phosphatidic acid fixed monolayers: a Langmuit film balance study. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 79:319–338. 55. Morris, A

  12. The kinetics of the radiation-induced chain dechlorination of hexachloroethane in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Ohara, Naoki; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of the radiation-induced dechlorination of hexachloroethane was investigated in deoxygenated alcohol solutions. The major products were hydrogen chloride, pentachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and aldehydes or acetone. No 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane was observed. The radiation-chemical yields of these products and the disappearance of hexachloroethane were quite high; these facts indicate that a chain reaction is involved in these processes. After the hexachloroethane had effectively dechlorinated down to tetrachloro compounds, there were no marked changes in the lower chlorinated compound upon continuous irradiation. Tetrachloroethane was formed via pentachloroethane, but tetrachloroethylene was produced by means of C 2 Cl 5 →C 2 Cl 4 + cl reaction and the yield was particularly high in methanol compared with the other alcohols. The chain length of the dechlorination from hexachloroethane to pentachloroethane and from pentachloroethane to tetrachloroethane increased in the order of 2-propanol>ethanol>methanol. The G(-C 2 Cl 6 ) and G(products) were proportional to (dose rate)sup(-1/2), and the ratio of G(C 2 HCl 5 ) to G(C 2 Cl 4 ) was a constant in each alcohol solution, regardless of the dose rate. The α-hydroxy alkyl radical is the chain carrier for the dechlorination reaction of hexachloroethane in alcohol solutions. The relative rates of the dechlorination were found to be 1, 3, and 14 for C*H 2 OH (*: radical), CH 3 C*HOH (*: radical), and (CH 3 ) 2 C*OH (*: radical), respectively. The order in the rate is in agreement with that of the redox potential of these radicals. The effect of the irradiation temperature on the products yields was also examined. (auth.)

  13. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  14. Crystal structures and thermodynamics/kinetics of Zn(II) coordination polymers with helical chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tian [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yue, Ke-Fen, E-mail: ykflyy@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhao, Yi-xing; Chen, San-Ping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhou, Chun-sheng, E-mail: slzhoucs@126.com.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Tailings Resources, College of Chemical Engineering and Modern Materials, Shangluo University, Shangluo 726000 (China); Yan, Ni [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Zn(II) acetates and four V-shaped carboxylates ligands in the presence of 1,4-Bis(2-methyl-imidazol-1-yl)butane afforded four interesting Zn(II) coordination polymers with helical chains, namely, {[Zn(bib)(atibdc)]·2H_2O}{sub n} (1), {[Zn(bib)(atbip)]·H_2O}{sub n} (2), {[Zn(bib)(2,2′-tda)]}{sub n} (3) and {[Zn(bib)(5-tbipa)]·EtOH}{sub n} (4), (H{sub 2}atibdc=5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid, H{sub 2}atbip=5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid, 2,2′-H{sub 2}tad=2,2′-thiodiacetic acid, 5-H{sub 2}tbipa=5-tert-butyl-isophthalic acid). 1 reveals a 3D chiral framework with three kinds of helical chains along a, b and c axis. 2 shows a 2D step-type chiral framework with right-handed helical chains. 3 displays a wavelike 2D layer network possessing alternate left- and right-handed helical chains. 4 presents a four-connected 3D framework with zigzag and meso-helical chains. The different spacers and substituent group of carboxylic acid ligands may lead to the diverse network structures of 1–4. The fluorescent properties of complexes 1−4 were studied. In addition, the thermal decompositions properties of 1–4 were investigated by simultaneous TG/DTG–DSC technique. The apparent activation energy E and the pre-exponential factor (A) of skeleton collapse for the complexes 1–4 are calculated by the integral Kissinger's method and Ozawa–Doyle's method. The activation energy E (E{sub 1}=209.658 kJ·mol{sup −1}, E{sub 2}=250.037 kJ mol{sup −1}, E{sub 3}=225.300 kJ mol{sup −1}, E{sub 4}=186.529 kJ·mol{sup −1}) demonstrates that the reaction rate of the melting decomposition is slow. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH{sup ‡}, ΔG{sup ‡} and ΔS{sup ‡}) at the peak temperatures of the DTG curves were also calculated. ΔG{sup ‡}>0 indicates that the skeleton collapse is not spontaneous. ΔH{sub d}>0 suggests that the skeleton collapse is endothermic, corresponding to the intense endothermic peak of the DSC

  15. Integrating structure, conduct and performance into value chain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana De Figueiredo Junior, H.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Value chain analysis has been adopted by several research and funding institutions for analysing local development opportunities. Development practitioners, however, are still looking for more solid grounds for value chain strategy development, especially since the expected outcomes of

  16. Generic analysis of kinetically driven inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Rio

    2018-04-01

    We perform a model-independent analysis of kinetically driven inflation (KDI) which (partially) includes generalized G-inflation and ghost inflation. We evaluate the background evolution splitting into the inflationary attractor and the perturbation around it. We also consider the quantum fluctuation of the scalar mode with a usual scaling and derive the spectral index, ignoring the contribution from the second-order products of slow-roll parameters. Using these formalisms, we find that within our generic framework the models of KDI which possess the shift symmetry of scalar field cannot create the quantum fluctuation consistent with the observation. Breaking the shift symmetry, we obtain a few essential conditions for viable models of KDI associated with the graceful exit.

  17. Analysis of a quantum Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbeau, J.; Gudder, S.

    1990-01-01

    A quantum chain is analogous to a classical stationary Markov chain except that the probability measure is replaced by a complex amplitude measure and the transition probability matrix is replaced by a transition amplitude matrix. After considering the general situation, we study a particular example of a quantum chain whose transition amplitude matrix has the form of a Dirichlet matrix. Such matrices generate a discrete analog of the usual continuum Feynman amplitude. We then compute the probability distribution for these quantum chains

  18. Simulation and Analysis of Roller Chain Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard

    The subject of this thesis is simulation and analysis of large roller chain drive systems, such as e.g. used in marine diesel engines. The aim of developing a chain drive simulation program is to analyse dynamic phenomena of chain drive systems and investigate different design changes to the syst......The subject of this thesis is simulation and analysis of large roller chain drive systems, such as e.g. used in marine diesel engines. The aim of developing a chain drive simulation program is to analyse dynamic phenomena of chain drive systems and investigate different design changes...... mathematical models, and compare to the prior done research. Even though the model is developed at first for the use of analysing chain drive systems in marine engines, the methods can with small changes be used in general, as for e.g. chain drives in industrial machines, car engines and motorbikes. A novel...

  19. Simulation and Analysis of Chain Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sine Leergaard

    mathematical models, and compare to the prior done research. Even though the model is developed at first for the use of analysing chain drive systems in marine engines, the methods can with small changes be used in general, as for e.g. chain drives in industrial machines, car engines and motorbikes. A novel...... with a real tooth profile proves superior to other applied models. With this model it is possible to perform a dynamic simulation of large marine engine chain drives. Through the application of this method, it is shown that the interrelated dynamics of the elements in the chain drive system is captured...

  20. Supply Chain Visibility with Linked Open Data for Supply Chain Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current customs applications are declaration based to support the various customs procedures based on (inter)national laws and regulations. To be able to perform a proper supply chain risk analysis, customs requires to have all data in supply chains. The current declaration procedures are not

  1. Esterification of fatty acids using nylon-immobilized lipase in n-hexane: kinetic parameters and chain-length effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A; Gainer, J L; Carta, G; Mrani, A; Kadiri, T; Belarbi, Y; Mir, A

    2002-02-28

    The esterification of long-chain fatty acids in n-hexane catalyzed by nylon-immobilized lipase from Candida rugosa has been investigated. Butyl oleate (22 carbon atoms), oleyl butyrate (22 carbon atoms) and oleyl oleate (36 carbon atoms) were produced at maximum reaction rates of approximately equal to 60 mmol h(-1) g(-1) immobilized enzyme when the substrates were present in equimolar proportions at an initial concentration of 0.6 mol l(-1). The observed kinetic behavior of all the esterification reactions is found to follow a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism with competitive inhibition by both substrates. The effect of the chain-length of the fatty acids and the alcohols could be correlated to some mechanistic models, in accordance with the calculated kinetic parameters.

  2. Validity and Reliability of a Digital Inclinometer to Assess Knee Joint Position Sense in an Open Kinetic Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Montaño-Munuera, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2017-12-18

    New methods are being validated to easily evaluate the knee joint position sense (JPS) due to its role in sports movement and the risk of injury. However, no studies to date have considered the open kinetic chain (OKC) technique, despite the biomechanical differences compared to closed kinetic chain movements. To analyze the validity and reliability of a digital inclinometer to measure the knee JPS in the OKC movement. The validity, inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of a digital inclinometer for measuring knee JPS were evaluated. Sports research laboratory. Eighteen athletes (11 males and 7 females; 28.4 ± 6.6 years; 71.9 ± 14.0 kg; 1.77 ± 0.09 m; 22.8 ± 3.2 kg/m 2 ) voluntary participated in this study. Absolute angular error (AAE), relative angular error (RAE) and variable angular error (VAE) of knee JPS in an OKC. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of the mean (SEM) were calculated to determine the validity and reliability of the inclinometer. Data showed excellent validity of the inclinometer to obtain proprioceptive errors compared to the video analysis in JPS tasks (AAE: ICC = 0.981, SEM = 0.08; RAE: ICC = 0.974, SEM = 0.12; VAE: ICC = 0.973, SEM = 0.07). Inter-tester reliability was also excellent for all the proprioceptive errors (AAE: ICC = 0.967, SEM = 0.04; RAE: ICC = 0.974, SEM = 0.03; VAE: ICC = 0.939, SEM = 0.08). Similar results were obtained for intra-tester reliability (AAE: ICC = 0.861, SEM = 0.1; RAE: ICC = 0.894, SEM = 0.1; VAE: ICC = 0.700, SEM = 0.2). The digital inclinometer is a valid and reliable method to assess the knee JPS in OKC. Sport professionals may evaluate the knee JPS to monitor its deterioration during training or improvements throughout the rehabilitation process.

  3. Supercritical kinetic analysis in simplified system of fuel debris using integral kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuya, Delgersaikhan; Obara, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic analysis in simplified weakly coupled fuel debris system was performed. • The integral kinetic model was used to simulate criticality accidents. • The fission power and released energy during simulated accident were obtained. • Coupling between debris regions and its effect on the fission power was obtained. - Abstract: Preliminary prompt supercritical kinetic analyses in a simplified coupled system of fuel debris designed to roughly resemble a melted core of a nuclear reactor were performed using an integral kinetic model. The integral kinetic model, which can describe region- and time-dependent fission rate in a coupled system of arbitrary geometry, was used because the fuel debris system is weakly coupled in terms of neutronics. The results revealed some important characteristics of coupled systems, such as the coupling between debris regions and the effect of the coupling on the fission rate and released energy in each debris region during the simulated criticality accident. In brief, this study showed that the integral kinetic model can be applied to supercritical kinetic analysis in fuel debris systems and also that it can be a useful tool for investigating the effect of the coupling on consequences of a supercritical accident.

  4. Human disease mortality kinetics are explored through a chain model embodying principles of extreme value theory and competing risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, D A; Rosenberg, B

    1992-04-21

    The distributions for human disease-specific mortality exhibit two striking characteristics: survivorship curves that intersect near the longevity limit; and, the clustering of best-fitting Weibull shape parameter values into groups centered on integers. Correspondingly, we have hypothesized that the distribution intersections result from either competitive processes or population partitioning and the integral clustering in the shape parameter results from the occurrence of a small number of rare, rate-limiting events in disease progression. In this report we initiate a theoretical examination of these questions by exploring serial chain model dynamics and parameteric competing risks theory. The links in our chain models are composed of more than one bond, where the number of bonds in a link are denoted the link size and are the number of events necessary to break the link and, hence, the chain. We explored chains with all links of the same size or with segments of the chain composed of different size links (competition). Simulations showed that chain breakage dynamics depended on the weakest-link principle and followed kinetics of extreme-values which were very similar to human mortality kinetics. In particular, failure distributions for simple chains were Weibull-type extreme-value distributions with shape parameter values that were identifiable with the integral link size in the limit of infinite chain length. Furthermore, for chains composed of several segments of differing link size, the survival distributions for the various segments converged at a point in the S(t) tails indistinguishable from human data. This was also predicted by parameteric competing risks theory using Weibull underlying distributions. In both the competitive chain simulations and the parametric competing risks theory, however, the shape values for the intersecting distributions deviated from the integer values typical of human data. We conclude that rare events can be the source of

  5. SCit: web tools for protein side chain conformation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, R; Camproux, A-C; Tufféry, P

    2004-07-01

    SCit is a web server providing services for protein side chain conformation analysis and side chain positioning. Specific services use the dependence of the side chain conformations on the local backbone conformation, which is described using a structural alphabet that describes the conformation of fragments of four-residue length in a limited library of structural prototypes. Based on this concept, SCit uses sets of rotameric conformations dependent on the local backbone conformation of each protein for side chain positioning and the identification of side chains with unlikely conformations. The SCit web server is accessible at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/SCit.

  6. A century of enzyme kinetic analysis, 1913 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth A

    2013-09-02

    This review traces the history and logical progression of methods for quantitative analysis of enzyme kinetics from the 1913 Michaelis and Menten paper to the application of modern computational methods today. Following a brief review of methods for fitting steady state kinetic data, modern methods are highlighted for fitting full progress curve kinetics based upon numerical integration of rate equations, including a re-analysis of the original Michaelis-Menten full time course kinetic data. Finally, several illustrations of modern transient state kinetic methods of analysis are shown which enable the elucidation of reactions occurring at the active sites of enzymes in order to relate structure and function. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermoresponsive Poly(2-oxazoline) Molecular Brushes by Living Ionic Polymerization: Kinetic Investigations of Pendant Chain Grafting and Cloud Point Modulation by Backbone and Side Chain Length Variation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2012-04-17

    Molecular brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s were prepared by living anionic polymerization of 2-iso-propenyl-2-oxazoline to form the backbone and subsequent living cationic ring-opening polymerization of 2-n- or 2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline for pendant chain grafting. In situ kinetic studies indicate that the initiation efficiency and polymerization rates are independent from the number of initiator functions per initiator molecule. This was attributed to the high efficiency of oxazolinium salt and the stretched conformation of the backbone, which is caused by the electrostatic repulsion of the oxazolinium moieties along the macroinitiator. The resulting molecular brushes showed thermoresponsive properties, that is, having a defined cloud point (CP). The dependence of the CP as a function of backbone and side chain length as well as concentration was studied. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Analysis of supply chain management of shallots in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. C.; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    Supply chain is important for business. One of supply chain that needs to be studied is the shallots supply chain. Medan have high demand while the supply of shallots is limited. This study aims to analyze the flow of shallots supply chain distribution in Medan. The method used was survey by using questionnaires to shallots producers, collecting traders, distributors, traders as well as government involved in shallots supply chain. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the shallots supply chain distribution flow. The results showed that there are two shallots supply chain model in Medan that was local shallots model and imported shallots model. Local shallots model could be distinguished based on three producer area, those were models of Medan Marelan, Samosir, and Simalungun. Medan Marelan and Simalungun models have seven supply chains, while the Samosir Model has eight supply chains. This condition indicates that the local shallots supply chain management in Medan was not efficient because of the length of the distribution channel. Supply chain imported shallots was more efficient because it had a shorter distribution flow with five supply chains.

  9. Kinetic analysis of the human knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wiczkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathology of the calcaneal (Achilles tendon constitutes a serious therapeutical and social problem. Indeed, this tendon is the strongest plantar flexor of the foot that plays an important role in the humangait. Although well known for a long time, no explicit description of the spontaneous subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon can be found in medical or biomechanical literature. So far, neither pathomechanism nor the underlying causes of the tendon’s disruption have been fully elucidated. Many authors concentrate mostly on medical and biological aspects of the condition. The commonly held view is that it is the vascular supply to the tendon that plays a crucial role in pathogenesis of the tendon’s injuries. In fact, the vasculature a change with time and after the age of 30 is significantly reduced leading to the development of regressive alterations within as well as the decrement of the mechanical strength of the tendon. Obviously, interdisciplinary approach encompassing not only medical and biological but also the broadly taken mechanical viewpoint is needed to more comprehensively describe and explain this phenomenon. In the present paper, kinetic analysis of the knee was employed to define the trajectory of the point of initial insertion of the medial head of gastrocnemius, which was then used to determine the point’s route within the motor area extending from the flexion to the full extension of the knee. The obtained data on the trajectory are further utilized to present and define the pathomechanism of the spontaneous rupture of the calcaneal tendon.

  10. Newtonian Analysis of a Folded Chain Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2018-05-01

    Consider a chain of length L that hangs in a U shape with end A fixed to a rigid support and free end E released from rest starting from the same initial height (call it y = 0) as A. Figure 1 sketches the chain after end E has fallen a distance y. Points O and A are assumed to be close enough to each other and the chain flexible enough that the radius of curvature r at the bottom point C can be taken to be negligibly small (compared to the length of the chain). The problem is to compare the speed of descent v(y) = dy/dt of the free end E of the chain to the speed vfree(y )=√{2 g y } of a free-falling point mass that has descended the same distance y. If v(y) > vfree (y) for all y > 0, then, in a race to fall any arbitrary distance Y (where 0 < Y < L), the chain end E will always beat a simultaneously released point mass, because the fall time t for E will be shorter than tfree for the point mass, t = ∫0 Y d/y v (y )

  11. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Viet-Phu; Tran, Hoai-Nam; Yamamoto, Akio; Endo, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. Algorithms are proposed to reevaluate decay modes, branching ratios and effective fission product (FP) cumulative yields of a given list of important FPs taking into account intermediate reactions. A new burnup chain is generated using the updated data sources taken from the JENDL FP decay data file 2011 and Fission yields data file 2011. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Burnup calculations using the new burnup chain have also been performed based on UO_2 and MOX fuel pin cells and compared with a reference chain th2cm6fp193bp6T.

  12. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Viet-Phu [VINATOM, Hanoi (Viet Nam). Inst. for Nuclear Science and Technology; Tran, Hoai-Nam [Duy Tan Univ., Da Nang (Viet Nam). Inst. of Research and Development; Yamamoto, Akio; Endo, Tomohiro [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya-shi (Japan). Dept. of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering

    2017-05-15

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. Algorithms are proposed to reevaluate decay modes, branching ratios and effective fission product (FP) cumulative yields of a given list of important FPs taking into account intermediate reactions. A new burnup chain is generated using the updated data sources taken from the JENDL FP decay data file 2011 and Fission yields data file 2011. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Burnup calculations using the new burnup chain have also been performed based on UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel pin cells and compared with a reference chain th2cm6fp193bp6T.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME EXISTING KINETIC MODELS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of three heavy metal ions namely; Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ using five microorganisms namely; Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptomyces rimosus and Yeast (Saccharomyces sp.) were studied. In this paper, the effectiveness of six existing and two proposed kinetic ...

  14. comparative analysis of some existing kinetic models with proposed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGNATIUS NWIDI

    two statistical parameters namely; linear regression coefficient of correlation (R2) and ... Keynotes: Heavy metals, Biosorption, Kinetics Models, Comparative analysis, Average Relative Error. 1. ... If the flow rate is low, a simple manual batch.

  15. SCit: web tools for protein side chain conformation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, R.; Camproux, A.-C.; Tufféry, P.

    2004-01-01

    SCit is a web server providing services for protein side chain conformation analysis and side chain positioning. Specific services use the dependence of the side chain conformations on the local backbone conformation, which is described using a structural alphabet that describes the conformation of fragments of four-residue length in a limited library of structural prototypes. Based on this concept, SCit uses sets of rotameric conformations dependent on the local backbone conformation of each...

  16. Bayesian analysis for reversible Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaconis, P.; Rolles, S.W.W.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a natural conjugate prior for the transition matrix of a reversible Markov chain. This allows estimation and testing. The prior arises from random walk with reinforcement in the same way the Dirichlet prior arises from Pólya’s urn. We give closed form normalizing constants, a simple

  17. Closed-kinetic chain upper-body training improves throwing performance of NCAA Division I softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Max P; Ingersoll, Christopher D; Nordenschild, Edwin; Katch, Frank I; Gaesser, Glenn A; Weltman, Arthur

    2008-11-01

    Closed-kinetic chain resistance training (CKCRT) of the lower body is superior to open-kinetic chain resistance training (OKCRT) to improve performance parameters (e.g., vertical jump), but the effects of upper-body CKCRT on throwing performance remain unknown. This study compared shoulder strength, power, and throwing velocity changes in athletes training the upper body exclusively with either CKCRT (using a system of ropes and slings) or OKCRT. Fourteen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball player volunteers were blocked and randomly placed into two groups: CKCRT and OKCRT. Blocking ensured the same number of veteran players and rookies in each training group. Training occurred three times weekly for 12 weeks during the team's supervised off-season program. Olympic, lower-body, core training, and upper-body intensity and volume in OKCRT and CKCRT were equalized between groups. Criterion variables pre- and posttraining included throwing velocity, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), dynamic single-leg balance, and isokinetic peak torque and power (PWR) (at 180 degrees x s(-1)) for shoulder flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation (ER). The CKCRT group significantly improved throwing velocity by 2.0 mph (3.4%, p performance. Strength coaches can incorporate upper-body CKCRT without sacrificing gains in maximal strength or performance criteria associated with an athletic open-chain movement such as throwing.

  18. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  19. Value chain analysis on cassava and cassava based - products in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the value Chain analysis (production process and cost related to each element of production chain to add value) on cassava and cassava products in Imo State specifically to ascertain the farm size holdings of the respondents as well as the ownerships of the land used for production. It also identified` ...

  20. Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries; a Framework for Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component

  1. Value Chain Analysis in Interfirm Relationships: A Field Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Interfirm relationships introduce new challenges for management accounting. One such challenge is the provision of information for the coordination and optimization of activities across firms in a value chain. According to the literature, a value chain analysis (VCA) is a useful tool to meet this

  2. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Viet Phu; Tran Hoai Nam; Akio Yamamoto; Tomohiro Endo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of a new burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. The JENDL FP Decay Data File 2011 and Fission Yields Data File 2011 were used as the data sources. The nuclides in the new chain are determined by restrictions of the half-life and cumulative yield of fission products or from a given list. Then, decay modes, branching ratios and fission yields are recalculated taking into account intermediate reactions. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Further development and applications are being planned with the burnup chain code. (author)

  3. A kinetic model for growth and biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. M. Annuar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model is presented giving a mathematical description of batch culture of Pseudomonas putida PGA1 grown using saponified palm kernel oil as carbon source and ammonium as the limiting nutrient. The growth of the micro-organism is well-described using Tessier-type model which takes into account the inhibitory effect of ammonium at high concentrations. The ammonium consumption rate by the cells is related in proportion to the rate of growth. The intracellular production of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA MCL by P. putida PGA1 cells is reasonably modeled by the modified Luedeking-Piret kinetics, which incorporate a function of product synthesis inhibition (or reduction by ammonium above a threshold level.

  4. Validity and Reliability of a Digital Inclinometer to Assess Knee Joint Position Sense in a Closed Kinetic Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Montaño-Munuera, Juan Antonio; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint position sense (JPS) is a key parameter for optimum performance in many sports but is frequently negatively affected by injuries and/or fatigue during training sessions. Although evaluation of JPS may provide key information to reduce the risk of injury, it often requires expensive and/or complex tools that make monitoring proprioceptive deterioration difficult. To analyze the validity and reliability of a digital inclinometer to measure knee JPS in a closed kinetic chain (CKC). The validity and intertester and intratester reliability of a digital inclinometer for measuring knee JPS were assessed. Biomechanics laboratory. 10 athletes (5 men and 5 women; 26.2 ± 1.3 y, 71.7 ± 12.4 kg; 1.75 ± 0.09 m; 23.5 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 ). Knee JPS was measured in a CKC. Absolute angular error (AAE) of knee JPS in a CKC. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of the mean (SEM) were calculated to determine the validity and reliability of the inclinometer. Data showed that the inclinometer had a high level of validity compared with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC = 1.0, SEM = 1.39, p AutoCAD video analysis, inclinometer validity was very high (ICC = 0.980, SEM = 3.46, p < 0.001) for measuring AAE during knee JPS in a CKC. In addition, the intertester reliability of the inclinometer for obtaining AAE was very high (ICC = .994, SEM = 1.67, p < 0.001). The inclinometer provides a valid and reliable method for assessing knee JPS in a CKC. Health and sports professionals could take advantage of this tool to monitor proprioceptive deterioration in athletes.

  5. Kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knittel, B.

    1983-12-01

    Our goal is to quantify regional physiological processes such as blood flow and metabolism by means of tracer kinetic modeling and positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental models are one way of characterizing the behavior of tracers in physiological systems. This paper describes a general method of estimating compartmental model rate constants from measurements of the concentration of tracers in blood and tissue, taken at multiple time intervals. A computer program which applies the method is described, and examples are shown for simulated and actual data acquired from the Donner 280-Crystal Positron Tomograph.

  6. Kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittel, B.

    1983-12-01

    Our goal is to quantify regional physiological processes such as blood flow and metabolism by means of tracer kinetic modeling and positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental models are one way of characterizing the behavior of tracers in physiological systems. This paper describes a general method of estimating compartmental model rate constants from measurements of the concentration of tracers in blood and tissue, taken at multiple time intervals. A computer program which applies the method is described, and examples are shown for simulated and actual data acquired from the Donner 280-Crystal Positron Tomograph

  7. Markov Chain Analysis of Musical Dice Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, D.; Dawin, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  8. Analysis of Milk Marketing Chain – Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Zia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With an estimated annual milk production of approximately 29 million tonnes in 2004-2005, Pakistan is one of the world’s top milk producers. The competitiveness of Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan was studied, including constraints and opportunities. The study also includes unprecendented legal research on the government’s role vis a vis the private sector contribution. Buffaloes and cows are the main source of milk production, with an estimated 67% of the milk being produced by buffaloes and 30% by cows.

  9. Performance analysis of Supply Chain Management with Supply Chain Operation reference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, Abdurrozzaq; Arfah, Mahrani; Parinduri, Luthfi; Hernawati, Tri; Suliawati; Harahap, Bonar; Rahmah Sibuea, Siti; Krianto Sulaiman, Oris; purwadi, Adi

    2018-04-01

    This research was conducted at PT. Shamrock Manufacturing Corpora, the company is required to think creatively to implement competition strategy by producing goods/services that are more qualified, cheaper. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the performance of Supply Chain Management in order to improve the competitiveness. Therefore, the company is required to optimize its production output to meet the export quality standard. This research begins with the creation of initial dimensions based on Supply Chain Management process, ie Plan, Source, Make, Delivery, and Return with hierarchy based on Supply Chain Reference Operation that is Reliability, Responsiveness, Agility, Cost, and Asset. Key Performance Indicator identification becomes a benchmark in performance measurement whereas Snorm De Boer normalization serves to equalize Key Performance Indicator value. Analiytical Hierarchy Process is done to assist in determining priority criteria. Measurement of Supply Chain Management performance at PT. Shamrock Manufacturing Corpora produces SC. Responsiveness (0.649) has higher weight (priority) than other alternatives. The result of performance analysis using Supply Chain Reference Operation model of Supply Chain Management performance at PT. Shamrock Manufacturing Corpora looks good because its monitoring system between 50-100 is good.

  10. Stakeholder Analysis for Farmer inclusive Value chain Development in Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhika K; Jayasree Krishnankutty

    2017-01-01

    Mango is being cultivated over a substantial area in Palakkad District of Kerala state. Being one of the significant agricultural commodity value chains existing in Kerala, the mango value chain of Palakkad district needs urgent attention to improve its performance. The study highlights the stakeholder analysis and SWOC matrix analysis of the mango sector. Stakeholders were asked to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges in the mango sector. Based on the highest scor...

  11. Validation of Bayesian analysis of compartmental kinetic models in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges; Alpert, Nathaniel M

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic compartmental analysis is frequently used to compute physiologically relevant quantitative values from time series of images. In this paper, a new approach based on Bayesian analysis to obtain information about these parameters is presented and validated. The closed-form of the posterior distribution of kinetic parameters is derived with a hierarchical prior to model the standard deviation of normally distributed noise. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used for numerical estimation of the posterior distribution. Computer simulations of the kinetics of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) are used to demonstrate drawing statistical inferences about kinetic parameters and to validate the theory and implementation. Additionally, point estimates of kinetic parameters and covariance of those estimates are determined using the classical non-linear least squares approach. Posteriors obtained using methods proposed in this work are accurate as no significant deviation from the expected shape of the posterior was found (one-sided P>0.08). It is demonstrated that the results obtained by the standard non-linear least-square methods fail to provide accurate estimation of uncertainty for the same data set (P<0.0001). The results of this work validate new methods for a computer simulations of FDG kinetics. Results show that in situations where the classical approach fails in accurate estimation of uncertainty, Bayesian estimation provides an accurate information about the uncertainties in the parameters. Although a particular example of FDG kinetics was used in the paper, the methods can be extended for different pharmaceuticals and imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Engel, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate the dynamic parameters of carnitine metabolism in the dog. Six mongrel dogs were given intravenous injections of L-[methyl-3H]carnitine and the specific radioactivity of carnitine was followed in plasma and urine for 19-28 days. The data were analyzed by kinetic compartmental analysis. A three-compartment, open-system model [(a) extracellular fluid, (b) cardiac and skeletal muscle, (c) other tissues, particularly liver and kidney] was adopted and kinetic parameters (carnitine flux, pool sizes, kinetic constants) were derived. In four of six dogs the size of the muscle carnitine pool obtained by kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 5%) with estimates based on measurement of carnitine concentrations in different muscles. In three of six dogs carnitine excretion rates derived from kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 9%) with experimentally measured values, but in three dogs the rates by kinetic compartmental analysis were significantly higher than the corresponding rates measured directly. Appropriate chromatographic analyses revealed no radioactive metabolites in muscle or urine of any of the dogs. Turnover times for carnitine were (mean +/- SEM): 0.44 +/- 0.05 h for extracellular fluid, 232 +/- 22 h for muscle, and 7.9 +/- 1.1 h for other tissues. The estimated flux of carnitine in muscle was 210 pmol/min/g of tissue. Whole-body turnover time for carnitine was 62.9 +/- 5.6 days (mean +/- SEM). Estimated carnitine biosynthesis ranged from 2.9 to 28 mumol/kg body wt/day. Results of this study indicate that kinetic compartmental analysis may be applicable to study of human carnitine metabolism

  13. Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model part II: kinetics and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Dustin A; Cooney, Kevin M; Buczek, Frank L

    2012-04-01

    Kinematic multi-segment foot models have seen increased use in clinical and research settings, but the addition of kinetics has been limited and hampered by measurement limitations and modeling assumptions. In this second of two companion papers, we complete the presentation and analysis of a three segment kinetic foot model by incorporating kinetic parameters and calculating joint moments and powers. The model was tested on 17 pediatric subjects (ages 7-18 years) during normal gait. Ground reaction forces were measured using two adjacent force platforms, requiring targeted walking and the creation of two sub-models to analyze ankle, midtarsal, and 1st metatarsophalangeal joints. Targeted walking resulted in only minimal kinematic and kinetic differences compared with walking at self selected speeds. Joint moments and powers were calculated and ensemble averages are presented as a normative database for comparison purposes. Ankle joint powers are shown to be overestimated when using a traditional single-segment foot model, as substantial angular velocities are attributed to the mid-tarsal joint. Power transfer is apparent between the 1st metatarsophalangeal and mid-tarsal joints in terminal stance/pre-swing. While the measurement approach presented here is limited to clinical populations with only minimal impairments, some elements of the model can also be incorporated into routine clinical gait analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling methodology for supply chain synthesis and disruption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teresa; Blackhurst, Jennifer

    2004-11-01

    The concept of an integrated or synthesized supply chain is a strategy for managing today's globalized and customer driven supply chains in order to better meet customer demands. Synthesizing individual entities into an integrated supply chain can be a challenging task due to a variety of factors including conflicting objectives, mismatched incentives and constraints of the individual entities. Furthermore, understanding the effects of disruptions occurring at any point in the system is difficult when working toward synthesizing supply chain operations. Therefore, the goal of this research is to present a modeling methodology to manage the synthesis of a supply chain by linking hierarchical levels of the system and to model and analyze disruptions in the integrated supply chain. The contribution of this research is threefold: (1) supply chain systems can be modeled hierarchically (2) the performance of synthesized supply chain system can be evaluated quantitatively (3) reachability analysis is used to evaluate the system performance and verify whether a specific state is reachable, allowing the user to understand the extent of effects of a disruption.

  15. Metabolite production and kinetics of branched-chain aldehyde oxidation in Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Hansen, A.M.; Lauritsen, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    detected at levels ranging from 0.4 to 2.0μM. The concentrations of the corresponding carboxy acids were 963, 858 and 1486μM respectively. We demonstrated that α-ketoisocaproic acid was biotransformed to 3-methylbutanal which immediately was oxidised into 3-methylbutanoic acid. Kinetic studies...

  16. Analysis of a complex shape chain plate using Transmission Photoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari N.

    2010-06-01

    -3]. A loading fixture was used to load the model during stress freezing in the furnace. The integrated fringe pattern of the offset chain plate is shown in Figure 2. Slices are cut in the offset zone to understand the nature of the stress distribution. A Simple photoelastic analysis of this has revealed a wealth of information to take suitable decision on the design of such plates taking into account the constraints in manufacturing.

  17. Friction analysis of kinetic schemes : the friction coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, Juke S.

    1995-01-01

    Friction analysis is proposed as the application of general control analysis to single enzymes to describe the control of elementary kinetic steps on the overall catalytic rate. For each transition, a friction coefficient is defined that measures the sensitivity of the turnover rate to the free

  18. Kinetics of Coil-to-Globule Transition of Dansyl-Labeled Poly(N-sopropylacrylamide) Chains in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-liang; Ye, Xiao-dong; Ding, Yan-wei; Liu, Shi-lin

    2012-08-01

    The coil-to-globule transition of thermally sensitive linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) labeled with dansyl group is induced by 1.54 μm laser pulses (width≈10 ns). The dansyl group is used to follow the transition kinetics because its fluorescence intensity is very sensitive to its micro-environment. As the molar ratio of NIPAM monomer to dansyl group increases from 110 to 300, the effect of covalently attached dansyl fluorophores on the transition decreases. In agreement with our previous study in which we used 8-anilino-1-naphthalensulfonic acid ammonium salt free in water as a fluorescent probe, the current study reveals that the transition has two distinct stages with two characteristic times, namely, τfast≈0.1 ms, which can be attributed to the nucleation and formation of some “pearls" (locally contracting segments) on the chain, and τslow≈0.5 ms, which is related to the merging and coarsening of the “pearls". τfast is independent of the PNIPAM chain length over a wide range (Mw=2.8×106-4.2×107 g/mol). On the other hand, τslow only slightly increases with the chain length.

  19. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  20. Kinematics of roller chain drives - Exact and approximate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    An exact and approximate kinematic analysis of a roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism is presented. The span connects the sprockets such that they rotate in the same direction, and the sprocket size, number of teeth, and shaft center distance can be arbitrary. The driven sprocket...... to be very good agreement. All together this gives new insights into the characteristics of chain drive kinematics and the influence of main design parameters....

  1. Screw-vector bond graphs for kinetic-static modelling and analysis of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidard, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the kinetic-static modelling and analysis of spatial mechanisms used in robotics systems. A framework is proposed, which embodies a geometrical and a network approach for kinetic-static modelling. For this purpose we use screw theory and bond graphs. A new form of bond graphs is introduced: the screw-vector bond graph, whose power variables are defined to be wrenches and twists expressed as intrinsic screw-vectors. The mechanism is then identified as a network, whose components are kinematic pairs and whose topology is described by a directed graph. A screw-vector Simple Junction Structure represents the topological constraints. Kinematic pairs are represented by one-port elements, defined by two reciprocal screw-vector spaces. Using dual bases of screw-vectors, a generic decomposition of kinematic pair elements is given. The reduction of kinetic-static models of series and parallel kinematic chains is used in order to derive kinetic-static functional models in geometric form. Thereupon, the computational causality assignment is adapted for the graphical analysis of the mobility and the functioning of spatial mechanisms, based on completely or incompletely specified models. (author) [fr

  2. 188 An Empirical Investigation of Value-Chain Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Analysis has a positive but insignificant impact on Competitive Advantage of a manufacturing firm in ... chain analysis is a means of increasing customer satisfaction and managing costs more ... The linkages express the relationships between the ... margins, return on assets, benchmarking, and capital budgeting. When a.

  3. ANALYSIS OF KINETICS OF CAST IRON ALLOYING THROUGH SLAG PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cast iron alloying through slag phase due to use of nickel and copper oxides is considered and the analysis of kinetics regularity of alloying in case of absence of fuse in the form of milled cast-iron chips in slag and at their presence in it is carried out.

  4. Kinetic analysis of sub-prompt-critical reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutronic analysis of safety-related kinetics problems in experimental neutron multiplying assemblies has been carried out using a sub-prompt-critical reactor model. The model is based on the concept of a sub-prompt-critical nuclear reactor and the concept of instantaneous neutron multiplication in a reactor system. Computations of reactor power, period and reactivity using the model show excellent agreement with results obtained from exact kinetics method. Analytic expressions for the energy released in a controlled nuclear power excursion are derived. Application of the model to a Pulsed Fast Reactor gives its sensitivity between 4 and 5. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Influence of fast and slow alkali myosin light chain isoforms on the kinetics of stretch-induced force transients of fast-twitch type IIA fibres of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruchov, Oleg; Galler, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    This study contributes to understand the physiological role of slow myosin light chain isoforms in fast-twitch type IIA fibres of skeletal muscle. These isoforms are often attached to the myosin necks of rat type IIA fibres, whereby the slow alkali myosin light chain isoform MLC1s is much more frequent and abundant than the slow regulatory myosin light chain isoform MLC2s. In the present study, single-skinned rat type IIA fibres were maximally Ca(2+) activated and subjected to stepwise stretches for causing a perturbation of myosin head pulling cycles. From the time course of the resulting force transients, myosin head kinetics was deduced. Fibres containing MLC1s exhibited slower kinetics independently of the presence or absence of MLC2s. At the maximal MLC1s concentration of about 75%, the slowing was about 40%. The slowing effect of MLC1s is possibly due to differences in the myosin heavy chain binding sites of the fast and slow alkali MLC isoforms, which changes the rigidity of the myosin neck. Compared with the impact of myosin heavy chain isoforms in various fast-twitch fibre types, the influence of MLC1s on myosin head kinetics of type IIA fibres is much smaller. In conclusion, the physiological role of fast and slow MLC isoforms in type IIA fibres is a fine-tuning of the myosin head kinetics.

  6. A tool model for predicting atmospheric kinetics with sensitivity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A package( a tool model) for program of predicting atmospheric chemical kinetics with sensitivity analysis is presented. The new direct method of calculating the first order sensitivity coefficients using sparse matrix technology to chemical kinetics is included in the tool model, it is only necessary to triangularize the matrix related to the Jacobian matrix of the model equation. The Gear type procedure is used to integrate amodel equation and its coupled auxiliary sensitivity coefficient equations. The FORTRAN subroutines of the model equation, the sensitivity coefficient equations, and their Jacobian analytical expressions are generated automatically from a chemical mechanism. The kinetic representation for the model equation and its sensitivity coefficient equations, and their Jacobian matrix is presented. Various FORTRAN subroutines in packages, such as SLODE, modified MA28, Gear package, with which the program runs in conjunction are recommended.The photo-oxidation of dimethyl disulfide is used for illustration.

  7. Stakeholder Analysis for Farmer inclusive Value chain Development in Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhika K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mango is being cultivated over a substantial area in Palakkad District of Kerala state. Being one of the significant agricultural commodity value chains existing in Kerala, the mango value chain of Palakkad district needs urgent attention to improve its performance. The study highlights the stakeholder analysis and SWOC matrix analysis of the mango sector. Stakeholders were asked to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges in the mango sector. Based on the highest score obtained, four strategic options viz., enhancing value addition and product development, promotion of branding, educating the farmers on building competitiveness and increasing export potential by addressing quality parameters were identified.

  8. Laser excitation kinetic phosphorimetry for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushaw, B.A.

    1983-02-01

    Laser induced phosphorescence with time resolved photon counting detection has been used to measure uranium, as uranyl phosphate, in aqueous solution at room temperature. Demonstrated detection limits are below 10 parts per trillion. Multichannel scaler (MCS) photon counting is used for the rejection of laser and raman scattering, discrimination against prompt fluorescing species such as organics, and to provide a simultaneous determination of the uranyl emission lifetime. The lifetime is then used as a direct (photophysically correct) instrumental correction for matrix quenching and temperature effects. The MCS counting mode also allows rapid measurements (a few seconds at the ppb level, 5 minutes for pptr). Sample volumes of 2 to 3 ml have been used although 1/2 ml would be sufficient. The method has been used for: (1) evaluating uranium contamination in ultrapure solvents and trace analytical procedures, in the low part per trillion range, (2) directly measuring (without chemical pretreatment or separation) urine samples at the 10 ppb level, (3) direct measurements on drinking and ground waters at the sub ppb level, and (4) using oxidative digestion as the only preparation, both urine and brine waters have been measured at the sub ppb level. For the brine water analysis the determined value (0.36 ppb) agreed within 10% of the number determined by U-233 tracer - iron hydroxide coprecipitation - filament source mass spectrometric analysis

  9. The neutrino interaction analysis chain in OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    Rescigno, Regina

    Th e aim of the OPERA experiment i s to provide a “smoking - gun” proof of neutrino oscillation s, through the detecti on of the appearance signal of ν τ ’s in an initially pure ν μ beam. The beam is produced at CERN, 732 Km fa r from the detector , which is located underground in t he Gran Sasso laboratory. The evidence of the appearance signal will be provided by the detection of the daughter particles produced in the decay of the τ lepton. A micro - metric spatial resolution is needed in order to measure a nd study the topology of the ν τ - induced events. With this goal, n uclear emulsions, the highest resolution tracking detector , were chosen to be the core of the OPERA apparatus. The analysis of the large amount of nuclear emulsions used in the OPERA experime n t has required the development of a new generation of fast automatic mi croscopes , featuring a scanning speed more than one order of magnitude hi g h er than in p...

  10. Kinetic analysis of concurrent activation potentiation during back squats and jump squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P; Kaufmann, Clare E; Fauth, McKenzie L; Petushek, Erich J

    2010-06-01

    Concurrent activation potentiation enhances muscular force during open kinetic chain isometric and isokinetic exercises via remote voluntary contractions (RVCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of RVCs on the performance of closed kinetic chain ground-based exercises. Subjects included 13 men (21.4+/-1.5 years) who performed the back squat and jump squat in 2 test conditions. The RVC condition included performing the test exercises while clenching the jaw on a mouth guard, forcefully gripping and pulling the barbell down into the trapezius, and performing a Valsalva maneuver. The normal condition (NO-RVC) included performing the test exercises without RVCs. Exercises were assessed with a force platform. Peak ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development (RFD) during the first 100 milliseconds (RFD-100), RFD to peak GRF (RFD-P), and jump squat height (JH) were calculated from the force-time records. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance. Results reveal that GRF and RFD-100 were higher in the RVC compared with the NO-RVC condition for both the back squat and jump squat (psquat (psquat (p=0.82). The JH was higher in the RVC compared to the NO-RVC condition for the jump squat (pkinetic chain exercises for most of the outcome variables assessed, yielding a 2.9-32.3% greater performance. Practitioners should encourage athletes to use RVCs to improve the acute training effect of exercises such as those used in this study.

  11. Phases for the value chain design and analysis in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio García Vega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Value generation is a key issue in the management of organizations because it allows the consumer satisfaction, dynamic face of competition and reward the owners or shareholders. Its treatment reflects both the academic and the business world; i.e. teachers, researchers, executives and managers of the enterprises, whether they are micro, small, medium or large. Although there are different approaches to the subject, this paper will seek to develop an approach from a competitive perspective and through the value chain, as it can be considered a valid tool for designing and analysing how organizations generate value. Also, this research tries to present the evolution of the generation of value, based on the classical models of McKinsey & Co. and Michael Porter. Then some approaches and contributions to the value chain of different authors and from different perspectives are presented, so that we can count with a number of additional ideas, which the author considers relevant to face the value chain design and analysis. Finally, on the basis of capital contribution of the mentioned Harvard University Professor, a series of recommendations for the strategic application of the value chain in the management of today's organizations, which are organized into nine phases (phases for the design and analysis of the value chain are presented.

  12. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  13. The spatial kinetic analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; An, Y.; Chen, X.

    1998-02-01

    The operation of the accelerator driven reactor with subcritical condition provides a more flexible choice of the reactor materials and of design parameters. A deep subcriticality is chosen sometime from the analysis of point kinetics. When a large reactor is operated in deep subcritical condition by using a localized spallation source, the power distribution has strong spatial dependence, and point kinetics does not provide proper analysis for reactor safety. In order to analyze the spatial and energy dependent kinetic behavior in the subcritical reactor, the authors developed a computation code which is composed of two parts, the first one is for creating the group cross section and the second part solves the multi-group kinetic diffusion equations. The reactor parameters such as the cross section of fission, scattering, and energy transfer among the several energy groups and regions are calculated by using a code modified from the Monte Carlo codes MCNPA and LAHET instead of the usual analytical method of ANISN, TWOTRAN codes. Thus the complicated geometry of the accelerator driven reactor core can be precisely taken into account. The authors analyzed the subcritical minor actinide transmutor studied by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) using the code

  14. Value Chain Analysis: A Framework for Management of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Andrew; Powell, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the benefits of value chain analysis in the management of distance education organizations focuses on an example at Athabasca University. The effects of policies and decisions on the organization and its value system are considered, cost drivers for activities are described, and a future-oriented perspective is emphasized. (14…

  15. An Application of Graph Theory in Markov Chains Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skalny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents reliability analysis which was realized for an industrial company. The aim of the paper is to present the usage of discrete time Markov chains and the flow in network approach. Discrete Markov chains a well-known method of stochastic modelling describes the issue. The method is suitable for many systems occurring in practice where we can easily distinguish various amount of states. Markov chains are used to describe transitions between the states of the process. The industrial process is described as a graph network. The maximal flow in the network corresponds to the production. The Ford-Fulkerson algorithm is used to quantify the production for each state. The combination of both methods are utilized to quantify the expected value of the amount of manufactured products for the given time period.

  16. "Batch" kinetics in flow: online IR analysis and continuous control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason S; Jensen, Klavs F

    2014-01-07

    Currently, kinetic data is either collected under steady-state conditions in flow or by generating time-series data in batch. Batch experiments are generally considered to be more suitable for the generation of kinetic data because of the ability to collect data from many time points in a single experiment. Now, a method that rapidly generates time-series reaction data from flow reactors by continuously manipulating the flow rate and reaction temperature has been developed. This approach makes use of inline IR analysis and an automated microreactor system, which allowed for rapid and tight control of the operating conditions. The conversion/residence time profiles at several temperatures were used to fit parameters to a kinetic model. This method requires significantly less time and a smaller amount of starting material compared to one-at-a-time flow experiments, and thus allows for the rapid generation of kinetic data. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Kinetics of Quality Changes of Pangasius Fillets at Stable and Dynamic Temperatures, Simulating Downstream Cold Chain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Mai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was about the quality changes of Pangasius fillets during storage under simulated temperature conditions of downstream cold chain. Sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses were conducted over storage time and bacterial growth was modelled. Sensory quality index (QI, at five stable (1, 4, 9, 15, and 19 ± 1°C and three dynamic temperatures, progressed faster at higher temperatures, especially with sooner temperature abuses. Total volatile basic nitrogen remained under the acceptable limit throughout all the storage conditions. Total viable psychrotrophic counts (TVC were around 5.68 ± 0.24 log CFU g−1 at the beginning and exceeded the limit of 6 log CFU g−1 after 216, 96, 36, 16, and 7 h at 1, 4, 9, 15, and 19 ± 1°C, respectively. Meanwhile, Pseudomonas counts started at 3.81 ± 0.53 log CFU g−1 and reached 4.60–6.36 log CFU g−1 by the time of TVC rejection. Since lower shelf lives were given by TVC rather than QI, it should be appropriate to base the product shelf life on the TVC acceptable limit. Kinetics models based on the Baranyi and Roberts and square root models, developed for TVC and Pseudomonas spp., gave acceptable bacterial estimations at dynamic temperatures, with over 80% of observed counts within the acceptable simulation zone, revealing promising model applicability as a supporting tool for cold chain management. However, further improvement and validation of the models are needed.

  18. LISA data analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Crowder, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to simultaneously detect many thousands of low-frequency gravitational wave signals. This presents a data analysis challenge that is very different to the one encountered in ground based gravitational wave astronomy. LISA data analysis requires the identification of individual signals from a data stream containing an unknown number of overlapping signals. Because of the signal overlaps, a global fit to all the signals has to be performed in order to avoid biasing the solution. However, performing such a global fit requires the exploration of an enormous parameter space with a dimension upwards of 50 000. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods offer a very promising solution to the LISA data analysis problem. MCMC algorithms are able to efficiently explore large parameter spaces, simultaneously providing parameter estimates, error analysis, and even model selection. Here we present the first application of MCMC methods to simulated LISA data and demonstrate the great potential of the MCMC approach. Our implementation uses a generalized F-statistic to evaluate the likelihoods, and simulated annealing to speed convergence of the Markov chains. As a final step we supercool the chains to extract maximum likelihood estimates, and estimates of the Bayes factors for competing models. We find that the MCMC approach is able to correctly identify the number of signals present, extract the source parameters, and return error estimates consistent with Fisher information matrix predictions

  19. Radioimmunoassay for phencyclidine: application to kinetic analysis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.P.; Trevor, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    We report the development of a radioimmunoassay for phencyclidine (PCP) that is simple, rapid and sensitive to 0.5 ng/ml. Antibodies were raised in rabbits against the hapten, N-succinyl-3-aminophencyclidine. These antibodies proved to be very specific for PCP and exhibited less than 4% cross reactivity with the drug's two major metabolites. The assay was used for kinetic analysis of PCP in the rat following subcutaneous injection of 5 mg/kg of the drug. Serum and brain tissues were analyzed for PCP and the respective half lives were calculated to be 36 and 29 min for the α phase and 130 and 121 min for the β phase. The accuracy of the method was verified by concomitant assay of a number of kinetic samples by gas chromatography employing a nitrogen-phosphorus detector

  20. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of information technology (IT along with supply chain management (SCM has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal component analysis (PCA of factor analysis (FA, a number of related criteria are divided into smaller groups. Finally, SC managers can develop an IT portfolio in SCM using mean values of few extracted components on the relevance –emergency matrix. A numerical example is provided to explain details of the proposed method.

  2. Markov chain model for demersal fish catch analysis in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaniza; Gusriani, N.

    2018-03-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia has considerable potential fishery resources. One of the fish resources that has high economic value is demersal fish. Demersal fish is a fish with a habitat in the muddy seabed. Demersal fish scattered throughout the Indonesian seas. Demersal fish production in each Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Area (FMA) varies each year. In this paper we have discussed the Markov chain model for demersal fish yield analysis throughout all Indonesia’s Fisheries Management Area. Data of demersal fish catch in every FMA in 2005-2014 was obtained from Directorate of Capture Fisheries. From this data a transition probability matrix is determined by the number of transitions from the catch that lie below the median or above the median. The Markov chain model of demersal fish catch data was an ergodic Markov chain model, so that the limiting probability of the Markov chain model can be determined. The predictive value of demersal fishing yields was obtained by calculating the combination of limiting probability with average catch results below the median and above the median. The results showed that for 2018 and long-term demersal fishing results in most of FMA were below the median value.

  3. Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dias Carvalho; Leticia Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk mana...

  4. Modular kinetic analysis of the adenine nucleotide translocator-mediated effects of palmitoyl-CoA on the oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciapaite, J.; van Eikenhorst, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Diamant, M.; Heine, R.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Krab, K.

    2005-01-01

    To test whether long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters link obesity with type 2 diabetes through inhibition of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, we applied a system-biology approach, dual modular kinetic analysis, with mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) and the fraction of matrix ATP

  5. Modular kinetic analysis of the adenine nucleotide translocator-mediated effects of palmitoyl-CoA on the oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciapaite, J; Van Eikenhorst, G; Bakker, SJL; Diamant, M; Heine, RJ; Wagner, MJ; Westerhoff, HV; Krab, K

    To test whether long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters link obesity with type 2 diabetes through inhibition of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator, we applied a system-biology approach, dual modular kinetic analysis, with mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi) and the fraction of

  6. A kinetic Monte Carlo study on the role of defects and detachment in the formation and growth of In chains on Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albao, Marvin A; Chuang, F-C; Evans, J W

    2009-01-01

    Deposition on a Si(100) surface and subsequent self-assembly of In atoms into one-dimensional (1D) atomic chains at room temperature is investigated via kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a suitable atomistic model. Model development is guided by recent experimental observations in which 1D In chains nucleate effectively exclusively at C-type defects, although In atoms can detach from chains. We find that a monotonically decreasing form of the scaled island size distribution (ISD) is consistent with a high defect density which facilitates persistent chain nucleation even at relatively high coverages. The predominance of heterogeneous nucleation may be attributed to several factors including low surface diffusion barriers, a high defect density, and relatively weak In-In binding.

  7. A scaling analysis of a cat and mouse Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Robert, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    If ($C_n$) a Markov chain on a discrete state space $S$, a Markov chain ($C_n, M_n$) on the product space $S \\times S$, the cat and mouse Markov chain, is constructed. The first coordinate of this Markov chain behaves like the original Markov chain and the second component changes only when both

  8. Fresh fish distribution chains: An analysis of three Danish and three Australian chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marco Thorup; Bremner, Allan

    2001-01-01

    . Traceability is a most important issue in the high value product chains in Australia. No information technology methods, were in evidence. In the Danish chains, nearly all traceability was lost after the collector/auction stage and the only evaluation of quality parameters was by inspection.......Information on traceability was gathered for three domestic Danish fish chains typical of the current trading practices in fresh seafood and for three chains exporting products from Australia to Japan. The same standard questionnaires, coupled with personal interviews, were used in all six chains...

  9. Modelling and analysis of workflow for lean supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinping; Wang, Kanliang; Xu, Lida

    2011-11-01

    Cross-organisational workflow systems are a component of enterprise information systems which support collaborative business process among organisations in supply chain. Currently, the majority of workflow systems is developed in perspectives of information modelling without considering actual requirements of supply chain management. In this article, we focus on the modelling and analysis of the cross-organisational workflow systems in the context of lean supply chain (LSC) using Petri nets. First, the article describes the assumed conditions of cross-organisation workflow net according to the idea of LSC and then discusses the standardisation of collaborating business process between organisations in the context of LSC. Second, the concept of labelled time Petri nets (LTPNs) is defined through combining labelled Petri nets with time Petri nets, and the concept of labelled time workflow nets (LTWNs) is also defined based on LTPNs. Cross-organisational labelled time workflow nets (CLTWNs) is then defined based on LTWNs. Third, the article proposes the notion of OR-silent CLTWNS and a verifying approach to the soundness of LTWNs and CLTWNs. Finally, this article illustrates how to use the proposed method by a simple example. The purpose of this research is to establish a formal method of modelling and analysis of workflow systems for LSC. This study initiates a new perspective of research on cross-organisational workflow management and promotes operation management of LSC in real world settings.

  10. Modeling Value Chain Analysis of Distance Education using UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anal; Mukherjee, Soumen

    2010-10-01

    Distance education continues to grow as a methodology for the delivery of course content in higher education in India as well as abroad. To manage this growing demand and to provide certain flexibility, there must be certain strategic planning about the use of ICT tools. Value chain analysis is a framework for breaking down the sequence of business functions into a set of activities through which utility could be added to service. Thus it can help to determine the competitive advantage that is enjoyed by an institute. To implement these business functions certain visual representation is required. UML allows for this representation by using a set of structural and behavioral diagrams. In this paper, the first section defines a framework for value chain analysis and highlights its advantages. The second section gives a brief overview of related work in this field. The third section gives a brief discussion on distance education. The fourth section very briefly introduces UML. The fifth section models value chain of distance education using UML. Finally we discuss the limitations and the problems posed in this domain.

  11. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  12. Profit Analysis and Supply Chain Planning Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Oh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, due to market growth and use of synthetic fiber, the fashion industry faces a rapid increase of CO2 emission throughout the production cycle and raises environmental issues in recovery processing. This study proposes a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC structure in fashion industry and develops its planning model as multi-objective mixed integer linear programming to find an optimal trade-off between CLSC profit and CO2 emission. The planning model is associated with the profit analysis of each member in CLSC to find the optimal price of products on CLSC network. The model determines optimal production, transportation, and inventory quantities on CLSC network. The proposed models are validated using numerical experiments and sensitivity analyses, and from the results some managerial insights are addressed.

  13. Solid KHT tumor dispersal for flow cytometric cell kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallavicini, M.G.; Folstad, L.J.; Dunbar, C.

    1981-01-01

    A bacterial neutral protease was used to disperse KHT solid tumors into single cell suspensions suitable for routine cell kinetic analysis by flow cytometry and for clonogenic cell survival. Neutral protease disaggregation under conditions which would be suitable for routine tumor dispersal was compared with a trypsin/DNase procedure. Cell yield, clonogenic cell survival, DNA distributions of untreated and drug-perturbed tumors, rates of radioactive precursor incorporation during the cell cycle, and preferential cell cycle phase-specific cell loss were investigated. Tumors dispersed with neutral protease yielded approximately four times more cells than those dispersed with trypsin/DNase and approximately a 1.5-fold higher plating efficiency in a semisolid agar system. Quantitative analysis of DNA distributions obtained from untreated and cytosine-arabinoside-perturbed tumors produced similar results with both dispersal procedures. The rates of incorporation of tritiated thymidine during the cell cycle were also similar with neutral protease and trypsin/DNase dispersal. Preferential phase-specific cell loss was not obseved with either technique. We find that neutral protease provides good single cell suspensions of the KHT tumor for cell survival measurements and for cell kinetic analysis of drug-induced perturbations by flow cytometry. In addition, the high cell yields facilitate electronic cell sorting where large numbers of cells are often required

  14. Free vibration analysis of linear particle chain impact damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Mohamed; Ghani, Saud

    2013-11-01

    Impact dampers have gained much research interest over the past decades that resulted in several analytical and experimental studies being conducted in that area. The main emphasis of such research was on developing and enhancing these popular passive control devices with an objective of decreasing the three parameters of contact forces, accelerations, and noise levels. To that end, the authors of this paper have developed a novel impact damper, called the Linear Particle Chain (LPC) impact damper, which mainly consists of a linear chain of spherical balls of varying sizes. The LPC impact damper was designed utilizing the kinetic energy of the primary system through placing, in the chain arrangement, a small-sized ball between each two large-sized balls. The concept of the LPC impact damper revolves around causing the small-sized ball to collide multiple times with the larger ones upon exciting the primary system. This action is believed to lead to the dissipation of part of the kinetic energy at each collision with the large balls. This paper focuses on the outcome of studying the free vibration of a single degree freedom system that is equipped with the LPC impact damper. The proposed LPC impact damper is validated by means of comparing the responses of a single unit conventional impact damper with those resulting from the LPC impact damper. The results indicated that the latter is considerably more efficient than the former impact damper. In order to further investigate the LPC impact damper effective number of balls and efficient geometry when used in a specific available space in the primary system, a parametric study was conducted and its result is also explained herein. Single unit impact damper [14-16]. Multiunit impact damper [17,18]. Bean bag impact damper [19,20]. Particle/granular impact damper [21,23,22]. Resilient impact damper [24]. Buffered impact damper [25-27]. Multiunit impact damper consists of multiple masses instead of a single mass. This

  15. Gamma-radiation induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate in aliphatic hydrocarbons: kinetics and evidence for incorporation of hydrocarbon in the polymer chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, H.; Iyer, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    On γ-radiolysis, the rate of polymerization of methyl methacrylate in hydrocarbon solvents is observed to decrease. It is explained by hydrocarbon entry into the polymer chains. The hydrocarbon entry into the polymer chains is observed to take place at later stages of polymerization and increases with hydrocarbon chain length. The extent of hydrocarbon entry into the polymer chains is estimated by NMR and GLC analysis. It is observed to be equal to ∼ 12% corresponding to ∼ 97 hexadecane molecules in each polymer chain. The IR, DSC, MW determination and radiation effects on the polymer showed evidences for hydrocarbon entry into the polymer. It is explained by chain transfer from the growing polymer radical to the hydrocarbon molecules. The chain transfer constant is determined to be equal to 1 x 10 -2 . (author)

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN VERSUS CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN EXERCISES TO IMPROVE GAIT IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Saikia Baruah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP describes a non- progressive but not unchanging disorder of movement and posture due to an insult to or anomaly of the developing brain. People with spastic diplegia typically walk slowly and have difficulties in performing activities such as walking running or jumping. Children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy are relied more on cadence to increase speed. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of open and closed kinetic chain (OKC and CKC exercises in improving gait in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: 30 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy of both genders with age 4-12 years was taken. Cadence and distance covered in 1Minute Walk Test was calculated before and after the test. The intervention for group A was CKC exercises and group B was OKC exercises for 3 days a week for 6 weeks and each session lasted for 30-45 minutes was given for both the groups. Results: Paired t-test was performed to find effectiveness of CKC and OKC improving gait in spastic diplegic CP to see the difference of means of 1minute walk, t = 10.789 which is significant (p = 0.000 and for cadence, t = 3.37 which is highly significant (p = 0.00 implying that cadence and distance covered in1minute walk was more with CKC exercises. Conclusion: Based on the result it is concluded that CKC exercises are effective in improving gait than OKC exercises in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  17. Bifurcation and extinction limit of stretched premixed flames with chain-branching intermediate kinetics and radiative loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huangwei; Chen, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Premixed counterflow flames with thermally sensitive intermediate kinetics and radiation heat loss are analysed within the framework of large activation energy. Unlike previous studies considering one-step global reaction, two-step chemistry consisting of a chain branching reaction and a recombination reaction is considered here. The correlation between the flame front location and stretch rate is derived. Based on this correlation, the extinction limit and bifurcation characteristics of the strained premixed flame are studied, and the effects of fuel and radical Lewis numbers as well as radiation heat loss are examined. Different flame regimes and their extinction characteristics can be predicted by the present theory. It is found that fuel Lewis number affects the flame bifurcation qualitatively and quantitatively, whereas radical Lewis number only has a quantitative influence. Stretch rates at the stretch and radiation extinction limits respectively decrease and increase with fuel Lewis number before the flammability limit is reached, while the radical Lewis number shows the opposite tendency. In addition, the relation between the standard flammability limit and the limit derived from the strained near stagnation flame is affected by the fuel Lewis number, but not by the radical Lewis number. Meanwhile, the flammability limit increases with decreased fuel Lewis number, but with increased radical Lewis number. Radical behaviours at flame front corresponding to flame bifurcation and extinction are also analysed in this work. It is shown that radical concentration at the flame front, under extinction stretch rate condition, increases with radical Lewis number but decreases with fuel Lewis number. It decreases with increased radiation loss.

  18. Structural analysis of the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutsaers, J.H.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structural analysis by 500-MHz 1 H-NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrate chains obtained from glycoproteins. In the chapters 1 to 6 the structural analysis of N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains is described. The chapters 7 to 10 describe the structural analysis of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains. 381 refs.; 44 figs.; 24 tabs.; 7 schemes

  19. Alternating chain with Hubbard-type interactions: renormalization group analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, F. D.; Jackeli, G.

    1998-01-01

    A large amount of work has been devoted to the study of alternating chains for a better understanding of the high-T c superconductivity mechanism. The same phenomenon renewed the interest in the Hubbard model and in its one-dimensional extensions. In this work we investigate, using the Renormalization Group (RG) method, the effect of the Hubbard-type interactions on the ground-state properties of a chain with alternating on-site atomic energies. The one-particle Hamiltonian in the tight binding approximation corresponding to an alternating chain with two nonequivalent sites per unit cell can be diagonalized by a canonical transformation; one gets a two band model. The Hubbard-type interactions give rise to both intra- and inter-band couplings; however, if the gap between the two bands is sufficiently large and the system is more than half-filled, as for the CuO 3 chain occurring in high-T c superconductors, the last ones can be neglected in describing the low energy physics. We restrict our considerations to the Hubbard-type interactions (upper band) in the particular case of alternating on-site energies and equal hopping amplitudes. The standard RG analysis (second order) is done in terms of the g-constants describing the elementary processes of forward, backward and Umklapp scatterings: their expressions are obtained by evaluating the Hubbard-type interactions (upper band) at the Fermi points. Using the scaling to the exact soluble models Tomonaga-Luttinger and Luther-Emery, we can predict the low energy physics of our system. The ground-state phase diagrams in terms of the model parameters and at arbitrary band filling are determined, where four types of instabilities have been considered: Charge Density Waves (CDW), Spin Density Waves (SDW), Singlet Superconductivity (SS) and Triplet Superconductivity (TS). The 3/4-filled case in terms of some renormalized Hubbard constants is presented. The relevance of our analysis to the case of the undistorted 3/4-filled Cu

  20. A scaling analysis of a cat and mouse Markov chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Robert, Philippe

    Motivated by an original on-line page-ranking algorithm, starting from an arbitrary Markov chain $(C_n)$ on a discrete state space ${\\cal S}$, a Markov chain $(C_n,M_n)$ on the product space ${\\cal S}^2$, the cat and mouse Markov chain, is constructed. The first coordinate of this Markov chain

  1. Gm typing by immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene RFLP analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jazwinska, E C; Dunckley, H; Propert, D N; Gatenby, P A; Serjeantson, S W

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate a means of assigning Gm allotypes to Caucasians by RFLP analysis. A single immunoglobulin heavy-chain gamma-4 cDNA probe (HU gamma 4) was hybridized with genomic DNA digested separately with two restriction enzymes, TaqI and PvuII. Results showed excellent correlation (P less than .001) between serologically defined Gm allotypes G1m(1), G1m(2), G2m(23), and G1m;G3m (3;5,10) and RFLPs identified with the (HU gamma 4) probe. We conclude that it is now po...

  2. Markov chain analysis of single spin flip Ising simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennecke, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Markov processes defined by random and loop-based schemes for single spin flip attempts in Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D Ising model are investigated, by explicitly constructing their transition matrices. Their analysis reveals that loops over all lattice sites using a Metropolis-type single spin flip probability often do not define ergodic Markov chains, and have distorted dynamical properties even if they are ergodic. The transition matrices also enable a comparison of the dynamics of random versus loop spin selection and Glauber versus Metropolis probabilities

  3. Norepinephrine metabolism in humans. Kinetic analysis and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, O.A.; Jacquez, J.A.; Zech, L.A.; Smith, M.J.; Sanfield, J.A.; Morrow, L.A.; Rosen, S.G.; Halter, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to quantify more precisely and to begin to address the problem of heterogeneity of the kinetics of distribution and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) in humans, by using compartmental analysis. Steady-state NE specific activity in arterialized plasma during [ 3 H]NE infusion and postinfusion plasma disappearance of [ 3 H]NE were measured in eight healthy subjects in the supine and upright positions. Two exponentials were clearly identified in the plasma [ 3 H]NE disappearance curves of each subject studied in the supine (r = 0.94-1.00, all P less than 0.01) and upright (r = 0.90-0.98, all P less than 0.01) positions. A two-compartment model was the minimal model necessary to simultaneously describe the kinetics of NE in the supine and upright positions. The NE input rate into the extravascular compartment 2, estimated with the minimal model, increased with upright posture (1.87 +/- 0.08 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.2 micrograms/min per m2, P less than 0.001). Upright posture was associated with a fall in the volume of distribution of NE in compartment 1 (7.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.7 +/- 0.3 liters, P less than 0.001), and as a result of that, there was a fall in the metabolic clearance rate of NE from compartment 1 (1.80 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.08 liters/min per m2, P less than 0.001). We conclude that a two-compartment model is the minimal model that can accurately describe the kinetics of distribution and metabolism of NE in humans

  4. Almería’s tomato chain analysis and strategies to upgrade the chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Martínez de San Vicente, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    The Almeria’s tomato value chain is currently reducing its competitiveness due to high production and processing costs as well as the maintenance of selling prices and the increase of competitors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the Almeria’s tomato value chain in order to

  5. Combination of Markov state models and kinetic networks for the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations of peptide folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Isolde H; Fersht, Alan R; Settanni, Giovanni

    2011-06-09

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the TZ1 beta-hairpin peptide have been carried out using an implicit model for the solvent. The trajectories have been analyzed using a Markov state model defined on the projections along two significant observables and a kinetic network approach. The Markov state model allowed for an unbiased identification of the metastable states of the system, and provided the basis for commitment probability calculations performed on the kinetic network. The kinetic network analysis served to extract the main transition state for folding of the peptide and to validate the results from the Markov state analysis. The combination of the two techniques allowed for a consistent and concise characterization of the dynamics of the peptide. The slowest relaxation process identified is the exchange between variably folded and denatured species, and the second slowest process is the exchange between two different subsets of the denatured state which could not be otherwise identified by simple inspection of the projected trajectory. The third slowest process is the exchange between a fully native and a partially folded intermediate state characterized by a native turn with a proximal backbone H-bond, and frayed side-chain packing and termini. The transition state for the main folding reaction is similar to the intermediate state, although a more native like side-chain packing is observed.

  6. Comparative analysis of solution methods of the punctual kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, A.

    2003-01-01

    The following one written it presents a comparative analysis among different analytical solutions for the punctual kinetics equation, which present two variables of interest: a) the temporary behavior of the neutronic population, and b) The temporary behavior of the different groups of precursors of delayed neutrons. The first solution is based on a method that solves the transfer function of the differential equation for the neutronic population, in which intends to obtain the different poles that give the stability of this transfer function. In this section it is demonstrated that the temporary variation of the reactivity of the system can be managed as it is required, since the integration time for this method doesn't affect the result. However, the second solution is based on an iterative method like that of Runge-Kutta or the Euler method where the algorithm was only used to solve first order differential equations giving this way solution to each differential equation that conforms the equations of punctual kinetics. In this section it is demonstrated that only it can obtain a correct temporary behavior of the neutronic population when it is integrated on an interval of very short time, forcing to the temporary variation of the reactivity to change very quick way without one has some control about the time. In both methods the same change is used so much in the reactivity of the system like in the integration times, giving validity to the results graph the one the temporary behavior of the neutronic population vs. time. (Author)

  7. Kinetics of devolatilisation of forestry wastes from thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, M.; Hernandez, J.J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad real (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Rodriguez, J.J. [Repsol-YPF, Puertollano (Spain). Chemical Department

    2004-10-01

    The great potential of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) wastes in the middle regions of Spain has motivated an increasing interest about the energy use of this material, either through combustion or gasification processes. Samples of these biomass wastes have been analysed by thermogravimetry under both inert and oxidant atmospheres, from room temperature up to 1100 K, at different heating rates: 10, 30, 40, 50 and 60 K min{sup -1}. An estimation of the proximate analysis of the samples was made from combination of both resulting weight loss curves. The devolatilisation process of the samples was divided into three non-interacting mass-loss events described as parallel first-order reactions, being the first event identified as the moisture loss process, the second one as the hemicellulose and cellulose decomposition process and the third one as that of lignin decomposition. A fitting algorithm to obtain the kinetic parameters permitted a good agreement with experimental results, as well as a good discrimination of the effect of the heating rate. Due to the non-homogeneous nature of the tested samples, the use of other conventional methods for obtaining the kinetic parameters has been proved to be inadequate. (author)

  8. Managing Distance Education Institutions through Value Chain Analysis: the Nigerian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinto, J. A.; Akintayo, M. O.

    Value chain analysis can gauge, analyze, and predict organization effects to control cost in light of achieving strategic organization objectives of distance education. Value chain analysis enables organizations to accomplish their goal or mission through cost effectiveness or differentiation. The value chain activity structure in a distance…

  9. Kinetic analysis of pulsed laser induced phosphorescence for uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdeiro, Nelida H.

    2003-01-01

    The laser induced kinetic phosphorescence allows the uranium determination in different kind of matrices, with a lower detection limit than those reached by other spectroscopic methods. It involves the uranyl ions excitation by a pulsed dye-laser source, followed by temporal resolution of the phosphorescence. This method is used for the determination of trace quantities of uranium in aqueous solution, with a suitable complexant agent, without chemical separation before the analysis. The objective of this paper is to present the results of uranium determinations in different standard samples, water, soil, filter and urine, and a comparison with other methods such as fluorimetry, alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Moreover, the measurement conditions, the advantages and disadvantages, the sample preparation, the interferences and the detection limit are described. (author)

  10. Piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor for ricin detection and kinetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, there has been no report on target molecules detection by a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor. In order to evaluate the test performance and investigate the response dynamic characteristics of a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor, a novel method for ricin detection and kinetic analysis based on a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor was proposed, where ricin aptamer was immobilised on the microcantilever surface by biotin-avidin binding system. Results showed that the detection limit of ricin was 0.04μg L−1 (S/N ≥ 3. A linear relationship between the response voltage and the concentration of ricin in the range of 0.2μg L−1-40μg L−1 was obtained, with the linear regression equation of ΔUe = 0.904C + 5.852 (n = 5, R = 0.991, p < 0.001. The sensor showed no response for abrin, BSA, and could overcome the influence of complex environmental disruptors, indicating high specificity and good selectivity. Recovery and reproducibility in the result of simulated samples (simulated water, soil, and flour sample determination met the analysis requirements, which was 90.5∼95.5% and 7.85%∼9.39%, respectively. On this basis, a reaction kinetic model based on ligand-receptor binding and the relationship with response voltage was established. The model could well reflect the dynamic response of the sensor. The correlation coefficient (R was greater than or equal to 0.9456 (p < 0.001. Response voltage (ΔUe and response time (t0 obtained from the fitting equation on different concentrations of ricin fitted well with the measured values.

  11. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Aaron M; McCollough, Forest W; Eldreth, Bryan L; Binder, Brad M; Abel, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  12. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Prescott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. However, the dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB. In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB. Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms

  13. Stability analysis and stabilization strategies for linear supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Helbing, Dirk

    2004-04-01

    Due to delays in the adaptation of production or delivery rates, supply chains can be dynamically unstable with respect to perturbations in the consumption rate, which is known as “bull-whip effect”. Here, we study several conceivable production strategies to stabilize supply chains, which is expressed by different specifications of the management function controlling the production speed in dependence of the stock levels. In particular, we will investigate, whether the reaction to stock levels of other producers or suppliers has a stabilizing effect. We will also demonstrate that the anticipation of future stock levels can stabilize the supply system, given the forecast horizon τ is long enough. To show this, we derive linear stability conditions and carry out simulations for different control strategies. The results indicate that the linear stability analysis is a helpful tool for the judgement of the stabilization effect, although unexpected deviations can occur in the non-linear regime. There are also signs of phase transitions and chaotic behavior, but this remains to be investigated more thoroughly in the future.

  14. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  15. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A

    2014-03-28

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-"coupled"- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz-Kalos-Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary MATLAB

  16. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-“coupled”- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz–Kalos–Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary

  17. Stochastic lumping analysis for linear kinetics and its application to the fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, De-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-14

    Conventional studies of biomolecular behaviors rely largely on the construction of kinetic schemes. Since the selection of these networks is not unique, a concern is raised whether and under which conditions hierarchical schemes can reveal the same experimentally measured fluctuating behaviors and unique fluctuation related physical properties. To clarify these questions, we introduce stochasticity into the traditional lumping analysis, generalize it from rate equations to chemical master equations and stochastic differential equations, and extract the fluctuation relations between kinetically and thermodynamically equivalent networks under intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The results provide a theoretical basis for the legitimate use of low-dimensional models in the studies of macromolecular fluctuations and, more generally, for exploring stochastic features in different levels of contracted networks in chemical and biological kinetic systems.

  18. Stochastic lumping analysis for linear kinetics and its application to the fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, De-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2015-05-14

    Conventional studies of biomolecular behaviors rely largely on the construction of kinetic schemes. Since the selection of these networks is not unique, a concern is raised whether and under which conditions hierarchical schemes can reveal the same experimentally measured fluctuating behaviors and unique fluctuation related physical properties. To clarify these questions, we introduce stochasticity into the traditional lumping analysis, generalize it from rate equations to chemical master equations and stochastic differential equations, and extract the fluctuation relations between kinetically and thermodynamically equivalent networks under intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The results provide a theoretical basis for the legitimate use of low-dimensional models in the studies of macromolecular fluctuations and, more generally, for exploring stochastic features in different levels of contracted networks in chemical and biological kinetic systems.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Hirschberg, S.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  20. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R; Hirschberg, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Knoepfel, I [Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study `Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems` are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the terrestrial food chain model FOOD III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1980-10-01

    As a first step in constructing a terrestrial food chain model suitable for long-term waste management situations, a numerical sensitivity analysis of FOOD III was carried out to identify important model parameters. The analysis involved 42 radionuclides, four pathways, 14 food types, 93 parameters and three percentages of parameter variation. We also investigated the importance of radionuclides, pathways and food types. The analysis involved a simple contamination model to render results from individual pathways comparable. The analysis showed that radionuclides vary greatly in their dose contribution to each of the four pathways, but relative contributions to each pathway are very similar. Man's and animals' drinking water pathways are much more important than the leaf and root pathways. However, this result depends on the contamination model used. All the pathways contain unimportant food types. Considering the number of parameters involved, FOOD III has too many different food types. Many of the parameters of the leaf and root pathway are important. However, this is true for only a few of the parameters of animals' drinking water pathway, and for neither of the two parameters of mans' drinking water pathway. The radiological decay constant increases the variability of these results. The dose factor is consistently the most important variable, and it explains most of the variability of radionuclide doses within pathways. Consideration of the variability of dose factors is important in contemporary as well as long-term waste management assessment models, if realistic estimates are to be made. (auth)

  2. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENTACCOUNTING BASED ON VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS: VALUE CHAINACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KIRLI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compete successfully in today’s highly competitive global environment,companies have made customer satisfaction an overriding priority. They have alsoadopted new management approaches, changed their manufacturing systems andinvested in new technologies. Strategic managementaccounting examines thedecision-making linked with the business operationsand strategic work offinancial administration as support for the same. Strategic managementaccounting is a theory and practice of accounting that looks at an organization'scost position, cost advantages and product differentiation in order to make marketdecisions. The value chain is a systematic approachto examining the developmentof competitive advantage. The chain consists of a series of activities that createand build value. Value chain analysis refers to a structured method of analyzingthe effects of all core activities on cost and/or differentiation of the valuechain.With the growing division of labour and the global dispersion of theproduction ofcomponents, systemic competitiveness and so value chain analysishave become increasingly important. Value chain accounting is the combinationof value chain analysis and accounting theory.Valuechain accounting is animportant part of value chain management and a further development of strategicmanagement accounting. Value chain accounting is anew approach onaccounting subject which is combined by the theories of value chain management,supply chain management, accounting management andinformation technology.From the analysis about value chain theory and strategic management accountingtheory,this paper proposes an accounting managementframework based on valuechain analysis called value chain accounting.

  3. Kinetic analysis of MHD ballooning modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the stability properties of the appropriate kinetically generalized form of MHD ballooning modes together with the usual trapped-particle drift modes is presented. The calculations are fully electromagnetic and include the complete dynamics associated with compressional ion acoustic waves. Trapped-particle effects along with all forms of collisionless dissipation are taken into account without approximations. The influence of collisions is estimated with a model Krook operator. Results from the application of this analysis to realistic tokamak operating conditions indicate that unstable short-wavelength modes with significant growth rates can extend from β = 0 to value above the upper ideal-MHD-critical-beta associated with the so-called second stability regime. Since the strength of the relevant modes appears to vary gradually with β, these results support a soft beta limit picture involving a continuous (rather than abrupt or hard) modification of anomalous transport already present in low-β-tokamaks. However, at higher beta the increasing dominance of the electromagnetic component of the perturbations indicated by these calculations could also imply significantly different transport scaling properties

  4. Application of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis to a Kinetic Model for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the added benefits of using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in the kinetics of enzymatic biodiesel production. For this study, a kinetic model by Fedosov and co-workers is used. For the uncertainty analysis the Monte Carlo procedure was used to statistically quantify...

  5. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  6. Adoption of wireless sensors in supply chains: A process view analysis of a pharmaceutical cold chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Georg Hendrik; van Hillegersberg, Jos; de Jong, Eelco; Sikkel, Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Real-time and continuous monitoring of high value goods can considerably improve the reliability and effectiveness of supply chains. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) offer technical capabilities for continuous sense and respond capabilities. WSN offer complementary advantages over the use of Radio

  7. Adoption of Wireless Sensors in Supply Chains: A Process View Analysis of a Pharmaceutical Cold Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, G.K.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Jong, E.; Sikkel, Nicolaas

    Real-time and continuous monitoring of high value goods can considerably improve the reliability and effectiveness of supply chains. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) offer technical capabilities for continuous sense and respond capabilities. WSN offer complementary advantages over the use of Radio

  8. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  9. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of heterogeneous photocatalysis for semiconductor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian; Terashima, Chiaki; Fujishima, Akira; Nakata, Kazuya

    2014-05-21

    Since the report of the Honda-Fujishima effect, heterogeneous photocatalysis has attracted much attention around the world because of its potential energy and environmental applications. Although great progresses have been made in recent years, most were focused on preparing highly-active photocatalysts and investigating visible light utilization. In fact, we are still unclear on the thermodynamic and kinetic nature of photocatalysis to date, which sometimes leads to misunderstandings for experimental results. It is timely to give a review and discussion on the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis, so as to direct future researches. However, there is an absence of a detailed review on this topic until now. In this article, we tried to review and discuss the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis. We explained the thermodynamic driving force of photocatalysis, and distinguished the functions of light and heat in photocatalysis. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, the ˙OH oxidation mechanism, and the direct-indirect (D-I) kinetic model were reviewed and compared. Some applications of the D-I model to study photocatalytic kinetics were also discussed. The electron transport mode and its importance in photocatalysis were investigated. Finally, the intrinsic relation between the kinetics and the thermodynamics of photocatalytic reactions was discussed.

  11. Kinetic analysis of thermally relativistic flow with dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro

    2011-01-01

    Nonequilibrium flow of thermally relativistic matter with dissipation is considered in the framework of the relativistic kinetic theory. As an object of the analysis, the supersonic rarefied flow of thermally relativistic matter around the triangle prism is analyzed using the Anderson-Witting model. Obtained numerical results indicate that the flow field changes in accordance with the flow velocity and temperature of the uniform flow owing to both effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects, even when the Mach number of the uniform flow is fixed. The profiles of the heat flux along the stagnation streamline can be approximated on the basis of the relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) law except for a strong nonequilibrium regime such as the middle of the shock wave and the vicinity of the wall, whereas the profile of the heat flux behind the triangle prism cannot be approximated on the basis of the relativistic NSF law owing to rarefied effects via the expansion behind the triangle prism. Additionally, the heat flux via the gradient of the static pressure is non-negligible owing to thermally relativistic effects. The profile of the dynamic pressure is different from that approximated on the basis of the NSF law, which is obtained by the Eckart decomposition. Finally, variations of convections of the mass and momentum owing to the effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects are numerically confirmed.

  12. Isothermal reaction calorimetry as a tool for kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zogg, Andreas; Stoessel, Francis; Fischer, Ulrich; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Reaction calorimetry has found widespread application for thermal and kinetic analysis of chemical reactions in the context of thermal process safety as well as process development. This paper reviews the most important reaction calorimetric principles (heat-flow, heat-balance, power-compensation, and Peltier principle) and their applications in commercial or scientific devices. The discussion focuses on the different dynamic behavior of the main calorimetric principles during an isothermal reaction measurement. Examples of available reaction calorimeters are further compared considering their detection limit, time constant as well as temperature range. In a second part, different evaluation methods for the isothermally measured calorimetric data are reviewed and discussed. The methods will be compared, focusing especially on the fact that reaction calorimetric data always contains additional informations not directly related to the actual chemical reaction such as heat of mixing, heat of phase-transfer/change processes or simple measurement errors. Depending on the evaluation method applied such disturbances have a significant influence on the calculated reaction enthalpies or rate constants

  13. Pyrolysis and combustion kinetics of lycopodium particles in thermogravimetric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Alireza Mostafavi; Sadjad Salavati; Hossein Beidaghy Dizaji; Mehdi Bidabadi

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a kind of renewable energy which is used increasingly in different types of combustion systems or in the production of fuels like bio-oil. Lycopodium is a cellulosic particle, with good combustion properties, of which microscopic images show that these particles have spherical shapes with identical diameters of 31 μm. The measured density of these particles is 1.0779 g/cm2. Lycopodium particles contain 64.06% carbon, 25.56% oxygen, 8.55% hydrogen and 1.83% nitrogen, and no sulfur. Thermogravimetric analysis in the nitrogen environment indicates that the maximum of particle mass reduction occurs in the temperature range of 250−550 °C where the maximum mass reduction in the DTG diagrams also occurs in. In the oxygen environment, an additional peak can also be observed in the temperature range of 500−600 °C, which points to solid phase combustion and ignition temperature of lycopodium particles. The kinetics of reactions is determined by curve fitting and minimization of error.

  14. Thermal decomposition kinetics of sorghum straw via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Vaibhav; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-12-01

    The thermal decomposition of sorghum straw was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, where the determination of kinetic triplet (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction model), was the key objective. The activation energy was determined using different isoconversional methods: Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Starink, Iterative method of Chai & Chen, Vyazovkin AIC method, and Li & Tang equation. The pre-exponential factor was calculated using Kissinger's equation; while the reaction model was predicted by comparison of z-master plot obtained from experimental values with the theoretical plots. The values of activation energy obtained from isoconversional methods were further used for evaluation of thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy. Results showed three zones of pyrolysis having average activation energy values of 151.21kJ/mol, 116.15kJ/mol, and 136.65kJ/mol respectively. The data was well fitting with two-dimension 'Valensi' model for conversion values from 0 to 0.4 with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) value of 0.988, and with third order reaction model for values from 0.4 to 0.9 with an R 2 value of 0.843. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multigroup perturbation model for kinetic analysis of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The scope of this work is the development of a multigroup perturbation theory for the purpose of Kinetic and dynamic analysis of nuclear reactors. The equations that describe the reactor behavior were presented in all generality and written in the shorthand notation of matrices and vectors. In the derivation of those equations indetermined operators and discretizing factors were introduced and then determined by comparision with conventional equations. Fick's Law was developed in higher orders for neutron and importance current density. The solution of the direct and adjoint fields were represented by combination of the eigenfunctions of the B and B* operators and the eigenvalue modulus equality was established mathematically. In the derivation of the reactivity expression the B operator perturbation was split in two non coupled to the flux form and level. The prompt neutrons effective mean life was derived from reactor equations and importance conservation. The establishment of the Nordheim's equation, although modified, was based on Gandini. Finally, a mathematical interpretation of the flux-trap region was avented. (author)

  16. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Raw and Torrefied Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczyński Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L. and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300, were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones, C=C (alkenes, aromatics, C-O-C (ethers and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1, while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1 and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1. In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1 was assumed. Activation energy (Ea values for the first stage (pyrolysis increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion it

  17. Kinetics and mechanical stability of the fibril state control fibril formation time of polypeptide chains: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouza, Maksim; Co, Nguyen Truong; Li, Mai Suan; Kmiecik, Sebastian; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Buhimschi, Irina Alexandra

    2018-06-01

    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Despite much progress in the understanding of the protein aggregation process, the factors governing fibril formation rates and fibril stability have not been fully understood. Using lattice models, we have shown that the fibril formation time is controlled by the kinetic stability of the fibril state but not by its energy. Having performed all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations with the GROMOS43a1 force field for full-length amyloid beta peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 and truncated peptides, we demonstrated that kinetic stability can be accessed via mechanical stability in such a way that the higher the mechanical stability or the kinetic stability, the faster the fibril formation. This result opens up a new way for predicting fibril formation rates based on mechanical stability that may be easily estimated by steered molecular dynamics.

  18. Thermodynamic Activity-Based Progress Curve Analysis in Enzyme Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleiss, Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Food cold chain is very important for ensuring food safety and decreasing the loss in the supply process. It is also benefit for the citizen, because cold chain could promise the food safety and the demand of the special cold food. Beijing, as the capital, the level of food chain is high, compared to other cities, and analysis of the demand status and forecast of food cold chain in Beijing is necessary, it could direct the scientific and health development of cold chain all over our country. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, in accordance with the investigation, we analysis the demand status of food cold chain from two aspects, then according to the status, we forecast the demand of refrigerated cars and warehouse for food cold chain in Beijing with the multivariate statistics. Findings: From the analysis of the paper, we can see that the need of cold chain logistics grows rapidly, but most consumers are lack of the awareness of the importance of the cold chain and many companies cannot bear the huge investment, it make the gap of the resources of cold chain logistics large and cannot meet the normal need of cold chain logistics in Beijing. Originality/value: The result of this paper could support the relative enterprise to run business in terms of the refrigerated car and warehouse. 

  20. Topological analysis of long-chain branching patterns in polyolefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchev, D; Markel, E; Dekmezian, A

    2001-01-01

    Patterns in molecular topology and complexity for long-chain branching are quantitatively described. The Wiener number, the topological complexity index, and a new index of 3-starness are used to quantify polymer structure. General formulas for these indices were derived for the cases of 3-arm star, H-shaped, and B-arm comb polymers. The factors affecting complexity in monodisperse polymer systems are ranked as follows: number of arms > arm length > arm central position approximately equal to arm clustering > total molecular weight approximately equal to backbone molecular weight. Topological indices change rapidly and then plateau as the molecular weight of branches on a polyolefin backbone increases from 0 to 5 kD. Complexity calculations relate 2-arm or 3-arm comb structures to the corresponding 3-arm stars of equivalent complexity but much higher molecular weight. In a subsequent paper, we report the application of topological analysis for developing structure/property relationships for monodisperse polymers. While the focus of the present work is on the description of monodisperse, well-defined architectures, the methods may be extended to the description of polydisperse systems.

  1. Design and analysis of the Gemini chain system in dual clutch transmission of automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yabing; Guo, Haitao; Fu, Zhenming; Wan, Nen; Li, Lei; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chain drive system is widely used in the conditions of high-speed, overload, variable speed and load. Many studies are focused on the meshing theory and wear characteristics of chain drive system, but system design, analysis, and noise characteristics of the chain drive system are weak. System design and noise characteristic are studied for a new type Gemini chain of dual-clutch automatic transmission. Based on the meshing theory of silent chain, the design parameters of the Gemini chain system are calculated and the mathematical models and dynamic analysis models of the Gemini chain system are established. Dynamic characteristics of the Gemini chain system is simulated and the contact force of plate and pin, plate and sprockets, the chain tension forces, the transmission error and the stress of plates and pins are analyzed. According to the simulation results of the Gemini chain system, the noise experiment about system is carried out. The noise values are tested at different speed and load and spectral characteristics are analyzed. The results of simulation and experimental show that the contact forces of plate and pin, plate and sprockets are smaller than the allowable stress values, the chain tension force is less than ultimate tension and transmission error is limited in 1.2%. The noise values can meet the requirements of industrial design, and it is proved that the design and analysis method of the Gemini chain system is scientific and feasible. The design and test system is built from analysis to test of Gemini chain system. This research presented will provide a corresponding theoretical guidance for the design and dynamic characteristics and noise characteristics of chain drive system.

  2. Novel HPC-ibuprofen conjugates: synthesis, characterization, thermal analysis and degradation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.A.; Lodhi, B.A.; Abbas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring hydrophilic polysaccharides are advantageously used as drug carriers because they provide a mechanism to improve drug action. Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) is water-soluble, biocompatible and bears hydroxyl groups for drug conjugation outside the parent polymeric chains. This unique geometry allows the attachment of drug molecules with higher covalent loading. The HPC-Ibuprofen conjugates as macromolecular prodrugs were therefore synthesized employing homogenous and one pot reaction methodologies using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent at 80 degree C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The imidazole was used as a base for neutralization of acidic impurities. Present strategy appeared effective to get high yield (77-81%) and high degree of drug substitution (DS 0.88-1.40) onto the HPC polymer as determined by the acid-base titration and verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The gel permeation chromatography has shown uni-modal absorption which indicates no significant degradation of polymer during reaction. Macromolecular prodrugs with different DS of ibuprofen were synthesized, purified, characterized and found soluble in organic solvents. From thermogravimetric analysis, initial, maximum and final degradation temperatures of the conjugates were calculated and compared for relative thermal stability. Thermal degradation kinetics was also studied and results have indicated that degradation of conjugates follows about first order kinetics as calculated by Kissinger model. The energy of activation was also found moderate 92.38, 99.34 and 87.34 kJ/mol as calculated using Friedman, Broido and Chang models. It was found that these novel prodrugs of ibuprofen were thermally stable therefore these may have potential pharmaceutical applications. (author)

  3. Effect of kinetically altering a repetition via the use of chain resistance on velocity during the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel G; Newton, Robert U

    2009-10-01

    It is theorized that the force and velocity profile of a repetition performed during a standard barbell exercise may be altered by substituting suspended chains for some portion of the total resistance. The purpose of this study was to document the alterations in lifting velocity that occur when the bench press exercise is performed as standard (BP) or with the substitution of resistance via chains draped over the barbell (BP+CH). Thirteen professional rugby league players participated in this study as part of their usual training program. Each subject performed 2 sets of 3 repetitions under the following conditions: The BP+CH condition, where the barbell resistance of 60% 1RM (repetition maximum) was supplemented by 17.5-kg in chains draped over the barbell (total resistance was about 75% 1RM), and the BP condition, where the total resistance was the same but was constituted in the form of standard barbell weights. The BP+CH condition resulted in increases in mean and peak concentric lifting velocities of around 10% in both sets as compared to both BP sets. Eccentric peak velocities were more varied in response, but generally the addition of chain resistance could be said to allow for increased velocities. The result may be partially explained by the eccentric unloading that occurs as the chain links furl upon the floor in the latter stages of the eccentric range. This eccentric unloading precipitates a more rapid stretch-shorten cycle (SSC) transition and possibly a within-repetition postactivation potentiation (PAP) that allows the subject to utilize faster lifting velocities in the initial concentric portion, which flow through to the remainder of the concentric phase. Therefore the use of chains appears warranted when athletes need to lift heavy resistances explosively.

  4. Senior travelers' trip chaining behavior : survey results and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The research team conducted a survey of travel and activity scheduling behavior to better understand senior : citizens trip chaining behavior in the Chicago metropolitan areas most populous counties. The team used an : internet-based, prompted ...

  5. Relativistic quantum kinetic analysis of a pion--nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A relativistic plasma of nucleons interacting through pions via the usual isospin-invariant Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the framework of the covariant Wigner function technique. The method is manifestly covariant and the temperature effects are considered. The relativistic quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the pion--nucleon system is derived. By generalizing the Bogolioubov analysis of the classical BBGKY hierarchy a non-perturbative renormalizable method is elaborated which allows the solution of the kinetic problem in form of power series of two cluster parameters which measure the importance of correlations. In the lowest order of the cluster expansion (Hartree approximation of zero-order approximation) the quasi-nucleon Fock space is introduced, the fermion Wigner function in the thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained and the vacuum effects are renormalized. In this approximation the plasma behaves as a perfect Fermi gas of nucleons and antinucleons, but there exists an abnormal configuration with a uniform pion condensate which is unstable. In the next approximation (quadratic in the small parameters) the quasi-pion dispersion relation is obtained and the vacuum polarization tensor is renormalized. The quasi-pion rest-mass spectra (''plasma frequency'') and the effective-coupling behaviour as functions of the thermodynamic state are given. By estimating the size of the cluster parameters the self-consistency of the approximation scheme is proved. The quasi-pion Fock space is introduced and the quasi-pion equilibrium Wigner function is obtained. From these results the problem of the higher-order corrections to the Hartree thermodynamics is outlined

  6. Formation kinetics of gemfibrozil chlorination reaction products: analysis and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Wendy H; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-07-01

    Aqueous chlorination kinetics of the lipid regulator gemfibrozil and the formation of reaction products were investigated in deionized water over the pH range 3 to 9, and in two wastewater matrices. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil was found to be highly dependent on pH. No statistically significant degradation of gemfibrozil was observed at pH values greater than 7. Gemfibrozil oxidation between pH 4 and 7 was best represented by first order kinetics. At pH 3, formation of three reaction products was observed. 4'-C1Gem was the only reaction product formed from pH 4-7 and was modeled with zero order kinetics. Chlorine oxidation of gemfibrozil in two wastewater matrices followed second order kinetics. 4'-C1Gem was only formed in wastewater with pH below 7. Deionized water rate kinetic models were applied to two wastewater effluents with gemfibrozil concentrations reported in literature in order to calculate potential mass loading rates of 4'C1Gem to the receiving water.

  7. Diversity Analysis of the Immunoglobulin M Heavy Chain Gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA encoding the immunoglobulin (IgM) heavy chain gene of Nile tilapia was successfully cloned using the 5' and 3' RACE techniques. The complete cDNA of the Nile tilapia IgM heavy chain gene is 1,921 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,740 bp, which corresponds to 580 amino acid ...

  8. Information technology portfolio in supply chain management using factor analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Jaafarnejad; Davood Rafierad; Masoumeh Gardeshi

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of information technology (IT) along with supply chain management (SCM) has become increasingly a necessity among most businesses. This enhances supply chain (SC) performance and helps companies achieve the organizational competitiveness. IT systems capture and analyze information and enable management to make decisions by considering a global scope across the entire SC. This paper reviews the existing literature on IT in SCM and considers pertinent criteria. Using principal comp...

  9. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Food Chain Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Jones, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA and the uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values for the food chain model provided by the expert panels that were used for the analysis. Two expert panels were convened, covering the areas of soil and plant transfer processes and transfer to and through animals. The aggregated uncertainty distributions from the experts for the elicited variables were used in an uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA. The main aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes large contributions to the overall uncertainty and so should be included in the overall analysis. (author)

  10. Kinetic Analysis of the Thermal Processing of Silica and Organosilica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappert, Emiel; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Nijmeijer, Arian

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of an organic group into sol–gel-derived silica causes significant changes in the structure and properties of these materials. Therefore, the thermal treatment of organosilica materials may require a different approach. In the present paper, kinetic parameters (activation energy,

  11. Kinetics analysis of step and jump forward lunge among badminton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the kinetics during step forward lunge (SFL) and jump forward lunge (JFL) in badminton. Fifteen university badminton players (mean age = 22.07 ± 1.39 years old) were recruited and were assigned to perform SFL and JFL while holding a badminton racquet using their ...

  12. Market chain analysis of candeia timber (Eremanthus erythropappus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fábio Camolesi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized and analysed the market chain of candeia timber intended for oil production, and estimatedthe marketing margin retained by each chain participant. The study site encompassed two regions of Minas Gerais state whosedistinctive mark is great abundance of native candeia forest (Eremanthus erythropappus. Data were collected through interviewswith rural workers, candeia woodland owners and manufacturers of candeia oil and alpha-bisabolol. The marketing margin wascomputed as the percentage retained by each chain participant on each kilo of alpha-bisabolol sold. It was concluded that alphabisabololdistributors are the participants reaping the greatest marketing margin, and also that rural producers should sell candeiatimber directly to oil manufacturers, with no middlemen wholesalers, in order to boost their marketing margin.

  13. Global Carbon Fiber Composites. Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Joshua A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify key opportunities in the carbon fiber (CF) supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas—wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels—that top the list of industries using CF and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and are particularly relevant to the mission of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE EERE). For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  14. Distribution of nuclear charge and angular momentum in chains 132-137, 99, and 102 of thermal neutron fission of 235U at various kinetic energies and charge states of the fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.; Braun, H.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    The fission product yields of the members of the decay chains 132 to 137, 99, and 102 in 235 U(n/sub th/,f) were measured at various kinetic energies and ionic charge states of the fragments using the mass separator for unslowed fission products LOHENGRIN. The results are discussed with respect to four aspects: A preferential formation of neutron rich chain members found at high kinetic energy of the fragments is predominantly due to decreasing prompt neutron evaporation. A particularly large effect in chain 132 is attributed to the double shell closure in Sn-132. The persistence of an even-odd pairing effect in the yields throughout the range of kinetic energies studied leads to the conclusion that the high internal excitation energy of the fragments is tied up mainly in the form of collective energy (e.g., deformation energy) rather than single particle excitation. Generally, the yield distribution at constant kinetic energy is invariant with respect to the ionic charge state of the isotopes separated. Deviations from this behavior found in chains 99, 102, 133, and 136 are interpreted as being due to Auger events following a converted transition in the decay of ns-isomers taking place in the vacuum of the separator. A pronounced variation of the independent formation ratio of single isomeric states with the kinetic energy of the fragments is providing direct information on the controversial topic of the change of angular momentum of fission fragments as a function of deformation (scission distance). 34 references

  15. Rouse mode analysis of chain relaxation in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathi, Jagannathan T; Kumar, Sanat K; Rubinstein, Michael; Grest, Gary S

    2015-05-28

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the internal relaxations of chains in nanoparticle (NP)/polymer composites. We examine the Rouse modes of the chains, a quantity that is closest in spirit to the self-intermediate scattering function, typically determined in an (incoherent) inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Our simulations show that for weakly interacting mixtures of NPs and polymers, the effective monomeric relaxation rates are faster than in a neat melt when the NPs are smaller than the entanglement mesh size. In this case, the NPs serve to reduce both the monomeric friction and the entanglements in the polymer melt, as in the case of a polymer-solvent system. However, for NPs larger than half the entanglement mesh size, the effective monomer relaxation is essentially unaffected for low NP concentrations. Even in this case, we observe a strong reduction in chain entanglements for larger NP loadings. Thus, the role of NPs is to always reduce the number of entanglements, with this effect only becoming pronounced for small NPs or for high concentrations of large NPs. Our studies of the relaxation of single chains resonate with recent neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments, which deduce a similar entanglement dilution effect.

  16. Green supply chain management: analysis of brazilian academic publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Barbieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with environmental issues from the perspective of Supply Chain Management. With the incorporation of environmental concerns in a systematic manner the concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has emerged. The subject GSCM interests not only to academics but also to professional audience especially with regard to new legal obligations, and social pressures of various types of stakeholders, as well as issues related to the competitiveness of enterprises and their supply chains. However, the way in which this knowledge is being produced in Brazil is not clear, hence the need for a mapping which areas and sub-areas of GSCM has been studied most frequently. Thus, this work can be characterized as a desk research that aims to analyze the Brazilian academic publications on green supply chain management. In order to delimit the scope of the research, we collected articles published from 2006 to 2010 in specific Brazilian congresses of Management and Production Engineering, as EnANPAD, SIMPOI and SIMPEP. 110 papers were collected and analyzed.The area of Green Operations represents 81% of published articles and 45% of these focus on Reverse Logistics. 70% of total papers are empirical and 77% use a qualitative approach, while 57% of the total are case studies

  17. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which implies in 157 franchises operating abroad. Regarding external environment factors, the independent variables form a group divided into market opportunity and business efficiency – trust and ease to doing business. The result of the three distinct clusters show how the market opportunity and the business efficiency (trust and ease in doing business work as drivers to the international operation of Brazilian franchises. The paper shows that the franchise chains operating in the USA (cluster 3 have an inferior international commitment in comparison with the franchises which operate in developed countries and in small Latin American countries (cluster 2. It is also possible to notice a large number of franchises that operate in underdeveloped countries from Latin America and Africa (cluster 1 with worse business efficiency due to the advantage of learning how to operate in a country that could have some similarities with Brazil

  18. VALUE CHAIN AND SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE MANITOBA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    babatunde Nuga

    Nukot Consulting Services Inc., 101 Drew Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. R3Y 0L3, ... At the same time, overproduction leading to poor prices, non-availability of quality seed and shortage of field ... One major issue at the production level of the value chain borders on the type .... the quick service restaurants (QSRs). The major ...

  19. Plastic recycling in the Nordics: A value chain market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milios, Leonidas; Holm Christensen, Lena; McKinnon, David; Christensen, Camilla; Rasch, Marie Katrine; Hallstrøm Eriksen, Mikael

    2018-06-01

    There is low utilisation of plastic waste in the Nordic region and only a fraction of plastic materials go back into production processes through reuse and recycling practices. This paper aims to increase knowledge concerning factors that inhibit demand for recycled plastics, and to identify critical barriers for plastic recycling across the regional plastics value chain. A literature review and targeted interviews with key actors across the plastics value chain enabled the mapping of interactions between the major actors and identified hotspots that act as barriers to the flow of plastic materials. Barriers identified include the lack of both supply and demand of recycled plastic and are mainly attributed to the fragmented market of secondary materials. The main hotspots identified are the low demand due to price considerations, insufficient traceability and transparency in value chain transactions, and general design deficiencies in the recyclability of products. Value chain coordination is considered as the most important intervention by the interviewees, followed by the need for increased investment in innovation and technology development. Complementary measures that could counteract the identified barriers include public procurement for resource efficiency, ban on the incineration of recyclable materials, and specifications on the design of plastic products for reducing the number of different polymers, and the number and usage of additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Logics and Models for Stochastic Analysis Beyond Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin

    , because of the generality of ME distributions, we have to leave the world of Markov chains. To support ME distributions with multiple exits, we introduce a multi-exits ME distribution together with a process algebra MEME to express the systems having the semantics as Markov renewal processes with ME...

  1. Systems Analysis of Ten Supply Chains for Whole Tree Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Belbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid, extraction distances (50–550 m and transport distances (10–70 km using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck, at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%. Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1 occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

  2. The analysis of one-dimensional reactor kinetics benchmark computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidell, J.

    1975-11-01

    During March 1973 the European American Committee on Reactor Physics proposed a series of simple one-dimensional reactor kinetics problems, with the intention of comparing the relative efficiencies of the numerical methods employed in various codes, which are currently in use in many national laboratories. This report reviews the contributions submitted to this benchmark exercise and attempts to assess the relative merits and drawbacks of the various theoretical and computer methods. (author)

  3. Food value chain analysis: A review of selected studies for Pakistan and guidelines for further research

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Zahoor

    2012-01-01

    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added†in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a product. For agricultural products, value addition can also take place through differentiation of a product based on food safety and food functionality. Price of the resultant product shows its incremental value. The term chain refers to a supply c...

  4. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    omid hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Hajjarian; Samira Porbar

    2016-01-01

    Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in ...

  5. cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in Chinese Pengze crucian carp. X Liu, W Yu, J Li, F Chen, S Liu, C Wu, J Xu. Abstract. Invariant chain (Ii) plays an important role in MHC class II molecules assembly and exogenous peptide presentation in vertebrates. Although mammalian Ii has been ...

  6. Analysis of cumulative exergy losses in the chains of technological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szargut, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on cumulative exergy consumption (CExC) which characterizes the chain of technological processes leading from natural resources to the final product under consideration. The difference of CExC and exergy of material or energy carrier expresses the cumulative exergy loss (CExL) in the mentioned technological chain. Two apportionment methods of CExL have been proposed. Partial exergy losses appear in particular links of the technological chain and characterize the influence of irreversibility of these links. Constituent exergy losses express the influence of thermodynamic imperfection of constituent technological chains leading to the final link of the total technological chain. Analysis of the partial and constituent exergy losses informs about the possibilities of improvement of the technological chains

  7. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF BROILER TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS (Case Study at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surip Prayugo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to (1 map the value chain in broiler at PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk (CPI; (2 analyze the value chain governance in broiler at CPI; (3 analyze the margin of marketing at broiler industry both on farm or off farm; (3 analyze the gap between the expectation and the performance of consumers (farmers upon using products of CPI and (4 recognize factors influencing competitiveness in broiler industry; and (5 to formulate strategy for value chain upgrading at CPI in order to increase competitiveness of broiler. As revealed by the value chain analysis, the role of CPI in this value chain is highly significant. All poultry inputs (DOC, feed, veterinary medicine, and poultry equipments are supplied by CPI. As for downstream sector, CPI processes broiler into its derivatives. The type of value chain governance between feed supplier, DOC, and veterinary medicine, poultry equipment, and poultry derivates belongs to market value chain. Whereas the type of value chain governance between carcass supplier and restaurant belongs to captive value chain. Based on the margin of marketing analysis, the party that gains the lowest margin is farmer and the party that receives the highest margin is the processor. In gap analysis, the lowest attribute of competitiveness is the feed spending and the highest attribute is the spending on veterinary medicine for two months. Factors that influence the competitiveness in poultry industry are condition, demand, industry competition, main industries and supporting industries, and government’s role.Keywords: Value Chain, Competitiveness, Broiler, PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia, Tbk, Margin of Marketing Analysis, Gap Analysis, SWOT Analysis

  8. Data Analysis Recipes: Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David W.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for sampling probability density functions (combined with abundant computational resources) have transformed the sciences, especially in performing probabilistic inferences, or fitting models to data. In this primarily pedagogical contribution, we give a brief overview of the most basic MCMC method and some practical advice for the use of MCMC in real inference problems. We give advice on method choice, tuning for performance, methods for initialization, tests of convergence, troubleshooting, and use of the chain output to produce or report parameter estimates with associated uncertainties. We argue that autocorrelation time is the most important test for convergence, as it directly connects to the uncertainty on the sampling estimate of any quantity of interest. We emphasize that sampling is a method for doing integrals; this guides our thinking about how MCMC output is best used. .

  9. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  10. Internal- and External-Rotation Peak Toque in Little League Baseball Players With Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: Improved by Closed Kinetic Chain Shoulder Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Rour; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have explored closed kinetic chain (CKC) shoulder exercises (SEs) with a sling because they are safer and more effective than open-chain exercises, especially in early stages of treatment. However, the application of CKC SE in youth baseball players has rarely been attempted, although teenage baseball players also experience shoulder pain. To investigate the effects of CKC SE on the peak torque of shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) in youth baseball players. Single-group pretest, posttest. Biomechanics laboratory. 23 Little League Baseball players with subacromial impingement syndrome. The CKC SE with a sling was CKC shoulder-flexion exercise, extension exercise, IR exercise, and ER exercise. This exercise regimen was conducted 2 or 3 times/wk for 8 wk. The peak torque of shoulder IR and ER was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Concentric shoulder rotation was performed, with 5 repetitions at an angular velocity of 60°/s and 15 at 180°/s. The IR and ER peak torque significantly increased at each angular velocity after the exercise program. In particular, the increase in IR and ER peak torque values was statistically significant at an angular velocity of 180°/s. CKC SE was effective in increasing shoulder IR and ER strength, demonstrating its potential benefits in the prevention and treatment of shoulder injury. In addition, increased IR peak torque appears to improve throwing velocity in baseball players.

  11. Value Chain Analysis of Indigenous Vegetables from Malawi and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Chagomoka, Takemore; Afari-Sefa, Victor; Pitoro, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that indigenous vegetables have high market potential and contribute substantially to household incomes. Until quite recently however, research into development of indigenous vegetables were neglected by the scientific and donor community. With a resurgence of their importance in human nutrition, there is the need to understand the interactions among various actors in the value chain so as to be able to improve marketing efficiency by adding value to produce. Based ...

  12. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    hp) 2- and 4- stroke RC/modeler engines are O.S. Engine (Japan), Thunder Tiger (Taiwan), and Saito (Japan). E. Global Nature of the Supply Chain...Mexico). • The 115-HP 4- stroke Rotax 914 class engine (Austria/Germany) found in the Predator (MQ-1B) is also found in many other systems, including...Equipment 43 Pumps and Compressors 44 Furnace/Steam Plant/Drying Equipment, Nuclear Reactors 45 Plumbing, Heating , and Sanitation Equipment 49

  13. Method of identification of unbranched chain reaction with cross termination of chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluehktov, V.A.; Begishev, I.R.

    1977-01-01

    Gas-phase chlorination of unsymmetrical difluoroethane initiated by gamma quanta of Co 60 has been studied. At decreased temperatures the only hydrogen is replaced by a chlorine atom. Over a wide range of ratios of the initial reagents, the reaction occurs with a chain rupture. An analysis of the kinetics of such a reaction provides a method for identification of an unbranched chain reaction with a cross-rupture of the chain

  14. Kinetics Parameters of VVER-1000 Core with 3 MOX Lead Test Assemblies To Be Used for Accident Analysis Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactor and presents the neutronics calculations of kinetics parameters of VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs. MOX LTA design has been studied in [1] for two options of MOX LTA: 100% plutonium and of ''island'' type. As a result, zoning i.e. fissile plutonium enrichments in different plutonium zones, has been defined. VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs of chosen design has been calculated in [2]. In present work, the neutronics data for transient analysis codes (RELAP [3]) has been obtained using the codes chain of RRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' [5] that is to be used for exploitation neutronics calculations of VVER. Nowadays the 3D assembly-by-assembly code BIPR-7A and 2D pin-by-pin code PERMAK-A, both with the neutronics constants prepared by the cell code TVS-M, are the base elements of this chain. It should be reminded that in [6] TVS-M was used only for the constants calculations of MOX FAs. In current calculations the code TVS-M has been used both for UOX and MOX fuel constants. Besides, the volume of presented information has been increased and additional explications have been included. The results for the reference uranium core [4] are presented in Chapter 2. The results for the core with 3 MOX LTAs are presented in Chapter 3. The conservatism that is connected with neutronics parameters and that must be taken into account during transient analysis calculations, is discussed in Chapter 4. The conservative parameters values are considered to be used in 1-point core kinetics models of accident analysis codes

  15. Proposition of a modeling and an analysis methodology of integrated reverse logistics chain in the direct chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, F.; Abouabdellah, A.

    2016-07-01

    Propose a modeling and analysis methodology based on the combination of Bayesian networks and Petri networks of the reverse logistics integrated the direct supply chain. Network modeling by combining Petri and Bayesian network. Modeling with Bayesian network complimented with Petri network to break the cycle problem in the Bayesian network. Demands are independent from returns. Model can only be used on nonperishable products. Legislation aspects: Recycling laws; Protection of environment; Client satisfaction via after sale service. Bayesian network with a cycle combined with the Petri Network. (Author)

  16. Proposition of a modeling and an analysis methodology of integrated reverse logistics chain in the direct chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faycal Mimouni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Propose a modeling and analysis methodology based on the combination of Bayesian networks and Petri networks of the reverse logistics integrated the direct supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: Network modeling by combining Petri and Bayesian network. Findings: Modeling with Bayesian network complimented with Petri network to break the cycle problem in the Bayesian network. Research limitations/implications: Demands are independent from returns. Practical implications: Model can only be used on nonperishable products. Social implications: Legislation aspects: Recycling laws; Protection of environment; Client satisfaction via after sale service. Originality/value: Bayesian network with a cycle combined with the Petri Network.

  17. Kinetic therapy reduces complications and shortens hospital stay in patients with cardiogenic shock - a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Gregor; Flemming, Kerstin; Ziegs, Enrico; Haacke, Katrin; Rauwolf, Thomas; Strasser, Ruth H

    2007-03-01

    Kinetic therapy (KT) has been shown to reduce complications and to shorten hospital stay in trauma patients. Data in non-surgical patients are inconclusive, and kinetic therapy has not been tested in patients with cardiogenic shock. The present analysis compares KT with standard care in patients with cardiogenic shock. A retrospective analysis of 133 patients with cardiogenic shock admitted to 1 academic heart center was performed. Patients with standard care (SC, turning every 2 h by the staff) were compared with kinetic therapy (KT, using oscillating air-flotation beds). 68 patients with KT were compared with 65 patients with SC. Length of ventilator therapy was 11 days in KT and 18 days in SC (p=0.048). The mortality was comparable in both groups. Pneumonia occurred in 14 patients in KT and 39 patients in SC (ppatients treated with kinetic therapy. The use of KT shortens hospital stay and reduces rates of pneumonia and pressure ulcers as compared to SC.

  18. Evaluation of kinetic phosphorescence analysis for the determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatto, P.V.; Frank, I.W.; Johnson, K.D.; Mason, P.B.; Smith, M.M.

    1997-12-01

    In the past, New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has used a fluorometric method for the determination of sub-microgram quantities of uranium. In its continuing effort to upgrade and improve measurement technology, NBL has evaluated the commercially-available KPA-11 kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (Chemchek, Richland, WA). The Chemchek KPA-11 is a bench-top instrument which performs single-measurement, quench-corrected analyses for trace uranium. It incorporates patented kinetic phosphorimetry techniques to measure and analyze sample phosphorescence as a function of time. With laser excitation and time-corrected photon counting, the KPA-11 has a lower detection limit than conventional fluorometric methods. Operated with a personal computer, the state-of-the-art KPA-11 offers extensive time resolution and phosphorescence lifetime capabilities for additional specificity. Interferences are thereby avoided while obtaining precise measurements. Routine analyses can be easily and effectively accomplished, with the accuracy and precision equivalent to the pulsed-laser fluorometric method presently performed at NBL, without the need for internal standards. Applications of kinetic phosphorimetry at NBL include the measurement of trace level uranium in retention tank, waste samples, and low-level samples. It has also been used to support other experimental activities at NBL by the measuring of nanogram amounts of uranium contamination (in blanks) in isotopic sample preparations, and the determining of elution curves of different ion exchange resins used for uranium purification. In many cases, no pretreatment of samples was necessary except to fume them with nitric acid, and then to redissolve and dilute them to an appropriate concentration with 1 M HNO 3 before measurement. Concentrations were determined on a mass basis (microg U/g of solution), but no density corrections were needed since all the samples (including the samples used for calibration) were in the same density

  19. Comparative analysis of mineral and secundary raw materials screening kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of screening shows screening performance compared to an ideal screening to achieve a complete separation of the fractions without the presence of grains of size less than the mesh openings left on sieve and grains of size larger than the mesh opening that passed through the sieve. Efficiency is growing rapidly and after a certain time is reduced. This is explained by the fact that the speed of screening depends on the percentage of 'small', 'small-to large' and 'large' grain. The paper shows how for the given grain, their shape and density affect the kinetics of screening.

  20. Inhibition of telomerase by linear-chain fatty acids: a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masako; Ueno, Takamasa; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hirotada; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Hayashi, Hideya; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that mono-unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids in the cis configuration with C(18) hydrocarbon chains (i.e. oleic acid) strongly inhibited the activity of human telomerase in a cell-free enzymic assay, with an IC(50) value of 8.6 microM. Interestingly, fatty acids with hydrocarbon chain lengths below 16 or above 20 carbons substantially decreased the potency of inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, the cis-mono-unsaturated C(18) linear-chain fatty acid oleic acid was the strongest inhibitor of all the fatty acids tested. A kinetic study revealed that oleic acid competitively inhibited the activity of telomerase ( K (i)=3.06 microM) with respect to the telomerase substrate primer. The energy-minimized three-dimensional structure of the linear-chain fatty acid was calculated and modelled. A molecule width of 11.53-14.26 A (where 1 A=0.1 nm) in the C(16) to C(20) fatty acid structure was suggested to be important for telomerase inhibition. The three-dimensional structure of the telomerase active site (i.e. the substrate primer-binding site) appears to have a pocket that could bind oleic acid, with the pocket being 8.50 A long and 12.80 A wide. PMID:12121150

  1. Homotopy analysis solutions of point kinetics equations with one delayed precursor group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qian; Luo Lei; Chen Zhiyun; Li Haofeng

    2010-01-01

    Homotopy analysis method is proposed to obtain series solutions of nonlinear differential equations. Homotopy analysis method was applied for the point kinetics equations with one delayed precursor group. Analytic solutions were obtained using homotopy analysis method, and the algorithm was analysed. The results show that the algorithm computation time and precision agree with the engineering requirements. (authors)

  2. CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF GLASS-CERAMICS BY DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NOZAD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization behavior of fluorphlogopite, a glass-ceramic in the MgO–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–F system, was studied by substitution of Li2O for K2O in the glass composition. DTA, XRD and SEM were used for the study of crystallization behavior, formed phases and microstructure of the resulting glass-ceramics. Crystallization kinetics of the glass was investigated under non-isothermal conditions, using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation. The crystallization results were analyzed, and both the activation energy of crystallization process as well as the crystallization mechanism were characterized. Calculated kinetic parameters indicated that the appropriate crystallization mechanism was bulk crystallization for base glass and the sample with addition of Li2O. Non-isothermal DTA experiments showed that the crystallization activation energies of base glasses was in the range of 234-246 KJ/mol and in the samples with addition of Li2O was changed to the range of 317-322 KJ/mol.

  3. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  4. Mixed Vehicle Flow At Signalized Intersection: Markov Chain Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We assume that a Poisson flow of vehicles arrives at isolated signalized intersection, and each vehicle, independently of others, represents a random number X of passenger car units (PCU’s. We analyze numerically the stationary distribution of the queue process {Zn}, where Zn is the number of PCU’s in a queue at the beginning of the n-th red phase, n → ∞. We approximate the number Yn of PCU’s arriving during one red-green cycle by a two-parameter Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD. The well-known fact is that {Zn} follow an infinite-state Markov chain. We approximate its stationary distribution using a finite-state Markov chain. We show numerically that there is a strong dependence of the mean queue length E[Zn] in equilibrium on the input distribution of Yn and, in particular, on the ”over dispersion” parameter γ= Var[Yn]/E[Yn]. For Poisson input, γ = 1. γ > 1 indicates presence of heavy-tailed input. In reality it means that a relatively large ”portion” of PCU’s, considerably exceeding the average, may arrive with high probability during one red-green cycle. Empirical formulas are presented for an accurate estimation of mean queue length as a function of load and g of the input flow. Using the Markov chain technique, we analyze the mean ”virtual” delay time for a car which always arrives at the beginning of the red phase.

  5. Theoretical analysis on the probability of initiating persistent fission chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianjun; Wang Zhe; Zhang Ben'ai

    2005-01-01

    For the finite multiplying system of fissile material in the presence of a weak neutron source, the authors analyses problems on the probability of initiating a persistent fission chain through reckoning the stochastic theory of neutron multiplication. In the theoretical treatment, the conventional point reactor conception model is developed to an improved form with position x and velocity v dependence. The estimated results including approximate value of the probability mentioned above and its distribution are given by means of diffusion approximation and compared with those with previous point reactor conception model. They are basically consistent, however the present model can provide details on the distribution. (authors)

  6. How Can Big Data Complement Expert Analysis? A Value Chain Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtae Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the world of big data, there is a need to investigate how data-driven approaches can support expert-based analyses during a technology planning process. To meet this goal, we examined opportunities and challenges for big data analytics in the social sciences, particularly with respect to value chain analysis. To accomplish this, we designed a value chain mapping experiment that aimed to compare the results of expert-based and data-based mappings. In the expert-based approach, we asked an industry expert to visually depict an industry value chain based on insights and collected data. We also reviewed a previously published value chain developed by a panel of industry experts during a national technology planning process. In the data-driven analysis, we used a massive number of business transaction records between companies under the assumption that the data would be useful in identifying relationships between items in a value chain. The case study results demonstrated that data-driven analysis can help researchers understand the current status of industry structures, enabling them to develop more realistic, although less flexible value chain maps. This approach is expected to provide more value when used in combination with other databases. It is important to note that significant effort is required to develop an elaborate analysis algorithm, and data preprocessing is essential for obtaining meaningful results, both of which make this approach challenging. Experts’ insights are still helpful for validating the analytic results in value chain mapping.

  7. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easters, D J

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management

  8. Mathematical supply-chain modelling: Product analysis of cost and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easters, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Establishing a mathematical supply-chain model is a proposition that has received attention due to its inherent benefits of evolving global supply-chain efficiencies. This paper discusses the prevailing relationships found within apparel supply-chain environments, and contemplates the complex issues indicated for constituting a mathematical model. Principal results identified within the data suggest, that the multifarious nature of global supply-chain activities require a degree of simplification in order to fully dilate the necessary factors which affect, each sub-section of the chain. Subsequently, the research findings allowed the division of supply-chain components into sub-sections, which amassed a coherent method of product development activity. Concurrently, the supply-chain model was found to allow systematic mathematical formulae analysis, of cost and time, within the multiple contexts of each subsection encountered. The paper indicates the supply-chain model structure, the mathematics, and considers how product analysis of cost and time can improve the comprehension of product lifecycle management.

  9. COST ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION IN THE LOGISTIC SUPPLY CHAIN USING THE SIMPROLOGIC PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona MAŃKA; Adam MAŃKA

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to characterize the authorial SimProLOGIC program, version 2.1, which enables one to conduct a cost analysis of individual links, as well as the entire logistic supply chain (LSC). This article also presents an example of the analysis of the parameters, which characterize the supplier of subsystems in the examined logistic chain, and the results of the initial optimization, which makes it possible to improve the economic balance, as well as the level of customer servic...

  10. Kinetic global analysis of Alfven eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.

    2002-01-01

    Systematic study on low to medium n (toroidal mode number) Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in tokamaks and helical systems is presented. Linear stability of AE in the presence of energetic ions was studied using the kinetic full-wave code TASK/WM.We have reproduced the destabilizing effect of toroidal co-rotation on TAE for JT-60U parameters. We have found the existence of reversed-shear-induced Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) which localizes near the q minimum in a reversed magnetic shear configuration. Two kinds of mode structures are identified for energetic particle mode (EPM) below the TAE frequency gap. The coupling to lower-frequency modes such as drift waves and MHD modes as well as the effect of trapped particles are also taken into account. For a helical plasma, the existence of GAE in the central region and TAE in the off-axis region was confirmed. (author)

  11. A BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR FIVE RADIONUCLIDE VADOSE ZONE MODELS (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, AND CHAIN 2D) IN SOIL SCREENING LEVEL CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five radionuclide vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide (99Tc) rele...

  12. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  13. Deconvolution analysis of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knop, J.; Kroeger, E.; Stritzke, P.; Schneider, C.; Kruse, H.P.

    1981-02-01

    The kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and /sup 47/Ca were studied in three patients with osteoporosis, three patients with hyperparathyroidism, and two patients with osteomalacia. The activities of sup(99m)Tc-MDP were recorded in the lumbar spine, paravertebral soft tissues, and in venous blood samples for 1 h after injection. The results were submitted to deconvolution analysis to determine regional bone accumulation rates. /sup 47/Ca kinetics were analysed by a linear two-compartment model quantitating short-term mineral exchange, exchangeable bone calcium, and calcium accretion. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates were small in osteoporosis, greater in hyperparathyroidism, and greatest in osteomalacia. No correlations were obtained between sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone accumulation rates and the results of /sup 47/Ca kinetics. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of serum alkaline phosphatase and bone accumulation rates (R = 0.71, P < 0.025). As a result deconvolution analysis of regional sup(99m)Tc-MDP kinetics in dynamic bone scans might be useful to quantitate osseous tracer accumulation in metabolic bone disease. The lack of correlation between the results of sup(99m)Tc-MDP kinetics and /sup 47/Ca kinetics might suggest a preferential binding of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to the organic matrix of the bone, as has been suggested by other authors on the basis of experimental and clinical investigations.

  14. SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE ANALYSIS: A BRAZILIAN AUTOMOTIVE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain (SC resilience and flexibility are important research topics receiving growing attention. However, the academic literature needs empirical studies on SC resilience capable of investigating the inter-organizational components of flexibility along different tiers. Therefore, this paper analyzes the main lack of flexibilities in three Brazilian automotive SCs that limit their resilience and therefore their capacity to better support and meet the demand changes in the marketplace. A multi-tier case study approach is adopted. Research findings identify lack of flexibilities in different tiers that inhibit the SC resilience as well as manufacturing and SC flexibilities that build SC resilience. The findings also highlight that the same SC may have the flexibility to be resilient for one of its products but not for another product, what sheds new lights on the academic literature. Finally, flexible SCs should be designed to increase SC resilience to cope with mishaps as significant demand changes.

  15. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  16. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  17. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T; Hilliard, Michael R; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J; Roni, Mohammad S; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term 'supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  18. Traceability and Risk Analysis Strategies for Addressing Counterfeit Electronics in Supply Chains for Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMase, Daniel; Collier, Zachary A; Carlson, Jinae; Gray, Robin B; Linkov, Igor

    2016-10-01

    Within the microelectronics industry, there is a growing concern regarding the introduction of counterfeit electronic parts into the supply chain. Even though this problem is widespread, there have been limited attempts to implement risk-based approaches for testing and supply chain management. Supply chain risk management tends to focus on the highly visible disruptions of the supply chain instead of the covert entrance of counterfeits; thus counterfeit risk is difficult to mitigate. This article provides an overview of the complexities of the electronics supply chain, and highlights some gaps in risk assessment practices. In particular, this article calls for enhanced traceability capabilities to track and trace parts at risk through various stages of the supply chain. Placing the focus on risk-informed decision making through the following strategies is needed, including prioritization of high-risk parts, moving beyond certificates of conformance, incentivizing best supply chain management practices, adoption of industry standards, and design and management for supply chain resilience. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. A static analysis method to determine the availability of kinetic energy from wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawn, B.G.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces definitions and an analysis method for estimating how much kinetic energy can be made available for inertial response from a wind turbine over a year, and how much energy capture must be sacrificed to do so. The analysis is based on the static characteristics of wind turbines,

  20. RETRAN-3D MOD003 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Multidimensional Kinetics Analysis Models and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michitsugu; Ogura, Katsunori; Gose, Garry C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 (PB2/TT2) has been performed using RETRAN-3D MOD003. The purpose of the analysis was to investigate the PB2/TT2 overpressurization transient using the RETRAN-3D multidimensional kinetics model

  1. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    A number of research studies provide evidence that hamstring cocontraction during open kinetic chain knee extension exercises enhances tibiofemoral (TF) stability and reduces the strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. To determine the possible increase in hamstring muscle coactivation caused by a voluntary cocontraction effort during open kinetic chain leg-extension exercises, and to assess whether an intentional hamstring cocontraction can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force during these exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity in the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured in 20 healthy men during isotonic leg extension exercises with resistance (R) ranging from 10% to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The same exercises were also performed while the participants attempted to enhance hamstring coactivation through a voluntary cocontraction effort. The data served as input parameters for a model to calculate the shear and compressive TF forces in leg extension exercises for any set of coactivation patterns of the different hamstring muscles. For R≤ 40% 1RM, the peak coactivation levels obtained with intentional cocontraction (l) were significantly higher (P hamstring muscle, maximum level l was reached at R = 30% 1RM, corresponding to 9.2%, 10.5%, and 24.5% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the BF, ST, and SM, respectively, whereas the ratio l/l 0 reached its maximum at R = 20% 1RM and was approximately 2, 3, and 4 for the BF, SM, and ST, respectively. The voluntary enhanced coactivation level l obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM completely suppressed the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. In leg extension exercises with resistance R≤ 40% 1RM, coactivation of the BF, SM, and ST can be significantly enhanced (up to 2, 3, and 4 times, respectively) by a voluntary hamstring

  2. Treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yusen; Chen Xiaoliang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis was described. Not only the reactivity, but also the effective neutron source intensity could be calculated by this method. Computer code was compiled base on the inverse kinetic method and unitary linear regression analysis. The data of zero power facility BFS-1 in Russia were processed and the results were compared. The results show that the reactivity and the effective neutron source intensity can be obtained correctly by treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method using unitary linear regression analysis and the precision of reactivity measurement is improved. The central element efficiency can be calculated by using the reactivity. The result also shows that the effect to reactivity measurement caused by external neutron source should be considered when the reactor power is low and the intensity of external neutron source is strong. (authors)

  3. Vibro-Acoustic Numerical Analysis for the Chain Cover of a Car Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Armentani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a vibro-acoustic numerical and experimental analysis was carried out for the chain cover of a low powered four-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine, belonging to the FPT (FCA Power Train family called SDE (Small Diesel Engine. By applying a methodology used in the acoustic optimization of new FPT engine components, firstly a finite element model (FEM of the engine was defined, then a vibration analysis was performed for the whole engine (modal analysis, and finally a forced response analysis was developed for the only chain cover (separated from the overall engine. The boundary conditions applied to the chain cover were the accelerations experimentally measured by accelerometers located at the points of connection among chain cover, head cover, and crankcase. Subsequently, a boundary element (BE model of the only chain cover was realized to determine the chain cover noise emission, starting from the previously calculated structural vibrations. The numerical vibro-acoustic outcomes were compared with those experimentally observed, obtaining a good correlation. All the information thus obtained allowed the identification of those critical areas, in terms of noise generation, in which to undertake necessary improvements.

  4. Study on the numerical analysis of nuclear reactor kinetics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A two-step alternating direction explict method is proposed for the solution of the space-and time-dependent diffusion theory reactor kinetics equations in two space dimensions as a special case of the general class of alternating direction implicit method and the truncation error of this method is estimated. To test the validity of this method it is applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor and CANDU-PHW reactor which have been operating and underconstructing in Korea. The time dependent neutron flux of the PWR reactor during control rod insertion and time dependent neutronic power of CANDU-PHW reactor in the case of postulated loss of coolant accident are obtained from the numerical calculation results. The results of the PWR reactor problem are shown the close agreement between implicit-difference method used in the TWIGL program and this method, and the results of the CANDU-PHW reactor are compared with the results of improved quasistic method and modal method. (Author)

  5. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  6. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  7. Supply reliability and dynamic safety analysis of an alternative energy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Markert, Frank; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of risk and supply chain modelling by means of analysing a case concerning a Hydrogen Refuelling Station in Berlin. It presents a framework that can analyse an energy supply chain and at the same time enables easy reporting and presentation of various results...... by utilizing Dis-crete Event Simulation (DES). The industrial implication of this work is to provide practitioners with an anal-ysis framework for improved decision support. The novelty of this paper is the approach to model a supply chain together with a dynamically modelled event tree-based approach...

  8. k-OptForce: integrating kinetics with flux balance analysis for strain design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chowdhury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational strain design protocols aim at the system-wide identification of intervention strategies for the enhanced production of biochemicals in microorganisms. Existing approaches relying solely on stoichiometry and rudimentary constraint-based regulation overlook the effects of metabolite concentrations and substrate-level enzyme regulation while identifying metabolic interventions. In this paper, we introduce k-OptForce, which integrates the available kinetic descriptions of metabolic steps with stoichiometric models to sharpen the prediction of intervention strategies for improving the bio-production of a chemical of interest. It enables identification of a minimal set of interventions comprised of both enzymatic parameter changes (for reactions with available kinetics and reaction flux changes (for reactions with only stoichiometric information. Application of k-OptForce to the overproduction of L-serine in E. coli and triacetic acid lactone (TAL in S. cerevisiae revealed that the identified interventions tend to cause less dramatic rearrangements of the flux distribution so as not to violate concentration bounds. In some cases the incorporation of kinetic information leads to the need for additional interventions as kinetic expressions render stoichiometry-only derived interventions infeasible by violating concentration bounds, whereas in other cases the kinetic expressions impart flux changes that favor the overproduction of the target product thereby requiring fewer direct interventions. A sensitivity analysis on metabolite concentrations shows that the required number of interventions can be significantly affected by changing the imposed bounds on metabolite concentrations. Furthermore, k-OptForce was capable of finding non-intuitive interventions aiming at alleviating the substrate-level inhibition of key enzymes in order to enhance the flux towards the product of interest, which cannot be captured by stoichiometry-alone analysis

  9. Increasing Supply-Chain Visibility with Rule-Based RFID Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, A.; Andersen, Thomas; Michahelles, F.

    2009-01-01

    RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data, the Sup......RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data......, the Supply Chain Visualizer increases supply-chain visibility by analyzing RFID data, using a mix of automated analysis techniques and human effort. The tool's core concepts include rule-based analysis techniques and a map-based representation interface. With these features, it lets users visualize...

  10. Visual evaluation of kinetic characteristics of PET probe for neuroreceptors using a two-phase graphic plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Yoko; Seki, Chie; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Suhara, Tetsuya; Kanno, Iwao

    2017-05-01

    Objectives In PET studies for neuroreceptors, tracer kinetics are described by the two-tissue compartment model (2-TCM), and binding parameters, including the total distribution volume (V T ), non-displaceable distribution volume (V ND ), and binding potential (BP ND ), can be determined from model parameters estimated by kinetic analysis. The stability of binding parameter estimates depends on the kinetic characteristics of radioligands. To describe these kinetic characteristics, we previously developed a two-phase graphic plot analysis in which V ND and V T can be estimated from the x-intercept of regression lines for early and delayed phases, respectively. In this study, we applied this graphic plot analysis to visual evaluation of the kinetic characteristics of radioligands for neuroreceptors, and investigated a relationship between the shape of these graphic plots and the stability of binding parameters estimated by the kinetic analysis with 2-TCM in simulated brain tissue time-activity curves (TACs) with various binding parameters. Methods 90-min TACs were generated with the arterial input function and assumed kinetic parameters according to 2-TCM. Graphic plot analysis was applied to these simulated TACs, and the curvature of the plot for each TAC was evaluated visually. TACs with several noise levels were also generated with various kinetic parameters, and the bias and variation of binding parameters estimated by kinetic analysis were calculated in each TAC. These bias and variation were compared with the shape of graphic plots. Results The graphic plots showed larger curvature for TACs with higher specific binding and slower dissociation of specific binding. The quartile deviations of V ND and BP ND determined by kinetic analysis were smaller for radioligands with slow dissociation. Conclusions The larger curvature of graphic plots for radioligands with slow dissociation might indicate a stable determination of V ND and BP ND by kinetic analysis. For

  11. A resource facility for kinetic analysis: modeling using the SAAM computer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Boston, R C; Jacquez, J A; Zech, L

    1989-01-01

    Kinetic analysis and integrated system modeling have contributed significantly to understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of metabolic systems in humans and animals. Many experimental biologists are aware of the usefulness of these techniques and recognize that kinetic modeling requires special expertise. The Resource Facility for Kinetic Analysis (RFKA) provides this expertise through: (1) development and application of modeling technology for biomedical problems, and (2) development of computer-based kinetic modeling methodologies concentrating on the computer program Simulation, Analysis, and Modeling (SAAM) and its conversational version, CONversational SAAM (CONSAM). The RFKA offers consultation to the biomedical community in the use of modeling to analyze kinetic data and trains individuals in using this technology for biomedical research. Early versions of SAAM were widely applied in solving dosimetry problems; many users, however, are not familiar with recent improvements to the software. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint biomedical researchers in the dosimetry field with RFKA, which, together with the joint National Cancer Institute-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute project, is overseeing SAAM development and applications. In addition, RFKA provides many service activities to the SAAM user community that are relevant to solving dosimetry problems.

  12. Kinetic modeling and dynamic analysis of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadbahr, Jalil; Khan, Faisal; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Deeper understanding of saccharification and fermentation process. • A new kinetic model for dynamic analysis of the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. • Testing and validation of kinetic model. - Abstract: Kinetic modeling and dynamic analysis of the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol was carried out in this study to determine the key reaction kinetics parameters and product inhibition features of the process. To obtain the more reliable kinetic parameters which can be applied for a wide range of operating conditions, batch SSF experiments were carried out at three enzyme loadings (10, 15 and 20 FPU/g cellulose) and two levels of initial concentrations of fermentable sugars (glucose and mannose). Results indicated that the maximum ethanol yield and concentration were achieved at high level of sugar concentrations with intermediate enzyme loading (15 FPU/g cellulose). Dynamic analysis of the acquired experimental results revealed that cellulase inhibition by cellobiose plays the most important role at high level of enzyme loading and low level of initial sugar concentrations. The inhibition of glucose becomes significant when high concentrations of sugars were present in the feedstock. Experimental results of SSF process also reveal that an efficient mixing between the phases helps to improve the ethanol yield significantly.

  13. Analysis of a closed-kinematic chain robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are the research results from the research grant entitled: Active Control of Robot Manipulators, sponsored by the Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) under grant number NAG-780. This report considers a class of robot manipulators based on the closed-kinematic chain mechanism (CKCM). This type of robot manipulators mainly consists of two platforms, one is stationary and the other moving, and they are coupled together through a number of in-parallel actuators. Using spatial geometry and homogeneous transformation, a closed-form solution is derived for the inverse kinematic problem of the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, built to study robotic assembly in space. Iterative Newton Raphson method is employed to solve the forward kinematic problem. Finally, the equations of motion of the above manipulators are obtained by employing the Lagrangian method. Study of the manipulator dynamics is performed using computer simulation whose results show that the robot actuating forces are strongly dependent on the mass and centroid locations of the robot links.

  14. Ordering Strategy Analysis of Prefabricated Component Manufacturer in Construction Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongxiong; Chung, Jacky K. H.; Chen, Yuhong; Pan, Yifan; Mei, Zhiling; Sun, Xiongle

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the characteristics and present situations of the prefabricated construction supply chain are analyzed; inventory cost models for construction material of every phase order, one-off order, and fractionated order are built based on traditional EOQ model and construction supply chain theory. Next, the order decision is represented in binary numbers 0 and 1, in which 0 stands for “no order” and 1 for “order.” The analysis uses the genetic algorithm, sets the objective function, and unde...

  15. Synergy between the Multiple Supply Chain and Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) approaches: an initial analysis aimed at fostering supply chain sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lima de Carvalho; Livia Rodrigues Ignácio; Kleber Francisco Esposto; Aldo Roberto Ometto

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) was created in the 90s to reduce the environmental impacts of productive systems. This approach seeks to improve the environmental performance of all the participants in a supply chain, from the extraction of raw materials to the use and final disposal of the product, through relationships of collaboration or conformity between the parties. The multiple supply chains approach established by Gattorna (2009) brought to light different supply c...

  16. Production of Medium-Chain-Length Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates from Saponified Palm Kernel Oil by Pseudomonas putida: Kinetics of Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annuar, M. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates, PHAMCL production by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. With saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO supplying the free fatty acids mixture as the sole carbon and energy source, PHAMCL accumulation is encouraged under ammonium-limited condition, which is a nitrogen stress environment. The amount of PHAMCL accumulated and its specific production rate, qPHA were influenced by the residual ammonium concentration level in the culture medium. It was observed that in both fermentation modes, when the residual ammonium was exhausted (< 0.05 gL-1, the PHAMCL accumulation (11.9% and qPHA (0.0062 h-1 were significantly reduced. However, this effect can be reversed by feeding low amount of ammonium to the culture, resulting in significantly improved PHAMCL yield (71.4% and specific productivity (0.6 h-1. It is concluded that the feeding of low ammonium concentration to the culture medium during the PHAMCL accumulation has a positive effect on sustaining the PHAMCL biosynthetic capability of the organism. It was also found that increasing SPKO concentration in the medium significantly reduced (up to 50% the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa of the fermentation system.

  17. Critical analysis: use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Granero Maltempe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leprosy is a neglected tropical disease and an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. It is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which has a predilection for the skin and peripheral nerves. Although it has low sensitivity, slit-skin smear (SSS remains the conventional auxiliary laboratory technique for the clinical diagnosis of leprosy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a molecular biology technique that holds promise as a simple and sensitive diagnostic tool. In the present study, the performance of two PCR methods, using different targets, PCR-LP and PCR-P, were compared with SSS with regard to leprosy diagnosis in a reference laboratory. M. leprae DNA was extracted from 106 lymph samples of 40 patients who had clinical suspicion of leprosy. The samples were subjected to both PCR techniques and SSS. Amplification of the human b-globin gene was used as PCR inhibitor control. The specificity of both PCR techniques was 100%, and sensitivity was 0.007 and 0.015 µg/ml for PCR-LP and PCR-P, respectively. No significant difference was found between either the PCR-LP or PCR-P results and SSS results (p > 0.05. Although PCR is not yet a replacement for SSS in the diagnosis of leprosy, this technique may be used as an efficient auxiliary tool for early detection of the disease, especially in endemic regions. This strategy may also be useful in cases in which SSS results are negative (e.g., in paucibacillary patients and cases in which skin biopsy cannot be performed.

  18. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains - I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacuci, D. G.; Cacuci, D. G.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure (ASAP) for generic dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains is presented, together with applications of this procedure to the analysis of several systems of increasing complexity. The general theory is presented in Part I of this work and is accompanied by a paradigm application to the dynamic reliability analysis of a simple binary component, namely a pump functioning on an 'up/down' cycle until it fails irreparably. This paradigm example admits a closed form analytical solution, which permits a clear illustration of the main characteristics of the ASAP for Markov chains. In particular, it is shown that the ASAP for Markov chains presents outstanding computational advantages over other procedures currently in use for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the dynamic reliability of large-scale systems. This conclusion is further underscored by the large-scale applications presented in Part II. (authors)

  19. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains - I: Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacuci, D. G. [Commiss Energy Atom, Direct Energy Nucl, Saclay, (France); Cacuci, D. G. [Univ Karlsruhe, Inst Nucl Technol and Reactor Safety, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Ionescu-Bujor, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Fus Program, D-76021 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The development of the adjoint sensitivity analysis procedure (ASAP) for generic dynamic reliability models based on Markov chains is presented, together with applications of this procedure to the analysis of several systems of increasing complexity. The general theory is presented in Part I of this work and is accompanied by a paradigm application to the dynamic reliability analysis of a simple binary component, namely a pump functioning on an 'up/down' cycle until it fails irreparably. This paradigm example admits a closed form analytical solution, which permits a clear illustration of the main characteristics of the ASAP for Markov chains. In particular, it is shown that the ASAP for Markov chains presents outstanding computational advantages over other procedures currently in use for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the dynamic reliability of large-scale systems. This conclusion is further underscored by the large-scale applications presented in Part II. (authors)

  20. Markov chains and semi-Markov models in time-to-event analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L; Charnigo, Richard J; Kryscio, Richard J

    2013-10-25

    A variety of statistical methods are available to investigators for analysis of time-to-event data, often referred to as survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression are commonly employed tools but are not appropriate for all studies, particularly in the presence of competing risks and when multiple or recurrent outcomes are of interest. Markov chain models can accommodate censored data, competing risks (informative censoring), multiple outcomes, recurrent outcomes, frailty, and non-constant survival probabilities. Markov chain models, though often overlooked by investigators in time-to-event analysis, have long been used in clinical studies and have widespread application in other fields.

  1. AIM analysis, synthetic, kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis (NPA), atoms in molecules (AIM) methods and CHelpG keyword. ... obtained from studies of the effect of solvent, structure of reactions (different alkyl groups within the dialkyl ...... compounds) have provided useful evidence for steps 1.

  2. Preparation of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate -co-acrylamide) hydrogels by gamma radiation: sol-gel analysis, swelling kinetic and mechanical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Concepcion Villanueva, Daniel; Peniche, Carlos; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2006-01-01

    2 hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) / acrylamide (Am) hydrogels were prepared by simultaneous radiation induced cross linking copolymerization. The G values of cross linking and degradation, gelation dose and further radiation parameters were estimated by sol/gel analysis. The dynamic swelling behaviour at 37 grade centigrade of these kind of materials was studied. The influence of the absorbed dose on the swelling degree at different pH was studied. It was observed that the kinetics is in good agreement with the second order diffusion kinetics proposed by Schott. The degree of cross linking was found to increase with the adsorbed dose and influence the mechanical properties to some extend. The molar mass of chain between the network cross links was estimated

  3. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…

  4. Supply chain analysis of e-tailing versus retailing operation - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Tiffany, Maryellen; Vaidya, Salil

    2016-07-01

    The swift growth of e-commerce or e-tailing as a consumer retail channel has made it a serious competitor to traditional retail channels and is changing consumers' purchasing behaviour. The purpose of this case study, based on Target and Amazon.com, is to analyse the attributes of traditional retailing, e-tailing, and hybrid supply chain models to form conclusions about the feasibility of an idealised supply chain model for the future. An integrated and generalised modelling framework is used that incorporates Six Sigma - define, measure, analyse, improve, control methodology leveraging various tools, including process flow maps, cause and effect diagram, performance efficiency metrics, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Based on this analysis and research, the conclusion is that the idealised supply chain of the future may evolve into a hybrid supply chain, which includes both e-tail and retail channels. The main recommendations from this study include assessing the risks of migrating to such a hybrid supply chain and to leverage the recommended actions provided in the hybrid FMEA. To facilitate more effective and mature processes, this study can guide researchers in exhaustive empirical evaluations of hybrid supply chains, gather experiences and lessons learned for practitioners.

  5. Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.

  6. Thermal degradation kinetics and isoconversional analysis of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/organomodified montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilias, Dimitris S.; Panayotidou, Elpiniki; Zuburtikudis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/organically modified clay nanocomposites were prepared by the melt mixing method and were characterized using wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Their thermal degradation kinetics was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis at various heating rates. Further kinetic analysis was performed using isoconversional methods and the invariant kinetic parameters method was used to estimate the so-called 'true' kinetic parameters, i.e. the pre-exponential factor, A and the activation energy, E, as well as the reaction model. It was found that intercalated structures are formed and the thermal stability of the material is improved by the addition of the nano-filler. From the isoconversional analysis, it was found that the activation energy does not vary significantly with the degree of degradation denoting degradation in one step with similar values for pure PHB and for all nanocomposites. Using the invariant kinetic parameters method, it was found that the model that best describes the experimental data was that of Sestak-Berggren's with f(a) = α n (1 - α) m , where the value of n is always larger than m and is increasing with the amount of the nano-filler. The value of the 'true' activation energy was found to be about 100 kJ mol -1 for all nanocomposites and the pre-exponential factor for PHB was estimated equal to 5.35 x 10 9 min -1 . Finally, the values of the kinetic rate constant k were found to decrease with the amount of the nano-filler up to 3 wt%, while for amounts larger than 3 wt% k increased reaching a value greater than that of pure PHB for the 10 wt% nanocomposites.

  7. Critical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Models. Part II: Kinetic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Żogała

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This paper presents state of art in the field of coal gasification modeling using kinetic and computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper also presents own comparative analysis (concerned with mathematical formulation, input data and parameters, basic assumptions, obtained results etc. of the most important models of underground coal gasification.

  8. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Fully Kinetic Model of Sequential Reductive Dechlorination in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2011-01-01

    experiments of complete trichloroethene (TCE) degradation in natural sediments. Global sensitivity analysis was performed using the Morris method and Sobol sensitivity indices to identify the most influential model parameters. Results show that the sulfate concentration and fermentation kinetics are the most...

  9. Modelling and simulation of a transketolase mediated reaction: Sensitivity analysis of kinetic parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayar, N.A.; Chen, B.H.; Lye, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have used a proposed mathematical model, describing the carbon-carbon bond format ion reaction between beta-hydroxypyruvate and glycolaldehyde to synthesise L-erythrulose, catalysed by the enzyme transketolase, for the analysis of the sensitivity of the process to its kinetic...

  10. In silico modelling and analysis of ribosome kinetics and aa-tRNA competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bošnački, D.; Pronk, T.E.; de Vink, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    We present a formal analysis of ribosome kinetics using probabilistic model checking and the tool Prism. We compute different parameters of the model, like probabilities of translation errors and average insertion times per codon. The model predicts strong correlation to the quotient of the

  11. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we

  12. Noise and ac impedance analysis of ion transfer kinetics at the micro liquid/liquid interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Josypčuk, Oksana; Holub, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 43-45 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04630S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : noise analysis * liquid/liquid interface * ion transfer kinetics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2015

  13. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the polymerization of polyurethanes by a rheological method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucio, Beatriz; Fuente, José Luis de la, E-mail: fuentegj@inta.es

    2016-02-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis for the formation of a functional polyurethane (PU) has been carried out. • Rheological parameters were used to obtain the profile of the resin's curing degree. • Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model describes well this polyaddition reaction. • A deeper understanding of the mechanism of PU systems has been achieved. • This metallo-PU finds its application in the chemistry of advanced energetic materials. - Abstract: As part of an investigation into the mechanism and chemorheology of linear segmented polyurethane (PU) systems, this paper presents the kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the reaction between an advanced functional metallo-polyol derivative of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), (ferrocenylbutyl)dimethylsilane grafted HTPB, and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). The evolution of viscoelastic properties, such as the storage modulus (G′), was recorded in bulk under isothermal conditions at four different temperatures between 50 and 80 °C, and a resin curing degree profile was obtained for this elastic modulus. The use of the Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model was proposed, describing the overall curing process perfectly. All the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, including reaction orders, kinetic constants and activation energy, were determined for the polyaddition reaction under study. A relevant autocatalysis effect, promoted by the urethane group, has been found. The isoconversion method was also used to analyze the variation of the global activation energy with conversion. The global activation energy increases slightly as the curing reaction proceeds with a maximum value reached at approximately 30% conversion. In addition, the Eyring parameters were calculated from the obtained kinetic data.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the polymerization of polyurethanes by a rheological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucio, Beatriz; Fuente, José Luis de la

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis for the formation of a functional polyurethane (PU) has been carried out. • Rheological parameters were used to obtain the profile of the resin's curing degree. • Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model describes well this polyaddition reaction. • A deeper understanding of the mechanism of PU systems has been achieved. • This metallo-PU finds its application in the chemistry of advanced energetic materials. - Abstract: As part of an investigation into the mechanism and chemorheology of linear segmented polyurethane (PU) systems, this paper presents the kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the reaction between an advanced functional metallo-polyol derivative of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), (ferrocenylbutyl)dimethylsilane grafted HTPB, and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). The evolution of viscoelastic properties, such as the storage modulus (G′), was recorded in bulk under isothermal conditions at four different temperatures between 50 and 80 °C, and a resin curing degree profile was obtained for this elastic modulus. The use of the Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model was proposed, describing the overall curing process perfectly. All the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, including reaction orders, kinetic constants and activation energy, were determined for the polyaddition reaction under study. A relevant autocatalysis effect, promoted by the urethane group, has been found. The isoconversion method was also used to analyze the variation of the global activation energy with conversion. The global activation energy increases slightly as the curing reaction proceeds with a maximum value reached at approximately 30% conversion. In addition, the Eyring parameters were calculated from the obtained kinetic data.

  15. Application of data envelopment analysis models in supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soheilirad, Somayeh; Govindan, Kannan; Mardani, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    . Regarding this, some major databases including Web of Science and Scopus have been nominated and systematic and meta-analysis method which called “PRISMA” has been proposed. Accordingly, a review of 75 published articles appearing in 35 scholarly international journals and conferences between 1996 and 2016...

  16. Comparative analysis among several methods used to solve the point kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Anderson L.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this work consists on the methodology development for comparison of several methods for the kinetics equations points solution. The evaluated methods are: the finite differences method, the stiffness confinement method, improved stiffness confinement method and the piecewise constant approximations method. These methods were implemented and compared through a systematic analysis that consists basically of confronting which one of the methods consume smaller computational time with higher precision. It was calculated the relative which function is to combine both criteria in order to reach the goal. Through the analyses of the performance factor it is possible to choose the best method for the solution of point kinetics equations. (author)

  17. Comparative analysis among several methods used to solve the point kinetic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Anderson L.; Goncalves, Alessandro da C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; E-mails: alupo@if.ufrj.br; agoncalves@con.ufrj.br; aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br; fernando@con.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of this work consists on the methodology development for comparison of several methods for the kinetics equations points solution. The evaluated methods are: the finite differences method, the stiffness confinement method, improved stiffness confinement method and the piecewise constant approximations method. These methods were implemented and compared through a systematic analysis that consists basically of confronting which one of the methods consume smaller computational time with higher precision. It was calculated the relative which function is to combine both criteria in order to reach the goal. Through the analyses of the performance factor it is possible to choose the best method for the solution of point kinetics equations. (author)

  18. Kinetic Analysis for Macrocyclizations Involving Anionic Template at the Transition State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martí-Centelles

    2012-01-01

    competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes.

  19. Rapid analysis of rearranged kappa light chain genes of circulating polysaccharide-specific B lymphocytes by means of immunomagnetic beads and the polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Barington, T; Madsen, HO

    1993-01-01

    reaction (PCR) using in addition a degenerate kappa light chain signal peptide region primer. The PCR product was cloned into the M13mp18 phage. The cloning efficiency was 100-600 clones/ml of blood. Of the 86 clones sequenced, 90% represented rearranged kappa light chain genes from different antibody...... of the B lymphocytes activated in vivo. Here, we present a method for rapid analysis of the rearranged kappa light chain genes used by human circulating antigen-specific B lymphocytes. After vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugated with protein, the Hib...

  20. Development of 3-dimensional neutronics kinetics analysis code for CANDU-PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. W.; Kim, C. H.; Hong, I. S.

    2005-02-01

    The followings are the major contents and scope of the research : development of kinetics power calculation module, formulation of space-dependent neutron transient analysis - implementation of 3-D and 2-G unified nodal method, verification of the kinetics module by benchmark problem - 3-D PHWR kinetics benchmark problem suggested by AECL, reactor trip simulation by shutdown system 1 in Wolsong unit 2. Development of a dynamic linked library code, SCAN D LL, for the coupled calculation with RELAP-CANDU : modeling of shutdown system 1, development of automatic shutdown module - automatic trip module based on rate log power control logic, automatic insertion of shutdown system 1. Development of a link code for coupled calculation - development of SCAN D LL(windows version), verification of coupled code by - 40% reactor inlet header break LOCA power pulse, 100% reactor outlet header break LOCA power pulse, 50% pump suction break LOCA power pulse

  1. Characteristics and kinetic studies of Hydrilla verticillata pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiquan; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Genbao; Chen, Xiaojuan; Hu, Mian; Laghari, Mahmood; Wang, Xun; Guo, Dabin

    2015-10-01

    The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of Hydrilla verticillata (HV) have been investigated using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the pyrolysis behavior of HV can be divided into two independent stages. The kinetics of Stage I was investigated using a distributed activation energy model (DAEM) with discrete 99 first-order reactions. Stage II was an independent stage which corresponds to the decomposition of calcium oxalate, whose kinetics was studied using iso-conversional method together with compensation effect and master-plots method. The activation energies ranged from 92.39 to 506.17 and 190.42 to 222.48 kJ/mol for the first and second stages respectively. Calculated data gave very good fit to the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of senior high school student understanding on gas kinetic theory material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anri, Y.; Maknun, J.; Chandra, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research conducted to find out student understanding profile about gas kinetic theory. Particularly, on ideal gas law material, ideal gas equations and kinetic energy of ideal gas. This research was conducted on student of class XII in one of the schools in Bandung. This research is a descriptive research. The data of this research collected by using test instrument which was the essay that has been developed by the researcher based on Bloom’s Taxonomy revised. Based on the analysis result to student answer, this research discovered that whole student has low understanding in the material of gas kinetic theory. This low understanding caused of the misconception of the student, student attitude on physic subjects, and teacher teaching method who are less helpful in obtaining clear pictures in material being taught.

  3. Mechanistic study of manganese-substituted glycerol dehydrogenase using a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Baishan; Niu, Jin; Ren, Hong; Guo, Yingxia; Wang, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic insights regarding the activity enhancement of dehydrogenase by metal ion substitution were investigated by a simple method using a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. By profiling the binding energy of both the substrate and product, the metal ion's role in catalysis enhancement was revealed. Glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) from Klebsiella pneumoniae sp., which demonstrated an improvement in activity by the substitution of a zinc ion with a manganese ion, was used as a model for the mechanistic study of metal ion substitution. A kinetic model based on an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism was proposed considering the noncompetitive product inhibition of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and the competitive product inhibition of NADH. By obtaining preliminary kinetic parameters of substrate and product inhibition, the number of estimated parameters was reduced from 10 to 4 for a nonlinear regression-based kinetic parameter estimation. The simulated values of time-concentration curves fit the experimental values well, with an average relative error of 11.5% and 12.7% for Mn-GDH and GDH, respectively. A comparison of the binding energy of enzyme ternary complex for Mn-GDH and GDH derived from kinetic parameters indicated that metal ion substitution accelerated the release of dioxyacetone. The metal ion's role in catalysis enhancement was explicated.

  4. Mechanistic study of manganese-substituted glycerol dehydrogenase using a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishan Fang

    Full Text Available Mechanistic insights regarding the activity enhancement of dehydrogenase by metal ion substitution were investigated by a simple method using a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. By profiling the binding energy of both the substrate and product, the metal ion's role in catalysis enhancement was revealed. Glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH from Klebsiella pneumoniae sp., which demonstrated an improvement in activity by the substitution of a zinc ion with a manganese ion, was used as a model for the mechanistic study of metal ion substitution. A kinetic model based on an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism was proposed considering the noncompetitive product inhibition of dihydroxyacetone (DHA and the competitive product inhibition of NADH. By obtaining preliminary kinetic parameters of substrate and product inhibition, the number of estimated parameters was reduced from 10 to 4 for a nonlinear regression-based kinetic parameter estimation. The simulated values of time-concentration curves fit the experimental values well, with an average relative error of 11.5% and 12.7% for Mn-GDH and GDH, respectively. A comparison of the binding energy of enzyme ternary complex for Mn-GDH and GDH derived from kinetic parameters indicated that metal ion substitution accelerated the release of dioxyacetone. The metal ion's role in catalysis enhancement was explicated.

  5. Development, validation and application of multi-point kinetics model in RELAP5 for analysis of asymmetric nuclear transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Santosh K., E-mail: santosh@aerb.gov.in [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India); Obaidurrahman, K. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India); Iyer, Kannan N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gaikwad, Avinash J. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A multi-point kinetics model is developed for RELAP5 system thermal hydraulics code. • Model is validated against extensive 3D kinetics code. • RELAP5 multi-point kinetics formulation is used to investigate critical break for LOCA in PHWR. - Abstract: Point kinetics approach in system code RELAP5 limits its use for many of the reactivity induced transients, which involve asymmetric core behaviour. Development of fully coupled 3D core kinetics code with system thermal-hydraulics is the ultimate requirement in this regard; however coupling and validation of 3D kinetics module with system code is cumbersome and it also requires access to source code. An intermediate approach with multi-point kinetics is appropriate and relatively easy to implement for analysis of several asymmetric transients for large cores. Multi-point kinetics formulation is based on dividing the entire core into several regions and solving ODEs describing kinetics in each region. These regions are interconnected by spatial coupling coefficients which are estimated from diffusion theory approximation. This model offers an advantage that associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing multi-point kinetics formulation can be solved using numerical methods to the desired level of accuracy and thus allows formulation based on user defined control variables, i.e., without disturbing the source code and hence also avoiding associated coupling issues. Euler's method has been used in the present formulation to solve several coupled ODEs internally at each time step. The results have been verified against inbuilt point-kinetics models of RELAP5 and validated against 3D kinetics code TRIKIN. The model was used to identify the critical break in RIH of a typical large PHWR core. The neutronic asymmetry produced in the core due to the system induced transient was effectively handled by the multi-point kinetics model overcoming the limitation of in-built point kinetics model

  6. Decision Analysis of Advertising and Price for Bilateral Competing Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of centralized equilibrium, prisoner's dilemma equilibrium, and decentralized equilibrium under different decision models has been provided with regards to bilateral competing supply chain system, either side of which is composed of one manufacturer and one retailer. Theoretical analysis indicates a positive correlation between price and one's own advertising investment level and a negative correlation between price and the opponent's advertising investment level. Through analysis of numerical examples, the results reveal a first mover advantage that leads to prisoner's dilemma in the system as well as the impact that price and advertising competition intensity has on the supply chain's choice of decision model.

  7. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analysis of Acetyl-CoA Activation of Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Lauren E; Bridges, Lance C; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Zeczycki, Tonya N

    2017-07-11

    Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer. Kinetic and linked-function analysis, or thermodynamic linkage analysis, indicates that the substrates of the biotin carboxylase and carboxyl transferase domain are energetically coupled in the presence of acetyl-CoA. In contrast, both kinetic and energetic coupling between the two domains is lost in the absence of acetyl-CoA, suggesting a functional role for acetyl-CoA in facilitating the long-range transmission of substrate-induced conformational changes within the PC tetramer. Interestingly, thermodynamic activation parameters for the SaPC-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate are largely independent of acetyl-CoA. Our results also reveal the possibility that global conformational changes give rise to observed species-specific thermodynamic activation parameters. Taken together, our kinetic and thermodynamic results provide a possible allosteric mechanism by which acetyl-CoA coordinates catalysis within the PC tetramer.

  8. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikabdullah, N.; Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A.; K, Elwaleed A.; Noorani, M. S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading

  9. A fuzzy MICMAC analysis for improving supply chain performance of basic vaccines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dheeraj; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, demand to improve child immunization coverage globally, and the development of the latest vaccines and technology has made the vaccine market very complex. The rise in such complexities often gives birth to numerous issues in the vaccine supply chain, which are the primary cause of its poor performance. Figuring out the cause of the performance problem can help you decide how to address it. The goal of the present study is to identify and analyze important issues in the supply chain of basic vaccines required for child immunization in the developing countries. Twenty-five key issues as various factors of the vaccine supply chain have been presented in this paper. Fuzzy MICMAC analysis has been carried out to classify the factors based on their driving and dependence power and to develop a hierarchy based model. Further, the findings have been discussed with the field experts to identify the critical factors. Three factors: better demand forecast, communication between the supply chain members, and proper planning and scheduling have been identified as the critical factors of vaccine supply chain. These factors should be given special care to improve vaccine supply chain performance.

  10. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  11. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Cassava Starch Based Bioplastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Eko Wahyuningtyas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch based bioplasticfor packaging application has great potency because of the various starch-producing plants in Indonesia.Bioplasticcan contribute to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels andpetroleumthat can solve the environmentalproblem.Thepurpose of this research is to find out the thermal decomposition and the activation energy of cassava starch based bioplastic. The methods weresynthesis bioplastic with cassava starch as main component and glycerol as plasticizer. The thermogravimetry analysis was conducted to obtain the decomposition process mechanism of bioplastic and the heating valueof bioplasticwas measured  using theadiabatic bomb calorimetric.  Data analysis was conducted using  a fitting model approach with an acikalin method to determine the activation energy. The result of thethermogravimetricanalysis showed thatbioplasticisgraduallydecomposedto the moisture, volatilematter, fixed carbon, andash in four stages mechanism. Totally decomposition of bioplastic was 530°C, then all of bioplastic was become the ash. The activation energy in the early and primary thermal decomposition stages are 1.27 kJ/moland 22.62 kJ/mol, respectively and heating valueof bioplastic is 15.16 MJ/kg.

  12. Hydrogen-exchange kinetics of the indole NH proton of the buried tryptophan in the constant fragment of the immunoglobulin light chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Y.; Goto, Y.; Hamaguchi, K.; Hayashi, F.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kyogoku, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The constant fragment of the immunoglobulin light chain (type λ) has two trytophyl residues at positions 150 and 187. Trp-150 is buried in the interior, and Trp-187 lies on the surface of the molecule. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange kinetics of the indole NH proton Trp-150 were studied at various pH values at 25 0 C by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance. Exchange rates were approximately first order in hydroxyl ion dependence above pH 8, were relatively independent of pH between pH 7 and 8, and decreased below pH 7. On the assumption that the exchange above pH 8 proceeds through local fluctuations of the protein molecule, the exchange rates between pH 7 and 8 through global unfolding were estimated. The exchange rate constant within this pH range at 25 0 C thus estimated was consistent with that of the global unfolding of the constant fragment under the same conditions as those reported previously. The activation energy for the exchange process at pH 7.8 was the same as that for the unfolding process by 2 M guanidine hydrochloride. The exchange rates of backbone NH protons were almost the same as that of the indole NH proton of Trp-150 at pH 7.l. These observations also indicated that the exchange between pH 7 and 8 occurs through global unfolding of the protein molecule and is rate-limited by the unfolding. At around pH 9, on the other hand, the activation energy for the exchange process of the indole NH proton of Trp-150 was smaller than that for the unfolding process, and the exchange rates differed according to the different signals of backbone NH protons. These findings together with the pH dependence of the rate constant indicated that exchange due to local fluctuations is predominant above pH 8

  13. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN UPPER EXTREMITY STABILITY TEST (CKCUEST) IN ADOLESCENTS: RELIABILITY OF CKCUEST IN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria M A; Pitangui, Ana C R; Nascimento, Vinícius Y S; da Silva, Hítalo A; Dos Passos, Muana H P; de Araújo, Rodrigo C

    2017-02-01

    The Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) has been proposed as an option to assess upper limb function and stability; however, there are few studies that support the use of this test in adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the intersession reliability and agreement of three CKCUEST scores in adolescents and establish clinimetric values for this test. Test-retest reliability. Twenty-five healthy adolescents of both sexes were evaluated. The subjects performed two CKCUEST with an interval of one week between the tests. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 3,3 ) two-way mixed model with a 95% interval of confidence was utilized to determine intersession reliability. A Bland-Altman graph was plotted to analyze the agreement between assessments. The presence of systematic error was evaluated by a one-sample t test. The difference between the evaluation and reevaluation was observed using a paired-sample t test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Standard error of measurements and minimum detectable changes were calculated. The intersession reliability of the average touches score, normalized score, and power score were 0.68, 0.68 and 0.87, the standard error of measurement were 2.17, 1.35 and 6.49, and the minimal detectable change was 6.01, 3.74 and 17.98, respectively. The presence of systematic error (p test with moderate to excellent reliability when used with adolescents. The CKCUEST is a measurement with moderate to excellent reliability for adolescents. 2b.

  14. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Three Biofuel Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Kara Cafferty; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Johnson; Zhichao Wang; Michael Wang; Mary Biddy; Abhijit Dutta; Daniel Inman; Eric Tan; Sue Jones; Lesley Snowden-Swan

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) collaborates with industrial, agricultural, and non-profit partners to develop and deploy biofuels and other biologically-derived products. As part of this effort, BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels as part state of technology (SOT) analyses. An SOT assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available. Overall assessments of biofuel pathways begin with feedstock production and the logistics of transporting the feedstock from the farm or plantation to the conversion facility or biorefinery. The conversion process itself is modeled in detail as part of the SOT analysis. The teams then develop an estimate of the biofuel minimum selling price (MSP) and assess the cost competitiveness of the biofuel with conventional fuels such as gasoline.

  15. Milk value chain analysis: the case of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur GOLBAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a product can be evaluated using the value chain analysis which represents the needed steps of the development cycle or process through which a product proceeds from its initial concept to pro-duction and final sale. The value chain includes the design, production, marketing, distribution and support to bring the product to its final consumer. Milk production sector is of great importance to the national economy. However, the milk is produced mostly in private households (95% from total volume of milk and approximately five percent is produced in agricultural enterprises. The paper has the purpose to present the value chain analysis of milk, the major problems the milk producers face at the value chain level and to propose solutions in order to increase the competiti-veness of milk production. For this study, data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Mol-dova and international commercial databases, were used. The results of the research give the possibility to understand the role of each element of the milk value chain in increasing the competitiveness of this product.

  16. Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); SSR, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.

  17. Sensitivity analysis in oxidation ditch modelling: the effect of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.A.A.; Keesman, K.J.; Straten, van G.; Spanjers, H.; Meinema, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the factorial sensitivity analysis methodology in studying the influence of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices of an oxidation ditch simulation model (benchmark). Factorial sensitivity analysis

  18. Assumption-free analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Christian; Ruijter, Jan M.; Deprez, Ronald H. Lekanne; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of mRNAs using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by monitoring the product formation with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I is being extensively used in neurosciences, developmental biology, and medical diagnostics. Most PCR data analysis procedures assume that the PCR

  19. Integrating Poverty and Environmental Concerns into Value-Chain Analysis: A Strategic Framework and Practical Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Bolwig, Simon; Ponte, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to guide the design and implementation of action-research projects in value-chain analysis by presenting a strategic framework focused on small producers and trading and processing firms in developing countries. Its stepwise approach – building on the conceptual framework set ou...... purpose of increasing the rewards and/or reducing the risks....

  20. Multivariate data analysis as a tool in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, R.; van den Berg, F.; Thybo, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes some recent advances in mathematical modeling of relevance in advanced quality monitoring in the food production chain. Using chemometrics-multivariate data analysis - it is illustrated how to tackle problems in food science more efficiently and, moreover, solve problems...

  1. Analysis of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Irish potato sector in Zimbabwe is not well understood. Using value chain analysis, this article evaluated the potato industry using quantitative data gathered from stakeholders using structured questionnaires, field observations, local knowledge and expert consultation.

  2. Development of a sandwich ELISA for the thrombin light chain identified by serum proteome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Sogawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We previously identified novel biomarker candidates in biliary tract cancer (BTC using serum proteome analysis. Among several candidates, we focused on thrombin light chain which is a 4204 Da peptide as the most promising biomarker for BTC. To move thrombin light chain toward potential diagnostic use, we developed an enzyme immunoassay that enables to measure serum thrombin light chain levels.Both one monoclonal antibody specific to the N-termini and one polyclonal antibody were used to develop a sandwich ELISA for thrombin light chain. The assay was evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained by the ClinProt™ system. Serum samples were obtained from 20 patients with BTC, 20 patients with BBTDs and 20 HVs using the ClinProt™ system and ELISA.The results of the established ELISA showed a positive correlation with the findings by ClinProt™ system (slope=0.3386, intercept=34.901, r2=0.9641. The performance of the ELISA was satisfactory in terms of recovery (97.9–102.5% and within-run (1.5–4.8% and between-day (1.9–6.7% reproducibility. Serum thrombin light chain levels were significantly greater in BTC (176.5±47.2 ng/mL than in BBTDs (128.6±17.4 ng/mL and HVs (127.6±16.0 ng/mL (p<0.001.The sandwich ELISA developed in this study will be useful for validation of the diagnostic significance of serum thrombin light chain levels in various cancers. Keywords: Thrombin light chain, Biliary tract cancer, Sandwich ELISA, Serum biomarker

  3. Sequence requirements of the HIV-1 protease flap region determined by saturation mutagenesis and kinetic analysis of flap mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei; Everitt, Lorraine; Manchester, Marianne; Loeb, Daniel D.; Hutchison, Clyde A.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    The retroviral proteases (PRs) have a structural feature called the flap, which consists of a short antiparallel β-sheet with a turn. The flap extends over the substrate binding cleft and must be flexible to allow entry and exit of the polypeptide substrates and products. We analyzed the sequence requirements of the amino acids within the flap region (positions 46–56) of the HIV-1 PR. The phenotypes of 131 substitution mutants were determined using a bacterial expression system. Four of the mutant PRs with mutations in different regions of the flap were selected for kinetic analysis. Our phenotypic analysis, considered in the context of published structures of the HIV-1 PR with a bound substrate analogs, shows that: (i) Met-46 and Phe-53 participate in hydrophobic interactions on the solvent-exposed face of the flap; (ii) Ile-47, Ile-54, and Val-56 participate in hydrophobic interactions on the inner face of the flap; (iii) Ile-50 has hydrophobic interactions at the distance of both the δ and γ carbons; (iv) the three glycine residues in the β-turn of the flap are virtually intolerant of substitutions. Among these mutant PRs, we have identified changes in both kcat and Km. These results establish the nature of the side chain requirements at each position in the flap and document a role for the flap in both substrate binding and catalysis. PMID:9122179

  4. Effect of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the electron transport and recombination kinetics in ionic gel electrolytes based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Tao, Li; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •A series of novel IGEs based on 12-hydroxystearicacid as LMOG were prepared. •The QS-DSSCs exhibit excellent stability during the accelerated aging tests. •The influence of Im + alkyl chain length on the electron kinetic process is investigated. -- Abstract: A series of stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs) are prepared by the 12-hydroxystearicacid as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to gelate the ionic liquid with different alkyl chain lengths (3, 4, and 7). The influence of alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations (Im + ) on the kinetic processes of electron transport and recombination are investigated by Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS). It is found that the ionic gel electrolytes (IGEs) with different alkyl chain lengths of Im + can influence the competitive adsorption effects of imidazolium cations (Im + ) and Li + , and further affect the charge diffusion, the electron recombination/transport processes, the shift of TiO 2 conduction band edge and surface states distribution. The IGE with longer alkyl chain length of Im + can prolong the electron recombination lifetime, promote the incidental photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and the short circuit photocurrent density (J sc ). An excellent QS-DSSC based on the IGE with the longer alkyl chain of Im + gives the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency. Moreover, all the QS-DSSCs based on IGEs exhibit excellent durability without losing their photovoltaic performances during the accelerated thermal and light–soaking test. These results are very important to the researches on the electrochemical mechanism and application of QS-DSSCs based on IGEs

  5. ANALYSIS OF LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT AGILITY IN CORRUGATED BOX INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Daryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several analyses were performed in this case study including the analysis of the business environments and the current supply chain system, which than followed by measurement and comparison of supply chain agility performance indicator. As corrugated box industry work in make/engineer to order system and by considering their competitive situation and uncertain business environment it was concluded that they need agility in their supply chain. The main problem was the unbalance power position with paper supplier that resulting low inbound inventory turns. Focusing on this weakness, two solutions were proposed; those are building higher collaboration with paper suppliers and performing better inventory management by set different inventory control and policy for each inventory class

  6. Deconvolution analysis of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate kinetics in metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, J.; Kroeger, E.; Stritzke, P.; Schneider, C.; Kruse, H.P.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and 47 Ca were studied in three patients with osteoporosis, three patients with hyperparathyroidism, and two patients with osteomalacia. The activities of sup(99m)Tc-MDP were recorded in the lumbar spine, paravertebral soft tissues, and in venous blood samples for 1 h after injection. The results were submitted to deconvolution analysis to determine regional bone accumulation rates. 47 Ca kinetics were analysed by a linear two-compartment model quantitating short-term mineral exchange, exchangeable bone calcium, and calcium accretion. The sup(99m)Tc-MDP accumulation rates were small in osteoporosis, greater in hyperparathyroidism, and greatest in osteomalacia. No correlations were obtained between sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone accumulation rates and the results of 47 Ca kinetics. However, there was a significant relationship between the level of serum alkaline phosphatase and bone accumulation rates (R = 0.71, P 47 Ca kinetics might suggest a preferential binding of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to the organic matrix of the bone, as has been suggested by other authors on the basis of experimental and clinical investigations. (orig.)

  7. Responsibility and Sustainability in a Food Chain: A Priority Matrix Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  This paper shows the results of empirical research conducted to assess the sustainability of a typical food supply chain, suggesting feasible solutions to satisfy inter-dimensional requisites of durable development. The analysis was conducted with reference to the supply chain of the San Marzano tomato (SMZ, a typical local food. The product is endowed with an origin certification label (PDO, meeting demand within high-value market niches. The SMZ is a flagship product in the Italian region of Campania and has benefited from several regionally funded interventions, such as genetic research and support for the application for EU certification of origin. Two key findings emerged from the research. First, the results allowed us to define a Stakeholder Priority and Responsibilities’ Matrix (SPRM, and monitor the sustainability trend of SMZ food supply chains. Second, the consistency between the adoption of quality strategy (brand of origin and sustainable development of the sector was evaluated. Despite its intrinsic characteristics and its organized, well-defined structure, the SMZ food supply chain is unable to address sustainable objectives without considerable public intervention and support. In terms of sustainability, to be able to show desirable food chain characteristics, the existence of a fully collaborative relationship between the actors has to be ascertained. Identifying shared goals is essential to assign and implement coordinated actions, pooling responsibility for product quality into social and environmental dimensions.

  8. System reliability assessment via sensitivity analysis in the Markov chain scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for reliability sensitivity analysis in the Markov chain scheme are presented, together with a new formulation which makes use of Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) methods. As well known, sensitivity methods are fundamental in system risk analysis, since they allow to identify important components, so to assist the analyst in finding weaknesses in design and operation and in suggesting optimal modifications for system upgrade. The relationship between the GPT sensitivity expression and the Birnbaum importance is also given [fr

  9. Measures of the zero power nuclear reactor's kinetic parameters with application of noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to establish an experimental technique based on noise analysis for measuring the ratio of kinetic parameters β/ Λ and the power of the Zero Power Nuclear Reactor IPEN-MB 01. A through study of the microscopic and macroscopic noise analysis techniques has been carried out. The Langevin technique and the point kinetic model were chosen to describe the stochastic phenomena that occur in the zero power reactor. Measurements have been made using two compensated ionization chambers localized in the water reflector at symmetric positions in order to minimize spatial effects on the neutron flux fluctuation. Power calibrations based on the low frequency plateau of the cross-power spectral density has also been carried out. (author)

  10. Distributed activation energy model for kinetic analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Li, W.; Wang, N.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Based on the new analysis of distributed activation energy model, a bicentral distribution model was introduced to the analysis of multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal. The hydropyrolysis for linear temperature programming with and without holding stage were mathematically described and the corresponding kinetic expressions were achieved. Based on the kinetics, the hydropyrolysis (HyPr) and multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPr) of Xundian brown coal was simulated. The results shows that both Mo catalyst and 2-stage holding can lower the apparent activation energy of hydropyrolysis and make activation energy distribution become narrow. Besides, there exists an optimum Mo loading of 0.2% for HyPy of Xundian lignite. 10 refs.

  11. Line shape and thermal Kinetics analysis of the Fe2+ -band in Brazilian Green beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Furtado, W.; Antonini, R.; Dias, O.L.

    1988-03-01

    The optical absorption spectra study through isothermal treatments of the σ- and Π-polarized bands of Fe 2+ -band is reported. It was shown a linear correlation between these bands through thermal treatments. Irradiation with γ-rays from 60 Co, showed the decrease of this band. The line shape analysis and the discussions lend us to assign the Π- and σ-polarized bands to Fe 2+ ions in the structural channels with and without neighbour water molecules, respectively. The kinetics analysis through a ''bimolecular-like'' model gives untrapping parameter with Arrhenius behavior. The retrapping and recombination parameters showed a behavior proportional to T 1/2 - T 1/2 o which were explained from free electron distribution of velocities and minimum untrapped electron energy due to a potential barrier of the trap. The kinetics cut-off temperature, T 0 , agrees with the previous experimental observation. (author) [pt

  12. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela

    2017-04-19

    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory (i.e., voxelwise) spatial methods are commonly used in neuroimaging to identify areas that show an effect when a region-of-interest (ROI) analysis cannot be performed because no strong a priori anatomical hypothesis exists. However, noise at a single voxel is much higher than noise...... in a ROI making noise management critical to successful exploratory analysis. This work explores how preprocessing choices affect the bias and variability of voxelwise kinetic modeling analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET) data. These choices include the use of volume- or cortical surface...

  14. The derivative assay--an analysis of two fast components of DNA rejoining kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The DNA rejoining kinetics of human U-118 MG cells were studied after gamma-irradiation with 4 Gy. The analysis of the sealing rate of the induced DNA strand breaks was made with a modification of the DNA unwinding technique. The modification meant that rather than just monitoring the number of existing breaks at each time of analysis, the velocity, at which the rejoining process proceeded, was determined. Two apparent first-order components of single-strand break repair could be identified during the 25 min of analysis. The half-times for the two components were 1.9 and 16 min, respectively

  15. Thermal behavior and kinetics assessment of ethanol/gasoline blends during combustion by thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); U.T.P. – Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); U.T.P. – Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Pereira, Risaralda (Colombia))" >Rios Quiroga, Luis Carlos; 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Balestieri, José 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Antonio Perrella; 3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus of Guaratinguetá, Department of Energy, Laboratory of Combustion and Carbon Capture LC3, CEP 12.516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil))" >Ávila, Ivonete

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition events were obtained. • Thermal analysis was used as a tool for understanding combustion processes. • Blends would be classified using thermogravimetric analysis technics. • Synergistic effect of ethanol mixed with gasoline was studied and defined. • Relative error and activation energy values were used to analyze the synergy. - Abstract: The use of ethanol as a fuel or as an additive blended with gasoline is very important for most countries, which aim to reduce the heavy dependence on fossil fuels and mitigate greenhouse gases emission. An increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends has placed great relevance on acquiring knowledge about their physical and chemical properties. Thus, knowledge of such properties favors a better understanding of the effect of the percentage of ethanol/gasoline blends on engine performance. Thence, the present study has established a correlation between activation energy and synergetic effects, obtained by a thermal analysis, and ethanol content in gasoline for different blends in order to use this technique as a tool to classify these blends in the process in order to obtain useful energy in spark ignition engines. For such a purpose, a kinetic study has been conducted through a simultaneous thermal analysis system – TGA (thermogravimetry analysis) and DTA (differential thermal analysis) by following the methodology of non-isothermal tests. Thermogravimetric tests were performed and fuel activation energies for gasoline, ethanol, and percentages of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, and 75% (%v) ethanol mixed with gasoline, which was achieved by the model free kinetics. The analysis results suggest that the theoretical curves characteristics of the thermal decomposition of ethanol-gasoline blends are rather different due to their ethanol content. Furthermore, it was observed significant interactions and synergistic effects, especially regarding those with low ethanol

  16. Dissociation kinetics of open-chain and macrocyclic gadolinium(III)-aminopolycarboxylate complexes related to magnetic resonance imaging: catalytic effect of endogenous ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Pálinkás, Zoltán; Uggeri, Fulvio; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Aime, Silvio; Brücher, Ernő

    2012-12-14

    The kinetics of the metal exchange reactions between open-chain Gd(DTPA)(2-) and Gd(DTPA-BMA), macrocyclic Gd(DOTA)(-) and Gd(HP-DO3A) complexes, and Cu(2+)  ions were investigated in the presence of endogenous citrate, phosphate, carbonate and histidinate ligands in the pH range 6-8 in NaCl (0.15 M) at 25 °C. The rates of the exchange reactions of Gd(DTPA)(2-) and Gd(DTPA-BMA) are independent of the Cu(2+) concentration in the presence of citrate and the reactions occur via the dissociation of Gd(3+)  complexes catalyzed by the citrate ions. The HCO(3)(-)/CO(3)(2-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions also catalyze the dissociation of complexes. The rates of the dissociation of Gd(DTPA-BMA), catalyzed by the endogenous ligands, are about two orders of magnitude higher than those of the Gd(DTPA)(2-). In fact near to physiological conditions the bicarbonate and carbonate ions show the largest catalytic effect, that significantly increase the dissociation rate of Gd(DTPA-BMA) and make the higher pH values (when the carbonate ion concentration is higher) a risk-factor for the dissociation of complexes in body fluids. The exchange reactions of Gd(DOTA)(-) and Gd(HP-DO3A) with Cu(2+) occur through the proton assisted dissociation of complexes in the pH range 3.5-5 and the endogenous ligands do not affect the dissociation rates of complexes. More insights into the interaction scheme between Gd(DTPA-BMA) and Gd(DTPA)(2-) and endogenous ligands have been obtained by acquiring the (13)C NMR spectra of the corresponding diamagnetic Y(III)-complexes, indicating the increase of the rates of the intramolecular rearrangements in the presence of carbonate and citrate ions. The herein reported results may have implications in the understanding of the etiology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a rare disease that has been associated to the administration of Gd-containing agents to patients with impaired renal function. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Application of Markov chains-entropy to analysis of depositional environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men Guizhen; Shi Xiaohong; Zhao Shuzhi

    1989-01-01

    The paper systematically and comprehensively discussed application of Markov chains-entropy to analysis of depositional environments of the upper Carboniferous series Taiyuan Formation in Anjialing, Pingshuo open-cast mine, Shanxi. Definite geological meanings were given respectively to calculated values of transition probability matrix, extremity probability matrix, substitution matrix and the entropy. The lithologic successions of coarse-fine-coarse grained layers from bottom upwards in the coal-bearing series made up the general symmetric cyclic patterns. It was suggested that the coal-bearing strata deposited in the coal-forming environment in delta plain-littoral swamps. Quantitative study of cyclic visibility and variation of formation was conducted. The assemblage relation among stratigraphic sequences and the significance of predicting vertical change were emphasized. Results of study showed that overall analysis of Markov chains was an effective method for analysis of depositional environments of coal-bearing strata. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Thermogravimetric Analysis and Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Veteri-narian Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Institutional waste from clinical centers can be classified as those coming from health institutions dedicated to human attention and those coming from centers for animal veterinary care. The latter are mainly hazardous wastes, hence their disposal requires incineration. Most of such waste is organic, and it is possible, therefore, to take advantage of their energetic power in combustion or pyrolysis processes. This work is motivated because no literature was found on the pyrolysis kinetics veterinary waste, as this kind of studies are mainly focused on hospital waste of human health care. Method: The kinetics of pyrolysis is characterized and studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis of 6 major veterinary waste (gauze, cotton swabs, cotton, nails, hair, plastic syringes. The characterization is performed by proximate and elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Reactivity characteristics and pyrolytic capability of wastes are established. The kinetics study on pyrolysis was carried out by determining the kinetic triplet by isoconversional Starink method. Results: It was established that the pyrolysis index increases with the heating rate and that the thermal degradation depends on the material type of the waste. Similarly, it was found that the temperature (ΔT = Tf - Ti for the thermal decomposition of veterinary waste is: ΔTnails> ΔThair > ΔTcotton swabs > ΔTgauze > ΔTcotton > ΔTplastic syringes; the activation energy is Enails> E hair > Eplastic syringes > Ecotton swabs > E gauze > Ecotton, and the reaction order is: n hair > nnails > ncotton swabs > ncotton > n gauze > n plastic syringes. Conclusions: These results suggest the possibility of using veterinary wastes for power generation, providing an alternative for sustainable energy development to cities in continuous growth, from both, energetic and environmental points of view.

  19. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-17

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO{sub 2} savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  20. Analysis of environmental and economic aspects of international pellet supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrig, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays a key role to achieve the EU's 20-20-20 energy and climate targets. Because of rising European demand and limited domestic resources, the EU relies on worldwide imports. Given this framework, the present thesis explores the influences on wood pellet supply chains considering different environmental policies, price risks and the effect of torrefaction pretreatment. The examinations refer to three real case studies for pellet trade from Australia, Canada, and Russia to Europe. In the first investigation, the efficiency of co-firing imported wood pellets in terms of CO 2 savings and related subsidy schemes is analysed. Scenarios show that co-firing biomass is efficient to contribute to the EU energy targets. Though, policy makers could use these instruments more effective when directing sourcing decision towards options with even less environmental impacts. The second analysis explores the influence of statistically derived price risks on total supply chain economics. It is shown that price risks can effect strong fluctuations in the short term, which seriously affect the profitability of individual trade routes. Securing the supply chain is mainly based on individual producer-buyer agreements, personal branch experiences and fast reactions on the subsidy system. Systematic evaluation of supply chains could contribute to a more reliable market and thus foster investment decisions. In the last investigation, the economic and environmental performance of potential torrefaction-based supply chains is assessed. As a result, torrefaction-based supply chains turn out to be a certain alternative to conventional ones. Though, still huge research efforts and industrial demonstration are required to make torrefied biomass a real alternative on the market.

  1. A kinetic-based sigmoidal model for the polymerase chain reaction and its application to high-capacity absolute quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Don

    2008-05-01

    with the LinReg and Miner automated qPCR data processing packages further demonstrated the superior performance of this kinetic-based methodology. Conclusion Called "linear regression of efficiency" or LRE, this novel kinetic approach confers the ability to conduct high-capacity absolute quantification with unprecedented quality control capabilities. The computational simplicity and recursive nature of LRE quantification also makes it amenable to software implementation, as demonstrated by a prototypic Java program that automates data analysis. This in turn introduces the prospect of conducting absolute quantification with little additional effort beyond that required for the preparation of the amplification reactions.

  2. Validity of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for Kinetic Gait Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Eguchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB has been suggested as an inexpensive, portable and accessible alternative to costly laboratory-grade force plates for measuring the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF and center of pressure (COP. Kinetic gait analysis provides important information for the rehabilitation of patients with gait disorders; however, the validity of the WBB for measuring kinetic gait parameters has not been evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of walking force measurements—which change dynamically in a short period of stance time—collected with the WBB. Three healthy adults were asked to walk 10 steps along both straight and curved paths in clockwise (CW and counterclockwise (CCW directions while measurements were taken using the WBB and the force plate. The accuracy of the vGRF, COP trajectory, and stance duration were evaluated using the root-mean-square error (RMSE, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots (BAPs to compare the WBB and the force plate. The results of the vGRF showed high accuracy (r > 0.96 and %RMSE < 6.1% in the mean values, and the stance duration as defined by the vGRF and COP trajectory was equivalent to that of commercial instrumented insoles, which are used as an alternative to the force plates. From these results, we determined that the WBB may be used for kinetic gait analysis in clinical settings where lower accuracy is acceptable.

  3. Analysis for the Sorption Kinetics of Ag Nanoparticles on Natural Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Ruíz-Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic adsorption behavior of silver nanoparticles deposited on a natural zeolite from Oaxaca is presented. Theoretical models as Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion were employed and compared with experimental data obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Correlation factors R2 of the order of 0.99 were observed. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the zeolite. Additionally, chemical characterization of the material was carried out through a dilution process with lithium metaborate. An average value of 9.3 in the Si/Al ratio was observed and related to the kinetic adsorption behavior of the zeolite.

  4. A Numerical Procedure for Model Identifiability Analysis Applied to Enzyme Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daele, Timothy, Van; Van Hoey, Stijn; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    The proper calibration of models describing enzyme kinetics can be quite challenging. In the literature, different procedures are available to calibrate these enzymatic models in an efficient way. However, in most cases the model structure is already decided on prior to the actual calibration...... and Pronzato (1997) and which can be easily set up for any type of model. In this paper the proposed approach is applied to the forward reaction rate of the enzyme kinetics proposed by Shin and Kim(1998). Structural identifiability analysis showed that no local structural model problems were occurring......) identifiability problems. By using the presented approach it is possible to detect potential identifiability problems and avoid pointless calibration (and experimental!) effort....

  5. From thermometric to spectrophotometric kinetic-catalytic methods of analysis. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Víctor; González, Alba; Danchana, Kaewta

    2017-05-15

    Kinetic-catalytic analytical methods have proved to be very easy and highly sensitive strategies for chemical analysis, that rely on simple instrumentation [1,2]. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry is commonly used as the detection technique. However, other detection systems, like electrochemical or thermometric ones, offer some interesting possibilities since they are not affected by the color or turbidity of the samples. In this review some initial experience with thermometric kinetic-catalytic methods is described, up to our current experience exploiting spectrophotometric flow techniques to automate this kind of reactions, including the use of integrated chips. Procedures for determination of inorganic and organic species in organic and inorganic matrices are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal Analysis On The Kinetics Of Magnesium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides In Different Heating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC methods in argon environment. The influence of heating rates (including 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20K/min on the thermal behavior of LDHs was revealed. By the methods of Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, the thermal kinetic parameters of activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the exothermic processes under non-isothermal conditions were calculated using the analysis of corresponding DSC curves.

  7. Analysis of cell kinetics after gamma ray irradiation using anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagi, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1989-01-01

    The cell cycle was analyzed using anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody, and changes in cell kinetics after gamma ray irradiation as evaluated by this BrdU-PI double staining were compared with those evaluated by the DNA histogram method based on PI staining. The effect of irradiation on the cell kinetics has been studied according primarily to the number of G2 blocked cells. By the present BrdU method, rapid transition of the G1-S phase was observed within 2 hours of irradiation, and then G1 block was observed. Cells in the S phase progressed to the G2 + M cells returned to the G1 phase after 18 or more hours. These initial G1 blocked cells induced by irradiation were confirmed for the fist time by the present BrdU-PI double staining. By the conventional method based on the DNA histogram, accurate determination of S cell fraction was difficult due to overlapping of the DNA contents of G1 cells and early S cells and those of late S cells and G2 cells. On the other hand, BrdU-PI double staining allowed direct differentiation of G1, S, and G2 + M cells, especially between G1-S and S-G2 + M cells. The analysis of cell kinetics using BrdU is advantageous over the conventional autoradiographic methods in that it allowed more rapid assay with very high sensitivity. In addition, BrdU is alrady used clinically as an enhancement agent in radiation therapy for cancer. The present method is considered to be indispensable for evaluation of the percentage of S cells in the tumor tissue and analysis of cell kinetics after irradiation and chemotherapy against cancer. (author)

  8. A comparative investigation of 18F kinetics in receptors: a compartment model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Anjani K.; Swatantra; Kaushik, A.; Mishra, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Some authors reported that 18 F kinetics might be useful for evaluation of neuro receptors. We hypothesized that 18 F kinetics may show some information about neuronal damage, and each rate constant might have statistically significant correlation with WO function. The purpose of this study was to investigate 99m Tc MIBI kinetics through a compartment model analysis. Each rate constant from compartment analysis was compared with WO, T1/2, and (H/M) ratio in early and delayed phase. Different animal model were studied. After an injection the dynamic planar imaging was performed on a dual-headed digital gamma camera system for 30 minutes. An ROI was drawn manually to assess the global kinetics of 18 F. By using the time-activity curve (TAC) of ROI as a response tissue function and the TAC of Aorta as an input function, we analysed 18 F pharmacokinetics through a 2-compartment model. We defined k1 as influx rate constant, k2 as out flux rate constant and k3 as specific uptake rate constant. And we calculated k1/k2 as distribution volume (Vd), k1k3/k2 as specific uptake (SU), and k1k3/(k2+k3) as clearance. For non-competitive affinity studies of PET two modelling parameters distribution volume (DV) and Bmax / Kd are also calculated. Results: Statistically significant correlations were seen between k2 and T1/2 (P 18 F at the injection had relation to the uptake of it at 30 minutes and 2 hours after the injection. Furthermore, some indexes had statistically significant correlation with DV and Bmax. These compartment model approaches may be useful to estimate the other related studies

  9. Canonical Correlation Analysis Between Supply Chain Quality Management And Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaghooshi Ahmad Jafarnejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitive environment of today’s organizations, more than ever, is extensive, and the major concern for managers is to preserve and promote the sustainable competitive advantage. Companies have an obligation to improve their product quality and have extensive and close cooperation with other companies involved in the supply chain of products. Supply chain quality management (SCQM is a systematic approach to improve the performance that integrates supply chain partners and uses the opportunity in the best way, establish linkages between upstream and downstream flows, and investigate on creating value and satisfaction of intermediaries and final customers. Furthermore, achieving competitive advantages enables an organization to create a remarkable position in market and differentiate itself from competitors. This paper aims to understand the relationships between SCQM and competitive advantage. Sixty-eight experts of 25 companies in Sahami Alyaf (SA supply chain has been participated in this research. The research method used for this article is descriptive correlation. To assess the relationships between the criteria, canonical correlation analysis was used. The result shows that the SCQM and competitive advantages have a meaningful relationship. It also shows that most important variable in the linear combination of SCQM and competitive advantages are “customer focus and quality,” respectively.

  10. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  11. Analysis of short-chain acids from anaerobic bacteria by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrant, G O; Lambert, M A; Moss, C W

    1982-01-01

    A standard mixture of 25 short-chain fatty acids was resolved by high-performance liquid chromatography, using an Aminex HPX-87 column. The acids produced in culture media by anaerobic bacteria were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after extraction with ether and reextraction into a small volume of 0.1 N NaOH. The presence of fumaric acid in culture extracts of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the trapped eluent ...

  12. Securing the Containerized Supply Chain: Analysis of Government Incentives for Private Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bakshi; Noah Gans

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the threat that terrorists smuggle weapons of mass destruction into the United States through maritime containers, the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspects containers upon entry to domestic ports. Inspection-driven congestion is costly, and CBP provides incentives to firms to improve security upstream in the supply chain, thereby reducing the inspection burden at U.S. ports. We perform an economic analysis of this incentive program, called Customs-Trade Part...

  13. A multi-regional structural path analysis of the energy supply chain in China's construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jingke; Shen, Qiping; Xue, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry in China exerts significant environmental impacts and uses considerable resources because of rapid urbanization. This study conducted a structural path analysis (SPA) based on the multi-regional input–output table to quantify environmental impact transmission in the entire supply chain. Results indicated that the direct resource input (the first stage) along with on-site construction (the zeroth stage) consumed the highest amount of energy in the supply chain and accounted for approximately 50% of total energy consumption. Regional analysis showed that energy consumption in the construction industry at the provincial level was self-sufficient. Sectoral analysis demonstrated that the direct inputs from the sectors of “manufacture of non-metallic mineral products” and “smelting and pressing of metals” generated the most important energy flows, whereas the sectors of “production and distribution of electric power and heat power” and “extraction of petroleum and natural gas” significantly but indirectly influenced energy use. Sensitivity analysis exhibited that the system boundary of SPA could be narrowed down into the first two upstream stages that contained nearly 50% of energy flow information or expanded toward the first five upstream stages that represented 80% of total energy consumption. - Highlights: •We designed an optimized algorithm for multi-regional SPA. •We extracted energy-intensive paths throughout the upstream supply chain. •We explored self-sufficiency characteristic for provincial construction industries. •We identified energy-intensive sectors hidden in higher-order supply chain. •We developed an effective strategy for narrowing down the system boundary of SPA.

  14. Analysis of the paired TCR α- and β-chains of single human T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Min Kim

    Full Text Available Analysis of the paired i.e. matching TCR α- and β-chain rearrangements of single human T cells is required for a precise investigation of clonal diversity, tissue distribution and specificity of protective and pathologic T-cell mediated immune responses. Here we describe a multiplex RT-PCR based technology, which for the first time allows for an unbiased analysis of the complete sequences of both α- and β-chains of TCR from single T cells. We validated our technology by the analysis of the pathologic T-cell infiltrates from tissue lesions of two T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases, psoriasis vulgaris (PV and multiple sclerosis (MS. In both disorders we could detect various T cell clones as defined by multiple T cells with identical α- and β-chain rearrangements distributed across the tissue lesions. In PV, single cell TCR analysis of lesional T cells identified clonal CD8(+ T cell expansions that predominated in the epidermis of psoriatic plaques. An MS brain lesion contained two dominant CD8(+ T-cell clones that extended over the white and grey matter and meninges. In both diseases several clonally expanded T cells carried dual TCRs composed of one Vβ and two different Vα-chain rearrangements. These results show that our technology is an efficient instrument to analyse αβ-T cell responses with single cell resolution in man. It should facilitate essential new insights into the mechanisms of protective and pathologic immunity in many human T-cell mediated conditions and allow for resurrecting functional TCRs from any αβ-T cell of choice that can be used for investigating their specificity.

  15. Combustion kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Kabir, G; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multicompartmental analysis of the kinetics of monoclonal antibody in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, K.; De Nardo, G.L.; De Nardo, S.J.; Peng, J.S.; Macey, D.J.; Hisada, K.; Tonami, N.

    1985-01-01

    Multicompartmental models were applied for analysis of kinetics of iodide labeled monoclonal antibody in cancer patients. About 14 compartments such as intravascular antibody pool, interstitial antibody pool, antibody processors, tumor antigen site, intravascular immune complex pool, intravascular iodide pool, and urine iodide pool were assumed. This model accounts for three molecular species, the antibody, and antibody complex, and free iodide or iodinated peptides. Patients were injected with I-123-Lym-1 IgG2a (anti B cell lymphoma antibody). After injection, blood and urine samples were sequentially collected. Plasma and urine were separated by HPLC into fractions of intact antibody, immune complex, and free iodide. This information was used for input data in the theoretical model. SAAM computer program was used to solve these compartmental models. Published linear rate constants for human serum albumin and human non-immune IgG were initially used. However, data calculated from the model differed from observed curves in several respects. The kinetics of mouse monoclonal antibody, a foreign protein in a patient, were significantly different from those reported for human IgG. When a nonlinear, saturable hepatic processor was incorporated in the model, calculated data fit the observed data better. This kinetic model provides a basis for calculating radiation doses for radioiodinated antibodies

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics and thermal behavior of waste sawdust biomass using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ranjeet Kumar; Mohanty, Kaustubha

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports pyrolysis behavior of three waste biomass using thermogravimetric analysis to determine kinetic parameters at five different heating rates. Physiochemical characterization confirmed that these biomass have the potential for fuel and energy production. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at five different heating rates (5-25 °C min -1 ). Five model-free methods such as Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW), Friedman, Coats-Redfern, and distributed activation energy (DAEM) were used to calculate the kinetic parameters. The activation energy was found to be 171.66 kJ mol -1 , 148.44 kJ mol -1 , and 171.24 kJ mol -1 from KAS model; 179.29 kJ mol -1 , 156.58 kJ mol -1 , and 179.47 kJ mol -1 from OFW model; 168.58 kJ mol -1 , 181.53 kJ mol -1 , and 184.61 kJ mol -1 from Friedman model; and 206.62 kJ mol -1 , 171.63 kJ mol -1 , and 160.45 kJ mol -1 from DAEM model for PW, SW, AN biomass respectively. The calculated kinetic parameters are in good agreement with other reported biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model. Part I: Model repeatability and kinematic validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Dustin A; Cooney, Kevin M; Buczek, Frank L

    2012-04-01

    Kinematic multi-segment foot models are still evolving, but have seen increased use in clinical and research settings. The addition of kinetics may increase knowledge of foot and ankle function as well as influence multi-segment foot model evolution; however, previous kinetic models are too complex for clinical use. In this study we present a three-segment kinetic foot model and thorough evaluation of model performance during normal gait. In this first of two companion papers, model reference frames and joint centers are analyzed for repeatability, joint translations are measured, segment rigidity characterized, and sample joint angles presented. Within-tester and between-tester repeatability were first assessed using 10 healthy pediatric participants, while kinematic parameters were subsequently measured on 17 additional healthy pediatric participants. Repeatability errors were generally low for all sagittal plane measures as well as transverse plane Hindfoot and Forefoot segments (median<3°), while the least repeatable orientations were the Hindfoot coronal plane and Hallux transverse plane. Joint translations were generally less than 2mm in any one direction, while segment rigidity analysis suggested rigid body behavior for the Shank and Hindfoot, with the Forefoot violating the rigid body assumptions in terminal stance/pre-swing. Joint excursions were consistent with previously published studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of overhand, sidearm and underhand lacrosse shot techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Charles A J; Katz, Larry; Stergiou, Pro; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Tomaghelli, Luciano

    2017-12-01

    Lacrosse requires the coordinated performance of many complex skills. One of these skills is shooting on the opponents' net using one of three techniques: overhand, sidearm or underhand. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine which technique generated the highest ball velocity and greatest shot accuracy and (ii) identify kinematic and kinetic variables that contribute to a high velocity and high accuracy shot. Twelve elite male lacrosse players participated in this study. Kinematic data were sampled at 250 Hz, while two-dimensional force plates collected ground reaction force data (1000 Hz). Statistical analysis showed significantly greater ball velocity for the sidearm technique than overhand (P  0.05). Kinematic and kinetic variables were not significantly correlated to shot accuracy or velocity across all shot types; however, when analysed independently, the lead foot horizontal impulse showed a negative correlation with underhand ball velocity (P = 0.042). This study identifies the technique with the highest ball velocity, defines kinematic and kinetic predictors related to ball velocity and provides information to coaches and athletes concerned with improving lacrosse shot performance.

  20. Pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of castor (Ricinus communis) residue using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Gera, Poonam; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2018-02-01

    Castor plant is a fast-growing, perennial shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. More than 50% of the residue is generated from its stems and leaves. The main aim of this work is to study the pyrolytic characteristics, kinetics and thermodynamic properties of castor residue. The TGA experiments were carried out from room temperature to 900 °C under an inert atmosphere at different heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min. The kinetic analysis was carried using different models namely Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS). The average E ɑ calculated by FWO and KAS methods were 167.10 and 165.86 kJ/mole respectively. Gibbs free energy varied from 150.62-154.33 to 150.59-154.65 kJ/mol for FWO and KAS respectively. The HHV of castor residue was 14.43 MJ/kg, considered as potential feedstock for bio-energy production. Kinetic and thermodynamic results will be useful input for the design of pyrolytic process using castor residue as feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanina, Tatiana V.; Yadav, Pramod K.; Ballou, David P.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be −123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. PMID:26318450

  2. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Yadav, Pramod K; Ballou, David P; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-10-09

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be -123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. In-depth investigation on the pyrolysis kinetics of raw biomass. Part I: kinetic analysis for the drying and devolatilization stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2013-03-01

    An in-depth investigation was conducted on the kinetic analysis of raw biomass using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), from which the activation energy distribution of the whole pyrolysis process was obtained. Two different stages, namely, drying stage (Stage I) and devolatilization stage (Stage II), were shown in the pyrolysis process in which the activation energy values changed with conversion. The activation energy at low conversions (below 0.15) in the drying stage ranged from 10 to 30 kJ/mol. Such energy was calculated using the nonisothermal Page model, known as the best model to describe the drying kinetics. Kinetic analysis was performed using the distributed activation energy model in a wide range of conversions (0.15-0.95) in the devolatilization stage. The activation energy first ranged from 178.23 to 245.58 kJ/mol and from 159.66 to 210.76 kJ/mol for corn straw and wheat straw, respectively, then increasing remarkably with an irregular trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Value Chain Governance: Scenarios to Develop Small-Scale Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini Irawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture industry had shown a long chain of production to consumption, from raw material producers (tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers, and retailers to exporters. Jepara as a centre furniture industry in Indonesia incorporates around 15,000 business units and provide livelihoods to approximately 170,000 workers. This sector contributes about 27% of Jepara‘s people domestic income. Small and medium furniture enterprises (SMEs have significant roles in the furniture industry as production structures are characterized by them. Power and information imbalance throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in problems of uneven distribution of gains among actors of the industry. SME furniture producers have experienced an unfair value added distribution. Hence, development of SMEs is important for strengthening the industry and expected to result in a portion of value added distribution to them.  We are trying to develop scenarios for SME improvement in the furniture industry in Jepara by identifying their problems and implementing Value Chain Analysis (VCA. VCA is an approach to describe SME producer relations with other actors in the industry and the governance type of their relations. Data is collected by interviewing selected SMEs from the association of small scale producers in Jepara to get detailed maps of their value chain. The research will produce future scenarios and intervention points to improve small-scale producer sustainability and better value added distribution among furniture actors. The scenarios will not only benefit selected producers but also the furniture industry of Jepara, and can be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and abroad. Keywords: furniture, value chain, governance, scenario, small-scale

  5. Kinetic analysis of volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Landaverde, P A; Qian, M C; Torres, J A

    2007-09-01

    Volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) was investigated from a reaction kinetic analysis point of view to illustrate the advantages of this technology. The concentration of 27 volatiles of different chemical class in milk subjected to pressure, temperature, and time treatments was fitted to zero-, 1st-, and 2nd-order chemical reaction models. Temperature and pressure effects on rate constants were analyzed to obtain activation energy (E(a)) and activation volume (deltaV*) values. Hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal followed 1st-order kinetics with rate constants characterized by E(a) values decreasing with pressure reflecting negative deltaV* values. Formation of 2-methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, and hydrogen sulfide followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants increasing with temperature but with unclear pressure effects. E(a) values for 2-methylpropanal and 2,3-butanedione increased with pressure, that is, deltaV* > 0, whereas values for hydrogen sulfide remained constant, that is, deltaV* = 0. The concentration of all other volatiles, including methanethiol, remained unchanged in pressure-treated samples, suggesting large negative deltaV* values. The concentration of methyl ketones, including 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-decanone, and 2-undecanone, was independent of pressure and pressure-holding time. PATP promoted the formation of few compounds, had no effect on some, and inhibited the formation of volatiles reported to be factors of the consumer rejection of "cooked" milk flavor. The kinetic behavior observed suggested that new reaction formation mechanisms were not likely involved in volatile formation in PATP milk. The application of the Le Chatelier principle frequently used to explain the high quality of pressure-treated foods, often with no supporting experimental evidence, was not necessary.

  6. Synthetic spectral analysis of a kinetic model for slow-magnetosonic waves in solar corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Wenzhi; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com (China); Zhang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Vocks, Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 14482, Potsdam (Germany); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Peter, Hardi [Max Plank Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    We propose a kinetic model of slow-magnetosonic waves to explain various observational features associated with the propagating intensity disturbances (PIDs) occurring in the solar corona. The characteristics of slow mode waves, e.g, inphase oscillations of density, velocity, and thermal speed, are reproduced in this kinetic model. Moreover, the red-blue (R-B) asymmetry of the velocity distribution as self-consistently generated in the model is found to be contributed from the beam component, as a result of the competition between Landau resonance and Coulomb collisions. Furthermore, we synthesize the spectral lines and make the spectral analysis, based on the kinetic simulation data of the flux tube plasmas and the hypothesis of the surrounding background plasmas. It is found that the fluctuations of parameters of the synthetic spectral lines are basically consistent with the observations: (1) the line intensity, Doppler shift, and line width are fluctuating in phase; (2) the R-B asymmetry usually oscillate out of phase with the former three parameters; (3) the blueward asymmetry is more evident than the redward asymmetry in the R-B fluctuations. The oscillations of line parameters become weakened for the case with denser surrounding background plasmas. Similar to the observations, there is no doubled-frequency oscillation of the line width for the case with flux-tube plasmas flowing bulkly upward among the static background plasmas. Therefore, we suggest that the “wave + beam flow” kinetic model may be a viable interpretation for the PIDs observed in the solar corona.

  7. Expression analysis and specific blockade of the receptor for human thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) by novel antibodies to the human TSLPRα receptor chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Andreas; Vetter, Tina; Kuepper, Michael; Wohlmann, Andreas; Krause, Sebastian; Lorenzen, Thomas; Virchow, Johann Christian; Luttmann, Werner; Friedrich, Karlheinz

    2013-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7 (IL-7)-like cytokine with a pivotal role in development and maintenance of atopic diseases such as allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. Moreover, recent studies show an involvement of TSLP in the progression of various cancers. TSLP signaling is mediated by the TSLP receptor (TSLPR), a heterodimeric type I cytokine receptor. It consists of the IL-7 receptor alpha chain (IL-7Rα), which is shared with the IL-7 receptor, and the TSLPRα chain as a specific subunit. Blocking signal release by TSLP without affecting IL-7 function is a potentially interesting option for the treatment of atopic diseases or certain tumors. By employing the extracellular domain of human TSLPRα chain (hTSLPRα(ex)) as an antigen, we generated a set of monoclonal antibodies. Several binders to native and/or denatured receptor protein were identified and characterized by cytometry and Western blot analysis. A screen based on a STAT3-driven reporter gene assay in murine pro-B cells expressing a functional hTSLPR yielded two hybridoma clones with specific antagonistic properties towards hTSLP, but not IL-7. Kinetic studies measuring blockade of hTSLP-dependent STAT phosphorylation in a TSLP-responsive cell line revealed an inhibitory constant in the nanomolar range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of the temperature coefficients and the kinetic parameters for the HTTR safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhara, K.; Nakata, T.; Murata, I.; Yamashita, K.; Shindo, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the calculational methods which were employed to determine the temperature coefficients and the kinetic parameters for the safety analysis in the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). The temperature coefficients (doppler, moderator temperature) and the kinetic parameters (prompt neutron life time; l, effective delayed neutron fraction; β eff) are important for the point model core dynamic analysis and should be evaluated properly. The temperature coefficients were calculated by the whole core model. Doppler coefficient was evaluated under the conditions of all control rods withdrawn and the uniform change of fuel temperature. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated doppler coefficients in a burnup cycle are -4.6x10 -5 and -1.5x10 -5 ΔK/K/deg. C respectively. The moderator temperature coefficient was evaluated under the conditions of all control rods withdrawn and the uniform change of moderator temperature. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated moderator temperature coefficients in a burnup cycle are -17.1x10 -5 and 0.99x10 -5 ΔK/K/deg. C respectively. In spite of positive moderator temperature coefficient, the power coefficient is always negative. Therefore the HTTR possesses inherent power-suppressing feed back characteristic in all operating condition. We surveyed the effects of the Xe existence, the control rods existence, the fuel temperature and the region in which the temperature was changed on the moderator temperature coefficients. The kinetic parameters were calculated by the perturbation method with the whole core model. The minimum and the maximum value of the evaluated effective delayed neutron fraction (β eff) are 0.0047 and 0.0065 respectively. These of the evaluated prompt neutron life time (l) are 0.67 and 0.78 ms respectively. We have surveyed the effects of the fuel depletion and the core power level on these parameters, and considered these effects on the kinetic parameters. From

  9. Bayesian data analysis of severe fatal accident risk in the oil chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckle, Petrissa; Burgherr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the risk of severe fatal accidents causing five or more fatalities and for nine different activities covering the entire oil chain. Included are exploration and extraction, transport by different modes, refining and final end use in power plants, heating or gas stations. The risks are quantified separately for OECD and non-OECD countries and trends are calculated. Risk is analyzed by employing a Bayesian hierarchical model yielding analytical functions for both frequency (Poisson) and severity distributions (Generalized Pareto) as well as frequency trends. This approach addresses a key problem in risk estimation-namely the scarcity of data resulting in high uncertainties in particular for the risk of extreme events, where the risk is extrapolated beyond the historically most severe accidents. Bayesian data analysis allows the pooling of information from different data sets covering, for example, the different stages of the energy chains or different modes of transportation. In addition, it also inherently delivers a measure of uncertainty. This approach provides a framework, which comprehensively covers risk throughout the oil chain, allowing the allocation of risk in sustainability assessments. It also permits the progressive addition of new data to refine the risk estimates. Frequency, severity, and trends show substantial differences between the activities, emphasizing the need for detailed risk analysis. © 2012 Paul Scherrer Institut.

  10. Value Chain Analysis of Prol Tape Cassava in Agroindustry in Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fennela Firman Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the mapping of prol tape value chain and the critical succes factor (CSF to define effective strategyto improve the prol tape. The sampling methods were census and snowball sampling. The data analysis methods were mapping analysis, CSF, and benchmarking. The findings showed that the agroindustrial actors spent the highest amount of money in one production process, 2,278,999.75 rupiahs, and as the consequence got the least amount of profit, 862,292.25 rupiahs. According to the agroindustry, the most criticalfactors were taste, quality, and price, while those according to the consumers were taste, quality, and expired. The factor that had highest gap score was expired (0.97 followed by innovation (0.6 and supply (0.53. Therefore, the methods of upgrading to do were process upgrading (minimizing defects in raw materials, product upgrading (improving flavors, product diversification, mentioning expiration date and increasing supply, functional upgrading (increasing machine capacity for production and chain upgrading (shifting the chain and not involving retailers, increasing the number of stores (outlets in strategic locations, and buying raw materials directly from tape sellers.

  11. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  12. Impacts of Returning Unsold Products in Retail Outsourcing Fashion Supply Chain: A Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available l outsourcing with a return policy is quite commonly adopted in the fashion supply chain. Under the return policy, the supplier as a brand owner may focus on production, and then outsource retailing to the retailer. In the meanwhile, the retailer may receive some support money from the supplier for subsidizing the loss of unsold products at the end of the selling season and be asked for shipping back. Motivated by this real practice in the fashion industry, we examine a two-echelon supply chain with one supplier and one retailer under the return policy. Several interesting findings are obtained from our analysis. First, we find that when the supply chain achieves channel coordination, the cost of physical return is at least partially borne by the supplier, no matter who is responsible for it in reality. Second, we find that the cost of physical return is significantly affecting the sustainability factors such as the expected amount leftover (which represents environmental friendliness, the expected sales to expected goods leftover ratio (which implies both environmental friendliness and economic sustainability, and the rate of return on investment (which indicates economic sustainability. Third, from a sustainability perspective, we find that the pure wholesale price contract is more sustainable than the coordinating return policy. A numerical study by the real company data is conducted and managerial insights from analysis are discussed.

  13. Optimization of casting defects analysis with supply chain in cast iron foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narayanaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the foundries are in need of meeting production targets and due to the urgency they ignore the rejections. The objective of this paper is to analyze the various defects, [1] from molding process in a cast iron foundry. The Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA in quality control [2-6] with suitable supply chain for mold making process considering rejection rates are identified and analyzed in terms of Risk Priority Number (RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The optimum levels of selected parameters [7] are obtained in this analysis.

  14. Derringer desirability and kinetic plot LC-column comparison approach for MS-compatible lipopeptide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Matthias; Verbeke, Frederick; Stalmans, Sofie; Gevaert, Bert; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2014-06-01

    Lipopeptides are currently re-emerging as an interesting subgroup in the peptide research field, having historical applications as antibacterial and antifungal agents and new potential applications as antiviral, antitumor, immune-modulating and cell-penetrating compounds. However, due to their specific structure, chromatographic analysis often requires special buffer systems or the use of trifluoroacetic acid, limiting mass spectrometry detection. Therefore, we used a traditional aqueous/acetonitrile based gradient system, containing 0.1% (m/v) formic acid, to separate four pharmaceutically relevant lipopeptides (polymyxin B 1 , caspofungin, daptomycin and gramicidin A 1 ), which were selected based upon hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In total, the performance of four different C18 columns, including one UPLC column, were evaluated using two parallel approaches. First, a Derringer desirability function was used, whereby six single and multiple chromatographic response values were rescaled into one overall D -value per column. Using this approach, the YMC Pack Pro C18 column was ranked as the best column for general MS-compatible lipopeptide separation. Secondly, the kinetic plot approach was used to compare the different columns at different flow rate ranges. As the optimal kinetic column performance is obtained at its maximal pressure, the length elongation factor λ ( P max / P exp ) was used to transform the obtained experimental data (retention times and peak capacities) and construct kinetic performance limit (KPL) curves, allowing a direct visual and unbiased comparison of the selected columns, whereby the YMC Triart C18 UPLC and ACE C18 columns performed as best. Finally, differences in column performance and the (dis)advantages of both approaches are discussed.

  15. Variation of ratio kinetic profiles as a simple and novel spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous kinetic analysis of binary mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseri Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new and very simple kinetic - spectrophotometric method is developed for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures without prior separational steps. The method is based on the calculation of the variation of ratio kinetic profiles. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is also illustrated. The proposed method can be used for simultaneous determination of two analytes A and B that react with the same reagent to give the same absorbing species. In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, a model data as well as an experimental data were tested. The results from experimental data relating to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Co (II and V (IV based on their oxidation reactions with Fe (III in the presence 1, 10- Phenanthroline (Phen in micellar media were presented as a real model for resolution of the binary systems. The applicability of the method in tap water and synthesized alloy samples was also assessed by spiking experiments with different amount of Co (II and V (IV.

  16. Analysis of supply chain management in a university restaurant through exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Galvão Scheidegger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The service sector has been gaining increasing relevance in the Brazilian economy and society. However, the challenges faced by the enterprises, especially small and micro enterprises, are numerous when considering the competitiveness and the difficulties imposed by the Brazilian market structure. Thus, understanding the supply chain management of small business becomes extremely important, once it can contribute to their survival. Therefore, this study aims to conduct an assessment of the supply chain management process within the service sector. For this, it was adopted as object of study a university restaurant, which while face the usual challenges of micro enterprises, also has special characteristics that make the process even more complex. With exploratory character and using qualitative research, the work developed through mapping tools such as SIPOC and SWOT analysis, a better understanding of the context and identified some opportunities for further study, thus complying with the proposed objectives.

  17. Kinematic and dynamic modeling and approximate analysis of a roller chain drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    for analytical studies of the coupled motion of the chain spans and driven sprocket. Parametric excitation of the spans come from sprocket angular displacements, and the driven sprocket acts as a boundary which can be compliant in the axial direction. External transverse excitation of the spans comes from...... polygonal action, and is treated through kinematic forcing at the moving string boundaries. Perturbation analysis of the model is carried out using the method of multiple scales. Results show a multitude of internal and external resonance conditions, and some examples are presented of both decoupled...... and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model are aimed toward providing a framework for conducting and understanding both numerical, and experimental investigations of roller chain drive dynamics....

  18. Oxidation kinetics and auger microprobe analysis of some oxidized zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics at 300 o C in dry oxygen of 0.5 wt% binary alloys of iron, nickel, and chromium in zirconium were determined for several surface preparations. Further, chemical profiles of the oxides as they existed on the matrix and on the precipitates were obtained by sputtering and Auger electron analysis. The appearance of 'breakaway' oxidation was controlled by the surface finish of the alloy, a variable that could be used to eliminate the phenomenon for all alloys except the Zr/Ni binary, which required β-quenching to accomplish the same purpose. (author)

  19. Kinetic analysis of the thermal decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Mosqueda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A single dynamic kinetic analysis, describing the surface decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets, has been performed. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses were performed between 1000 and 1100°C and different times, perceiving the Li4Ti5O12 decomposition to Li2Ti3O7, with a loss of lithium. As expected, more rapid decomposition behaviour was found at higher temperatures. Finally, the activation energy for this decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 to Li2Ti3O7 was estimated to be equal to 383 kJ/mol.

  20. Kinetic analysis of laser induced phosphorescence in uranyl phosphate for improved analytical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushaw, B.A.

    1983-10-01

    Pulsed dye-laser excitation with multichannel scaler photon counting is used to obtain time resolved emission spectra of uranyl ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic analysis of this data corrects for matrix quenching and temperature effects which reduce the quantum yield of the uranyl ion luminescence. The method gives accurate measurements without separative prechemistry or the use of internal standards. Detection limits of one part-per-trillion (pptr) have been demonstrated, and in samples with concentrations greater than 100 pptr, relative standard deviations of less than 3% are achieved routinely

  1. Spectral and kinetic analysis of radiation induced optical attenuation in silica: towards intrinsic fibre optic dosimetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgermans, P.

    2002-01-01

    The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The PhD work concerns the detailed investigation of the behaviour of optical fibres in radiation fields such as is the case for various nuclear and space application,s. The core of the work concerns the spectral and kinetic analysis of the radiation induced optical attenuation. Models describing underlying physical phenomena, both for the spectral and the time dimensions, have been developed. The potential of silica optical fibre waveguides for intrinsic dosimetry has been assessed by employing specific properties of radiation induced defects in the silica waveguide material

  2. Kinetic analysis of the termal decomposition of colombian vacuum residua by termogravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Andrey Diaz Mateus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Five different Colombian vacuum residues were thermally decomposed in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Three heating rates were employed to heat the sample up to 650°C. The kinetic analysis was performed by the Coats-Redfern method to describe the non-isothermal pyrolysis of the residua, a reaction model where the reaction order gradually increases from first to second order is proposed and an excellent agreement of the experimental with the calculated data is presented. The results also indicate that the pyrolysis of a vacuum residue cannot be modeled by a single reaction mechanism.

  3. Analysis of the effect on growth kinetics of gamma prima phase in Inconel 713C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, S.I.; Versaci, R.A.; Ges, A.; Palacio, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work shows the analysis of the effect on growth kinetics of gamma prima phase in Inconel 713C alloy of two thermic treatments. In this study, SEM are used and the results are analyzed by means of the theory developed by Lifshitz, Slyozov and Wagner (LSW theory). The findings have revealed that with such theory it is not possible to determine if the process of growth is controlled either through diffusion or through diffusion in the interface as to the time employed in the experiment (2600 hours); the time required is approximately 10000 hours. (Author)

  4. Purification of SUMO conjugating enzymes and kinetic analysis of substrate conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ali A.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMO conjugation to protein substrates requires the concerted action of a dedicated E2 ubiquitin conjugation enzyme (Ubc9) and associated E3 ligases. Although Ubc9 can directly recognize and modify substrate lysine residues that occur within a consensus site for SUMO modification, E3 ligases can redirect specificity and enhance conjugation rates during SUMO conjugation in vitro and in vivo. In this chapter, we will describe methods utilized to purify SUMO conjugating enzymes and model substrates which can be used for analysis of SUMO conjugation in vitro. We will also describe methods to extract kinetic parameters during E3-dependent or E3-independent substrate conjugation. PMID:19107417

  5. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  6. Impact of spatial kinetics in severe accident analysis for a large HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    The impact on spatial kinetics on the analysis of severe accidents initiated by the unprotected withdrawal of one or more control rods is investigated for a large heavy water reactor. Large inter- and intra-assembly power shifts are observed, and the importance of detailed geometrical modeling of fuel assemblies is demonstrated. Neglect of space-time effects is shown to lead to erroneous estimates of safety margins, and of accident consequences in the event safety margins are exceeded. The results and conclusions are typical of what would be expected for any large, loosely coupled core

  7. Analysis of the kinetic mechanism of recombinant human isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase (Icmt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Rudi A

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt is the third of three enzymes that posttranslationally modify proteins that contain C-terminal CaaX motifs. The processing of CaaX proteins through this so-called prenylation pathway via a route initiated by addition of an isoprenoid lipid is required for both membrane targeting and function of the proteins. The involvement of many CaaX proteins such as Ras GTPases in oncogenesis and other aberrant proliferative disorders has led to the targeting of the enzymes involved in their processing for therapeutic development, necessitating a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the enzymes. Results In this study, we have investigated the kinetic mechanism of recombinant human Icmt. In the reaction catalyzed by Icmt, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet provides the methyl group that is transferred to the second substrate, the C-terminal isoprenylated cysteine residue of a CaaX protein, thereby generating a C-terminal prenylcysteine methyl ester on the protein. To facilitate the kinetic analysis of Icmt, we synthesized a new small molecule substrate of the enzyme, biotin-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine (BFC. Initial kinetic analysis of Icmt suggested a sequential mechanism for the enzyme that was further analyzed using a dead end competitive inhibitor, S-farnesylthioacetic acid (FTA. Inhibition by FTA was competitive with respect to BFC and uncompetitive with respect to AdoMet, indicating an ordered mechanism with SAM binding first. To investigate the order of product dissociation, product inhibition studies were undertaken with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy and the N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methylester (AFCME. This analysis indicated that AdoHcy is a competitive inhibitor with respect to AdoMet, while AFCME shows a noncompetitive inhibition with respect to BFC and a mixed-type inhibition with respect to AdoMet. These studies established that AdoHcy is the final product released, and

  8. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  9. Empirical analysis of the solar incentive policy for Tennessee solar value chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Rapinder; Thakur, Kaveri; Venkatesan, Bharadwaj; Ji, Shuguang; Upreti, Girish; Sanseverino, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tennessee solar value chain (TNSVC) is modeled to analyze effect of policy on demand. • TNSVC model replicates realistic scenarios to gauge the economic impact on state. • Simulation study determines that the TNSVC capacity is greater than demand. • Direct cash incentives have greater impact on demand than indirect incentives. • The model portrays a holistic approach to assist strategic energy policy analysis. - Abstract: The market for solar energy in the US has grown exponentially due to increased consumer demand resulting from price reduction via economies of scale, technological progress, and a variety of incentives from federal and state governments as well as utility companies. The installation of solar power in Tennessee has more than doubled each year from 2009 to 2011. In this paper, we focus on the behavior of the Tennessee Solar Value Chain (TNSVC) to study the factors that influence growth of solar industry in the state. The impact of existing incentives on the TNSVC is analyzed. The TNSVC is simulated based on inputs from on-site survey to estimate economic impact in terms of the number of jobs added and the tax revenue generated in the state. In addition, a sensitivity analysis for the impact on the TNSVC under different policies those may be adopted by the state of Tennessee in the future is conducted. This paper employs a holistic model which can predict PV installation demand, understand solar value chain capacity, and estimate the revenue generation. It should be noted that the method employed in this study is not unique to the solar energy industry in Tennessee. The data utilized in this study is a combination of public domain information and surveys of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and installers. This makes the model in this paper flexible enough to be applied to assess the solar value chain in other state or country

  10. Pyrolysis behaviors and kinetic studies on Eucalyptus residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhihua; Zhu, Quanjie; Wang, Xun; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The first study on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of Eucalyptus residues. • Pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages using differential DTG method. • A new modified discrete DAEM showed better than Gaussian DAEM for kinetic studies. • Variations of activation energy reveal the mechanism change during pyrolysis process. - Abstract: The pyrolysis behaviors and kinetics of Eucalyptus leaves (EL), Eucalyptus bark (EB) and Eucalyptus sawdust (ESD) were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Three stages for EL, EB and ESD pyrolysis have been divided using differential derivative thermogravimetric (DDTG) method and the second stage is the main pyrolysis process with approximately 86.93% (EL), 88.96% (EB) and 97.84% (ESD) weight loss percentages. Kinetic parameters of Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) for EL, EB and ESD pyrolysis are: distributed centers (E_0) of 141.15 kJ/mol (EL), 149.21 kJ/mol (EB), 175.79 kJ/mol (ESD), standard deviations (σ) of 18.35 kJ/mol (EL), 18.37 kJ/mol (EB), 14.41 kJ/mol (ESD) and pre-exponential factors (A) of 1.15E+10 s"−"1 (EL), 4.34E+10 s"−"1 (EB), 7.44E+12 s"−"1 (ESD). A new modified discrete DAEM was performed and showed excellent fits to experimental data than Gaussian DAEM. According to the modified discrete DAEM, the activation energies are in ranges of 122.67–308.64 kJ/mol, 118.72–410.80 kJ/mol and 108.39–192.93 kJ/mol for EL, EB and ESD pyrolysis, respectively. The pre-exponential factors of discrete DAEM have wide ranges of 4.84E+13–6.12E+22 s"−"1 (EL), 1.91E+12–4.51E+25 s"−"1 (EB) and 63.43–4.36E+11 s"−"1 (ESD). The variation of activation energy versus conversion reveals the mechanism change during pyrolysis process. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop suitable thermo-chemical systems for the application of Eucalyptus residues.

  11. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U- 14 C-glucose and 1,2, 13 C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model

  12. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT). Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative analysis of myocardial kinetics of 15-p-[iodine-125] iodophenylpentadecanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Holden, J.E.; Ng, C.K.; Raffel, D.M.; Gatley, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Myocardial extraction and the characteristic tissue clearance of radioactivity following bolus injections of a radioiodinated ( 125 I) long chain fatty acid (LCFA) analog 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) were examined in the isolated perfused working rat heart. Radioactivity remaining in the heart was monitored with external scintillation probes. A compartmental model which included nonesterified tracer, catabolite, and complex lipid compartments successfully fitted tissue time-radioactivity residue curves, and gave a value for the rate of IPPA oxidation 1.8 times that obtained from steady-state release of tritiated water from labeled palmitic acid. The technique was sensitive to the impairment of LCFA oxidation in hearts of animals treated with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, 2[5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). IPPA or similar modified fatty acids may be better than 11 C-labeled physiological fatty acids such as palmitate in this type of study, because efflux of unoxidized tracer and catabolite(s) from the heart are kinetically more distinct, and their contributions to the early data can be reliably separated. This technique may be suitable for extension to in vivo measurements with position tomography and appropriate modified fatty acids

  14. Quantitative analysis of myocardial kinetics of 15-p-(iodine-125) iodophenylpentadecanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Holden, J.E.; Ng, C.K.; Raffel, D.M.; Gatley, S.J.

    1989-07-01

    Myocardial extraction and the characteristic tissue clearance of radioactivity following bolus injections of a radioiodinated (/sup 125/I) long chain fatty acid (LCFA) analog 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) were examined in the isolated perfused working rat heart. Radioactivity remaining in the heart was monitored with external scintillation probes. A compartmental model which included nonesterified tracer, catabolite, and complex lipid compartments successfully fitted tissue time-radioactivity residue curves, and gave a value for the rate of IPPA oxidation 1.8 times that obtained from steady-state release of tritiated water from labeled palmitic acid. The technique was sensitive to the impairment of LCFA oxidation in hearts of animals treated with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl)oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). IPPA or similar modified fatty acids may be better than /sup 11/C-labeled physiological fatty acids such as palmitate in this type of study, because efflux of unoxidized tracer and catabolite(s) from the heart are kinetically more distinct, and their contributions to the early data can be reliably separated. This technique may be suitable for extension to in vivo measurements with position tomography and appropriate modified fatty acids.

  15. Quantitative analysis of myocardial kinetics of 15-p-[iodine-125] iodophenylpentadecanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrado, T R; Holden, J E; Ng, C K; Raffel, D M; Gatley, S J

    1989-07-01

    Myocardial extraction and the characteristic tissue clearance of radioactivity following bolus injections of a radioiodinated (125I) long chain fatty acid (LCFA) analog 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) were examined in the isolated perfused working rat heart. Radioactivity remaining in the heart was monitored with external scintillation probes. A compartmental model which included nonesterified tracer, catabolite, and complex lipid compartments successfully fitted tissue time-radioactivity residue curves, and gave a value for the rate of IPPA oxidation 1.8 times that obtained from steady-state release of tritiated water from labeled palmitic acid. The technique was sensitive to the impairment of LCFA oxidation in hearts of animals treated with the carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor, 2[5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). IPPA or similar modified fatty acids may be better than 11C-labeled physiological fatty acids such as palmitate in this type of study, because efflux of unoxidized tracer and catabolite(s) from the heart are kinetically more distinct, and their contributions to the early data can be reliably separated. This technique may be suitable for extension to in vivo measurements with position tomography and appropriate modified fatty acids.

  16. Stability and Bifurcation Analysis of a Three-Species Food Chain Model with Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Pijush; Pal, Nikhil; Samanta, Sudip; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    In the present paper, we investigate the impact of fear in a tri-trophic food chain model. We propose a three-species food chain model, where the growth rate of middle predator is reduced due to the cost of fear of top predator, and the growth rate of prey is suppressed due to the cost of fear of middle predator. Mathematical properties such as equilibrium analysis, stability analysis, bifurcation analysis and persistence have been investigated. We also describe the global stability analysis of the equilibrium points. Our numerical simulations reveal that cost of fear in basal prey may exhibit bistability by producing unstable limit cycles, however, fear in middle predator can replace unstable limit cycles by a stable limit cycle or a stable interior equilibrium. We observe that fear can stabilize the system from chaos to stable focus through the period-halving phenomenon. We conclude that chaotic dynamics can be controlled by the fear factors. We apply basic tools of nonlinear dynamics such as Poincaré section and maximum Lyapunov exponent to identify the chaotic behavior of the system.

  17. Fracture overprinting history using Markov chain analysis: Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Morgan E.; Waldron, John W. F.

    2018-03-01

    The deformation history of the Upper Paleozoic Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada, can be partially unraveled by examining fractures (joints, veins, and faults) that are well exposed on the shorelines of the macrotidal Bay of Fundy, in subsurface core, and on image logs. Data were collected from coastal outcrops and well core across the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, a subbasin in the Maritimes Basin, using the circular scan-line and vertical scan-line methods in outcrop, and FMI Image log analysis of core. We use cross-cutting and abutting relationships between fractures to understand relative timing of fracturing, followed by a statistical test (Markov chain analysis) to separate groups of fractures. This analysis, previously used in sedimentology, was modified to statistically test the randomness of fracture timing relationships. The results of the Markov chain analysis suggest that fracture initiation can be attributed to movement along the Minas Fault Zone, an E-W fault system that bounds the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin to the north. Four sets of fractures are related to dextral strike slip along the Minas Fault Zone in the late Paleozoic, and four sets are related to sinistral reactivation of the same boundary in the Mesozoic.

  18. Non-invasive differentiation of pancreatic lesions: is analysis of FDG kinetics superior to semiquantitative uptake value analysis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzsche, E.U.; Hoegerle, S.; Mix, M.; Brink, I.; Otte, A.; Moser, E.

    2002-01-01

    The diagnostic utility of fluorine-18 2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the non-invasive differentiation of focal pancreatic lesions originating from cancer or chronic pancreatitis by combined visual image interpretation and semiquantitative uptake value analysis has been documented. However, in clinical routine some misdiagnosis is still observed. This is because there is potential overlap between the semiquantitative uptake values obtained for active inflammatory lesions and cancer. Therefore, this prospective study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that analysis of dynamic kinetics of focal pancreatic lesions based on FDG PET may more accurately determine the benign or malignant nature of such lesions. Thirty patients (56±17 years) were studied dynamically with FDG PET for a period of 60-90 min. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: control, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Two observers, blinded to the clinical data, analysed the time-activity curves of FDG kinetics based on region of interest analysis. The diagnosis predicted by FDG PET was compared with the result of histological examination of the surgical specimen. Analysis of FDG kinetics revealed significant differences in the shape of the time-activity curve for controls, pancreatic cancer and inflammatory disease. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in the time-activity curve shape for chronic pancreatitis and acute pancreatitis; this is, however, not a clinical issue. Furthermore, acquisition time (60 min vs 90 min) did not affect interpretation of the time-activity curve, so that scanning time may be regularly shortened to 60 min. Interobserver agreement was 1. Based on these findings, non-invasive differentiation between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis was correctly predicted in all cases, as confirmed by histology. In addition, the specificity was increased compared with that obtained from standardised

  19. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Bayesian Data Analysis in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib

    2017-08-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian data analysis has now become the method of choice for analyzing and interpreting data in almost all disciplines of science. In astronomy, over the last decade, we have also seen a steady increase in the number of papers that employ Monte Carlo based Bayesian analysis. New, efficient Monte Carlo based methods are continuously being developed and explored. In this review, we first explain the basics of Bayesian theory and discuss how to set up data analysis problems within this framework. Next, we provide an overview of various Monte Carlo based methods for performing Bayesian data analysis. Finally, we discuss advanced ideas that enable us to tackle complex problems and thus hold great promise for the future. We also distribute downloadable computer software (available at https://github.com/sanjibs/bmcmc/ ) that implements some of the algorithms and examples discussed here.

  20. Applying Different Independent Component Analysis Algorithms and Support Vector Regression for IT Chain Store Sales Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting. PMID:25165740

  1. Applying different independent component analysis algorithms and support vector regression for IT chain store sales forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wensheng; Wu, Jui-Yu; Lu, Chi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT) chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR), is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model) was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA), temporal ICA (tICA), and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA) to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting.

  2. Optimization Analysis of Supply Chain Resource Allocation in Customized Online Shopping Service Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For an online-shopping company, whether it can provide its customers with customized service is the key to enhance its customers’ experience value and its own competence. A good customized service requires effective integration and reasonable allocation of the company’s supply chain resources running in the background. Based on the analysis of the allocation of supply chain resources in the customized online shopping service mode and its operational characteristics, this paper puts forward an optimization model for the resource allocation and builds an improved ant algorithm to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method and algorithm are demonstrated by a numerical simulation. This paper finds that the special online shopping environments lead to many dynamic and uncertain characters of the service demands. Different customized service patterns and their combination patterns should match with different supply chain resource allocations. The optimization model not only reflects the required service cost and delivery time in the objective function, but also considers the service scale effect optimization and the relations of integration benefits and risks. The improved ant algorithm has obvious advantages in flexibly balancing the multiobjective optimizations, adjusting the convergence speed, and adjusting the operation parameters.

  3. Applying Different Independent Component Analysis Algorithms and Support Vector Regression for IT Chain Store Sales Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is one of the most important issues in managing information technology (IT chain store sales since an IT chain store has many branches. Integrating feature extraction method and prediction tool, such as support vector regression (SVR, is a useful method for constructing an effective sales forecasting scheme. Independent component analysis (ICA is a novel feature extraction technique and has been widely applied to deal with various forecasting problems. But, up to now, only the basic ICA method (i.e., temporal ICA model was applied to sale forecasting problem. In this paper, we utilize three different ICA methods including spatial ICA (sICA, temporal ICA (tICA, and spatiotemporal ICA (stICA to extract features from the sales data and compare their performance in sales forecasting of IT chain store. Experimental results from a real sales data show that the sales forecasting scheme by integrating stICA and SVR outperforms the comparison models in terms of forecasting error. The stICA is a promising tool for extracting effective features from branch sales data and the extracted features can improve the prediction performance of SVR for sales forecasting.

  4. Using customer relationships to acquire technological innovation: a value-chain analysis of supplier contracts with scientific research institutions

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "In this exploratory research, a value-chain analysis is used to investigate how industrial suppliers working with the European Research Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) gain benefits resulting from technological innovation".

  5. Compartmental modeling alternatives for kinetic analysis of pet neurotransmitter receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in studying neurotransmitter and receptor function in vivo, imaging procedures using positron emission tomography have presented new challenges for kinetic modeling and analysis of data. The in vivo behavior of radiolabeled markers for examining these neurotransmitter systems can be quite complex and, therefore, the implementation of compartmental models for data analysis is similarly complex. Often, the variability in the estimates of model parameters representing neurotransmitter or receptor densities, association and dissociation rates, or rates of incorporation or turnover does not permit reliable interpretation of the data. When less complex analyses are used, these model parameters may be biased and thus also do not yield the information being sought. Examination of trade-offs between uncertainty and bias in the parameters of interest may be used to select a compartmental model configuration with an appropriate level of complexity. Modeling alternatives will be discussed for radioligands with varying kinetic properties, such as those that bind reversibly and rapidly and others that bind nearly irreversibly. Specific problems, such as those occurring when a radioligand is open-quotes flow limitedclose quotes also will be discussed

  6. Characterization of the efficiency of microbore liquid chromatography columns by van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Terence; Loeker, Denise; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of miniaturized liquid chromatography columns with inner diameters between 200 and 300 μm has been investigated using a dedicated micro-liquid chromatography system. Fully porous, core-shell and monolithic commercially available stationary phases were compared applying van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis. The sub-2 μm fully porous as well as the 2.7 μm core-shell particle packed columns showed superior efficiency and similar values for the minimum reduced plate heights (2.56-2.69) before correction for extra-column contribution compared to normal-bore columns. Moreover, the influence of extra-column contribution was investigated to demonstrate the difference between apparent and intrinsic efficiency by replacing the column by a zero dead volume union to determine the band spreading caused by the system. It was demonstrated that 72% of the intrinsic efficiency could be reached. The results of the kinetic plot analysis indicate the superior performance of the sub-2 μm fully porous particle packed column for ultra-fast liquid chromatography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Kinetic Model of LiFePO4 Formation Using Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation reaction of LiFePO4 from decomposition of precursors LiOH, FeSO4.7H2O and (NH42HPO4 with mol ratio of Li:Fe:P=1:1:1 was investigated. The experiment was carried out by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA method using nitrogen as atmosfer at a constant heating rate to obtain kinetic constant parameters. Several heating rates were selected, there are 5, 7, 10, 15, 17.5, 22.5 and 25 °C/min. Activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order were taken using Kissinger method and obtained respectively 56.086 kJ/mol, 6.95×108 min-1, and 1.058. Based on fitting result between reaction model and experiment were obtained that reaction obeyed the three dimension diffusion model. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 19th September 2013; Revised: 9th December 2013; Accepted: 23rd January 2014 [How to Cite: Halim, A., Widiyastuti, W., Setyawan, H., Winardi, S. (2014. Kinetic of LiFePO4 For-mation Using Non-isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (1: 60-65. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5508.60-65][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5508.60-65] 

  8. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of microalgae via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): A state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Quang-Vu; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising route for biofuels production from microalgae at moderate temperatures (400-600°C) in an inert atmosphere. Depending on the operating conditions, pyrolysis can produce biochar and/or bio-oil. In practice, knowledge for thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of microalgae during pyrolysis is essential for pyrolyzer design and pyrolysis optimization. Recently, the pyrolysis kinetics of microalgae has become a crucial topic and received increasing interest from researchers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been employed as a proven technique for studying microalgae pyrolysis in a kinetic control regime. In addition, a number of kinetic models have been applied to process the TGA data for kinetic evaluation and parameters estimation. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the art review on recent research activities in pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of various microalgae. Common kinetic models predicting the thermal degradation of microalgae are examined and their pros and cons are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dosimetric features and kinetic analysis of thermoluminescence from ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithambo, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) from beta irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene has been studied for measurements between 30 and 200 °C. An aliquot studied in this work produced TL glow curves consisting of two peaks, the main peak at 88 °C and a weaker intensity peak at 148 °C for heating at 1 °C s-1 following an excitation dose of 215 Gy. The position of the main peak is poorly reproducible for heating rates of 0.2 and 0.6 °C s-1 investigated with the peak position decreasing when the sample is freshly irradiated and the TL re-measured. The said change in peak position is however less of an effect for measurements made at 1 °C s-1 with the peak position being fairly reproducible in this case. Further measurements of the dosimetric properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene showed that its dose response is linear from 26 Gy to about 161 Gy but exhibits slower growth in intensity with dose from about 860 Gy after regions of sub- and supra-linearity in between. If the TL is not measured immediately after irradiation, the signal fades with the delay approximately exponentially. In addition, a number of tests including phosphorescence analysis showed the possibility that the order of kinetics might not be unique but sensitive to several factors including measurement temperature. Thus for instance, the dependence of the peak position on the stop temperature in the partial heating procedure Tm - Tstop implied first-order kinetics but analysis of the geometrical factor μg for the same set of data gave μg = 0.46 ± 0.03 a value corresponding to characteristics somewhat intermediate between first and second order. In comparison, the results of analysis of the phosphorescence recorded at several temperatures on the rising edge of the main peak were only in agreement for measurements at 40 °C with general-order analysis suggesting second-order kinetics apply as did TL-like transformation of the monotonic phosphorescence decay. Both results were

  11. System reliability analysis and introduction to modelisation by means of Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    A new method to solve simultaneously all models of availability, reliability and maintenaibility for a complex system is described. This analysis is obtained more exactly by using time-intervals between failures and times to repare with probability laws and maintenance policies most adapted to the problem. The expression of this computation, using MARKOV chains corresponds perfectly to computer-language and results very short machine operation times. The procedure necessary for the use of APAFS program operationnal at the CISI (Compagnie Internationale de Services en Informatique) is also described. Thus, a very important tool is now available to designers without any requirement in programming knowledge [fr

  12. Investigation of reliability indicators of information analysis systems based on Markov’s absorbing chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kirpichnikov, A. P.

    2017-09-01

    In the result of study of the algorithm of the functioning of the early detection module of excessive losses, it is proven the ability to model it by using absorbing Markov chains. The particular interest is in the study of probability characteristics of early detection module functioning algorithm of losses in order to identify the relationship of indicators of reliability of individual elements, or the probability of occurrence of certain events and the likelihood of transmission of reliable information. The identified relations during the analysis allow to set thresholds reliability characteristics of the system components.

  13. A Spectral Analysis of Discrete-Time Quantum Walks Related to the Birth and Death Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Choon-Lin; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio; Segawa, Etsuo; Takumi, Kentaro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a spectral analysis of discrete time quantum walks on the path. For isospectral coin cases, we show that the time averaged distribution and stationary distributions of the quantum walks are described by the pair of eigenvalues of the coins as well as the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the corresponding random walks which are usually referred as the birth and death chains. As an example of the results, we derive the time averaged distribution of so-called Szegedy's walk which is related to the Ehrenfest model. It is represented by Krawtchouk polynomials which is the eigenvectors of the model and includes the arcsine law.

  14. Diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction analysis of skin biopsies in purpura fulminans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beau, Caroline; Vlassova, Natalia; Sarlangue, Jean; Brissaud, Olivier; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Boralevi, Franck

    2013-01-01

    Even though prompt diagnosis and treatment of purpura fulminans (PF) is essential to reduce mortality, early administration of antibiotics may preclude identification of the causative agent by standard bacterial cultures and thus render definitive diagnosis impossible. Here we present a case of an infant with PF and negative bacterial cultures for whom polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a cutaneous biopsy specimen obtained 4 days after initiation of antibiotics identified the genomic sequence of Neisseria meningitidis genogroup C. When bacterial cultures fail to provide useful information, PCR of skin biopsy specimens can be a valuable diagnostic tool in PF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Multi-criteria analysis of potential recovery facilities in a reverse supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukala, Satish; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been employed by researchers for solving multi-criteria analysis problems. However, AHP is often criticized for its unbalanced scale of judgments and failure to precisely handle the inherent uncertainty and vagueness in carrying out the pair-wise comparisons. With an objective to address these drawbacks, in this paper, we employ a fuzzy approach in selecting potential recovery facilities in the strategic planning of a reverse supply chain network that addresses the decision maker's level of confidence in the fuzzy assessments and his/her attitude towards risk. A numerical example is considered to illustrate the methodology.

  16. Kinetic and energetic analysis of lipid accumulation in batch culture of Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.G.; Rhee, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic and energetic analyses were made to describe the accumulation of lipid Rhodotorula glutinis more quantitatively. Accumulation of lipid in yeast was controlled by kinetic factors. The energetic efficiency of lipid formation was higher than that of growth. 18 references.

  17. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Cone, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Debersaques, F.M.A.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible

  18. Numerical Investigation of Desulfurization Kinetics in Gas-Stirred Ladles by a Quick Modeling Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu; Pitts-Baggett, April; Yu, Qiulin

    2018-03-01

    A quick modeling analysis approach for predicting the slag-steel reaction and desulfurization kinetics in argon gas-stirred ladles has been developed in this study. The model consists of two uncoupled components: (i) a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting the fluid flow and the characteristics of slag-steel interface, and (ii) a multicomponent reaction kinetics model for calculating the desulfurization evolution. The steel-slag interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients predicted by the CFD simulation are used as the processing data for the reaction model. Since the desulfurization predictions are uncoupled from the CFD simulation, the computational time of this uncoupled predictive approach is decreased by at least 100 times for each case study when compared with the CFD-reaction kinetics fully coupled model. The uncoupled modeling approach was validated by comparing the evolution of steel and slag compositions with the experimentally measured data during ladle metallurgical furnace (LMF) processing at Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc. Then, the validated approach was applied to investigate the effects of the initial steel and slag compositions, as well as different types of additions during the refining process on the desulfurization efficiency. The results revealed that the sulfur distribution ratio and the desulfurization reaction can be promoted by making Al and CaO additions during the refining process. It was also shown that by increasing the initial Al content in liquid steel, both Al oxidation and desulfurization rates rapidly increase. In addition, it was found that the variation of the initial Si content in steel has no significant influence on the desulfurization rate. Lastly, if the initial CaO content in slag is increased or the initial Al2O3 content is decreased in the fluid-slag compositional range, the desulfurization rate can be improved significantly during the LMF process.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Desulfurization Kinetics in Gas-Stirred Ladles by a Quick Modeling Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu; Pitts-Baggett, April; Yu, Qiulin

    2018-06-01

    A quick modeling analysis approach for predicting the slag-steel reaction and desulfurization kinetics in argon gas-stirred ladles has been developed in this study. The model consists of two uncoupled components: (i) a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting the fluid flow and the characteristics of slag-steel interface, and (ii) a multicomponent reaction kinetics model for calculating the desulfurization evolution. The steel-slag interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients predicted by the CFD simulation are used as the processing data for the reaction model. Since the desulfurization predictions are uncoupled from the CFD simulation, the computational time of this uncoupled predictive approach is decreased by at least 100 times for each case study when compared with the CFD-reaction kinetics fully coupled model. The uncoupled modeling approach was validated by comparing the evolution of steel and slag compositions with the experimentally measured data during ladle metallurgical furnace (LMF) processing at Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc. Then, the validated approach was applied to investigate the effects of the initial steel and slag compositions, as well as different types of additions during the refining process on the desulfurization efficiency. The results revealed that the sulfur distribution ratio and the desulfurization reaction can be promoted by making Al and CaO additions during the refining process. It was also shown that by increasing the initial Al content in liquid steel, both Al oxidation and desulfurization rates rapidly increase. In addition, it was found that the variation of the initial Si content in steel has no significant influence on the desulfurization rate. Lastly, if the initial CaO content in slag is increased or the initial Al2O3 content is decreased in the fluid-slag compositional range, the desulfurization rate can be improved significantly during the LMF process.

  20. Simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric analysis of five synthetic food colorants with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Wang, Yong; Kokot, Serge

    2009-04-30

    This paper describes a simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue in mixtures with the aid of chemometrics. The method involved two coupled reactions, viz. the reduction of iron(III) by the analytes to iron(II) in sodium acetate/hydrochloric acid solution (pH 1.71) and the chromogenic reaction between iron(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions to yield a Prussian blue peak at 760 nm. The spectral data were recorded over the 500-1000 nm wavelength range every 2s for 600 s. The kinetic data were collected at 760 nm and 600 s, and linear calibration models were satisfactorily constructed for each of the dyes with detection limits in the range of 0.04-0.50 mg L(-1). Multivariate calibration models for kinetic data were established and verified for methods such as the Iterative target transform factor analysis (ITTFA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS), and principal component-radial basis function-artificial neural network (PC-RBF-ANN) with and without wavelet packet transform (WPT) pre-treatment. The PC-RBF-ANN with WPT calibration performed somewhat better than others on the basis of the %RPE(T) (approximately 9) and %Recovery parameters (approximately 108), although the effect of the WPT pre-treatment was marginal (approximately 0.5% RPE(T)). The proposed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of the five colorants in foodstuff samples, and the results were comparable with those from a reference HPLC method.

  1. Optimizing national immunization program supply chain management in Thailand: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, A; Sooksriwong, C; Chaiyakunapruk, N; Tharmaphornpilas, P; Techathawat, S; Rookkapan, K; Rasdjarmrearnsook, A; Suraratdecha, C

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an economic analysis of the transition of the conventional vaccine supply and logistics systems to the vendor managed inventory (VMI) system in Thailand. Cost analysis of health care program. An ingredients based approach was used to design the survey and collect data for an economic analysis of the immunization supply and logistics systems covering procurement, storage and distribution of vaccines from the central level to the lowest level of vaccine administration facility. Costs were presented in 2010 US dollar. The total cost of the vaccination program including cost of vaccine procured and logistics under the conventional system was US$0.60 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.35 per dose procured compared to US$0.66 per packed volume procured (cm(3)) and US$1.43 per dose procured under the VMI system. However, the findings revealed that the transition to the VMI system and outsourcing of the supply chain system reduced the cost of immunization program at US$6.6 million per year because of reduction of un-opened vaccine wastage. The findings demonstrated that the new supply chain system would result in efficiency improvement and potential savings to the immunization program compared to the conventional system. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of intracellular signaling pathway kinetics predicts targets for stem cell fate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Mahdavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Directing stem cell fate requires knowledge of how signaling networks integrate temporally and spatially segregated stimuli. We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC self-renewal. Our analysis identified novel pathway responses; for example, overexpression of the receptor glycoprotein-130 results in reduced pathway activation and increased ESC differentiation. We used a systematic in silico screen to identify novel targets and protein interactions involved in Stat3 activation. Our analysis demonstrates that signaling activation and desensitization (the inability to respond to ligand restimulation is regulated by balancing the activation state of a distributed set of parameters including nuclear export of Stat3, nuclear phosphatase activity, inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling, and receptor trafficking. This knowledge was used to devise a temporally modulated ligand delivery strategy that maximizes signaling activation and leads to enhanced ESC self-renewal.

  3. Analysis of the Pelletron charging chain break in the Chalk River MP tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, N.; Greiner, B.F.; Coleman, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    On February 7, 1980 one of the three Pelletron charging chains in the Low Energy end of the Chalk River MP Tandem Accelerator broke during normal operation. The chains had been in use for 38 000 h at the time of the break. Tensile tests were carried out on pieces of the broken chain as well as unused pieces of chain. Several possible reasons for the chain break are suggested; ways of improving performance and reliability are proposed. (auth)

  4. KINETICS OF VIRAL LOADS AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS-1 INFECTION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E.; Weber, Martha A.; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3–8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7–21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants. PMID:23505702

  5. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Halasa, Tariq H B; Toft, Nils; Lentz, Hartmut H K

    2017-01-01

    Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network

  6. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schulz

    Full Text Available Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the

  7. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing and Supply Chain: A Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullenkamp, Patrick H; Holody, Diane S

    2014-06-15

    The goal of the project was to develop a greater understanding of the key factors determining wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and to reduce installed systems cost. Multiple stakeholders including DOE, turbine OEMs, and large component manufactures will all benefit by better understanding the factors determining domestic competitiveness in the emerging offshore and next generation land-based wind industries. Major objectives of this project were to: 1. Carry out global cost and process comparisons for 5MW jacket foundations, blades, towers, and permanent magnet generators; 2. Assess U.S. manufacturers’ competitiveness and potential for cost reduction; 3. Facilitate informed decision-making on investments in U.S. manufacturing; 4. Develop an industry scorecard representing the readiness of the U.S. manufacturers’ to produce components for the next generations of wind turbines, nominally 3MW land-based and 5MW offshore; 5. Disseminate results through the GLWN Wind Supply Chain GIS Map, a free website that is the most comprehensive public database of U.S. wind energy suppliers; 6. Identify areas and develop recommendations to DOE on potential R&D areas to target for increasing domestic manufacturing competitiveness, per DOE’s Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative (CEMI). Lists of Deliverables 1. Cost Breakdown Competitive Analyses of four product categories: tower, jacket foundation, blade, and permanent magnet (PM) generator. The cost breakdown for each component includes a complete Bill of Materials with net weights; general process steps for labor; and burden adjusted by each manufacturer for their process categories of SGA (sales general and administrative), engineering, logistics cost to a common U.S. port, and profit. 2. Value Stream Map Competitiveness Analysis: A tool that illustrates both information and material flow from the point of getting a

  8. Thermal decomposition and kinetics of coal and fermented cornstalk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyuan; Chang, Chun; Li, Pan; Han, Xiuli; Li, Hongliang; Fang, Shuqi; Chen, Junying; Ma, Xiaojian

    2018-07-01

    The thermal behavior and kinetics of Yiluo coal (YC) and the residues of fermented cornstalk (FC) were investigated in this study. The Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods were used for the kinetic analysis of the pyrolysis process. The results showed that the activation energy (E α ) was increased with the increase of the thermal conversion rate (α), and the average values of E α of YC, FC and the blend (m YC /m FC  = 6/4) were 304.26, 224.94 and 233.46 kJ/mol, respectively. The order reaction model function for the blend was also developed by the master-plots method. By comparing the E a and the enthalpy, it was found that the blend was favored to format activated complex due to the lower potential energy barrier. Meanwhile, the average value of Gibbs free energy of the blend was 169.83 kJ/mol, and the changes of entropies indicated that the pyrolysis process was evolved from ordered-state to disordered-state. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic magnetic resonance imaging analysis of lumbar segmental mobility in patients without significant spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanlin; Aghdasi, Bayan G; Montgomery, Scott R; Inoue, Hirokazu; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lumbar segmental mobility using kinetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with minimal lumbar spondylosis. Mid-sagittal images of patients who underwent weight-bearing, multi-position kinetic MRI for symptomatic low back pain or radiculopathy were reviewed. Only patients with a Pfirrmann grade of I or II, indicating minimal disc disease, in all lumbar discs from L1-2 to L5-S1 were included for further analysis. Translational and angular motion was measured at each motion segment. The mean translational motion of the lumbar spine at each level was 1.38 mm at L1-L2, 1.41 mm at L2-L3, 1.14 mm at L3-L4, 1.10 mm at L4-L5 and 1.01 mm at L5-S1. Translational motion at L1-L2 and L2-L3 was significantly greater than L3-4, L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels (P lumbar spine was highest at L2-L3 (22.45 %) and least at L5/S1 (14.71 %) (P lumbar segmental mobility in patients without significant degenerative disc disease and found that translational motion was greatest in the proximal lumbar levels whereas angular motion was similar in the mid-lumbar levels but decreased at L1-L2 and L5-S1.

  10. Assay of phospholipases A2 and their inhibitors by kinetic analysis in the scooting mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Jain

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cellular processes are regulated by interfacial catalysis on biomembrane surfaces. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2 are interesting not only as prototypes for interfacial catalysis, but also because they mobilize precursors for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and platelet activating factor, and these agents ultimately control a wide range of secretory and inflammatory processes. Since PLA2 carry out their catalytic function at membrane surfaces, the kinetics of these enzymes depends on what the enzyme ‘sees’ at the interface, and thus the observed rate is profoundly influenced by the organization and dynamics of the lipidwater interface (‘quality of the interface’. In this review we elaborate the advantages of monitoring interfacial catalysis in the scooting mode, that is, under the conditions where the enzyme remains bound to vesicles for several thousand catalytic turnover cycles. Such a highly processive catalytic turnover in the scooting mode is useful for a rigorous and quantitative characterization of the kinetics of interfacial catalysis. This analysis is now extended to provide insights into designing strategy for PLA2 assays and screens for their inhibitors.

  11. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Pasternak-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. RESULTS: There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. CONCLUSION: The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques.

  12. Analysis of kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic patterns during root canal preparation with rotary and manual instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    PASTERNAK-JÚNIOR, Braulio; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião; DIONÍSIO, Valdeci Carlos; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; SILVA, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the muscular activity during root canal preparation through kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Material and Methods The operators prepared one canal with RaCe rotary instruments and another with Flexo-files. The kinematics of the major joints was reconstructed using an optoelectronic system and electromyographic responses of the flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi radialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, middle deltoid, and upper trapezius were recorded. The joint torques of the shoulder, elbow and wrist were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the kinematic analysis, angular movements of the wrist and elbow were classified as low risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With respect to the shoulder, the classification was medium-risk. Results There was no significant difference revealed by the kinetic reports. The EMG results showed that for the middle deltoid and upper trapezius the rotary instrumentation elicited higher values. The flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis, as well as the brachioradialis showed a higher value with the manual method. Conclusion The muscular recruitment for accomplishment of articular movements for root canal preparation with either the rotary or manual techniques is distinct. Nevertheless, the rotary instrument presented less difficulty in the generation of the joint torque in each articulation, thus, presenting a greater uniformity of joint torques. PMID:22437679

  13. Analysis of Kinetic Parameter Effect on Reactor Operation Stability of the RSG-GAS Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhmadi

    2007-01-01

    Kinetic parameter has influence to behaviour on RSG-GAS reactor operation. In this paper done is the calculation of reactivity curve, period-reactivity relation and low power transfer function in silicide fuel. This parameters is necessary and useful for reactivity characteristic analysis and reactor stability. To know the reactivity response, it was done reactivity insertion at power 1 watt using POKDYN code because at this level of power no feedback reactivity so important for reactor operation safety. The result of calculation showed that there is no change of significant a period-reactivity relation and transfer function at low power for 2.96 gU/cc, 3.55 gU/cc and 4.8 gU/cc density of silicide fuels. The result of the transfer function at low power showed that the reactor is critical stability with no feedback. The result of calculation also showed that reactivity response no change among three kinds of fuel densities. It can be concluded that from kinetic parameter point of view period-reactivity relation, transfer function at low power, and reactivity response are no change reactor operation from reactivity effect when fuel exchanged. (author)

  14. Single-cell analysis of transcription kinetics across the cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Samuel O; Xu, Heng; Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Freire, Pablo R; Zwaka, Thomas P; Golding, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Transcription is a highly stochastic process. To infer transcription kinetics for a gene-of-interest, researchers commonly compare the distribution of mRNA copy-number to the prediction of a theoretical model. However, the reliability of this procedure is limited because the measured mRNA numbers represent integration over the mRNA lifetime, contribution from multiple gene copies, and mixing of cells from different cell-cycle phases. We address these limitations by simultaneously quantifying nascent and mature mRNA in individual cells, and incorporating cell-cycle effects in the analysis of mRNA statistics. We demonstrate our approach on Oct4 and Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells. Both genes follow similar two-state kinetics. However, Nanog exhibits slower ON/OFF switching, resulting in increased cell-to-cell variability in mRNA levels. Early in the cell cycle, the two copies of each gene exhibit independent activity. After gene replication, the probability of each gene copy to be active diminishes, resulting in dosage compensation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12175.001 PMID:26824388

  15. Pyrolysis kinetics of raw and hydrothermally carbonized Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics and kinetic study on pyrolysis of five lignocellulosic biomass via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Zhu, Xiaolei; Guo, Dabin; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Jingbo; Laghari, Mahmood

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of five lignocellulosic biomass pine wood sawdust, fern (Dicranopteris linearis) stem, wheat stalk, sugarcane bagasse and jute (Corchorus capsularis) stick were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of five lignocellulosic biomass could be divided into three stages, which correspond to the pyrolysis of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. Single Gaussian activation energy distributions of each stage are 148.50-201.13 kJ/mol with standard deviations of 2.60-13.37 kJ/mol. The kinetic parameters of different stages were used as initial guess values for three-parallel-DAEM model calculation with good fitting quality and fast convergence rate. The mean activation energy ranges of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were 148.12-164.56 kJ/mol, 171.04-179.54 kJ/mol and 175.71-201.60 kJ/mol, with standard deviations of 3.91-9.89, 0.29-1.34 and 23.22-27.24 kJ/mol, respectively. The mass fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in lignocellulosic biomass were respectively estimated as 0.12-0.22, 0.54-0.65 and 0.17-0.29. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Photoacoustic Analysis of the Penetration Kinetics of Cordia verbenacea DC in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S. S.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Phonophoresis consists of the utilization of ultrasound radiation associated to pharmacological agents in order to enhance transdermal penetration of applied drugs. It is a widely employed resource in physiotherapy practice, normally associated with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Acheflan. This drug was developed in Brazil from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC, a native plant of the Brazilian southern coast. In previous studies, the photoacoustic (PA) technique proved effective in the study of the penetration kinetics of topically applied products and in the evaluation of drug delivery after phonophoresis application. The present work aimed to evaluate the penetration kinetics of Acheflan in human skin, employing in vivo PA measurements after massage application or phonophoresis application. Ten volunteers (aged between 18 and 30 years) took part in the study. Time evolution of the PA signal was fitted to a Boltzmann curve, S-shaped. After statistical analysis, PA measurements have shown drug penetration for both application forms, but drug delivery was more evident after phonophoresis application, with a characteristic penetration time of less than 15 min for the stratum corneum.

  18. Kinetic analysis of the effects of target structure on siRNA efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    RNAi efficiency for target cleavage and protein expression is related to the target structure. Considering the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) as a multiple turnover enzyme, we investigated the effect of target mRNA structure on siRNA efficiency with kinetic analysis. The 4-step model was used to study the target cleavage kinetic process: hybridization nucleation at an accessible target site, RISC-mRNA hybrid elongation along with mRNA target structure melting, target cleavage, and enzyme reactivation. At this model, the terms accounting for the target accessibility, stability, and the seed and the nucleation site effects are all included. The results are in good agreement with that of experiments which show different arguments about the structure effects on siRNA efficiency. It shows that the siRNA efficiency is influenced by the integrated factors of target's accessibility, stability, and the seed effects. To study the off-target effects, a simple model of one siRNA binding to two mRNA targets was designed. By using this model, the possibility for diminishing the off-target effects by the concentration of siRNA was discussed.

  19. A stakeholder analysis of divergent supply-chain trends for the European onshore and offshore wind installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wüstemeyer, Christoph; Madlener, Reinhard; Bunn, Derek W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a survey-based analysis of investment decisions and structural shifts related to onshore and offshore wind power supply chains. Insights on cost reductions are obtained from a detailed stakeholder survey conducted amongst the European wind power industry in 2012. Overall, a rather more optimistic view of the scope for cost reductions in offshore technology is presented than has previously been evident in empirical analysis. From the analysis we conclude that the wind power industry has experienced a decoupling process of the offshore supply chain from its onshore counterpart with diverging technological requirements. For policy-makers, it is essential to acknowledge that barriers to adoption and the consequent needs for subsidies among the players in the onshore and offshore supply chains seem to differ, and that a micro-level analysis of the innovations and risks involved at the various stages in the supply chain is necessary. - Highlights: • Survey-based analysis of supply chain trends in the European wind energy industry. • Study of technology adoption decisions, structural shifts, and cost projections. • Results reveal a decoupling process between onshore and offshore supply chains. • Possibilities to transfer knowledge from the onshore to the offshore product vary. • The divergent barriers to adoption need to be accounted for by policy-makers

  20. Vertical Coordination in Organic Food Chains: A Survey Based Analysis in France, Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Cavaliere

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses characteristics of vertical relationships of organic supply chains with a specific focus on the processing and retailing sectors. The analysis takes into account different regions of the EU Mediterranean area. Data were collected through interviews using an ad hoc questionnaire. The survey was based on a sample of 306 firms, including processors and retailers. The analysis revealed that a relevant aspect for the processing firms of organic products concerns the guaranteeing of safety and quality levels for the products. The main tools to implement the quality management are based on the adoption of specific production regulations and quality controls. The premium price most frequently applied by processors ranges from 10% to 40% and similar values are revealed for retailers. The diffusion of supply contracts allows the vertical coordination between agriculture and processing firms in the organic supply chains. The main distribution channels for the processing firms are represented by specialised shops in organic products, direct sales and supermarkets.

  1. An analysis of disruptions in aerospace/defense organizations that affect the supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Toscha L.

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether or not functions of procurement organizations structures' and aerospace suppliers were perceived as disruptions and to identify their effects on lead time and costs within a supply chain. An analysis of employees' perception of centralized and decentralized procurement functions, aerospace and defense suppliers, lead times of goods and services, price increases, and schedule delays was conducted. Prior studies are limited in regards to understanding how specific procurement functions affects an organization procurement structure. This non-experimental quantitative study allowed for a survey to be administered to aerospace and defense companies throughout the United States to obtain information from sourcing and procurement professionals with 5 or more years of experience. The current study utilized a 10 question survey based on the 5- point Likert -type scale to determine the findings. Through descriptive and inferential statistics, using regression analysis, standard deviation, and P-value; findings indicated that the majority of the participants surveyed perceived both centralized and decentralized procurement functions affected lead time and cost of goods and services resulted in a positive effect and were considered as supply chain disruptions.

  2. Wetting of biopolymer coatings: contact angle kinetics and image analysis investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Introzzi, Laura; Biagioni, Paolo; Holz, Torsten; Schiraldi, Alberto; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2011-06-21

    The surface wetting of five biopolymers, used as coating materials for a plastic film, was monitored over a span of 8 min by means of the optical contact angle technique. Because most of the total variation was observed to occur during the first 60 s, we decided to focus on this curtailed temporal window. Initial contact angle values (θ(0)) ranged from ∼91° for chitosan to ∼30° for pullulan. However, the water drop profile began to change immediately following drop deposition for all biocoatings, confirming that the concept of water contact angle equilibrium is not applicable to most biopolymers. First, a three-parameter decay equation [θ(t) = θ(0) exp(kt(n))] was fit to the experimental contact angle data to describe the kinetics of the contact angle change for each biocoating. Interestingly, the k constant correlated well with the contact angle evolution rate and the n exponent seemed to be somehow linked to the physicochemical phenomena underlying the overall kinetics process. Second, to achieve a reliable description of droplet evolution, the contact angle (CA) analysis was coupled with image analysis (IA) through a combined geometric/trigonometric approach. Absorption and spreading were the key factors governing the overall mechanism of surface wetting during the 60 s analysis, although the individual quantification of both phenomena demonstrated that spreading provided the largest contribution for all biopolymers, with the only exception of gelatin, which showed two quasi-equivalent and counterbalancing effects. The possible correlation between these two phenomena and the topography of the biopolymer surfaces are then discussed on the basis of atomic force microscopy analyses. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. A practical approach to the sensitivity analysis for kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Max J.; Engelmann, Felix; Matera, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have become a vital tool for predictive quality atomistic understanding of complex surface chemical reaction kinetics over a wide range of reaction conditions. In order to expand their practical value in terms of giving guidelines for the atomic level design of catalytic systems, it is very desirable to readily evaluate a sensitivity analysis for a given model. The result of such a sensitivity analysis quantitatively expresses the dependency of the turnover frequency, being the main output variable, on the rate constants entering the model. In the past, the application of sensitivity analysis, such as degree of rate control, has been hampered by its exuberant computational effort required to accurately sample numerical derivatives of a property that is obtained from a stochastic simulation method. In this study, we present an efficient and robust three-stage approach that is capable of reliably evaluating the sensitivity measures for stiff microkinetic models as we demonstrate using the CO oxidation on RuO2(110) as a prototypical reaction. In the first step, we utilize the Fisher information matrix for filtering out elementary processes which only yield negligible sensitivity. Then we employ an estimator based on the linear response theory for calculating the sensitivity measure for non-critical conditions which covers the majority of cases. Finally, we adapt a method for sampling coupled finite differences for evaluating the sensitivity measure for lattice based models. This allows for an efficient evaluation even in critical regions near a second order phase transition that are hitherto difficult to control. The combined approach leads to significant computational savings over straightforward numerical derivatives and should aid in accelerating the nano-scale design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  4. Stochastic analysis of contaminant transport in porous media: analysis of a two-member radionuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Shipers, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors extend previous stochastic analyses of contaminant transport in geologic media for a single species to a chain of two species. The authors particular application is the quantification of uncertainties due to lack of characterization of the spatial variability of hydrologic parameters on transport of radionuclides from a high-level waste repository to the biosphere. Radionuclide chains can have a significant impact on demonstrating compliance (or violation) of standards regulating the release to the environment accessible to humans. Two approaches for determining the cross-covariance terms in the mean concentration equations are presented. One uses a Taylor expansion to obtain the cross-covariance between the velocity and concentration fluctuations, while the other is based on a Fourier-Laplace double transform method. For the conditions of interest here, the difference between these two approaches are expected to be small. In addition, the variances are calculated in a unique way by solving another associated partial differential equation. A parametric study is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the mean concentration of the two species and their corresponding variances and cross-covariance on the parameters associated with the structure of the stochastic velocity field. It is found that the dependent variables are most sensitive to the intensity and correlation length of the velocity fluctuations. The magnitude of the variances and cross-covariance of the concentrations are proportional to the magnitude of the mean concentrations which depend on inlet concentration boundary conditions

  5. Chemical Kinetic Influences of Alkyl Chain Structure on the High Pressure and Temperature Oxidation of a Representative Unsaturated Biodiesel: Methyl Nonenoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlyand, Aleksandr; Goldsborough, S Scott; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2015-07-16

    The high pressure and temperature oxidation of methyl trans-2-nonenoate, methyl trans-3-nonenoate, 1-octene, and trans-2-octene are investigated experimentally to probe the influence of the double bond position on the chemical kinetics of long esters and alkenes. Single pulse shock tube experiments are performed in the ranges p = 3.8-6.2 MPa and T = 850-1500 K, with an average reaction time of 2 ms. Gas chromatographic measurements indicate increased reactivity for trans-2-octene compared to 1-octene, whereas both methyl nonenoate isomers have reactivities similar to that of 1-octene. A difference in the yield of stable intermediates is observed for the octenes when compared to the methyl nonenoates. Chemical kinetic models are developed with the aid of the Reaction Mechanism Generator to interpret the experimental results. The models are created using two different base chemistry submodels to investigate the influence of the foundational chemistry (i.e., C0-C4), whereas Monte Carlo simulations are performed to examine the quality of agreement with the experimental results. Significant uncertainties are found in the chemistry of unsaturated esters with the double bonds located close to the ester groups. This work highlights the importance of the foundational chemistry in predictive chemical kinetics of biodiesel combustion at engine relevant conditions.

  6. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Tiemann, Tassilo T; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart D; Okello, Walter O; Allen, John

    2017-01-01

    Objective Lao PDR’s recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Methods Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses—including hepatitis E virus (HEV), Taenia solium (T. solium) and trichinella—to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Results Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Conclusion The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector. PMID:28423884

  7. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Tiemann, Tassilo T; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Phengvilaysouk, Ammaly; Keonouchanh, Soukanh; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Blaszak, Kate; Blacksell, Stuart D; Okello, Walter O; Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    Lao PDR's recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses-including hepatitis E virus (HEV), Taenia solium (T. solium) and trichinella-to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector.

  8. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Okello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Lao PDR’s recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Methods Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses—including hepatitis E virus (HEV, Taenia solium (T. solium and trichinella—to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Results Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Conclusion The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector.

  9. Development of an inelastic stress analysis code 'KINE-T' and its evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobatake, K.; Takahashi, S.; Suzuki, M.

    1977-01-01

    Referring to the ASME B and PVC Code Case 1592-7, the inelastic stress analysis is required for the designs of the class 1 components in elevated temperature if the results of the elastic stress analysis and/or simplified inelastic analysis do not satisfy the requirements. Authors programmed a two-dimensional axisymmetric inelastic analysis code 'KINE-T', and carried out its evaluations and an application. This FEM code is based on the incremental method and the following: elastic-plastic constitutive equation (yield condition of von Mises; flow rule of Prandtl-Reuss; Prager's hardening rule); creep constitutive equation (equation of state approach; flow rule of von Mises; strain hardening rule); the temperature dependency of the yield function is considered; solution procedure of the assembled stiffness matrix is the 'initial stress method'. After the completion of the programming, authors compared the output with not only theoretical results but also with those of the MARC code and the ANSYS code. In order to apply the code to the practical designing, authors settled a quasi-component two-dimensional axisymmetric model and a loading cycle (500 cycles). Then, an inelastic analysis and its integrity evaluation are carried out

  10. Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ririe, K M; Rasmussen, R P; Wittwer, C T

    1997-02-15

    A microvolume fluorometer integrated with a thermal cycler was used to acquire DNA melting curves during polymerase chain reaction by fluorescence monitoring of the double-stranded DNA specific dye SYBR Green I. Plotting fluorescence as a function of temperature as the thermal cycler heats through the dissociation temperature of the product gives a DNA melting curve. The shape and position of this DNA melting curve are functions of the GC/AT ratio, length, and sequence and can be used to differentiate amplification products separated by less than 2 degrees C in melting temperature. Desired products can be distinguished from undesirable products, in many cases eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. Analysis of melting curves can extend the dynamic range of initial template quantification when amplification is monitored with double-stranded DNA specific dyes. Complete amplification and analysis of products can be performed in less than 15 min.

  11. A Micro Polymerase Chain Reaction Module for Integrated and Portable DNA Analysis Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Morganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design, fabrication, and thermal characterization of a disposable miniaturized Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR module that will be integrated in a portable and fast DNA analysis system. It is composed of two independent parts: a silicon substrate with embedded heater and thermometers and a PDMS (PolyDiMethylSiloxane chamber reactor as disposable element; the contact between the two parts is assured by a mechanical clamping obtained using a Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC. This PLCC is also useful, avoid the PCR mix evaporation during the thermal cycles. Finite Element Analysis was used to evaluate the thermal requirements of the device. The thermal behaviour of the device was characterized revealing that the temperature can be controlled with a precision of ±0.5°C. Different concentrations of carbon nanopowder were mixed to the PDMS curing agent in order to increase the PDMS thermal conductivity and so the temperature control accuracy.

  12. Diagnostic value of immunoglobulin κ light chain gene rearrangement analysis in B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokovic, Ira; Jezersek Novakovic, Barbara; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of the immunoglobulin κ light chain (IGK) gene is an alternative method for B-cell clonality assessment in the diagnosis of mature B-cell proliferations in which the detection of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements fails. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the added value of standardized BIOMED-2 assay for the detection of clonal IGK gene rearrangements in the diagnostic setting of suspected B-cell lymphomas. With this purpose, 92 specimens from 80 patients with the final diagnosis of mature B-cell lymphoma (37 specimens), mature T-cell lymphoma (26 specimens) and reactive lymphoid proliferation (29 specimens) were analyzed for B-cell clonality. B-cell clonality analysis was performed using the BIOMED-2 IGH and IGK gene clonality assays. The determined sensitivity of the IGK assay was 67.6%, while the determined sensitivity of the IGH assay was 75.7%. The sensitivity of combined IGH+IGK assay was 81.1%. The determined specificity of the IGK assay was 96.2% in the group of T-cell lymphomas and 96.6% in the group of reactive lesions. The determined specificity of the IGH assay was 84.6% in the group of lymphomas and 86.2% in the group of reactive lesions. The comparison of GeneScan (GS) and heteroduplex pretreatment-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (HD-PAGE) methods for the analysis of IGK gene rearrangements showed a higher efficacy of GS analysis in a series of 27 B-cell lymphomas analyzed by both methods. In the present study, we demonstrated that by applying the combined IGH+IGK clonality assay the overall detection rate of B-cell clonality was increased by 5.4%. Thus, we confirmed the added value of the standardized BIOMED-2 IGK assay for assessment of B-cell clonality in suspected B-cell lymphomas with inconclusive clinical and cyto/histological diagnosis.

  13. Upper limb joint kinetic analysis during tennis serve: Assessment of competitive level on efficiency and injury risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Bideau, B; Ropars, M; Delamarche, P; Kulpa, R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the joint kinetics and stroke production efficiency for the shoulder, elbow, and wrist during the serve between professionals and advanced tennis players and to discuss their potential relationship with given overuse injuries. Eleven professional and seven advanced tennis players were studied with an optoelectronic motion analysis system while performing serves. Normalized peak kinetic values of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were calculated using inverse dynamics. To measure serve efficiency, all normalized peak kinetic values were divided by ball velocity. t-tests were used to determine significant differences between the resultant joint kinetics and efficiency values in both groups (advanced vs professional). Shoulder inferior force, shoulder anterior force, shoulder horizontal abduction torque, and elbow medial force were significantly higher in advanced players. Professional players were more efficient than advanced players, as they maximize ball velocity with lower joint kinetics. Since advanced players are subjected to higher joint kinetics, the results suggest that they appeared more susceptible to high risk of shoulder and elbow injuries than professionals, especially during the cocking and deceleration phases of the serve. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Arabica Coffee Farming and Marketing Chain Analysis in Manggarai and EastManggarai Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiany. Faila Sophia Hartatri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arabica coffee has a unique flavour and very potential market. The purpose of this study was to analyse Arabica coffee farming and to investigate its performance of marketing chains in Manggarai and East Manggarai Districts, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara Province. This research was conducted in 2008-2010 by interviewing coffee farmers and coffee buyers; using open and close questions. The number of respondents were 100 people in each district. The result showed that land holding per household farmer in Manggarai and East Manggarai were 0.84 ha and 0.92 ha, respectively. Farmers in both districts were within the range of productive age, the farmers who were members of farmer groups in both study sites was £ 50%. Arabica coffee cultivation was still done in a traditional way. Fertilizing and controlling of pest and diseases had not been carried out inten sively. Arabica coffee farming in both district was feasible. BCR, NPV and IRR values in Manggarai were 4.2, Rp8,530,105, and 70.76% respectively, while BCR, NPV, and IRR value in East Manggarai district were 8.1, Rp2,465,833, and 27%, respectively. BEP production and coffee price in Manggarai were 94.2 kg/ha/th and Rp15,913/kg respectively, whereas BEP production and coffee price in East Manggarai were 78,2 kg/ha/th and Rp10,134/kg, respectively. In general, farmers sold their coffee in green bean form. In general, the marketing chains of Arabica coffee in both districts was farmer – collector - trader - exporter.Key words: Arabica coffee, potential market, farming analysis, feasible, marketing chains.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of solid-phase interaction of alkali metal carbonates with arsenic pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashinkin, A.S.; Buketov, E.A.; Isabaeva, S.M.; Kasenov, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The thermodynamic analysis of solid-phase reactions of alkali metal carbonates with arsenic pentoxide showing the possibility of formation of all arsenates at a higher than the room temperature is performed. Energetically most advantageous is formation of meta-arsenates. It is shown that temperature increase favours the reaction process. By Gibbs standard energy decrease the reactions form the Li>Na>K>Rb>Cs series. On the base of calculation data linear dependence of Gibbs standard energy in reactions on the atomic number of alkali metalis established. By the continuous weighing method the kinetics of interaction of alkali metal carbonates with arsenic pentoxide under isothermal conditions in the 450-500 deg C range is studied. Studies is the dependence of apparent energy of interaction of carbonates wih As 2 0 5 an atomic parameters of al

  16. 15N kinetic analysis of N2O production by Nitrosomonas europaea: an examination of nitrifier denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of 15 N isotope tracer experiments showed that Nitrosomonas europaea produces nitrous oxide only under oxygen-limiting conditions and that the labeled N from nitrite, but not nitrate, is incorporated into nitrous oxide, indicating the presence of the denitrifying enzyme nitrite reductase. A kinetic analysis of the m/z 44, 45, and 46 nitrous oxide produced by washed cell suspensions of N. europaea when incubated with 4 mM ammonium (99% 14 N) and 0.4 mM nitrite (99% 15 N) was performed. No labeled nitirte was reduced to ammonium. All labeled material added was accounted for as either nitrite or nitrous oxide. The hypothesis that nitrous oxide is produced directly from nitrification was rejected since (i) it does not allow for the large amounts of double-labeled (m/z 46) nitrous oxide observed; (ii) the observed patterns of m/z 44, 45, 46 nitrous oxide were completely consistent with a kinetic analysis based on denitrification as the sole mechanism of nitrous oxide production but not with a kinetic analysis based on both mechanisms; (iii) the asymptotic ratio of m/z 45 to m/z 46 nitrous oxide was consistent with denitrification kinetics but inconsistent with nitrification kinetics, which predicted no limit to m/z 45 production. It is concluded that N. europaea is a denitrifier which, under conditions of oxygen stress, uses nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor and produces nitrous oxide

  17. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-01-01

    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the

  18. Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetic Analysis of Sediment from the Dianchi Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfen Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis properties and kinetic analysis of lake sediment, as well as evolution characteristics of the gaseous products at 5°C/min, 10°C/min, and 20°C/min, were investigated by TG-FTIR. Comparison to the TG and DTG curves at different heating rates, the pyrolysis process at 10°C/min could describe the sediment pyrolysis characteristics better than at 5°C/min and 20°C/min; thus the process of sediment pyrolysis could be considered as four stages. From the kinetics analysis, the nth-order chemical reaction model was suitable to describe the sediment pyrolysis reaction well. The values of n were within 2.55–3.42 and activation energy E was ranged from 15.83 KJ/mol to 57.92 KJ/mol at different heating rates. The gaseous products of H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, and SO2 and several functional groups (C-H, C=O, and C-O could be found from the IR spectrum. From the evolution characteristics with the temperature, there were two evolution peaks for CO2 and one peak for CH4 and SO2. However, the evolution of CO always increased. Besides, the evolution peak for CO2, CH4, and SO2 all shifted to the low temperature region with the decrease of heating rate. The results could provide theoretical basis for harmless treatment and resource utilization of lake sediment.

  19. Subgeometric Ergodicity Analysis of Continuous-Time Markov Chains under Random-Time State-Dependent Lyapunov Drift Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaedi V. Lekgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate random-time state-dependent Foster-Lyapunov analysis on subgeometric rate ergodicity of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs. We are mainly concerned with making use of the available results on deterministic state-dependent drift conditions for CTMCs and on random-time state-dependent drift conditions for discrete-time Markov chains and transferring them to CTMCs.

  20. Diversity analysis of the immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene in Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nu tom

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... related industries and supply chains, such as hatcheries, feed manufacturers ... system has a high risk of disease outbreaks. The bulk of ...... immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in zebrafish: identification and expression of a ...

  1. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC) and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana K; Angelova, Silvia E; Veprintsev, Timur L; Denev, Petko; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Naumov, Vladimir V; Trofimov, Aleksei V; Vasil’ev, Rostislav F

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1): dehydrozingerone (2), zingerone (3), (2Z,5E)-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4), ferulic acid (5) and their corresponding C 2-symmetric dimers 6–9. Four models were applied: model 1 – chemiluminescence (CL) of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (k A) of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 – lipid autoxidation (lipidAO) used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 – oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 – density functional theory (DFT) calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, applied to explain the structure–activity relationship. Dimers showed 2–2.5-fold higher values of k A than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two “halves” by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10) in aqueous medium (model 3). A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11), Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) than their monomers (model 4), which qualitatively supports the experimental results. PMID:26425195

  2. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC and DFT calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1: dehydrozingerone (2, zingerone (3, (2Z,5E-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4, ferulic acid (5 and their corresponding C2-symmetric dimers 6–9. Four models were applied: model 1 – chemiluminescence (CL of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (kA of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 – lipid autoxidation (lipidAO used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 – oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 – density functional theory (DFT calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p level, applied to explain the structure–activity relationship. Dimers showed 2–2.5-fold higher values of kA than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two “halves” by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10 in aqueous medium (model 3. A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11, Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs than their monomers (model 4, which qualitatively supports the experimental results.

  3. Antioxidant potential of curcumin-related compounds studied by chemiluminescence kinetics, chain-breaking efficiencies, scavenging activity (ORAC) and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova-Kazakova, Adriana K; Angelova, Silvia E; Veprintsev, Timur L; Denev, Petko; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Kratchanova, Maria; Naumov, Vladimir V; Trofimov, Aleksei V; Vasil'ev, Rostislav F; Delogu, Giovanna; Kancheva, Vessela D

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the ability to scavenge different peroxyl radicals and to act as chain-breaking antioxidants of monomers related to curcumin (1): dehydrozingerone (2), zingerone (3), (2Z,5E)-ethyl 2-hydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxohexa-2,5-dienoate (4), ferulic acid (5) and their corresponding C 2-symmetric dimers 6-9. Four models were applied: model 1 - chemiluminescence (CL) of a hydrocarbon substrate used for determination of the rate constants (k A) of the reactions of the antioxidants with peroxyl radicals; model 2 - lipid autoxidation (lipidAO) used for assessing the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency and reactivity; model 3 - oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), which yields the activity against peroxyl radicals generated by an azoinitiator; model 4 - density functional theory (DFT) calculations at UB3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level, applied to explain the structure-activity relationship. Dimers showed 2-2.5-fold higher values of k A than their monomers. Model 2 gives information about the effects of the side chains and revealed much higher antioxidant activity for monomers and dimers with α,β-unsaturated side chains. Curcumin and 6 in fact are dimers of the same monomer 2. We conclude that the type of linkage between the two "halves" by which the molecule is made up does not exert influence on the antioxidant efficiency and reactivity of these two dimers. The dimers and the monomers demonstrated higher activity than Trolox (10) in aqueous medium (model 3). A comparison of the studied compounds with DL-α-tocopherol (11), Trolox and curcumin is made. All dimers are characterized through lower bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) than their monomers (model 4), which qualitatively supports the experimental results.

  4. Steady state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis for stiff kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, M; Vlachos, D G

    2015-01-28

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is an integral tool in the study of complex physical phenomena present in applications ranging from heterogeneous catalysis to biological systems to crystal growth and atmospheric sciences. Sensitivity analysis is useful for identifying important parameters and rate-determining steps, but the finite-difference application of sensitivity analysis is computationally demanding. Techniques based on the likelihood ratio method reduce the computational cost of sensitivity analysis by obtaining all gradient information in a single run. However, we show that disparity in time scales of microscopic events, which is ubiquitous in real systems, introduces drastic statistical noise into derivative estimates for parameters affecting the fast events. In this work, the steady-state likelihood ratio sensitivity analysis is extended to singularly perturbed systems by invoking partial equilibration for fast reactions, that is, by working on the fast and slow manifolds of the chemistry. Derivatives on each time scale are computed independently and combined to the desired sensitivity coefficients to considerably reduce the noise in derivative estimates for stiff systems. The approach is demonstrated in an analytically solvable linear system.

  5. Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi

    The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.

  6. Understanding influential factors on implementing green supply chain management practices: An interpretive structural modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agi, Maher A N; Nishant, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we establish a set of 19 influential factors on the implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and analyse the interaction between these factors and their effect on the implementation of GSCM practices using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) method and the "Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement" (MICMAC) analysis on data compiled from interviews with supply chain (SC) executives based in the Gulf countries (Middle East region). The study reveals a strong influence and driving power of the nature of the relationships between SC partners on the implementation of GSCM practices. We especially found that dependence, trust, and durability of the relationship with SC partners have a very high influence. In addition, the size of the company, the top management commitment, the implementation of quality management and the employees training and education exert a critical influence on the implementation of GSCM practices. Contextual elements such as the industry sector and region and their effect on the prominence of specific factors are also highlighted through our study. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China 2012: Inventory and Supply Chain Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yaowen; Zhao, Xueli; Meng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Reliable inventory information is critical in informing emission mitigation efforts. Using the latest officially released emission data, which is production based, we take a consumption perspective to estimate the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for China in 2012. The non-CO2 GHG emissions, which cover CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6, amounted to 2003.0 Mt. CO2-eq (including 1871.9 Mt. CO2-eq from economic activities), much larger than the total CO2 emissions in some developed countries. Urban consumption (30.1%), capital formation (28.2%), and exports (20.6%) derived approximately four fifths of the total embodied emissions in final demand. Furthermore, the results from structural path analysis help identify critical embodied emission paths and key economic sectors in supply chains for mitigating non-CO2 GHG emissions in Chinese economic systems. The top 20 paths were responsible for half of the national total embodied emissions. Several industrial sectors such as Construction, Production and Supply of Electricity and Steam, Manufacture of Food and Tobacco and Manufacture of Chemicals, and Chemical Products played as the important transmission channels. Examining both production- and consumption-based non-CO2 GHG emissions will enrich our understanding of the influences of industrial positions, final consumption demands, and trades on national non-CO2 GHG emissions by considering the comprehensive abatement potentials in the supply chains.

  8. [Analysis and modelling of safety culture in a Mexican hospital by Markov chains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Martínez, J D; Cruz-Suárez, H; Santos-Reyes, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and model the safety culture with Markov chains, as well as predicting and/or prioritizing over time the evolutionary behaviour of the safety culture of the health's staff in one Mexican hospital. The Markov chain theory has been employed in the analysis, and the input data has been obtained from a previous study based on the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (CAS-MX-II), by considering the following 6 dimensions: safety climate, teamwork, job satisfaction, recognition of stress, perception of management, and work environment. The results highlighted the predictions and/or prioritisation of the approximate time for the possible integration into the evolutionary behaviour of the safety culture as regards the "slightly agree" (Likert scale) for: safety climate (in 12 years; 24.13%); teamwork (8 years; 34.61%); job satisfaction (11 years; 52.41%); recognition of the level of stress (8 years; 19.35%); and perception of the direction (22 years; 27.87%). The work environment dimension was unable to determine the behaviour of staff information, i.e. no information cultural roots were obtained. In general, it has been shown that there are weaknesses in the safety culture of the hospital, which is an opportunity to suggest changes to the mandatory policies in order to strengthen it. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Parameter sensitivity analysis of a lumped-parameter model of a chain of lymphangions in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalian, Samira; Bertram, Christopher D; Richardson, William J; Moore, James E

    2013-12-01

    Any disruption of the lymphatic system due to trauma or injury can lead to edema. There is no effective cure for lymphedema, partly because predictive knowledge of lymphatic system reactions to interventions is lacking. A well-developed model of the system could greatly improve our understanding of its function. Lymphangions, defined as the vessel segment between two valves, are the individual pumping units. Based on our previous lumped-parameter model of a chain of lymphangions, this study aimed to identify the parameters that affect the system output the most using a sensitivity analysis. The system was highly sensitive to minimum valve resistance, such that variations in this parameter caused an order-of-magnitude change in time-average flow rate for certain values of imposed pressure difference. Average flow rate doubled when contraction frequency was increased within its physiological range. Optimum lymphangion length was found to be some 13-14.5 diameters. A peak of time-average flow rate occurred when transmural pressure was such that the pressure-diameter loop for active contractions was centered near maximum passive vessel compliance. Increasing the number of lymphangions in the chain improved the pumping in the presence of larger adverse pressure differences. For a given pressure difference, the optimal number of lymphangions increased with the total vessel length. These results indicate that further experiments to estimate valve resistance more accurately are necessary. The existence of an optimal value of transmural pressure may provide additional guidelines for increasing pumping in areas affected by edema.

  10. Food loss rate in food supply chain using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Munsol; Osako, Masahiro; Harashina, Sachihiko

    2017-03-01

    The food loss rate is a factor that represents food consumption efficiency. To improve food consumption efficiency, we need to fundamentally quantify food loss at national and global levels. This study examines food and food waste flow and calculates the food loss rate in the food supply chain by targeting Japan. We analyzed inedible food waste and avoidable food losses in wholesale, manufacturing, retail, food services, and households and considered different supply chain pathways, different food categories representing whole Japanese meals, and weight changes after cooking. The results are as follows: (1) Japan has an overall rate of avoidable food losses of approximately 15% for meals (excluding agricultural losses), (2) the supply sector with the highest food loss rate is food services, and (3) the food category with the highest food loss rate is vegetables. Finally, we proposed a model for calculating food loss rates that could be used for future analysis in Japan or other countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fair-trade and tea: a comparative analysis of value chains in Kabarole Districtm Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoch, M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the competiveness of the fair trade tea value chain through a comparative study of the conventional and fair trade tea value chains in Kabarole district, Uganda. By examining this economically important subject, it clarifies the process by which value chains compete for

  12. SUSTAINABILITY OF SHORT FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: ANALYSIS OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY IN MILAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CATERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Anna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of short food supply chains is becoming more pressing by consumers, especially in the largest school catering. The implementation of the short chain in a large catering company of Milan, is described in this practical contribution. Several aspects of short food chains sustainability: legal, commercial and economic sustainability, hygienic and gastronomic sustainability, are discussed.

  13. Locations of Racism in Education: A Speech Act Analysis of a Policy Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneback, Emma; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how racism is located in an educational policy chain and identifies how its interpretation changes throughout the chain. A basic assumption is that the policy formation process can be seen as a chain in which international, national and local policies are "links"--separate entities yet joined. With Sweden as the…

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of bamboo waste treated by Echinodontium taxodii using a modified three-parallel-reactions model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbo; Liu, Fang; Ke, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of pretreatment with Echinodontium taxodii on thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of bamboo wastes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed fungal pretreatment can enhance the thermal degradation of bamboo. The negative effect of extractives in bamboo on the thermal decomposition can be decreased by the pretreatment. A modified three-parallel-reactions model based on isolated lignin was firstly proposed to study pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo lignocellulose. Kinetic analysis showed that with increasing pretreatment time fungal delignification was enhanced to transform the lignin component with high activation energy into that with low activation energy and raise the cellulose content in bamboo, making the thermal decomposition easier. These results demonstrated fungal pretreatment provided a potential way to improve thermal conversion efficiency of bamboo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE RESIDUAL TUMOR IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MYELOMA BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF THE FREE LIGHT CHAINS OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN BLOOD SERUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Мitina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the multiple myeloma treatment with chemotherapy including bortezomib was assessed based on determination of the level of immunoglobulin free light chains in blood serum. The method enables estimation of changes in kinetic parameters of the residual tumor, detection of the disease course prognosis, and the choice of the optimal approach to the disease therapy.

  16. Sustainability Analysis and Buy-Back Coordination in a Fashion Supply Chain with Price Competition and Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain sustainability has become significantly important in the fashion industry, and more and more fashion brands have invested in developing sustainable supply chains. We note that dual channel system comprising a brand-owned direct channel and retail outsourcing channel is quite common in the fashion industry, and in the latter, buy-back contract is popular between brands and retailers. Therefore, we build a stylized dual channel model with price competition and demand uncertainty to characterize the main properties of a fashion supply chain. Our foci are the sustainability analysis and the channel coordination mechanism. We first design a buy-back contract with return cost to coordinate the channel. We then study supply chain sustainability and examine the effect of two key influencing factors, i.e., price competition and demand uncertainty. Interestingly, we find that a fiercer price competition will lead to a more sustainable supply chain. From the perspective of supply chain managers, we conclude that (1 if managers care about environmental sustainability, fierce price competition is not a suggested strategy; (2 if managers care about economic sustainability, fierce price competition is an advantageous strategy. We also find that high demand uncertainty results in a less sustainable supply chain, in both an environmental and economic sustainability sense.

  17. DDGS chars gasification with CO{sub 2}: a kinetic study using TG analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiangmei; Jong, Wiebren de; Fu, Ningjie; Verkooijen, Adrian H.M. [Delft University of Technology, Process and Energy Department, Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Dry Distiller's Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is a by-product during ethanol production from cereals which is currently mainly used as feedstock for cattle. With the growth of the ethanol industry, the increasing supply of DDGS may saturate the livestock feed market; thus, its potential applications need to be explored. DDGS gasification in a 100-kW{sub th} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) steam-O{sub 2} blown gasifier has been studied. However, the modeling of DDGS gasification process encounters difficulties due to the unavailable knowledge of DDGS char gasification kinetics. Therefore, in this paper, gasification kinetics of DDGS char with CO{sub 2} was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Two different types of char samples have been tested. Char type one (PYR-Char) was obtained after DDGS pyrolysis in a TGA at a final temperature of 750 C or 850 C for 20 min. Char type two (CFB-Char) was obtained after DDGS gasification in the 100-kW{sub th} CFB gasifier within the temperature range of 790 C to 820 C with a steam/biomass mass ratio of 0.81 and oxygen to biomass stoichiometric ratio of approximately 0.38. The influences of pyrolysis temperature (750 C, 850 C), heating rate (10 C/min, 30 C/min, 50 C/min, 70 C/min), CO{sub 2} concentration (10, 20, 30 vol.%), and gasification temperature (900 C, 1,000 C, 1,100 C) on the reaction rate of char-CO{sub 2} reaction were determined. Two representative gas-solid reaction models, the volumetric reaction model (VRM) and the shrinking core model (SCM) were applied in order to determine kinetic parameters. It was found that the calculated activation energy (E{sub a}) values using SCM were slightly lower than those using VRM. The calculated E{sub a} values for PYR-Char using both models were in the range of 100-165 kJ/mol, while the calculated E{sub a} values for CFB-Char were in the range of 55-100 kJ/mol. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that CFB-Char was more fragile and PYR

  18. Life cycle assessment of fossil and biomass power generation chains. An analysis carried out for ALSTOM Power Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ch.

    2008-12-15

    This final report issued by the Technology Assessment Department of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results of an analysis carried out on behalf of the Alstom Power Services company. Fossil and biomass chains as well as co-combustion power plants are assessed. The general objective of this analysis is an evaluation of specific as well as overall environmental burdens resulting from these different options for electricity production. The results obtained for fuel chains including hard coal, lignite, wood, natural gas and synthetic natural gas are discussed. An overall comparison is made and the conclusions drawn from the results of the analysis are presented.

  19. Kinetics analysis of two-stage austenitization in supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Villa, Matteo; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    The martensite-to-austenite transformation in X4CrNiMo16-5-1 supermartensitic stainless steel was followed in-situ during isochronal heating at 2, 6 and 18 K min−1 applying energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the BESSY II facility. Austenitization occurred in two stages, separated...... that the austenitization kinetics is governed by Ni-diffusion and that slow transformation kinetics separating the two stages is caused by soft impingement in the martensite phase. Increasing the lath width in the kinetics model had a similar effect on the austenitization kinetics as increasing the heating-rate....

  20. Large-scale kinetic energy spectra from Eulerian analysis of EOLE wind data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, M.

    1975-01-01

    A data set of 56,000 winds determined from the horizontal displacements of EOLE balloons at the 200 mb level in the Southern Hemisphere during the period October 1971-February 1972 is utilized for the computation of planetary- and synoptic-scale kinetic energy space spectra. However, the random distribution of measurements in space and time presents some problems for the spectral analysis. Two different approaches are used, i.e., a harmonic analysis of daily wind values at equi-distant points obtained by space-time interpolation of the data, and a correlation method using the direct measurements. Both methods give similar results for small wavenumbers, but the second is more accurate for higher wavenumbers (k above or equal to 10). The spectra show a maximum at wavenumbers 5 and 6 due to baroclinic instability and then decrease for high wavenumbers up to wavenumber 35 (which is the limit of the analysis), according to the inverse power law k to the negative p, with p close to 3.

  1. Modal and Dynamic Analysis of a Vehicle with Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangji Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel kinetic dynamic suspension (KDS system is presented for the cooperative control of the roll and warp motion modes of off-road vehicles. The proposed KDS system consists of two hydraulic cylinders acting on the antiroll bars. Hence, the antiroll bars are not completely replaced by the hydraulic system, but both systems are installed. In this paper, the vibration analysis in terms of natural frequencies of different motion modes in frequency domain for an off-road vehicle equipped with different configurable suspension systems is studied by using the modal analysis method. The dynamic responses of the vehicle with different configurable suspension systems are investigated under different road excitations and maneuvers. The results of the modal and dynamic analysis prove that the KDS system can reduce the roll and articulation motions of the off-road vehicle without adding extra bounce stiffness and deteriorating the ride comfort. Furthermore, the roll stiffness is increased and the warp stiffness is decreased by the KDS system, which could significantly enhance handing performance and off-road capability.

  2. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  3. Stoichiometric and kinetic analysis of extreme halophilic Archaea on various substrates in a corrosion resistant bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorantfy, Bettina; Seyer, Bernhard; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-25

    Extreme halophilic Archaea are extremophile species which can thrive in hypersaline environments of up to 3-5 M sodium chloride concentration. Although their ecology and physiology are widely identified on the microbiological level, little emphasis has been laid on quantitative bioprocess development with extreme halophiles. The goal of this study was to establish, on the one hand, a methodological basis for quantitative bioprocess analysis of extreme halophilic Archaea with an extreme halophilic strain as an example. Firstly, as a novel usage, a corrosion resistant bioreactor setup for extreme halophiles has been implemented. Then, paying special attention to total bioprocess quantification approaches, an indirect method for biomass quantification using on-line process signals was introduced. Subsequently, robust quantitative data evaluation methods for halophiles could be developed, providing defined and controlled cultivation conditions in the bioreactor and therefore obtaining suitable quality of on-line as well as off-line datasets. On the other hand, new physiological results of extreme halophiles in bioreactor have also been obtained based on the quantitative methodological tools. For the first time, quantitative data on stoichiometry and kinetics were collected and evaluated on different carbon sources. The results on various substrates were interpreted, with proposed metabolic mechanisms, by linking to the reported primary carbon metabolism of extreme halophilic Archaea. Moreover, results of chemostat cultures demonstrated that extreme halophilic organisms show Monod-kinetics on different sole carbon sources. A diauxic growth pattern was described on a mixture of substrates in batch cultivations. In addition, the methodologies presented here enable one to characterize the utilized strain Haloferax mediterranei (HFX) as a potential new host organism. Thus, this study offers a strong methodological basis as well as a fundamental physiological assessment for

  4. Non-Parametric Kinetic (NPK Analysis of Thermal Oxidation of Carbon Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Seifi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to aerogel materials (especially carbon aerogels due to their potential uses in energy-related applications, such as thermal energy storage and thermal protection systems. These open cell carbon-based porous materials (carbon aerogels can strongly react with oxygen at relatively low temperatures (~ 400°C. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance of carbon aerogels in view of their energy-related applications at high temperatures and under thermal oxidation conditions. The objective of this paper is to study theoretically and experimentally the oxidation reaction kinetics of carbon aerogel using the non-parametric kinetic (NPK as a powerful method. For this purpose, a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, at three different heating rates, was performed on three samples each with its specific pore structure, density and specific surface area. The most significant feature of this method, in comparison with the model-free isoconversional methods, is its ability to separate the functionality of the reaction rate with the degree of conversion and temperature by the direct use of thermogravimetric data. Using this method, it was observed that the Nomen-Sempere model could provide the best fit to the data, while the temperature dependence of the rate constant was best explained by a Vogel-Fulcher relationship, where the reference temperature was the onset temperature of oxidation. Moreover, it was found from the results of this work that the assumption of the Arrhenius relation for the temperature dependence of the rate constant led to over-estimation of the apparent activation energy (up to 160 kJ/mol that was considerably different from the values (up to 3.5 kJ/mol predicted by the Vogel-Fulcher relationship in isoconversional methods

  5. Corrosion analysis in mooring chain links; Analise de corrosao em elos de amarras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Silvia N.; Pereira, Marcos V. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia; Costa, Luis C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Motta, Sergio H. [Brasilamarras - Companhia Brasileira de Amarras, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the localized corrosion phenomenon in the weld region of offshore mooring chain links type ORQ. In this sense, a number of chain links were selected after finishing their projected life time without corrosion signs (chains without corrosion) as well as chain links which showed a reduced life time caused by localized corrosion (chains with corrosion). In the sequence, electrochemistry tests evaluated the corrosion susceptibility of the different regions of the weld joint. The results showed that the heat affected zone concerning the chains with corrosion was the anodic region, with high corrosion rate, while the same region on the not corroded chains was the cathodic one, with low corrosion rate. (author)

  6. Outcome of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 100 suspected cases of infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel Sitaula, Ranju; Janani, M K; Madhavan, H N; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2018-01-10

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is an important tool in the diagnosis of infectious uveitis. A retrospective, interventional study of PCR analysis of ocular fluid in suspected infectious uveitis cases between January 2014 to July 2016 was done. Nested, real-time and broad range PCR was performed for detection of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus family, Chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, fungus, eubacterium and propionibacterium acne. Total of 100 cases included, mean age was 39.2 ± 15.4 years. Uveitis was unilateral in 82% and granulomatous in 40%. Mean visual acuity at the initial visit and final visit was 0.73 logMar and 0.63 logMar respectively. PCR analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 70.1% patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR analysis was 90.2%, 93.9%, 93.9% and 90.2% respectively. The quantitative value of real-time M. tb. Positive PCR ranged from 32c/ml to 2722 c/ml. PCR assay is an accurate technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose the DNA genome in infectious uveitis.

  7. A Comprehensive Mathematical Programming Model for Minimizing Costs in A Multiple-Item Reverse Supply Chain with Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Hoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IFAC conferences. A reverse supply chain is configured by a sequence of elements forming a continuous process to treat return-products until they are properly recovered or disposed. The activities in a reverse supply chain include collection, cleaning, disassembly, test and sorting, storage, transport, and recovery operations. This paper presents a mathematical programming model with the objective of minimizing the total costs of reverse supply chain including transportation, fixed opening, operation, maintenance and remanufacturing costs of centers. The proposed model considers the design of a multi-layer, multi-product reverse supply chain that consists of returning, disassembly, processing, recycling, remanufacturing, materials and distribution centers. This integer linear programming model is solved by using Lingo 9 software and the results are reported. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model is also presented.

  8. A new quantitative analysis on nitriding kinetics in the oxidized Zry-4 at 900-1200 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sanggi [ACT Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Two major roles of nitrogen on the zirconium based cladding degradation were identified: mechanical degradation of the cladding, and the additional chemical heat release. It has long been known that accelerated oxidation can occur in air due to the nitrogen. In addition, significant uptake of nitrogen can also occur. The nitriding of pre-oxidized zirconium based alloys leads to micro porous and less coherent oxide scales. This paper aims to quantitatively investigate the nitriding mechanism and kinetics by proposing a new methodology that is coupled with the mass balance analysis and the optical microscope image processing analysis. A new quantitative analysis methodology is described in chapter 2 and the investigation of the nitriding kinetics is performed in chapter 3. The experimental details are previously reported in. Previously only qualitative analysis was performed in, and hence the quantitative analysis will be performed in this paper. In this paper, the nitriding kinetics and mechanism were quantitatively analyzed by the new proposed analysis methods: the mass balance analysis and the optical microscope image processing analysis. Using these combined methods, the mass gain curves and the optical microscopes are analyzed in very detail, and the mechanisms of nitriding accelerated, stabilized and saturated behaviors were well understood. This paper has two very distinctive achievements as follows: 1) Development of very effective quantitative analysis methods only using two main results of oxidation tests: No detailed analytical sample measurements (e.g. TEM, EPMA and so on.) were required. These methods can effectively reduce the cost and effort of the post-test investigation. 2) The first identification of the nitriding behaviors and its very accurate analysis in a quantitative way. Based on this quantitative analysis results on the nitriding kinetics, these new findings will contribute significantly the understanding the air oxidation behaviors and model

  9. Sensitivity analysis of autotrophic N removal by a granule based bioreactor: Influence of mass transfer versus microbial kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive and global sensitivity analysis was conducted under a range of operating conditions. The relative importance of mass transfer resistance versus kinetic parameters was studied and found to depend on the operating regime as follows: Operating under the optimal loading ratio of 1.90 ...

  10. Analysis of thermoluminescence kinetics of Mg2SiO4:Tb compounds employing an interactive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzo, J.; Prokic, M.; Santiago, M.; Molina, P.; Caselli, E.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics involved in the thermoluminescence (TL) of Mg 2 SiO 4 :Tb compounds has been investigated by unfolding glow curves employing both the General Order model and a model that takes into account interactions among traps. The dependence of the glow curve shape on dose is only correctly described if interaction among traps is included in the analysis.

  11. A kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-up on select indoor and outdoor surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koontz, AM; Cooper, RA; Boninger, ML; Yang, YS; Impink, BG; van der Woude, LHV

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a kinetic analysis of manual wheelchair propulsion during start-LIP on select indoor and Outdoor surfaces. Eleven manual wheelchairs were fitted with a SMART(Wheel) and their users were asked to Push on a Course consisting of high- and low-pile carpet,

  12. CHAIN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Second Processing Chain (CHAIN2) consists of a suite of ten programs which together provide a full local analysis of the bulk plasma physics within the JET Tokamak. In discussing these ten computational models this report is intended to fulfil two broad purposes. Firstly it is meant to be used as a reference source for any user of CHAIN2 data, and secondly it provides a basic User Manual sufficient to instruct anyone in running the CHAIN2 suite of codes. In the main report text each module is described in terms of its underlying physics and any associated assumptions or limitations, whilst deliberate emphasis is put on highlighting the physics and mathematics of the calculations required in deriving each individual datatype in the standard module PPF output. In fact each datatype of the CHAIN2 PPF output listed in Appendix D is cross referenced to the point in the main text where its evaluation is discussed. An effort is made not only to give the equation used to derive a particular data profile but also to explicitly define which external data sources are involved in the computational calculation

  13. Evolution of inhibitor-resistant natural mutant forms of HIV-1 protease probed by pre-steady state kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Maria Yu; Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Kaliberda, Elena N; Dronina, Maria A; Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Kozyr, Arina V; Smirnov, Ivan V; Rumsh, Lev D; Fedorova, Olga S; Knorre, Dmitry G; Gabibov, Alexander G; Kuznetsov, Nikita A

    2017-11-01

    Pre-steady state kinetic analysis of mechanistic features of substrate binding and processing is crucial for insight into the evolution of inhibitor-resistant forms of HIV-1 protease. These data may provide a correct vector for rational drug design assuming possible intrinsic dynamic effects. These data should also give some clues to the molecular mechanism of protease action and resistance to inhibitors. Here we report pre-steady state kinetics of the interaction of wild type or mutant forms of HIV-1 protease with a FRET-labeled peptide. The three-stage "minimal" kinetic scheme with first and second reversible steps of substrate binding and with following irreversible peptide cleavage step adequately described experimental data. For the first time, a set of "elementary" kinetic parameters of wild type HIV-1 protease and its natural mutant inhibitor-resistant forms MDR-HM, ANAM-11 and prDRV4 were compared. Inhibitors of the first and second generation were used to estimate the inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease activity. The resulting set of kinetic data supported that the mutant forms are kinetically unaffected by inhibitors of the first generation, proving their functional resistance to these compounds. The second generation inhibitor darunavir inhibited mutant forms MDR-HM and ANAM-11, but was ineffective against prDRV4. Our kinetic data revealed that these inhibitors induced different conformational changes in the enzyme and, thereby they have different mode of binding in the enzyme active site. These data confirmed hypothesis that the driving force of the inhibitor-resistance evolution is disruption of enzyme-inhibitor complex by changing of the contact network in the inhibitor binding site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetic analysis of dechlorination and oxidation of PrOCl by using a non-isothermal TG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.C.; Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, I.T.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal dechlorination and oxidation process of praseodymium oxychloride, PrOCl, was studied from the view point of reaction kinetics. On the basis of data of thermogravimetry under different oxygen partial pressures at various heating rates, a kinetic analysis was performed using an isoconversional method and a master plot method. The results of the isoconversional method of TG data suggested that the dechlorination and oxidation of PrOCl followed a single step with activation energy of 112.6 ± 3.4 kJ mol -1 , and from master plot methods, the reaction was described by a linear-contracting phase boundary reaction

  15. Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinna Pamulety

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.

  16. Formulation, construction and analysis of kinetic models of metabolism: A review of modelling frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saa, Pedro A.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic models are critical to predict the dynamic behaviour of metabolic networks. Mechanistic kinetic models for large networks remain uncommon due to the difficulty of fitting their parameters. Recent modelling frameworks promise new ways to overcome this obstacle while retaining predictive ca...

  17. Thermal analysis and kinetics of coal during oxy-fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Golachowska, Monika

    2017-08-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of Polish bituminous coal were studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis tests showed that the mass loss profiles were almost similar up to 870°C in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further mass loss occurred in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Replacement of N2 in the combustion environment by CO2 delayed the combustion of bituminous coal. At elevated oxygen levels, TG/DTG profiles shifted through lower temperature zone, ignition and burnout temperatures decreased and mass loss rate significantly increased and complete combustion was achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times. Kinetic analysis for the tested coal was performed using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method. The activation energies of bituminous coal combustion at the similar oxygen content in oxy-fuel with that of air were higher than that in air atmosphere. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies decreased.

  18. A path flux analysis method for the reduction of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gou, Xiaolong [School of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2010-07-15

    A direct path flux analysis (PFA) method for kinetic mechanism reduction is proposed and validated by using high temperature ignition, perfect stirred reactors, and steady and unsteady flame propagations of n-heptane and n-decane/air mixtures. The formation and consumption fluxes of each species at multiple reaction path generations are analyzed and used to identify the important reaction pathways and the associated species. The formation and consumption path fluxes used in this method retain flux conservation information and are used to define the path indexes for the first and the second generation reaction paths related to a targeted species. Based on the indexes of each reaction path for the first and second generations, different sized reduced chemical mechanisms which contain different number of species are generated. The reduced mechanisms of n-heptane and n-decane obtained by using the present method are compared to those generated by the direct relation graph (DRG) method. The reaction path analysis for n-decane is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the present method. The comparisons of the ignition delay times, flame propagation speeds, flame structures, and unsteady spherical flame propagation processes showed that with either the same or significantly less number of species, the reduced mechanisms generated by the present PFA are more accurate than that of DRG in a broad range of initial pressures and temperatures. The method is also integrated with the dynamic multi-timescale method and a further increase of computation efficiency is achieved. (author)

  19. Quantitative analysis of ibuprofen in pharmaceuticals and human control serum using kinetic spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEZANA S. MITIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a new kinetic spectrophoto-metric method for the determination of ibuprofen in pharmaceutical for-mulations. Ibuprofen was determined in an acidic ethanolic medium by monitoring the rate of appearance of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol, resulting from the displacement by ibuprofen of Co(III from the tris(1-nitroso-2-naptholatocobalt(III complex. The optimum operating conditions regarding reagent concentrations and temperature were established. The tangent method was adopted for constructing the calibration curve, which was found to be linear over the concentration range 0.21–1.44 and 1.44–2.06 µg ml-1. The optimized conditions yielded a theoretical detection limit of 0.03 µg ml-1 based on the 3.3 S0 criterion. The interference effects of the usual excipients of powdery drugs, foreign ions and amino acids on the reaction rate were studied in order to assess the selectivity of the method. The developed procedure was successfully applied for the rapid determination of ibuprofen in commercial pharmaceutical formulations and human control serum. The unique features of this procedure are that the determination can be performed at room temperature and the analysis time is short. The newly developed method is simple, inexpensive and efficient for use in the analysis of a large number of samples.

  20. Combustion behavior and kinetics of low-lipid microalgae via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Chao; Liu, Zhengang; Han, Guanghua; Peng, Nana; Fan, Aonan

    2015-04-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis were employed to investigate combustion characteristics of two low-lipid microalgae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa (CP) and Spirulina platensis (SP) and iso-conversional Starink approach was used to calculate the kinetic parameters in the present study. The results showed that three stages of mass loss, including dehydration, devolatilization and char oxidation, were observed during combustion of both of two low-lipid microalgae. The whole weight loss of combustion of two microalgae was both shifted to higher temperature zones with increased heating rates from 10 to 40 K/min. In the 0.1-0.9 conversion range, the apparent activation energy of CP increased first from 51.96 to 79.53 kJ/mol, then decreased to 55.59 kJ/mol. Finally, it slightly increased to 67.27 kJ/mol. In the case of SP, the apparent activation energy gradually increased from 68.51 to 91.06 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics and kinetics of petrochemical wastewater sludge using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Cai, Jingcheng; Yao, Pikai; Song, Xigeng; Yin, Hongchao; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were studied in air (O2/N2) and oxy-fuel (O2/CO2) atmospheres using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Pyrolysis experiments showed that the weight loss profiles were almost similar up to 1050K in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further weight loss took place in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Compared with 20%O2/80%N2, the drying and devolatilization stage of PS were delayed in 20%O2/80%CO2 due to the differences in properties of the diluting gases. In oxy-fuel combustion experiments, with O2 concentration increasing, characteristic temperatures decreased, while characteristic combustion rates and combustion performance indexes increased. Kinetic analysis of PS decomposition under various atmospheres was performed using Coats-Redfern approach. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies of Step 1 almost kept constant, while the values of subsequent three steps increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel degradation pathway and kinetic analysis for buprofezin removal by newly isolated Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangli; Xu, Dayong; Xiong, Minghua; Zhang, Hui; Li, Feng; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-15

    Given the intensive and widespread application of the pesticide, buprofezin, its environmental residues potentially pose a problem; yet little is known about buprofezin's kinetic and metabolic behaviors. In this study, a novel gram-positive strain, designated BF-5, isolated from aerobic activated sludge, was found to be capable of metabolizing buprofezin as its sole energy, carbon, and nitrogen source. Based on its physiological and biochemical characteristics, other aspects of its phenotype, and a phylogenetic analysis, strain BF-5 was identified as Bacillus sp. This study investigated the effect of culture conditions on bacterial growth and substrate degradation, such as pH, temperature, initial concentration, different nitrogen source, and additional nitrogen sources as co-substrates. The degradation rate parameters, qmax, Ks, Ki and Sm were determined to be 0.6918 h(-1), 105.4 mg L(-1), 210.5 mg L(-1), and 148.95 mg L(-1) respectively. The capture of unpublished potential metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has led to the proposal of a novel degradation pathway. Taken together, our results clarify buprofezin's biodegradation pathway(s) and highlight the promising potential of strain BF-5 in bioremediation of buprofezin-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics studied by two different pseudo-random binary sequence work rate amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Schiffer, T; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O 2 pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O 2 musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O 2 pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively. V˙O 2 musc was estimated applying the approach of Hoffmann et al. (Eur J Appl Physiol 113: 1745-1754, 2013) considering a circulatory model for venous return and cross-correlation functions (CCF) for the kinetics analysis. HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics seem to be independent of WR intensity (p>0.05). V˙O 2 pulm kinetics show prominent differences in the lag of the CCF maximum (39±9s; 31±4s; p<0.05). A mean difference of 14W between the PRBS WR amplitudes impacts venous return significantly, while HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the response of Escherichia coli to short-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-06-03

    Given their simple and easy-to-manipulate chemical structures, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are valuable feedstocks for many industrial applications. While the microbial production of SCFAs by engineered Escherichia coli has been demonstrated recently, productivity and yields are limited by their antimicrobial properties. In this work, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of E. coli under octanoic acid stress (15 mM) and identified the underlying mechanisms of SCFA toxicity. Out of a total of 33 spots differentially expressed at a p-value ≤ 0.05, nine differentially expressed proteins involved in transport and structural roles (OmpF, HPr, and FliC), oxidative stress (SodA, SodB, and TrxA), protein synthesis (PPiB and RpsA) and metabolic functions (HPr, PflB) were selected for further investigation. Our studies suggest that membrane damage and oxidative stress are the main routes of inhibition by SCFAs in E. coli. The outer membrane porin OmpF had the greatest impact on SCFA tolerance. Intracellular pH analysis on ompF mutants grown under octanoic acid stress indicated that this porin facilitates transport of SCFAs into the cell. The same response was observed under hexanoic acid stress, further supporting the role of OmpF in response to the presence of SCFAs. Furthermore, analysis of membrane protein expression revealed that other outer membrane porins are also involved in the response of E. coli to SCFAs. This work covers the first known proteomic analysis to assess the inhibitory effect of SCFAs in E. coli. SCFAs are molecules of great interest in the industry, but their microbial production is limited by their antimicrobial properties. This work allowed identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to SCFA stress and demonstrated the relevance of short- and medium-chain FA transport across the cell membrane via outer membrane porins, providing valuable insights on the toxicity mechanism of SCFAs in E. coli. These results could

  5. Improving estimation of kinetic parameters in dynamic force spectroscopy using cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Fu; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic Force Spectroscopy (DFS) is a widely used technique to characterize the dissociation kinetics and interaction energy landscape of receptor-ligand complexes with single-molecule resolution. In an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)-based DFS experiment, receptor-ligand complexes, sandwiched between an AFM tip and substrate, are ruptured at different stress rates by varying the speed at which the AFM-tip and substrate are pulled away from each other. The rupture events are grouped according to their pulling speeds, and the mean force and loading rate of each group are calculated. These data are subsequently fit to established models, and energy landscape parameters such as the intrinsic off-rate (koff) and the width of the potential energy barrier (xβ) are extracted. However, due to large uncertainties in determining mean forces and loading rates of the groups, errors in the estimated koff and xβ can be substantial. Here, we demonstrate that the accuracy of fitted parameters in a DFS experiment can be dramatically improved by sorting rupture events into groups using cluster analysis instead of sorting them according to their pulling speeds. We test different clustering algorithms including Gaussian mixture, logistic regression, and K-means clustering, under conditions that closely mimic DFS experiments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we benchmark the performance of these clustering algorithms over a wide range of koff and xβ, under different levels of thermal noise, and as a function of both the number of unbinding events and the number of pulling speeds. Our results demonstrate that cluster analysis, particularly K-means clustering, is very effective in improving the accuracy of parameter estimation, particularly when the number of unbinding events are limited and not well separated into distinct groups. Cluster analysis is easy to implement, and our performance benchmarks serve as a guide in choosing an appropriate method for DFS data analysis.

  6. The Coffee Commodity Chain in the World-Economy: Arrighi's Systemic Cycles and Braudel's Layers of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of coffee in the modern world-economy, w;ing an analyticalframework synthesized from Arrighi's concept of systemic cycles of accumulation and Braudel'snotion of three levels of economic analysis: material life, the market economy, and capitalism. Ittakes the commodity chain as the unit of analysis, and argues that this choice helps to illuminatethe caw;al connections between Braudel 's three layers. The method of incorporated comparisonis w;ed to compare restructurings of the coffee commodity chain with the restructurings of thelarger world-economy during each of Arrighi 's systemic cycles.

  7. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.

  8. Falling chains as variable-mass systems: theoretical model and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sousa, Célia A; Costa, Pedro; Gordo, Paulo M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit, theoretically and experimentally, the fall of a folded U-chain and of a pile-chain. The model calculation implies the division of the whole system into two subsystems of variable mass, allowing us to explore the role of tensional contact forces at the boundary of the subsystems. This justifies, for instance, that the folded U-chain falls faster than the acceleration due to the gravitational force. This result, which matches quite well with the experimental data independently of the type of chain, implies that the falling chain is well described by energy conservation. We verify that these conclusions are not observed for the pile-chain motion. (paper)

  9. Analysis of the kinetics of ovine follitropin agonist-antagonist interactions with pig ovarian membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebok, K.; De Lean, A.; Sairam, M.R.

    1987-06-16

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ovine follitropin (oFSH) and /sup 125/I-labeled deglycosylated ovine follitropin (DG-oFSH) to porcine granulosa cell membranes was studied at equilibrium and nonequilibrium binding conditions and statically analyzed. Saturation and competition binding experiments revealed homogeneity in the population of binding sites labeled with /sup 125/I-oFSH, having a pK estimation of approx.10. /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH similarly interacts with a single uniform class of receptors of equal affinity (pK approx. 10) and binding capacity as oFSH. In contrast, displacement experiments using /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH as tracer and unlabeled oFSH as competing ligand demonstrate slope factors less than unity, suggesting apparent heterogeneity of sites not observed with /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH vs. DG-oFSH competition experiments. Under these conditions, it appears that FSH binds to two sites in near equal proportion but of unequal affinities. The total specific binding capacities of these sites equal those observed in /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH/unlabeled DG-oFSH competition experiments. Analysis of oFSH association kinetics at 37 /sup 0/C by curve-fitting methods is best explained by a biexponential rate equation describing a fast and a slow association component that are equally distributed. DG-oFSH demonstrates a disproportionately greater amount of fast vs. slow binding component. Dissociation, promoted by the same unlabeled hormone, of bound /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH and /sup 125/I-oFSH induces biphasic kinetics consisting of a fast and a slow dissociable pool of prebound tracer. Computer analysis reveals that both tracers dissociate with similar fast t/sub 1/2/ times; however, DG-oFSH exhibited a t/sub 1/2/ approximately 2 times slower for the component vs. oFSH. From this study, it is concluded that oFSH and DG-oFSH bind to the receptor(s) in a complex reaction scheme, more so for oFSH than DG-oFSH.

  10. Modeling and performance analysis of a closed-loop supply chain using first-order hybrid Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Outmal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Green or closed-loop supply chain had been the focus of many manufacturers during the last decade. The application of closed-loop supply chain in today’s manufacturing is not only due to growing environmental concerns and the recognition of its benefits in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, and meeting a more strict environmental regulations but it also offers economic competitive advantages if appropriately managed. First-order hybrid Petri nets represent a powerful graphical and mathematical formalism to map and analyze the dynamics of complex systems such as closed-loop supply chain networks. This article aims at illustrating the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets to model a closed-loop supply chain network and evaluate its operational, financial, and environmental performance measures under different management policies. Actual data from auto manufacturer in the United States are used to validate network’s performance under both tactical and strategic decision-making, namely, (1 tactical decision—production policies: increase of recovered versus new components and (2 strategic decision—closed-loop supply chain network structure: manufacturer internal recovery process or recovery process done by a third-party collection and recovery center. The work presented in this article is an extension of the use of first-order hybrid Petri nets as a modeling and performance analysis tool from supply chain to closed-loop supply chain. The modularity property of first-order hybrid Petri nets has been used in the modeling process, and the simulation and analysis of the modeled network are done in MATLAB® environment. The results of the experiments depict that first-order hybrid Petri nets are a powerful modeling and analysis formalism for closed-loop supply chain networks and can be further used as an efficient decision-making tool at both tactical and strategic levels. Unlike other researches on modeling supply chain

  11. Effects of tour boats on dolphin activity examined with sensitivity analysis of Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dans, Silvana Laura; Degrati, Mariana; Pedraza, Susana Noemí; Crespo, Enrique Alberto

    2012-08-01

    In Patagonia, Argentina, watching dolphins, especially dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), is a new tourist activity. Feeding time decreases and time to return to feeding after feeding is abandoned and time it takes a group of dolphins to feed increase in the presence of boats. Such effects on feeding behavior may exert energetic costs on dolphins and thus reduce an individual's survival and reproductive capacity or maybe associated with shifts in distribution. We sought to predict which behavioral changes modify the activity pattern of dolphins the most. We modeled behavioral sequences of dusky dolphins with Markov chains. We calculated transition probabilities from one activity to another and arranged them in a stochastic matrix model. The proportion of time dolphins dedicated to a given activity (activity budget) and the time it took a dolphin to resume that activity after it had been abandoned (recurrence time) were calculated. We used a sensitivity analysis of Markov chains to calculate the sensitivity of the time budget and the activity-resumption time to changes in behavioral transition probabilities. Feeding-time budget was most sensitive to changes in the probability of dolphins switching from traveling to feeding behavior and of maintaining feeding behavior. Thus, an increase in these probabilities would be associated with the largest reduction in the time dedicated to feeding. A reduction in the probability of changing from traveling to feeding would also be associated with the largest increases in the time it takes dolphins to resume feeding. To approach dolphins when they are traveling would not affect behavior less because presence of the boat may keep dolphins from returning to feeding. Our results may help operators of dolphin-watching vessels minimize negative effects on dolphins. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  13. Barriers analysis for green supply chain management implementation in Indian industries using analytic hierarchy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kaliyan, Mathiyazhagan; Kannan, Devika

    2014-01-01

    to the implementation of a green supply chain management (Green SCM) based on procurement effectiveness. A total of 47 barriers were identified, both through detailed literature and discussion with industrial experts and through a questionnaire-based survey from various industrial sectors. Essential barriers......Manufacturing industries started adopting the green concept in their supply chain management recently to focus on environmental issues. But, industries still struggle to identify barriers hindering green supply chain management implementation. This work focuses on identifying barriers...

  14. Analysis of the Value Chain for Biogas in Tanzania Northern Zone (Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Manyara)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagabona, N.T.

    2009-12-15

    This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Tanzania. The research included assessment of processes and activities carried out by the players, the influencers and business supporters of the biogas value chain. The methodology used is holistic, combining literature review with focus group discussions and interviews with actors and observations of processes across the value chain in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions, where biogas has the longest history in Tanzania.

  15. The Analysis of Rush Orders Risk in Supply Chain: a Simulation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Arisha, Amr; Mahfouz, Amr

    2010-01-01

    Satisfying customers by delivering demands at an agreed time, with competitive prices, and in satisfactory quality level are crucial requirements for supply chain survival. The incident of risks in supply chain often causes sudden disruptions in the processes and consequently leads to customers losing their trust in a company’s competence. Rush orders are considered to be one of the main types of supply chain risks due to their negative impact on the overall performance. Using integrated defi...

  16. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan David Kijlstra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening.

  17. Analysis of the Supply Chain and Logistics Practices of Warqe Food Products in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Chaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Warqe (Enset is a multipurpose perennial plant, domesticated and grown as a food crop only in Ethiopia. Kocho, bulla, and amicho are food products of warqe. This study analysed the supply chain and logistics practices of warqe foods. Supply chain management concept was used to analyse the warqe-based food chain. Eight supply chain actors were identified. It was observed that the supply chain of warqe foods and the relationship between chain actors was very complex, long and overlapping. The major constraints identified in the chain were poor information flow, poor transportation system, using perishable packaging, lack of cooperation between actors, a poor infrastructure such as road and warehouse services, and poor policies concerning the warqe market. There is a need for cooperation and coordination between the chain actors to create an effective information sharing system. Shared warehouses need to be built near producers and market places. Transportation, packaging and handling need to be improved. Research is required to develop an integrated, efficient and effective logistics for warqe supply and marketing chain.

  18. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF NOTATIONAL AFL DATA USING CONTINUOUS TIME MARKOV CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Meyer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal biologists commonly use continuous time Markov chain models to describe patterns of animal behaviour. In this paper we consider the use of these models for describing AFL football. In particular we test the assumptions for continuous time Markov chain models (CTMCs, with time, distance and speed values associated with each transition. Using a simple event categorisation it is found that a semi-Markov chain model is appropriate for this data. This validates the use of Markov Chains for future studies in which the outcomes of AFL matches are simulated

  19. Analysis of Agility Performance of Supply Chain: A Case Study on Indian Automotive Manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routroy, S.; Sharma, S.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2018-04-01

    Manufacturing companies should understand the changing customer needs and expectations, access and defend the competitive pressure, anticipate and manage the uncertain demand and supply chain risk, and implement the appropriate technology to survive and excel in today’s marketplace. Therefore, they are moving away from mass production (i.e. lean supply chain) to one based on fast-responsiveness and flexibility, capitalizing on the rapid advancement in internet technologies and factory-on-demand mode of production (i.e. agile supply chain). It is observed that manufacturing companies in India in general and automotive supply chain in specific are compelled to cultivate supply chain agility for enhancing its performance level on continuous basis and comparing its supply chain agility performance with competitors to survive and sustain in the competitive business environment. Therefore, a methodology is proposed to evaluate the supply chain agility of a manufacturing supply chain and compare its performance level with competitors using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi Loss Function. A case study is developed and the proposed methodology is applied to Indian automotive supply chain for explaining the salient features of it.

  20. Study of the decomposition of phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) by simultaneous thermal analysis: determination of kinetic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, P. N.; Pedroso, L. M.; Portugal, A. A.; Campos, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) has been extensively used both in explosive and propellant formulations. Unlike AN, there is a lack of information about the thermal decomposition and related kinetic analysis of phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN). Simultaneous thermal analysis (DSC-TG) has been used in the thermal characterisation of a specific type of PSAN containing 1.0% of NiO (stabilizing agent) and 0.5% of Petro (anti-caking agent) as additives. Repeated runs covering the nominal heating rate...