WorldWideScience

Sample records for key programmatic risk

  1. Summary of the technical report on estimating the impact of key programmatic risk allocation decisions on Phase 1 bids and U.S. Department of Energy costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive tank waste at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As part of the privatization process, a request for proposals describing the conditions and DOE's expectations for contractor performance and responsibilities was issued. Argonne National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collaborated to analyze programmatic risks and costs associated with privatization. They examined nine major risks to determine financial impacts on the prospective vendors and DOE for three alternative risk allocations: (1) DOE bears the risk, (2) the vendor bears the risk, or (3) the risk is shared. With the help of a subject-matter expert, each risk was characterized by estimating potential consequences and likelihood of occurrence. A financial risk model was developed to estimate the total cost to DOE for a given risk allocation strategy covering all nine risks. Results showed that it is financially advantageous to DOE to bear some risks, share some others, and assign some to the vendor

  2. Tank waste remediation system programmatic risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This risk management plan defines the approach to be taken to managing risks in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program. It defines the actions to be taken at the overall program level, and the risk management requirements for lower-level projects and other activities. The primary focus of this plan is on ''programmatic'' risks, i.e., risks with respect to the cost, schedule, and technical performance of the program. The plan defines an approach providing managers with the flexibility to manage risks according to their specific needs, yet creates. The consistency needed for effectiveness across the program. The basic risk management approach uses a risk management list for the program, each project, and additional lower-level activities. The risk management list will be regularly reviewed and updated by appropriate level of management. Each list defines key risks, their likelihood and consequences, risk management actions to be taken, responsible individuals, and other management information

  3. Managing Programmatic Risk for Complex Space System Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Peter V.; Hastings, Daniel; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Risk management strategies have become a recent important research topic to many aerospace organizations as they prepare to develop the revolutionary complex space systems of the future. Future multi-disciplinary complex space systems will make it absolutely essential for organizations to practice a rigorous, comprehensive risk management process, emphasizing thorough systems engineering principles to succeed. Project managers must possess strong leadership skills to direct high quality, cross-disciplinary teams for successfully developing revolutionary space systems that are ever increasing in complexity. Proactive efforts to reduce or eliminate risk throughout a project's lifecycle ideally must be practiced by all technical members in the organization. This paper discusses some of the risk management perspectives that were collected from senior managers and project managers of aerospace and aeronautical organizations by the use of interviews and surveys. Some of the programmatic risks which drive the success or failure of projects are revealed. Key findings lead to a number of insights for organizations to consider for proactively approaching the risks which face current and future complex space systems projects.

  4. Ecological risks of DOE`s programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  5. Ecological risks of DOE's programmatic environmental restoration alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report assesses the ecological risks of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program. The assessment is programmatic in that it is directed at evaluation of the broad programmatic alternatives outlined in the DOE Implementation Plan. It attempts to (1) characterize the ecological resources present on DOE facilities, (2) describe the occurrence and importance of ecologically significant contamination at major DOE facilities, (3) evaluate the adverse ecological impacts of habitat disturbance caused by remedial activities, and (4) determine whether one or another of the programmatic alternatives is clearly ecologically superior to the others. The assessment focuses on six representative facilities: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP); the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Y-12 plant, and K-25 plant; the Rocky Flats Plant; the Hanford Reservation; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System Characterization Project Programmatic Risk Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baide, D.G.; Webster, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The TWRS Characterization Project has developed a process and plan in order to identify, manage and control the risks associated with tank waste characterization activities. The result of implementing this process is a defined list of programmatic risks (i.e. a risk management list) that are used by the Project as management tool. This concept of risk management process is a commonly used systems engineering approach which is being applied to all TWRS program and project elements. The Characterization Project risk management plan and list are subset of the overall TWRS risk management plan and list

  7. Applying programmatic risk assessment to nuclear materials stabilization R and D planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C.R.; Brown-van Hoozer, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to programmatic risk assessment, derived from the aerospace industry, was applied to various stabilization technologies to assess their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. The assessment provided valuable information for trading off available technologies and identified the at-risk technologies that will require close tracking by the Department of Energy (DOE) to mitigate programmatic risks

  8. Applying programmatic risk assessment to nuclear materials stabilization R and D planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-Van Hoozer, S.A.; Kenley, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to programmatic risk assessment, derived from the aerospace industry, was applied to various stabilization technologies to assess their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. The assessment provided valuable information for trading off available technologies and identified the at-risk technologies that will require close tracking by the Department of Energy (DOE) to mitigate programmatic risks. This paper presents the programmatic risk assessment methodology developed for the 1995 R and D Plan and updated for the 1996 R and D Plan. Results of the 1996 assessment also are presented (DOE/ID-10561, 1996)

  9. Systems Engineering Design Via Experimental Operation Research: Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Unique and innovative graph theory, neural network, organizational modeling, and genetic algorithms are applied to the design and evolution of programmatic and organizational architectures. Graph theory representations of programs and organizations increase modeling capabilities and flexibility, while illuminating preferable programmatic/organizational design features. Treating programs and organizations as neural networks results in better system synthesis, and more robust data modeling. Organizational modeling using covariance structures enhances the determination of organizational risk factors. Genetic algorithms improve programmatic evolution characteristics, while shedding light on rulebase requirements for achieving specified technological readiness levels, given budget and schedule resources. This program of research improves the robustness and verifiability of systems synthesis tools, including the Complex Organizational Metric for Programmatic Risk Environments (COMPRE).

  10. An integrated risk assessment approach: Risk assessment in the programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The following paper is an informal summary of salient points made in the presentation entitled open-quotes An Integrated Risk Assessment Approach: Risk Assessment in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS).close quotes. This presentation was given at the U.S. DOE Integrated Planning Workshop in Denver, Colorado on June 2, 1994. Integrated decision analysis is very important in environmental restoration and waste management in the evaluation of such things as land use planning, waste load forecasting, cost analyses, and technology development activities. Integrated risk assessment is an approach that addresses multiple components of risk, including: risks from surplus facilities as well as typical environmental restoration sites, risks to the public, risks to workers, ecological risk, risks before, during and after remediation activities, and others

  11. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART)

  12. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenback, B.; Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document

  13. Programmatic Considerations to Reduce the Risk of Adverse Renal Stone Events in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity exposure may alter the likelihood that astronauts will experience renal stones. The potential risk includes both acute and chronic health issues, with the potential for significant impact on mission objectives. Methods: To understand the role of the NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) research agenda in both preventing and addressing renal stones in spaceflight, current astronaut epidemiologic data and a summary of programmatic considerations are reviewed. Results: Although there has never been a symptomatic renal stone event in a U.S. crewmember during spaceflight, urine chemistry has been altered - likely due to induced changes in renal physiology as a result of exposure to microgravity. This may predispose astronauts to stone formation, leading the HRP to conduct and sponsor research to: 1) understand the risk of stone formation in space; 2) prevent stones from forming; and 3) address stones that may form by providing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Discussion: The development of a renal stone during spaceflight is a significant medical concern that requires the HRP to minimize this risk by providing the ability to prevent, diagnose, monitor and treat the condition during spaceflight. A discussion of the risk as NASA understands it is followed by an overview of the multiple mitigations currently under study, including novel ultrasound techniques for stone detection and manipulation, and how they may function as part of a larger exploration medical system.

  14. Transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Lazaro, M.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE's environmental restoration activities and waste management operation. Included in the evaluation are six types of waste (five types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each different alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important element leading to a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent

  15. Assessment of transportation risk for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Lazaro, M.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    In its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Office of Environmental Management (EM) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future management of radioactive and hazardous waste at the facilities of the DOE complex. The alternatives involve facilities to be used for treatment, storage, and disposal of various wastes generated from DOE environmental restoration activities and waste management operations. The evaluation includes five types of waste (four types of radioactive waste plus hazardous waste), 49 sites, and numerous cases associated with each alternative for waste management. In general, the alternatives are evaluated independently for each type of waste and reflect decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches. Transportation of waste materials is an integral component of the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The estimated impact on human health that is associated with various waste transportation activities is an important component of a complete appraisal of the alternatives. The transportation risk assessment performed for the EM PEIS is designed to ensure through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful and consistent. Among other tasks, Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical assistance to the EM PEIS on transportation risk assessment. The objective is to perform a human health risk assessment for each type of waste relative to the EM PEIS alternatives for waste management. The transportation risk assessed is part of the overall impacts being analyzed for the EM PEIS to determine the safest, most environmentally and economically sound manner in which to satisfy requirements for waste management in the coming decades

  16. Development of a dynamical systems model of plant programmatic performance on nuclear power plant safety risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Stephen M.; Albano, Alfonso M.; Gaertner, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to model nuclear power plant accident sequences has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events, equipment failures and operator errors that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has resulted in significant improvements in plant operation and safety. However, this approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. The research described in this paper presents an alternative approach to addressing this issue. In this paper we propose a dynamical systems model that describes the interaction of important plant processes on nuclear safety risk. We discuss development of the mathematical model including the identification and interpretation of significant inter-process interactions. Next, we review the techniques applicable to analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems that are utilized in the characterization of the model. This is followed by a preliminary analysis of the model that demonstrates that its dynamical evolution displays features that have been observed at commercially operating plants. From this analysis, several significant insights are presented with respect to the effective control of nuclear safety risk. As an important example, analysis of the model dynamics indicates that significant benefits in effectively managing risk are obtained by integrating the plant operation and work management processes such that decisions are made utilizing a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach. We note that although the model was developed specifically to be applicable to nuclear power plants, many of the insights and conclusions obtained are likely applicable to other process industries

  17. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE's proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates

  18. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  19. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, Hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  20. Risk assessment for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the risk assessment performed for the on-site transportation of radioactive wastes in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Risks for the routine shipment of wastes and the impacts from potential accidental releases are analyzed for operations at the Hanford Site (Hanford) near Richland, Washington. Like other large DOE sites, hanford conducts waste management operations for all wastes types; consequently, the impacts calculated for Hanford are expected to be greater than those for smaller sites. The risk assessment conducted for on-site transportation is intended to provide an estimate of the magnitude of the potential risk for comparison with off-site transportation risks assessed for the WM PEIS

  1. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  2. Supplemental results of the human health risk analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy draft waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This report is intended as an information supplement to the human health risk analysis performed for the US Department of Energy's Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Managing Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste, hereinafter called the PEIS. This report provides the installation-by-installation human health risk analysis results from which the risk estimate summaries for the PEIS were drawn. Readers should bear in mind that the risk estimates presented here are the result of a program-wide (as opposed to site-specific) study. They are based on best available data; systematically applied assumptions; and professional judgment about DOE waste inventories, waste volumes generated annually, currently available treatment and disposal technologies, technical limitations of treatment, and facility capacities across the numerous installations in the DOE complex

  3. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J.; Chryssochoidis, George M.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management.......In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management....

  4. Risk assessment for the off-site transportation of high-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of high-level waste (HLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers risks to collective populations and individuals under both routine and accident transportation conditions for truck and rail shipment modes. The report discusses the scope of the HLW transportation assessment, describes the analytical methods used for the assessment, defines the alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, and details important assessment assumptions. Results are reported for five alternatives. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific areas of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis on how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives

  5. Insights on radiological risks of US Department of Energy radioactive waste management alternatives in the Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility Accident Analysis (1) was performed in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). It used an integrated risk-based approach (2) to allow risk comparisons of EM PEIS strategies for consolidating the storage and treatment of wastes at different DOE sites throughout the country. This approach was developed in accordance with the latest National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance guidance from DOE (3), which calls for consideration of a spectrum of accident scenarios that could occur in implementing the various actions evaluated in the EM PEIS. This paper discusses our insights with respect to the likely importance of the relative treatment technologies, waste management facilities and operations, and waste consolidation strategies considered in the EM PEIS

  6. The Key to Risk Management: Management

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian E. Tschoegl

    2000-01-01

    The Barings, Daiwa Bank and Sumitomo Corp. financial debacles in the mid-1990s suggest that management failures rather than misfortune, errors, or complexity are a major source of the risk of financial debacles. These errors are systematic and are a concommittant of the structure of trading and of human nature. Risk management systems must take these facts into account.

  7. The Key to Sustainable Risk Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Shaw, Gregory L.

    by relevant literatures on risk governance and values-based management complemented with insights from case analyses and empirical studies. Findings: – The paper explains why formal risk management approaches have limitations and outlines how the presence of official policies and codes of conduct...... failed to do the job when the leadership in reality gave first priority to profits at the expense of the stated environmental values. The prioritized code of the US Coast Guard is used to illustrate the circumstances where core values support effective crisis, disaster and risk management outcomes......Purpose: – The article brings attention to the importance of corporate values and concrete leadership enactment of those values as a necessary condition for effective risk management outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: – The content is based on practice-based research experiences supported...

  8. Il governo della performance dei processi di business : dai Key Performance Indicators ai Key Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beretta; Saverio Bozzolan

    2013-01-01

    The recent paper issued by COSO ["Developing Key Risk Indicators to Strengthen Enterprise Risk Management" (Coso, 2010)] is the starting point of this article whose aim is to discuss the relevance of the business process dimension in the design and implementation of Key Risk Indicators. The Authors analyze the reasons of the systematic underestimation of the business process dimension in the COSO papers and debate the implications that the explicit consideration of the business process dimens...

  9. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  10. Towards programmatic design research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Löwgren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of design research entails research where design practice forms part of the knowledge production. Based on our characterization of the nature of design, we propose to conceptualize this kind of research as programmatic design research. Two ongoing PhD projects in interaction design are presented as examples of programmatic research processes, highlighting issues to do with the virtues and qualities of the processes, the interplay of optics and engagements in a hermeneutical dynamic, and the production of takeaways for the academic community.

  11. Hanford Site environmental setting data developed for the unit risk factor methodology in support of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramke, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Holdren, G.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the environmental settings identified for the Hanford Site in support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS). The objective of the PEIS is to provide the public with information about the types of waste and contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country and to assess the relative risks that these wastes pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. The environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface-water transport of contaminants within the boundaries of the Hanford Site. The environmental setting data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface-water characteristics of the Site. The number of environmental settings developed for the Hanford Site was the fewest that could provide accurate results when used in the risk assessment modeling. Environmental settings for Hanford were developed in conjunction with local experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. Site experts participated in the initial development, fine-tuning, and final review of Hanford's PEIS environmental settings

  12. Transportation radiological risk assessment for the programmatic environmental impact statement: An overview of methodologies, assumptions, and input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.; Biwer, B.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is considering a broad range of alternatives for the future configuration of radioactive waste management at its network of facilities. Because the transportation of radioactive waste is an integral component of the management alternatives being considered, the estimated human health risks associated with both routine and accident transportation conditions must be assessed to allow a complete appraisal of the alternatives. This paper provides an overview of the technical approach being used to assess the radiological risks from the transportation of radioactive wastes. The approach presented employs the RADTRAN 4 computer code to estimate the collective population risk during routine and accident transportation conditions. Supplemental analyses are conducted using the RISKIND computer code to address areas of specific concern to individuals or population subgroups. RISKIND is used for estimating routine doses to maximally exposed individuals and for assessing the consequences of the most severe credible transportation accidents. The transportation risk assessment is designed to ensure -- through uniform and judicious selection of models, data, and assumptions -- that relative comparisons of risk among the various alternatives are meaningful. This is accomplished by uniformly applying common input parameters and assumptions to each waste type for all alternatives. The approach presented can be applied to all radioactive waste types and provides a consistent and comprehensive evaluation of transportation-related risk

  13. Using multiple sampling approaches to measure sexual risk-taking among young people in Haiti: programmatic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    No previous published research has examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying young people who are at high risk of experiencing unintended pregnancy and acquiring HIV infection. This study compares three surveys of young people aged 15-24 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors and the surveys'usefulness for identifying young people at high risk and for program planning. The surveys consist of responses from: a representative sample of young people in the 2005-06 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS), a 2004 facility-based study, and a 2006-07 venue-based study that used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method. The facility-based and PLACE studies included larger proportions of single, sexually experienced young people and people who knew someone with HIV/ AIDS than did the HDHS. More respondents in the PLACE sample had multiple sex partners in the past year and received money or gifts in return for sex, compared with respondents in the facility study. At first and last sex, more PLACE respondents used contraceptives, including condoms. Experience of pregnancy was most commonly reported in the data from the facility-based sample; however, more ever-pregnant PLACE respondents than others reported ever having terminated a pregnancy. Program managers seeking to implement prevention activities should consider using facility- or venue-based methods to identify and understand the behaviors of young people at high risk.

  14. A practical approach to programmatic assessment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, A A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of complex tasks integrating several competencies calls for a programmatic design approach. As single instruments do not provide the information required to reach a robust judgment of integral performance, 73 guidelines for programmatic assessment design were developed. When simultaneously applying these interrelated guidelines, it is challenging to keep a clear overview of all assessment activities. The goal of this study was to provide practical support for applying a programmatic approach to assessment design, not bound to any specific educational paradigm. The guidelines were first applied in a postgraduate medical training setting, and a process analysis was conducted. This resulted in the identification of four steps for programmatic assessment design: evaluation, contextualisation, prioritisation and justification. Firstly, the (re)design process starts with sufficiently detailing the assessment environment and formulating the principal purpose. Key stakeholders with sufficient (assessment) expertise need to be involved in the analysis of strengths and weaknesses and identification of developmental needs. Central governance is essential to balance efforts and stakes with the principal purpose and decide on prioritisation of design decisions and selection of relevant guidelines. Finally, justification of assessment design decisions, quality assurance and external accountability close the loop, to ensure sound underpinning and continuous improvement of the assessment programme.

  15. Managing Key Risks in Post-Merger IS Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Mar; Mathiassen, L

    2014-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) require organizations to blend together different information system (IS) configurations. Unfortunately, less than 50 percent of M&A's achieve their goals, with IS integration being a major problem. Here, the authors offer a framework to help managers prepare for......, analyze, and mitigate risks during post-merger IS integration. They identify key risks relating to IS integration content, process, and context, and present five strategies for mitigating those risks. Their framework aims to help managers proactively reduce the impact of adverse events. Adopting...... the framework supported by their templates is straightforward and the time and resources required are minimal. When properly executed, adoption increases the likelihood of successful merger outcomes; the framework is thus a valuable addition to the management tool box and can be applied in collaboration...

  16. Risk and Performance Technologies: Identifying the Keys to Successful Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, Lynn; Smith, Art; O'Regan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has been utilizing risk and performance based technologies for over thirty years. Applications of these technologies have included risk assessment (e.g. Individual Plant Examinations), burden reduction (e.g. Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection, RI-ISI) and risk management (Maintenance Rule, 10CFR50.65). Over the last five to ten years the number of risk-informed (RI) burden reduction initiatives has increased. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of some of these applications have been questionable. This paper investigates those attributes necessary to support successful, cost-effective RI-applications. The premise to this paper is that by understanding the key attributes that support one successful application, insights can be gleaned that will streamline/coordinate future RI-applications. This paper is an extension to a paper presented at the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP-2001) Conference. In that paper, a number issues and opportunities were identified that needed to be assessed in order to support future (and efficient) RI-applications. It was noted in the paper that a proper understanding and resolution of these issues will facilitate implementation of risk and performance technology in the operation, maintenance and design disciplines. In addition, it will provide the foundation necessary to support regulatory review and approval. (authors)

  17. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  18. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered

  19. Risk communication. The key of the policy success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Today, in a democratic society, nuclear power development is subject to public acceptance. The acceptance of the nuclear activities development implies both the approval by the government's proper authorities and also the standpoints of the civil society, expressed in forms more or less institutionalized. The public has an important role to play in addressing issues of health, safety and environment. Therefore, all activities of a nuclear organization need to be both transparent and should provide for the public's appropriate involvement, with input not only from the nuclear community, but also from members of the public, interested groups, media, as well as public representatives in local and national councils and groups. How to communicate clearly with the public is a very challenging job that requires special attention. Risk communication is the art or practice of talking about scientific information and principles to a non - expert audience. Its goal is to convey accurate and trustworthy information about safety to decision - makers, the public, or anyone else with an interest in the safety of the public or themselves. The science of communication, public education for a proper perception of risks are the key for attaining social acceptance of any technology that is about to become part of the sustainable development process and hence, of nuclear energy. The paper describes the way our nuclear organization is acting and the results in risk communication activity it achieves. (author)

  20. Management of key pension plan risks from the user aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac-Antić Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pension system is an important form of protection of individuals, i.e. of their ensuring for a period of living after retirement, when they are no longer able for working engagement. On the other hand, as a form of long-term insurance, this system presents a strong investment incentive for each economy. Pension plans are an important element of the pension system. There are defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans and hybrid plans, which represent a combination of the two previously mentioned plans. The aim of the work is to define the key risks for each of these types of pension plans in order to determine their advantages and disadvantages, from the aspect of their potential users, on the basis of their comparative analysis.

  1. Risk assessment for the transportation of hazardous waste and hazardous waste components of low-level mixed waste and transuranic waste for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Chang, Y.S.

    1996-12-01

    This report, a supplement to Appendix E (Transportation Risk) of the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), provides additional information supporting the accident data for chemical risk assessment and health risk methodology described in that appendix (Part II) and presents the uncertainty analysis and on-site risk calculations. This report focuses on hazardous material truck accident rates, release probabilities, and release quantities; provides the toxicological values derived for each hazardous chemical assessed in the WM PEIS and further details on the derivation of health criteria; describes the method used in the transportation risk assessments to address potential additivity of health effects from simultaneous exposure to several chemicals and the method used to address transportation risks for maximally exposed individuals; presents an expanded discussion of the uncertainty associated with transportation risk calculations; and includes the results of the on-site transportation risk analysis. In addition, two addenda are provided to detail the risk assessments conducted for the hazardous components of low-level mixed waste (Addendum I) and transuranic waste (Addendum II)

  2. Risk assessment for the transportation of hazardous waste and hazardous waste components of low-level mixed waste and transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.

    1995-04-01

    This report, a supplement to Appendix E (Transportation Risk) of the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), provides additional information supporting the accident data for chemical risk assessment and health risk methodology described in that appendix (Part II), as well as providing the uncertainty analysis and on-site risk calculations. This report focuses on hazardous material truck accident rates, release probabilities, and release quantities; provides the toxicological values derived for each hazardous chemical assessed in the WM PEIS and further details on the derivation of health criteria; describes the method used in the transportation risk assessments to address potential additivity of health effects from simultaneous exposure to several chemicals and the method used to address transportation risks for maximally exposed individuals; presents an expanded discussion of the uncertainty associated with transportation risk calculations; and includes the results of the on-site transportation risk analysis. In addition, two addenda are provided to detail the risk assessments conducted for the hazardous components of low-level mixed waste (Addendum I) and transuranic waste (Addendum II)

  3. Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, J W

    1997-01-01

    In the hot arid zones of the world, ecotoxicological research is in statu nascendi. In these zones, the major sources of contamination by toxicants are: (1) plant protection and vector control in wet zones; (2) large-scale crop protection campaigns in dry and ephemeral wet zones; (3) refuse and obsolete pesticides in dry zones; and (4) mining. Economic development in many of these zones requires an adequate knowledge of certain basic principles, i.e., where extrapolating existing knowledge does not apply. The vulnerability of ecosystems to contaminants is closely related to water flow. In dry areas, species are susceptible to factors that interfere with the ecophysiological properties regulating water loss. Most hot arid areas are found at low latitudes where temperatures show striking extremes both in time and space. Living organisms are physiologically resistant and/or show adaptive behavior to these temperature extremes. Very little is known about the effects of toxicants on these key resistant and adaptive functions, although by extrapolation a few assumptions can be made. The effects of hyperthermia, for instance, can be aggravated by GSH depleting substances, and the temporary disabling effects characteristic of many pesticides may prove fatal under these circumstances. Most wet areas show a spatial concentration of both human activity and wildlife. In mesic zones, the contamination of water represents a health risk to both humans and other living organisms. The vast majority of aquatic communities are those inhabiting temporary pools and streams. Their populations are characterized by short reproductive cycles and/or long dormant stages. Toxicants affecting growth in these areas have been shown to have a deleterious effect. In a synthesis of existing knowledge the most prominent gaps are identified and priorities for further research are made.

  4. Implementing and scaling up HCV treatment services for people who inject drugs and other high risk groups in Ukraine: An evaluation of programmatic and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhnaya, Alyona; Meteliuk, Anna; Barnard, Tetiana; Zelenev, Alexei; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-09-01

    HCV prevalence estimates among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine is high (60-90%), yet barriers to HCV treatment and care remain substantial including limited access to direct acting antiviral (DAA) medications. A feasibility scale-up project implemented HCV treatment in community-based settings to improve access to DAA treatment for key populations in this context. Using program-level data and verified medical records, we describe the development, implementation processes and outcomes for HCV treatment for PWID and other risks groups. Most participants (76%) received a combination of sofosbuvir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin for 12 weeks. Treatment enrollment started in June 2015; the first two waves are reported. Data on demographics, HIV characteristics, HCV genotype and RNA levels, including sustained virologic response (SVR) were obtained from verified medical records. We used logistic regression to examine the independent correlates of achieving a SVR. The project was implemented in 19 healthcare institutions from 16 regions of Ukraine, mainly within AIDS specialty centers. Our analytical sample included 1126 participants who were mostly men (73%) and the majority were HIV co-infected (79%). Treatment retention was 97.7%; the proportions of participants who achieved SVR for the overall sample and for those with complete data (N=1029) were 86.2% (95% CI 84.08-88.19%) and 94.3% (95% CI 92.8-95.7%) respectively. The analysis of data restricted to only those with SVR data available showed that PWID who were currently injecting had comparable SVR rates (89.2%, 95% CI 81.5-94.5%) to PWID not injecting (94.4%, 95% CI 92.4-96.1), PWID on methadone (94.4%, 95%CI 92.4-96.1), and 'other' risk groups (95.2%, 95% CI 91.3-97.7). Independent factors associated with achieving a SVR were female sex (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.45-8.14), HCV genotype 3 (AOR: 4.57, 95% CI 1.97-10.59) compared to genotype 1. SVR rates in PWID actively injecting did not differ significantly

  5. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  6. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  7. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational

  8. Hazardous waste transportation risk assessment for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement -- human health endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Lazaro, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation, a quantitative methodology for assessing the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous waste (HW) is proposed. The focus is on identifying air concentrations of HW that correspond to specific human health endpoints

  9. Risk perception and sex behaviour in pregnancy and breastfeeding in high HIV prevalence settings: Programmatic implications for PrEP delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Elise; Towriss, Catriona; Gomba, Yolanda; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Gorbach, Pamina; Shoptaw, Steven; Coates, Thomas; Myer, Landon

    2018-01-01

    HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner’s serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services. Our study contextualizes factors related to risky sexual behaviours during pregnancy and postpartum periods and assesses knowledge and hypothetical acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in pregnancy. Translated and transcribed data were coded and analysed by three researchers using a thematic analysis approach. In interviews with HIV-uninfected pregnant/postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition, we identified common themes associated with sexual risk behaviours during pregnancy, including: lack of control over decisions in sex and condom use in pregnancy, low perceived risk (e.g. beliefs that their partner has the same HIV-negative serostatus), and socio-cultural beliefs around condom use during pregnancy (e.g. contact with sperm is essential for baby’s development). PrEP knowledge was low among HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women, and potential acceptability was good, though primary concerns were around the potential impact on the infant. While mothers presented a clear desire to protect themselves from HIV acquisition once pregnant, they also reported lack of control, and socio-cultural beliefs, like sex is good for the baby, that increased their risk of seroconversion. Mothers had limited PrEP awareness but reported hypothetical willingness to use PrEP because of concerns over HIV acquisition and onward mother to child transmission

  10. Drinker Identity: Key Risk Factor for Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use continues to be a critical public health problem with both short- and long-term negative health consequences. Defining oneself in terms of alcohol, a drinking-related identity, has been shown to predict high levels of alcohol use. Because adolescence is the developmental period during which identity development is most salient, preventing the development of the drinker identity and early identification of youth who have a developing drinker identity may be important for prevention and early intervention. We review the theory- and evidence-based literature about identity development and the effects of a drinker identity on alcohol use behaviors in adolescents, discuss potential determinants of the drinker identity, and discuss future implications for practice and research. There is some evidence that the drinker identity forms in early adolescence and becomes more well-developed during adolescence. The drinker identity predicts alcohol use behaviors both concurrently and over time in adolescence and young adulthood. There is also some evidence that early exposure to alcohol may contribute to formation of the drinker identity. Identity-based approaches may be promising strategies to identify adolescents who are at risk for alcohol use and to intervene with early prevention or treatment within the school setting. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  11. Risk factors for vascular dementia: Hypotension as a key point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Davide Manganaro, Cristina Vilotti, Gilberto PizzolatoDepartment of Internal Medicine and Clinical Neurology University of Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia.Keywords: vascular dementia, hypotension, low blood pressure, alzheimer disease

  12. A cost-benefit analysis of programmatic use of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, S T; Stamboulian, D; Demonte, J; Quero, L; Martinez de Arquiza, C; Aleman, A; Lepetic, A; Levine, M M

    1997-02-01

    Cholera spread to Latin America in 1991; subsequently, cholera vaccination was considered as an interim intervention until long-term solutions involving improved water supplies and sanitation could be introduced. Three successive summer cholera outbreaks in northern Argentina and the licensing of the new single-dose oral cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR, raised questions of the cost and benefit of using this new vaccine. This study explored the potential benefits to the Argentine Ministry of Health of treatment costs averted, versus the costs of vaccination with CVD 103-HgR in the relatively confined population of northern Argentina affected by the cholera outbreaks. Water supplies and sanitation in this area are poor but a credible infrastructure for vaccine delivery exists. In our cost-benefit model of a 3-year period (1992-1994) with an annual incidence of 2.5 case-patients per 1000 population and assumptions of vaccine efficacy of 75% and coverage of 75%, vaccination of targeted high risk groups would prevent 1265 cases. Assuming a cost of US$602 per treated case and of US$1.50 per dose of vaccine, the total discounted savings from use of vaccine in the targeted groups would be US$132,100. The projected savings would be altered less by vaccine coverage (range 75-90%) or efficacy (60-85%) changes than by disease incidence changes. Our analysis underestimated the true costs of cholera in Argentina because we included only medical expenditures; Indirect losses to trade and tourism had the greatest economic impact. However, vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was still cost-beneficial in the base case.

  13. Benefits and costs of programmatic agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The performing organization, on behalf of the FHWA Office of Planning, Environment, and Realty, conducted a benefit-cost assessment of programmatic agreements and approaches. The assessment consisted of a case study approach that evaluated three agre...

  14. EVALUATING KEY ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS FOR POLLUTION AT INTERNATIONAL PORTS IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to use the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP approach to evaluate the key environmental risk factors for pollution at international ports in Taiwan. Relying on the literature and experts’ opinions, a hierarchical structure with three risk aspects and thirteen risk factors is first constructed, and a FAHP model then proposed. Based on data from the AHP experts’ questionnaires, we use the FAHP approach to determine key environmental risk factors. Finally, the results show that: (1 Air pollution is the most important aspect of environmental pollution at international ports in Taiwan. (2 In order of relative importance, the top five key environmental risk factors for pollution at international ports in Taiwan are the oil leaks from ships, volatile organic compounds (VOCs, exhaust emissions from ships at berth, harmful coatings on ships' hulls, and ships' failure to use low-pollution fuel. Furthermore, some discussions are provided for port authority in Taiwan.

  15. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  16. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Frewer, L.J.; Chryssochoidis, G.M.; Houghton, J.R.; Korzen-Bohr, S.; Krystallis, T.; Lassen, J.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes

  17. Risk Communication: A Key for Fostering a More Resilient Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only triggered by natural events combined with technical failures, but was a human induced disaster. From the bitter lessons, we have learned that human and organizational factors associated with emergency planning, response and decision-making for nuclear safety need to be more carefully reviewed and enhanced. Elements of social sciences, especially, risk management and risk communication here play a key role. Risk communication is an established concept within risk analysis frameworks. It is a vital tool to convey the meaning of scientific assessment and risk management, share safety related information, and exchange views and values amongst varying stakeholder groups. Risk communication aims at building trust through this process and human interactions. However, it would not be an overstatement that the essence of risk communication is not fully understood. As a result, it is either partially integrated into risk management practice or remains unconducive. The marginalisation of risk communication is observed in a variety of risk communication practices, or more evidently, in perception gaps between lays and experts about risks.

  18. A Systematic Approach to Programmatic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffit, Dani M.; Mansell, Jamie L.; Russ, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Accrediting bodies and universities increasingly require evidence of student learning within courses and programs. Within athletic training, programmatic assessment has been a source of angst for program directors. While there are many ways to assess educational programs, this article introduces 1 systematic approach. Objective: This…

  19. 7 CFR 3015.113 - Programmatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... project than was anticipated when the award was made. (d) Transferring work and providing financial... performance of the substantive programmatic work, and for providing any form of financial assistance to...

  20. Maintenance program guidelines for programmatic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Division Directors at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are responsible for implementing a maintenance program for research equipment (also referred to as programmatic equipment) assigned to them. The program must allow maintenance to be accomplished in a manner that promotes operational safety, environmental protection and compliance, and cost effectiveness; that preserves the intended functions of the facilities and equipment; and that supports the programmatic mission of the Laboratory. Programmatic equipment -- such as accelerators, lasers, radiation detection equipment, and glove boxes -- is dedicated specifically to research. Installed equipment, by contrast, includes the mechanical and electrical systems installed as part of basic building construction, equipment essential to the normal functioning of the facility and its intended use. Examples of installed equipment are heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems; elevators; and communications systems. The LBL Operating and Assurance Program Plan (PUB-3111, Revision 4) requires that a maintenance program be prepared for programmatic equipment and defines the basic maintenance program elements. Such a program of regular, documented maintenance is vital to the safety and quality of research activities. As a part of that support, this document offers guidance to Laboratory organizations for developing their maintenance programs. It clarifies the maintenance requirements of the Operating and Assurance Program (OAP) and presents an approach that, while not the only possibility, can be expected to produce an effective maintenance program for research equipment belonging to the Laboratory's organizations

  1. ACHP | News | St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed St redevelopment of the St. Elizabeths West Campus, which is part of the St. Elizabeths National Historic Landmark this project, due to the historic significance of the NHL. GSA's client for the St. Elizabeths

  2. Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash vehicle trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wong, Y D; Li, M Z F; Chai, C

    2018-08-01

    Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Key attributes of the SAPHIRE risk and reliability analysis software for risk-informed probabilistic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Curtis; Knudsen, James; Kvarfordt, Kellie; Wood, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is a primary developer of probabilistic risk and reliability analysis (PRRA) tools, dating back over 35 years. Evolving from mainframe-based software, the current state-of-the-practice has led to the creation of the SAPHIRE software. Currently, agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the National Aeronautics and Aerospace Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense use version 7 of the SAPHIRE software for many of their risk-informed activities. In order to better understand and appreciate the power of software as part of risk-informed applications, we need to recall that our current analysis methods and solution methods have built upon pioneering work done 30-40 years ago. We contrast this work with the current capabilities in the SAPHIRE analysis package. As part of this discussion, we provide information for both the typical features and special analysis capabilities, which are available. We also present the application and results typically found with state-of-the-practice PRRA models. By providing both a high-level and detailed look at the SAPHIRE software, we give a snapshot in time for the current use of software tools in a risk-informed decision arena

  4. Using EMBL-EBI Services via Web Interface and Programmatically via Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Cowley, Andrew; Li, Weizhong; McWilliam, Hamish

    2014-12-12

    The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) provides access to a wide range of databases and analysis tools that are of key importance in bioinformatics. As well as providing Web interfaces to these resources, Web Services are available using SOAP and REST protocols that enable programmatic access to our resources and allow their integration into other applications and analytical workflows. This unit describes the various options available to a typical researcher or bioinformatician who wishes to use our resources via Web interface or programmatically via a range of programming languages. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. GEO activities towards improved Geophysical monitoring. A key input to Disaster Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, J.; Rum, G.

    2007-05-01

    GEO has been established in 2005 with the main objective to put in place a Global, Coordinated, Comprehensive and Sustained System of Observing Systems (GEOSS) to serve 9 Social Benefit Areas, among which Disaster Risk Reduction. The paper will first set up the reference GEO framework, through a brief description of GEOSS key features, architectural functions and capacity building, and then will recall the value of the Geophysical observations, coming both from in situ and remote (satellite) systems, and, even more important, of their integration. GEO activities related to Geophysical monitoring and the use of related observation to foster social benefits in the Disaster Risk Reduction area will then be shortly described, together with the on-going key actions, including specific examples on key scientific/technical and data sharing aspects associated to GEOSS implementation. Special attention will be devoted on how Capacity Building strategy and activities are addressed through GEOSS development, building on infrastructure and programs under consolidation within GEO framework, such as the GEOSS Information collection and dissemination systems under development (GEONETCast, GEO Web Portal, GEO Clearinghouse) and the UN programs such as SPIDER (SPace based Information for Disaster management and Emergency Response) and UNOSAT. The paper will provide recommendations on the way forward for the implementation of Disaster Risk Management provisions as an integral part of sustainable development, also with the objective of creating within GEO a supporting framework to UNDP and World Bank activities on Risk Identification and Assessment.

  6. Clinical risk management in hospitals: strategy, central coordination and dialogue as key enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Matthias; Manser, Tanja; Kessler, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to identify key enablers fostering clinical risk management (CRM) in hospitals to guide health care in this vital area of patient safety. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the national level in 324 Swiss hospitals in 2007-2008 to assess the relationship between key elements and systematic CRM. Therefore, a comprehensive monitoring instrument for CRM was used for the first time. Organizational factors (e.g. strategy, coordination, resources) and structural conditions (e.g. hospital size) were tested as key elements. CRM was assessed by evaluating its maturity (i.e. the level of CRM development) by 12 theoretically derived indices joining together essential aspects of CRM at the hospital level and the service level. Chi-square measures were used to analyse the relationships between organizational factors or structural conditions and maturity of CRM. Participation in this voluntary survey was good, with CRM experts of 138 out of 324 hospitals responding (response rate 43%). Three key enablers for CRM were identified: implementing a function for central CRM coordination, assuring dialogue with and between the different hospital services, and developing strategic CRM objectives. This study offers, for the first time, an assessment of the maturity of hospitals' CRM and identifies key enablers related to CRM. This is a feasible first step in guiding hospitals to shape their CRM and presents a basis for future studies, for example, linking CRM to outcome data. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Exploring the Key Risk Factors for Application of Cloud Computing in Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Hua Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the cloud computing information technology environment, cloud computing has some advantages such as lower cost, immediate access to hardware resources, lower IT barriers to innovation, higher scalability, etc., but for the financial audit information flow and processing in the cloud system, CPA (Certified Public Accountant firms need special considerations, for example: system problems, information security and other related issues. Auditing cloud computing applications is the future trend in the CPA firms, given this issue is an important factor for them and very few studies have been conducted to investigate this issue; hence this study seeks to explore the key risk factors for the cloud computing and audit considerations. The dimensions/perspectives of the application of cloud computing audit considerations are huge and cover many criteria/factors. These risk factors are becoming increasingly complex, and interdependent. If the dimensions could be established, the mutually influential relations of the dimensions and criteria determined, and the current execution performance established; a prioritized improvement strategy designed could be constructed to use as a reference for CPA firm management decision making; as well as provide CPA firms with a reference for build auditing cloud computing systems. Empirical results show that key risk factors to consider when using cloud computing in auditing are, in order of priority for improvement: Operations (D, Automating user provisioning (C, Technology Risk (B and Protection system (A.

  8. Development and integration of programmatic performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, M.; Wrethall, J.; Appignani, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an evaluation of maintenance-related programmatic performance indicators, and summarizes the direction being taken in a new project to integrate indirect performance indicators for nuclear power plants. Programmatic indicators allow NRC to monitor, at a distance, trends in functional activities before a significant impact appears on safety. Previously presented work described the selection of candidate performance indicators associated with maintenance for continued analysis. This evaluation focused on two aspects of the selected indicators: (1) an evaluation of the state of maintenance programs in the narrative text of SALP reports versus the frequencies of inadvertent ESF actuations from test and maintenance errors; and (2) an evaluation of alternative methods for analyzing the thermal performance of plants as an integral indicator of maintenance program effectiveness. 1 ref., 1 fig

  9. Key drivers and economic consequences of high-end climate scenarios: uncertainties and risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of high-end climate scenarios and the risks of extreme events involve a number of critical assumptions and methodological challenges related to key uncertainties in climate scenarios and modelling, impact analysis, and economics. A methodological framework for integrated analysis...... of extreme events increase beyond scaling, and in combination with economic assumptions we find a very wide range of risk estimates for urban precipitation events. A sensitivity analysis addresses 32 combinations of climate scenarios, damage cost curve approaches, and economic assumptions, including risk...... aversion and equity represented by discount rates. Major impacts of alternative assumptions are investigated. As a result, this study demonstrates that in terms of decision making the actual expectations concerning future climate scenarios and the economic assumptions applied are very important...

  10. Risk based knowledge assessments: towards a toolbox for managing key knowledge assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is now well acknowledged that considerable Knowledge Management (KM) issues are faced by national and international nuclear communities. Much of these problems relate to issues of an ageing workforce and the significantly reduced influx of new generation of nuclear engineers and scientists. The management discipline of KM contains a broad spectrum of methods and techniques. However, the effective implementation of a KM strategy requires the selection and deployment of appropriate and targeted approaches that are pertinent to the particular issues of the technical or business area within an organisation. A clear strategy is contingent upon an assessment of what are the knowledge areas and what are the key (knowledge) risk areas. In particular the following issues have to be addressed: 'what knowledge exists?', 'what is the nature and format of that knowledge?' and 'what knowledge is key to our continued, safe, and effective operation?'. Answers to such questions will enable an organisation to prioritise KM effort and employ subsequent KM approaches that are appropriate. Subsequent approaches ranging from the utilisation of information technologies, such as databases; knowledge retention methods; and the setting up of Community of Practices to share knowledge and experience. This paper considers a risk assessment based approach to KM. In so doing the paper extends work previously reported on an approach to conducting knowledge audits by considering the integration of that approach with approaches to (knowledge) risk assessment. The paper also provides a brief review of the various KM approaches that can act to reduce the level of risk faced by an organisation. The paper concludes by reflecting upon the role, value of deploying such a risk based approach. (author)

  11. Key outcomes from risk based assessment of pressure equipment in refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, D.; Lichti, K.; Hill, T.; Thomas, C.; Widrig, J.; Simmonds, G.; Karstensen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Risk based assessment (RBA) has become the best industry practice for management of pressure equipment reliability. Application of RBA programs significantly reduces risk and gives opportunity to optimize inspection programs and produce long term financial benefits. Quest Integrity Group have implemented risk based inspection programs n a variety of industries including ammonia, methanol, geothermal power, :combined cycle power, gas turbines, gas production facilities and refineries. This paper outlines the semi quantitative RBA procedures that have been followed and lists some of the specific technical outcomes. Advanced inspection and life assessment methods used in support of RBI in refineries ire discussed. Piping in refineries is a key risk issue and it is not uncommon for piping failures to result in major incidents. Specific inspection programs are available to monitor differing damage processes such as flow assisted corrosion, hydrogen damage and corrosion under insulation. During assessment it s often found that numerous pipes have never been inspected especially underground smaller diameter pipes which are frequently considered to be un-piggable using conventional technologies and difficult to inspect. Advanced high accuracy flexible miniaturized ultrasonic intelligent pigging combined with fitness for service assessment such as Invista TM is recommended for inspection of critical pipelines which previously have been un-piggable. The processing of crude oil from a range of sources can result in significant variations in the levels of contaminants such as chlorides and sulfides. Major failures have occurred as a result of very rapid increases in corrosion rates in hydrotreating processes due to rapid changes in chemistry. The outcome of the assessment of plants that have potentially high and variable levels of contaminants often results in a review the process chemistry, how it is monitored and development of a detailed corrosion monitoring program. Fired

  12. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  13. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    , ignoring sensitive history life stages of organisms and transgenerational effects. To link sources, ecosystem transfer and biological effects to future impact and risks, a series of models are usually interfaced, while uncertainty estimates are seldom given. The model predictions are, however, only valid within the boundaries of the overall uncertainties. Furthermore, the model predictions are only useful and relevant when uncertainties are estimated, communicated and understood. Among key factors contributing most to uncertainties, the present paper focuses especially on structure uncertainties (model bias or discrepancies) as aspects such as particle releases, ecosystem dynamics, mixed exposure, sensitive life history stages and transgenerational effects, are usually ignored in assessment models. Research focus on these aspects should significantly reduce the overall uncertainties in the impact and risk assessment of radioactive contaminated ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CHILD-PARENT VIOLENCE: MAIN CHARACTERISTICS, RISK FACTORS AND KEYS TO INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luisa Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Child-parent Violence (hereinafter CPV is an increasingly evident problem in the social, health, and judicial protection systems which, however, continue to show a number of major deficiencies with respect to the main characteristics of CPV, the people involved, the underlying factors, and efficacious interventions. Nevertheless, there is a consensus regarding its devastating consequences. The present bibliographical review is focused on analysing the problem of CPV with the aim of offering useful data for future research and intervention proposals. Specifically, this paper provides a definition of CPV and its types, some data on prevalence, the main characteristics of aggressive children and abused parents, and the most important individual, family, school and community risk factors highlighted in the current scientific literature. The keys areas of intervention with this group are also presented.

  15. Yield risks in global maize markets: Historical evidence and projections in key regions of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson B. Villoria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous worldwide crop failures stemming from a more unstable climate may reduce the scope for international trade to compensate food shortages and stabilize food prices across the various regions of the world. Understanding the effects of changes in crop productivity on global markets requires knowledge about the extent to which crop yields may be systematically related across producing and consuming centers. This short communication contributes to this knowledge by investigating the potential changes in the strength of two key sources of supply risks in global maize markets: yield variance and cross-country yield correlation. We focus on the largest producing and consuming countries of the world. We capitalize on yield projections from the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison project. Exploratory analysis of the skill of the underlying GGCMI models in reproducing key moments of the distribution of observed yields reveals that they overstate observed variances but faithfully reproduce observed patterns of cross-country correlations. We find no evidence of an increase in the degree of cross-country dependency of maize yields. We also find a higher incidence of what would be considered extremely low maize yields by present-time standards stemming from the projected downward trend in yields levels toward mid-century. The weak dependency of maize yields across countries, an the possibility of reducing the higher incidence of extremes through policies aimed to reverse the climate-induced downward trends in yields, suggest that international trade can become a valuable tool to ameliorate the effects of more unstable crop yields. Keywords: Extremely low yields, Maize markets, Food prices, Agricultural yields, Systemic risk in agriculture, Global agriculture, AgMIP, Global gridded crop model intercomparison

  16. [Risk assessments and control strategies of plague in five key surveillance counties, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    evaluation five counties (cities) belong to the plague had a lower risk areas, according to the level of risk score (Pf) Longquan city and Yiwu (Pf was 0.314, 0.292, respectively) plague risk were higher than three other regions (Pf were all 0.292). The main host and media were lower in five key plague surveillance counties (cities) of Zhejiang province; The result of Borda count method and Delphi approach for risk assessment indicated that endogenous plague recrudescence was at lower level, but Longquan city and Yiwu city risk were higher than other counties (cities).

  17. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    , ignoring sensitive history life stages of organisms and transgenerational effects. To link sources, ecosystem transfer and biological effects to future impact and risks, a series of models are usually interfaced, while uncertainty estimates are seldom given. The model predictions are, however, only valid within the boundaries of the overall uncertainties. Furthermore, the model predictions are only useful and relevant when uncertainties are estimated, communicated and understood. Among key factors contributing most to uncertainties, the present paper focuses especially on structure uncertainties (model bias or discrepancies) as aspects such as particle releases, ecosystem dynamics, mixed exposure, sensitive life history stages and transgenerational effects, are usually ignored in assessment models. Research focus on these aspects should significantly reduce the overall uncertainties in the impact and risk assessment of radioactive contaminated ecosystems. - Highlights: • Source term uncertainties: ignoring radionuclide speciation radioactive particles, the inventory can be underestimated. • Ecosystem transfer uncertainties: Ignoring time dependent interactions, transfer rates and pathways can be wrongly assessed. • Exposure uncertainties: ignoring stressor interactions and effects, effects cannot be judged. • Response uncertainties: ignoring sensitive stages transgenerational effects impact and risks can be underestimated.

  18. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  19. 75 FR 78980 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy... Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern... preferred method of commenting. Mail: Addressed to: Solar Energy Draft Programmatic EIS, Argonne National...

  20. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  1. Development and integration of programmatic performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreathall, J.; Appignani, P.; Modarres, M.

    1990-01-01

    Work is currently being performed to develop and integrate programmatic performance indicators, that is, indicators of performance associated with the influence on safety associated with plant functional areas like maintenance, operations and training. The process for identifying and evaluating indicators associated with maintenance and training has been described earlier. Since that time, the authors have evaluated the maintenance indicators: inadvertent engineered safety feature actuations due to test and maintenance errors, and daily power loss (DPL), which seemingly show relationships to safety. Work on training process will lead to characteristic sorts of behavior. In the integration study, several frameworks have been developed to provide a basis for describing the interrelationships of plant behavior, personnel behavior, and safety. These will be applied in the next phase of the work to perform the nominal integration

  2. Improved obstetric safety through programmatic collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Dena; Brodman, Michael; Friedman, Arnold J; Minkoff, Howard; Merkatz, Irwin R

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare safety and quality are critically important issues in obstetrics, and society, healthcare providers, patients and insurers share a common goal of working toward safer practice, and are continuously seeking strategies to facilitate improvements. To this end, 4 New York City voluntary hospitals with large maternity services initiated a unique collaborative quality improvement program. It was facilitated by their common risk management advisors, FOJP Service Corporation, and their professional liability insurer, Hospitals Insurance Company. Under the guidance of 4 obstetrics and gynecology departmental chairmen, consensus best practices for obstetrics were developed which included: implementation of evidence based protocols with audit and feedback; standardized educational interventions; mandatory electronic fetal monitoring training; and enhanced in-house physician coverage. Each institution developed unique safety related expertise (development of electronic documentation, team training, and simulation education), and experiences were shared across the collaborative. The collaborative group developed robust systems for audit of outcomes and documentation quality, as well as enforcement mechanisms. Ongoing feedback to providers served as a key component of the intervention. The liability carrier provided financial support for these patient safety innovations. As a result of the interventions, the overall AOI for our institutions decreased 42% from baseline (January-June 2008) to the most recently reviewed time period (July-December 2011) (10.7% vs 6.2%, p Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  3. Policy and practice of programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Vries

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI screening and preventive treatment is one of the components of the World Health Organization (WHO End TB strategy, and particularly relevant for low tuberculosis (TB incidence countries, i.e. less than 100TB cases per million population. The Netherlands is such a low-incidence country with traditionally a strong emphasis on programmatic management of LTBI, e.g. examining contacts of infectious TB patients by the public health services. Increasingly, curative services are involved in LTBI management of clinical risk groups. The country recently adopted a five-year strategic national plan recommending LTBI screening of high-risk migrants populations. A monitoring and evaluation system is already in place to measure programme performance and guide policy. Research on LTBI screening of migrants is on-going and results should inform future decisions in scaling-up this intervention. Several challenges remain for programmatic LTBI management, such as securing financial resources and the right professional cadre for implementation; availability of screening tests and drugs; collecting additional data for monitoring and evaluation, in line with the WHO indicators for LTBI programmatic management; developing cultural-sensitive and client-centred education for migrants; reducing patient costs for LTBI screening and preventive treatment; and assessing cost-effectiveness and impact on TB epidemiology. Keywords: Elimination, Latent tuberculosis infection, Prevention, Screening, Tuberculosis, Municipal Public Health Service

  4. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonflue, F. W.; Cooper, W.

    1980-01-01

    Cost and programmatic elements of the space construction systems analysis study are discussed. The programmatic aspects of the ETVP program define a comprehensive plan for the development of a space platform, the construction system, and the space shuttle operations/logistics requirements. The cost analysis identified significant items of cost on ETVP development, ground, and flight segments, and detailed the items of space construction equipment and operations.

  5. Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Frisman, Linda K; Lin, Hsiuju; Swartz, Marvin S

    2014-07-01

    Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.

  6. Concordance of programmatic and laboratory-based multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, E R; Podewils, L J; Mitnick, C D; Becerra, M C; Laserson, K F; Bonilla, C

    2012-01-01

    Confirmation of cure for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients requires laboratory tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth on culture media. Outcome decisions dictate patient management, and inaccuracies place patients at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and may contribute to continued transmission of MDR-TB. To examine concordance between programmatic and laboratory-based MDR-TB treatment outcomes. The study population included 1658 MDR-TB patients in Peru treated between 1996 and 2002 with both program and laboratory-based outcomes. Laboratory-based outcomes were assigned according to international standards requiring at least five consecutive negative cultures in the last 12 months of treatment to confirm cure. Compared to the global culture-defined standard classification, only 1.1% of treatment successes, but 54.3% of failures, were misclassified programmatically. Overall, 10.4% of patients identified by a clinician as having a successful treatment outcome still had cultures positive for MDR-TB. Most patients with successful treatment outcomes by strict culture definitions were also classified by clinicians as having successful outcomes. However, many culture-confirmed failures were missed. In light of delays and incomplete access to culture in MDR-TB programs, efforts should be made to improve the accuracy of programmatically determined treatment outcomes.

  7. Exploring Programmatic Interoperability: Army Future Force Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith , II., James D; Meyers, B. C

    2005-01-01

    .... It describes the background and motivation for the workshop, provides a brief overview of the workshop activities, and highlights the key observations and conclusions obtained through the course...

  8. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Pieters, Wolter; Teixeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by implementing suitable risk treatment plans. However, an overarching overview of these methods, systematizing the characteristics of such methods, is missing. In this paper, we conduct a systematic l...

  9. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  10. The new Space Shuttle Transportation System (STS) - Problem, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. L.; Rodney, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA Space Shuttle Trend Analysis program. The four main areas of the program - problem/reliability, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending - are defined, along with motivation for these areas, the statistical methods used, and illustrative Space Shuttle applications. Also described is the NASA Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance (SRM&QA) Management Information Center, used to focus management attention on key near-term launch concerns and long-range mission trend issues. Finally, the computer data bases used to support the program and future program enhancements are discussed.

  11. Managers’ Support – A Key Driver behind Enterprise Risk Management Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprčić Danijela Miloš

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe consequences of the global fi nancial crisis resulted in re-thinking the risk management processes and approaches, highlighting the need for a comprehensive risk management framework. Consequently, more and more companies are moving away from the Traditional “silo-based” Risk Management (TRM to a more holistic approach known as Enterprise Risk Management (ERM. This paper presents results of both exploratory and empirical research. First, we develop ERM Index that measures maturity of ERM process within the company. Then, we present empirical results on the level of maturity and determinants of risk management system development in listed Croatian companies. Research indicates low levels of ERM development: even 38 per cent of analysed companies have no elements of ERM system, from which 22 per cent do not manage corporate risks at all. Except the company’s size supported by the economies of scale argument, managers’ support is the most important determinant of ERM system maturity in Croatian companies.

  12. Perceptions of key participants about Botswana adolescents' risks of unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV: Qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magowe, Mabel K M; Seloilwe, Esther; Dithole, Kefalotse; St Lawrence, Janet

    2017-10-01

    The qualitative research findings are reported on the perceptions of key participants in Botswana about adolescent sexuality problems and the feasibility (with suggestions) of an adolescent prevention intervention. Twenty adult key participants who were selected through purposive sampling from schools and youth centers responded to open-ended questions during face-to-face individual in-depth interviews that were conducted between December, 2011 and January, 2012 in Gaborone, Botswana. The data were analyzed by using an inductive content analysis. Five major themes and 12 subthemes emerged from the interviews. The key participants discussed situations that exposed adolescents to HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy. They also discussed unsafe sexual practices, the consequences of unprotected sex, poor parent-adolescent communication on sexuality, and the need for a sexuality education program. Policy changes are needed to improve collaboration between adolescents, parents, teachers, and youth officers in order to address adolescent sexuality problems. Further research is needed to explore the ways in which to improve sexuality communication between these groups. The results of the study provide valuable information on the sexuality risks that expose adolescents to HIV, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections and the strategies for the prevention of these risks, thus informing targeted interventions for risk reduction for adolescents. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Credit card debt, stress and key health risk behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2008-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between credit card debt, stress, and health risk behaviors among college students, focusing particularly on weight-related behaviors. Random-sample, mailed survey. Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 3206) attending a large public university. Self-reported health indicators (e.g., weight, height, physical activity, diet, weight control, stress, credit card debt). More than 23% of students reported credit card debt > or = $1000. Using Poisson regression to predict relative risks (RR) of health behaviors, debt of at least $1000 was associated with nearly every risk indicator tested, including overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, excess television viewing, infrequent breakfast consumption, fast food consumption, unhealthy weight control, body dissatisfaction, binge drinking, substance use, and violence. For example, adjusted RR [ARR] ranged from 1.09 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17) for insufficient vigorous activity to 2.17 (CI: 0.68-2.82) for using drugs other than marijuana in the past 30 days. Poor stress management was also a robust indicator of health risk. University student lifestyles may be characterized by a variety of coexisting risk factors. These findings indicate that both debt and stress were associated with wide-ranging adverse health indicators. Intervention strategies targeting at-risk student populations need to be tailored to work within the context of the many challenges of college life, which may serve as barriers to healthy lifestyles. Increased health promotion efforts targeting stress, financial management, and weight-related health behaviors may be needed to enhance wellness among young adults.

  14. Integrated Safety and Security Risk Assessment Methods: A Survey of Key Characteristics and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, Sabarathinam; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Pieters, Wolter; Texeira, Andre; van Gelder, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years, we have seen several security incidents that compromised system safety, of which some caused physical harm to people. Meanwhile, various risk assessment methods have been developed that integrate safety and security, and these could help to address the corresponding threats by

  15. Positioning the Learning Asset Portfolio as a Key Component in an Organization's Enterprise Risk Management Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAliney, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a process for valuing a portfolio of learning assets used by line executives across industries to value traditional business assets. Embedded within the context of enterprise risk management, this strategic asset allocation process is presented step by step, providing readers the operational considerations to implement this…

  16. What Is the Key to Improving Renal Transplant Recipients' Awareness of Skin Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Corazza, Monica; Battaglia, Yuri; Maietti, Elisa; Minghetti, Sara; Virgili, Annarosa

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown poor compliance rates regarding sun protection among organ transplant recipients. The main objective of the present study was to assess the awareness among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) of their risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development and their sunscreen use. The influence of several potentially relevant variables was also assessed in order to identify possible weak points on which to concentrate efforts in this respect. A total of 132 RTRs (92 males and 40 females) were included. The following information was collected and elaborated: (a) demographics; (b) skin phototype; (c) educational level; (d) time elapsed since transplantation; (e) immunosuppressive treatments; (f) previous dermatological visits; (g) patients' awareness of their NMSC risk; (h) use of sunscreen; and (i) previous documented NMSCs or NMSCs found during the study visit. Overall, 65 patients (49.2%) expressed awareness of their susceptibility to skin cancers. A high educational level was the main factor associated with patients' awareness. Thirty-six RTRs (27.3%) reported using sunscreen regularly. High educational level and awareness of personal susceptibility to NMSC development were the most relevant factors associated with sun protection habits. The present study showed the low level of sunscreen use among RTRs and their scanty awareness of personal skin cancer risk. Since educational level has been found to be highly related to both awareness of cancer risk and adequate use of sunscreen among RTRs, it is necessary to improve the way education is delivered by dermatologists and nephrologists, especially to subjects with a low educational level. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Programmatic Impact of 5 Years of Mortality Surveillance of New York City Homeless Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Dova; Begier, Elizabeth; Gutkovich, Alexander; Mos, Robert; Griffin, Angela; Zimmerman, Regina; Madsen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A homeless mortality surveillance system identifies emerging trends in the health of the homeless population and provides this information to key stakeholders in a timely and ongoing manner to effect evidence-based, programmatic change. We describe the first 5 years of the New York City homeless mortality surveillance system and, for the first time in peer-reviewed literature, illustrate the impact of key elements of sustained surveillance (i.e., timely dissemination of aggregate mortality data and real-time sharing of information on individual homeless decedents) on the programs of New York City’s Department of Homeless Services. These key elements had a positive impact on the department’s programs that target sleep-related infant deaths and hypothermia, drug overdose, and alcohol-related deaths among homeless persons. PMID:24148068

  18. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Feria-Domínguez, José Manuel; Sebastián-Lacave, Alonso

    2018-03-30

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR) concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC), in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData ® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls.

  19. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jiménez-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE. The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs. Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC, in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls.

  20. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Sebastián-Lacave, Alonso

    2018-01-01

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR) concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC), in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls. PMID:29601529

  1. Study design and the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV: lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Groot, Wim; Pavlova, Milena

    2018-01-30

    Estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV is a key activity in the surveillance of the HIV epidemic. The existing framework for considering future research needs may provide decision-makers with a basis for a fair process of deciding on the methods of the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV. This study explores the extent to which stakeholders involved with population size estimation agree with this framework, and thus, the study updates the framework. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with key informants from city and provincial governments, NGOs, research institutes, and the community of people at risk of HIV. Transcripts were analyzed and reviewed for significant statements pertaining to criteria. Variations and agreement around criteria were analyzed, and emerging criteria were validated against the existing framework. Eleven themes emerged which are relevant to the estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV in Viet Nam. Findings on missing criteria, inclusive participation, community perspectives and conflicting weight and direction of criteria provide insights for an improved framework for the prioritization of population size estimation methods. The findings suggest that the exclusion of community members from decision-making on population size estimation methods in Viet Nam may affect the validity, use, and efficiency of the evidence generated. However, a wider group of decision-makers, including community members among others, may introduce diverse definitions, weight and direction of criteria. Although findings here may not apply to every country with a transitioning economy or to every emerging epidemic, the principles of fair decision-making, value of community participation in decision-making and the expected challenges faced, merit consideration in every situation.

  2. Institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying public policy responsibilities in a retail competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of retail competition in the US electric power industry places at risk various environmental and social programmes such as demand side management, low income programmes and renewable energy. This paper presents institutional and programmatic suggestions for satisfying these kinds of public policy responsibilities in a disintegrated industry. Suggestions include customer owned electricity franchises, electricity facility siting marketplaces, electric industry foresight councils, model systems programmes, integrated social services programmes, collaborative electric service programmes, ISO standards and portfolio standards. These recommendations would be funded by a national transmission charge, a state level distribution charge and franchise level sales taxes, to be paid by transmission organizations, distribution organizations and electricity consumers, respectively. (author)

  3. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  4. Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Michael W; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R; Osborn, Larry; Mokdad, Ali H

    2006-11-15

    Use of random-digit dialing (RDD) for conducting health surveys is increasingly problematic because of declining participation rates and eroding frame coverage. Alternative survey modes and sampling frames may improve response rates and increase the validity of survey estimates. In a 2005 pilot study conducted in six states as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database. The authors compared estimates based on data from the completed mail surveys (n = 3,010) with those from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys (n = 18,780). The mail survey data appeared reasonably complete, and estimates based on data from the two survey modes were largely equivalent. Differences found, such as differences in the estimated prevalences of binge drinking (mail = 20.3%, telephone = 13.1%) or behaviors linked to human immunodeficiency virus transmission (mail = 7.1%, telephone = 4.2%), were consistent with previous research showing that, for questions about sensitive behaviors, self-administered surveys generally produce higher estimates than interviewer-administered surveys. The mail survey also provided access to cell-phone-only households and households without telephones, which cannot be reached by means of standard RDD surveys.

  5. 78 FR 16275 - Extension of the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of Energy Prototype...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Based on the Department of Energy Prototype Programmatic Agreement for Its Weatherization Assistance... Department of Energy Prototype Programmatic Agreement for its Weatherization Assistance Program, State Energy... under the prototype Programmatic Agreement (PA) for the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental...

  6. Research on Children's Environmental Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Programmatic initiatives for fathers have grown rapidly in early childhood settings during the past decade. This article reviews the research literature on attitudes about father involvement in programs, patterns of father involvement, studies about program development, outcome studies, and correlates of father involvement in programs.…

  7. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  8. Feasibility and cost analysis of programmatic implementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Detection of Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Nigeria still remains a challenge. We evaluated the feasibility of programmatic implementation of the Microscopic-Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) assay, a rapid culture and drug susceptibility testing technique for drug susceptibility testing in a low resource ...

  9. Teaching Psychological Research Methods through a Pragmatic and Programmatic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Patrick; Fielden, Amy; Tzemou, Effy

    2014-01-01

    Research methods teaching in psychology is pivotal in preparing students for the transition from student as learner to independent practitioner. We took an action research approach to re-design, implement and evaluate a module guiding students through a programmatic and pragmatic research cycle. These revisions allow students to experience how…

  10. Ethics and programmatic issues on the 2003 SARS epidemic: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the programmatic and ethics issues, although resulting in an effective response were nonetheless controversial in many ways, as the potentially compromised people's rights and autonomy. These issues require further reflection and an assessment as to whether they could be used in the fight against HIV and ...

  11. Key technologies and risk management of deep tunnel construction at Jinping II hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The four diversion tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station represent the deepest underground project yet conducted in China, with an overburden depth of 1500–2000 m and a maximum depth of 2525 m. The tunnel structure was subjected to a maximum external water pressure of 10.22 MPa and the maximum single-point groundwater inflow of 7.3 m3/s. The success of the project construction was related to numerous challenging issues such as the stability of the rock mass surrounding the deep tunnels, strong rockburst prevention and control, and the treatment of high-pressure, large-volume groundwater infiltration. During the construction period, a series of new technologies was developed for the purpose of risk control in the deep tunnel project. Nondestructive sampling and in-situ measurement technologies were employed to fully characterize the formation and development of excavation damaged zones (EDZs, and to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of deep rocks. The time effect of marble fracture propagation, the brittle–ductile–plastic transition of marble, and the temporal development of rock mass fracture and damage induced by high geostress were characterized. The safe construction of deep tunnels was achieved under a high risk of strong rockburst using active measures, a support system comprised of lining, grouting, and external water pressure reduction techniques that addressed the coupled effect of high geostress, high external water pressure, and a comprehensive early-warning system. A complete set of technologies for the treatment of high-pressure and large-volume groundwater infiltration was developed. Monitoring results indicated that the Jinping II hydropower station has been generally stable since it was put into operation in 2014.

  12. 77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy... Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Final Programmatic EIS... RMP Amendments, references, and additional information regarding solar energy development are...

  13. 78 FR 56869 - Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement Analysis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Infrastructure Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Supplement... of Energy (DOE) has completed the Supplement Analysis (SA) of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Accomplishing Expanded Civilian Nuclear Energy Research and Development and Isotope Production...

  14. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Susan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mansoor, Kayyum [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Zhenue [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Yunwei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trainor-Guitton, Whitney [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bacon, Diana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  15. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-09-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment. © 2013 ILSI Research Foundation. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Wildlife Service Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS... Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft [[Page 17654

  17. 78 FR 12336 - Draft Program Comment for Extending the Duration of Programmatic Agreements Based on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... grants. DOE's direct recipients may use the executed state agreement developed under the prototype PA as... Programmatic Agreements Based on the Department of Energy Prototype Programmatic Agreement for Its... Extending the Duration of Programmatic Agreements based on the Department of Energy (DOE) Prototype...

  18. Implementation of Programmatic Quality and the Impact on Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huls, Dale Thomas; Meehan, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of a programmatic quality assurance discipline within the International Space Station Program and the resulting impact on safety. NASA culture has continued to stress safety at the expense of quality when both are extremely important and both can equally influence the success or failure of a Program or Mission. Although safety was heavily criticized in the media after Colimbiaa, strong case can be made that it was the failure of quality processes and quality assurance in all processes that eventually led to the Columbia accident. Consequently, it is possible to have good quality processes without safety, but it is impossible to have good safety processes without quality. The ISS Program quality assurance function was analyzed as representative of the long-term manned missions that are consistent with the President s Vision for Space Exploration. Background topics are as follows: The quality assurance organizational structure within the ISS Program and the interrelationships between various internal and external organizations. ISS Program quality roles and responsibilities with respect to internal Program Offices and other external organizations such as the Shuttle Program, JSC Directorates, NASA Headquarters, NASA Contractors, other NASA Centers, and International Partner/participants will be addressed. A detailed analysis of implemented quality assurance responsibilities and functions with respect to NASA Headquarters, the JSC S&MA Directorate, and the ISS Program will be presented. Discussions topics are as follows: A comparison of quality and safety resources in terms of staffing, training, experience, and certifications. A benchmark assessment of the lessons learned from the Columbia Accident Investigation (CAB) Report (and follow-up reports and assessments), NASA Benchmarking, and traditional quality assurance activities against ISS quality procedures and practices. The lack of a coherent operational

  19. Operating an Advertising Programmatic Buying Platform: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gonzalvez-Cabañas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how new technological developments and the possibilities generated by the internet are shaping the online advertising market. More specifically it focuses on a programmatic advertising case study. The origin of the problem is how publishers resort to automated buying and selling when trying to shift unsold inventory. To carry out our case study, we will use a programmatic online advertising sales platform, which identifies the optimal way of promoting a given product. The platform executes, evaluates, manages and optimizes display advertising campaigns, all in real-time. The empirical analysis carried out in the case study reveals that the platform and its exclusion algorithms are suitable mechanisms for analysing the performance and efficiency of the various segments that might be used to promote products. Thanks to Big Data tools and artificial intelligence the platform performs automatically, providing information in a user-friendly and simple manner.

  20. Content Analysis as a Foundation for Programmatic Research in Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous arguments that content analyses provide the descriptive foundation for media effects research (McLeod & Reeves, 1980) are extended to include that content analyses can provide a sound and useful foundation for programmatic research by individual communication scientists. I discuss examples from my own work and from that of colleagues in communication and related disciplines. Use of messages sampled and coded in a content analysis in combination with survey data sets or as stimuli in ...

  1. Department of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) scoping session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) scoping meeting was: to present the ground water program so as to build some familiarity and understanding about the issue involved; and to get the Durango community's input. This report contains the presentations made by the project manager for the uranium mill tailings program, site manager for the Durango UMTRA site, manager of ground water hydrology, and includes comments made by local residents

  2. The integration of the risk in the governance of urban projects: a key issue for a resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. Tools and measures, structural or non-structural such as warning systems, barriers, etc do exist and could be a smart way to improve the resilience of the new urbanised areas. The technical solutions are available and efficient, but we notice that these tools are not much implemented. There is a lack of flood risk concern among the stakeholders and the inhabitants1. How landuse stakeholders could integrate the flood risk in the decision making process throughout the implementation of the urban project? Which type of governance favours an efficient development of good flood risk policy including prevention, protection and the management of the crisis? What is the "good" governance of the urban project e.g. enabling to take into account or not to forget the flood risk and to empower the (future) inhabitants? This inhabitants' empowerment includes the improvement of awareness (i.e. inhabitants being aware that they live in a flooded area) and the improvement of concern (i.e. inhabitants adopting the "right" behaviour when the risk occurs). In order to investigate how flood risk is or could be integrated in the project governance, we interviewed stakeholders (elected representatives, architects, property developers, etc.) and observed the integration or the vanishing of the risk throughout the project. In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site

  3. A risk-based evaluation of the impact of key uncertainties on the prediction of severe accident source terms - STU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, M.L.; Grindon, E.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Garcia-Sedano, P.; Santamaria, C.S.; Centner, B.; Auglaire, M.; Routamo, T.; Outa, S.; Jokiniemi, J.; Gustavsson, V.; Wennerstrom, H.; Spanier, L.; Gren, M.; Boschiero, M-H; Droulas, J-L; Friederichs, H-G; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to address the key uncertainties associated with a number of fission product release and transport phenomena in a wider context and to assess their relevance to key severe accident sequences. This project is a wide-based analysis involving eight reactor designs that are representative of the reactors currently operating in the European Union (EU). In total, 20 accident sequences covering a wide range of conditions have been chosen to provide the basis for sensitivity studies. The appraisal is achieved through a systematic risk-based framework developed within this project. Specifically, this is a quantitative interpretation of the sensitivity calculations on the basis of 'significance indicators', applied above defined threshold values. These threshold values represent a good surrogate for 'large release', which is defined in a number of EU countries. In addition, the results are placed in the context of in-containment source term limits, for advanced light water reactor designs, as defined by international guidelines. Overall, despite the phenomenological uncertainties, the predicted source terms (both into the containment, and subsequently, into the environment) do not display a high degree of sensitivity to the individual fission product issues addressed in this project. This is due, mainly, to the substantial capacity for the attenuation of airborne fission products by the designed safety provisions and the natural fission product retention mechanisms within the containment

  4. Centralized Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment - CRADA Final Report For CRADA Number NFE-11-03562

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, R. K. [ORNL; Peters, Scott [Sypris Electronics, LLC

    2014-05-28

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  5. Key techniques and risk management for the application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method: a case study of the Zhongjie subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-ping; Zhao, Wen; Li, Shen-gang; Zhang, Guo-bin

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA) excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  6. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress ''that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Conceptual and programmatic framework for the proposed Nuclear Data Link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefeld, B.

    1980-05-01

    The results of a conceptual design study of the Nuclear Data Link are reported. This system, proposed as a means of upgrading emergency response capabilities, would transmit and display at NRC headquarters about 100 parameters from each operating power reactor. Conceptual design and programmatic information as might be required by the Commission for a decision on major features and implementation are presented. The results indicated that an operational capability for the NRC portion of the system could be achieved in late 1982 at a cost of approximately $21 million. Licensee costs and schedules for implementing the data acquisition portion of the system have not been assessed

  8. Content Analysis as a Foundation for Programmatic Research in Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Previous arguments that content analyses provide the descriptive foundation for media effects research (McLeod & Reeves, 1980) are extended to include that content analyses can provide a sound and useful foundation for programmatic research by individual communication scientists. I discuss examples from my own work and from that of colleagues in communication and related disciplines. Use of messages sampled and coded in a content analysis in combination with survey data sets or as stimuli in experiments are highlighted. The particular potential for employing larger numbers of randomly sampled messages in experimental designs, and, with use of appropriate statistical methods, being able to generalize to populations of messages, is described.

  9. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume II which consists of Appendices A through H

  10. Integrated reactive self-assessment for programmatic learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized method for using reactive self-assessment. The application is to programmatic learning involving the integration of reactive self-assessment results over a period of time. This paper also presents some of the results of one application of the process. Self-assessment, in general, is the assessment conducted or sponsored by an individual or organization of its own activities for the purpose of detecting improvement opportunities, either of the corrective or the enhancement types. Reactive self-assessment is a self-assessment activity conducted in reaction to a shortfall event. An integrative reactive self-assessment is a self-assessment that integrates a set of reactive self-assessment results. Programmatic learning is increasing the knowledge base in a program area. Self-assessment, in general, and reactive self-assessment, in particular, are required by federal quality requirements. One such program area is nuclear power plant testing, which is also required by federal quality requirements. Any program area could have been selected, but this one was selected because it was involved in the Chernobyl accident, the most consequential nuclear power accident up until the time of this writing. Other consequential accidents involving nuclear power plant testing were the Browns Ferry fire and the Salem overspeed event. (The author, of course, does not conduct nuclear power plant testing but is doing a self-assessment as if he were acting for an organization that did testing.)

  11. Determination of Key Risk Supervision Areas around River-Type Water Sources Affected by Multiple Risk Sources: A Case Study of Water Sources along the Yangtze’s Nanjing Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide a reference for risk management of water sources, this study screens the key risk supervision areas around river-type water sources (hereinafter referred to as the water sources threatened by multiple fixed risk sources (the risk sources, and establishes a comprehensive methodological system. Specifically, it comprises: (1 method of partitioning risk source concentrated sub-regions for screening water source perimeter key risk supervision areas; (2 approach of determining sub-regional risk indexes (SrRI, which characterizes the scale of sub-regional risks considering factors like risk distribution intensity within sub-regions, risk indexes of risk sources (RIRS, characterizing the risk scale of risk sources and the number of risk sources; and (3 method of calculating sub-region’s risk threats to the water sources (SrTWS which considers the positional relationship between water sources and sub-regions as well as SrRI, and the criteria for determining key supervision sub-regions. Favorable effects are achieved by applying this methodological system in determining water source perimeter sub-regions distributed along the Yangtze’s Nanjing section. Results revealed that for water sources, the key sub-regions needing supervision were SD16, SD06, SD21, SD26, SD15, SD03, SD02, SD32, SD10, SD11, SD14, SD05, SD27, etc., in the order of criticality. The sub-region with the greatest risk threats on the water sources was SD16, which was located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. In general, sub-regions along the upper Yangtze reaches had greater threats to water sources than the lower reach sub-regions other than SD26 and SD21. Upstream water sources were less subject to the threats of sub-regions than the downstream sources other than NJ09B and NJ03.

  12. Developing a Game Interface to Assess Risk Perception with Respect to Two Key Dimensions of Risk (Frequency and Severity) in Contexts Where Risks Are Elevated from Their Accepted, "Typical" Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, William M; Ma, Zhenfeng; Andrade, Angie

    2015-06-01

    -category assignments for naturalistic risk markers were well correlated. "Approximate mappings" between markers and categories appeared stable. In Stage 4, the interface design incorporated the "approximate mappings"-yet also incorporated a "tuning phase," for measuring and recording individual differences. The interface can capture individual differences in risk perception on two key dimensions (frequency and severity)-viewed in dynamic, naturalistic scenarios, where risk levels are increased.

  13. 75 FR 21650 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Draft Programmatic... Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental... availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan...

  14. 10 CFR 603.895 - Protection of information in programmatic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Financial and Programmatic Reporting § 603.895... transaction that would be trade secret, or commercial or financial information that is privileged or... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of information in programmatic reports. 603.895...

  15. 77 FR 46516 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Including a Programmatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Impact Statement, Including a Programmatic Agreement, for the Clark, Lincoln, and White Pine Counties...) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and a Programmatic Agreement (PA), which is.... 100 N., Nephi Beaver Library, 55 W. Center St., Beaver FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Penny Woods...

  16. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  17. Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest

    1996-01-01

    This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...

  18. Programmatic research. A desirable (or despotic?) nursing strategy for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emden, C; Borbasi, S

    2000-01-01

    Programmatic research is a planned and purposeful strategy in the development of a nursing discipline. We discuss the case made for programmatic research by international scholars as a determinant of scholarship and professional advancement, as well as issues about whether it should be knowledge or methods driven. As an example, the development of a clinical program involving the establishment of 'nursing beds' in the United Kingdom is described, together with a published critique of the program. While the literature portrays an overwhelmingly positive outlook for programmatic research, there are some cautionary tales to be told. We address these by way of the literature and personal experience--especially relating to tensions created by fixed research agendas, inability of researchers to follow their own research interests and funding difficulties. Potential disadvantages of programmatic research are also included. We conclude with suggestions as to how research students, early career researchers, and experienced researchers might become involved with programmatic research in positive ways.

  19. Trends of significant operating events in assessing programmatic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes one part of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) program for evaluating significant events and the process for identifying trends that may be indicative of programmatic weaknesses at operating nuclear power plants. A database management system was developed to permit analyses of significant operating events, events of potential safety significance, and certain reactor scrams. The analyses were based on events and problems reported by telephone to the NRC by licensees within hours of the events and, therefore, provided current operational data trend information. The regulatory requirements for reporting significant events, the screening criteria, and the process for identifying outliers for formal evaluation are described herein. This process contributed to an understanding of the underlying causes for events and problems. Examples are included of operating experience assessments that identified plants with a poor operating experience history that was attributable to procedural inadequacies, operator training deficiencies, inadequate root cause analysis, and inadequate control and planning of activities

  20. DWPF upgrade, immobilization Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement input. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, I.K.; Bignell, D.

    1994-01-01

    This Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) addresses the immobilization of plutonium by vitrification. Existing engineering documents, analyses, EIS, and technical publications were used and incorporated wherever possible to provide a timely response to this support effort. Although the vitrification technology is proven for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste, more study and technical detail will be necessary to provide a comprehensive EIS that fully addresses all aspects of introduction of plutonium to the vitrification process. This document describes the concept(s) of plutonium processing as it relates to the upgrade of the DWPF and is therefore conceptual in nature. These concepts are based on technical data and experience at the Savannah River Site and will be detailed and finalized to support execution of this immobilization option

  1. Strengthening and redesigning flood risk governance in Europe: an overview of seven key issues and how they are being dealt with in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegger Dries

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs makes countries more flood resilient. The latter requires innovations in existing Flood Risk Governance Arrangements, development of new arrangements and the coordination of these arrangements, but it also requires these arrangements to be tailored to their physical and institutional context. Within the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD (2012-2016, a comparative analysis and evaluation of flood risk governance in Belgium, England, France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden has been conducted. The project identified at least seven key issues that are relevant for all researched countries (and probably also beyond. These key issues deal with the topics of (i diversifying Flood Risk Management Strategies (ii establishing connectivity between actors, levels and sectors through what we coin “bridging mechanisms” (iii achieving coproduction between public and private actors; (iv improving fragmented and often non-enforceable rule systems; (v optimising available resources for FRM; (vi operationalising the notion of “diversification of FRM strategies” in a country-specific way; (vii follow general design principles for improving FRM that are sufficiently tailored to local circumstances. Drawing on all project deliverables, this paper will briefly review each key issue, discuss salient similarities and differences between the countries and point at ways forward.

  2. Key Techniques and Risk Management for the Application of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA Excavation Method: A Case Study of the Zhongjie Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ping Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of shallow-buried tunnels in densely populated urban areas involve many challenges. The ground movements induced by tunneling effects pose potential risks to infrastructure such as surface buildings, pipelines, and roads. In this paper, a case study of the Zhongjie subway station located in Shenyang, China, is examined to investigate the key construction techniques and the influence of the Pile-Beam-Arch (PBA excavation method on the surrounding environment. This case study discusses the primary risk factors affecting the environmental safety and summarizes the corresponding risk mitigation measures and key techniques for subway station construction using the PBA excavation method in a densely populated urban area.

  3. Perspectives on cumulative risks and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, John B

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative risks and impacts have taken on different meanings in different regulatory and programmatic contexts at federal and state government levels. Traditional risk assessment methodologies, with considerable limitations, can provide a framework for the evaluation of cumulative risks from chemicals. Under an environmental justice program in California, cumulative impacts are defined to include exposures, public health effects, or environmental effects in a geographic area from the emission or discharge of environmental pollution from all sources, through all media. Furthermore, the evaluation of these effects should take into account sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors where possible and to the extent data are available. Key aspects to this potential approach include the consideration of exposures (versus risk), socioeconomic factors, the geographic or community-level assessment scale, and the inclusion of not only health effects but also environmental effects as contributors to impact. Assessments of this type extend the boundaries of the types of information that toxicologists generally provide for risk management decisions.

  4. The key role of psychosocial risk on therapeutic outcome in obese children and adolescents. Results from a longitudinal multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röbl, Markus; de Souza, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Gellhaus, Ines; Zwiauer, Karl; Holl, Reinhard W; Wiegand, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software for longitudinal multicenter documentation. 12,305 (19.8%) attended care for 6-24 months, undergoing an intensive therapy period and subsequent follow-ups for up to 3 years. A cumulative social risk score was calculated based on different risk indicators. Migration background, low education, and parental employment significantly influenced the outcome of lifestyle intervention. The observed BMI-SDS reduction was significantly higher in the subgroup with low social risks factors (Δ BMI-SDS -0.19) compared to those presenting moderate (Δ BMI-SDS -0.14) and high social risk (Δ BMI-SDS -0.11). Our data underline the effect of children's social setting on the outcome of multidimensional lifestyle intervention. The presence of a high social risk burden is a negative predictor for successful weight loss. Specific therapeutic programs need to be developed for disadvantaged children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  5. The Key Role of Psychosocial Risk on Therapeutic Outcome in Obese Children and Adolescents. Results from a Longitudinal Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Röbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. Methods: 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software for longitudinal multicenter documentation. 12,305 (19.8% attended care for 6-24 months, undergoing an intensive therapy period and subsequent follow-ups for up to 3 years. A cumulative social risk score was calculated based on different risk indicators. Results: Migration background, low education, and parental employment significantly influenced the outcome of lifestyle intervention. The observed BMI-SDS reduction was significantly higher in the subgroup with low social risks factors (Δ BMI-SDS -0.19 compared to those presenting moderate (Δ BMI-SDS -0.14 and high social risk (Δ BMI-SDS -0.11. Conclusion: Our data underline the effect of children's social setting on the outcome of multidimensional lifestyle intervention. The presence of a high social risk burden is a negative predictor for successful weight loss. Specific therapeutic programs need to be developed for disadvantaged children and adolescents.

  6. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  7. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Jiménez-Rodríguez; José Manuel Feria-Domínguez; Alonso Sebastián-Lacave

    2018-01-01

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identificati...

  8. The key role of psychosocial risk on therapeutic outcome in obese children and adolescents. Results from a longitudinal multicenter study.

    OpenAIRE

    Röbl, Markus; de Souza, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Gellhaus, Ines; Zwiauer, Karl; Holl, Reinhard W.; Wiegand, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. Methods: 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software ...

  9. The physical and mental health of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults: the role of key health indicators and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P

    2013-08-01

    Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.

  10. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  13. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  14. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  15. Endothelial Dysfunction Plays a Key Role in Increasing Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sloten, T.T.; Henry, R.M.A.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Unger, T.; Schram, M.T.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, interaction between risk factors has seldom been identified. However, endothelial dysfunction on the one hand and type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), and insulin resistance on the other may act synergistically (ie, interact) in

  16. Risk management and contingency planning for year 2000 - key business decisions for the success of an organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Factors that transformed Y2K, initially considered as primarily a computer problem, into a business problem are outlined. For example, many organizations have prioritized their inventory of information technology (IT) systems, but few have prioritized their suppliers or customers, or have even thought of what will happen if they cannot get products, or cannot get paid by their customers. Estimates at this time reveal that approximately 30 per cent of businesses will not be operational. This presents a significant risk to any organisation's bottom line. Add to this the status of the world as a whole, where other than about 12 major countries, the majority has not even began to remediate their Y2K problems, and we begin to get a true picture of the potential of major communications problems with subsidiaries, partners or suppliers. Consideration of these factors make it easy to see how Y2K is potentially a major business problem. Because of these risks, it is strongly urged that organizations perform risk management and contingency planning. An example of a risk management approach is presented

  17. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  18. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  19. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators.

  20. 78 FR 64598 - Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) Program; Programmatic and Administrative Aspects; Public Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Bank Enterprise Award (BEA) Program; Programmatic and Administrative Aspects; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Request for public comment...

  1. Programmatic and Teaching Initiatives for Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivic B. Torregosa, PhD, RN, FNP-BC

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Although positive student outcomes were reported about programmatic and teaching initiatives for EDS, the evidence remained inconclusive. Recommendations for policy and future research in this area of nursing education research were provided.

  2. 76 FR 6455 - Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Growth, Realignment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... alternative, the Army would retain its aviation force structure at its current levels, configurations, and.... The primary environmental issues evaluated include impacts to air quality, soil, airspace, cultural... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  3. Social risk, stigma and space: key concepts for understanding HIV vulnerability among black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Caroline M; Garcia, Jonathan; Philbin, Morgan M; Wilson, Patrick A; Parker, Richard G; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination. The theoretical concepts of social risk, intersectional stigma, and the social production of space are offered as lenses through which to analyse how structural inequalities shape HIV vulnerability. We found that social risk shaped HIV vulnerability by influencing men's decisions in four domains: 1) where to find sexual partners, 2) where to engage in sexual relationships, 3) what kinds of relationships to seek, and 4) whether to carry and to use condoms. Advancing conceptualisations of social risk, we show that intersectional stigma and the social production of space are key processes through which social risk generates HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men.

  4. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evalua...

  5. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p informal settlement households (β1 = 0.021, p = 0.136, R2 = 0.014). These analyses reveal that the set of characteristics identified by the Global Plan as defining key populations do not adequately predict

  6. Key issues for the development and application of the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model for ecological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Fu-Liu; Li, Yi-Long; Wang, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The species sensitivity distribution (SSD) model is one of the most commonly used methods for ecological risk assessment based on the potentially affected fraction (PAF) of and the combined PAF (msPAF) as quantitative indicators. There are usually four steps for the development of SSD models...... and their applications: (1) obtain the toxicity data of the pollutants; (2) fit the SSD curves; (3) calculate the potentially affected fractions (PAFs) of the individual pollutants for the ecological risk assessment of an individual pollutant; and (4) calculate the accumulated multi-substance potentially affected...... collected from the ecotoxicity database, (3) how to transform the acute toxicity data into chronic data, (4) how to best fit the toxicity data, (5) how to calculate the msPAF of multiple pollutants, and (6) how to determine the uncertainty of the SSD model”. In response to these questions, several...

  7. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational risk factors in Kashan SAIPA automobile industry workers by key indicator method (KIM, 1390

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: work related musculoskeletal disorders are the most wide spread type of occupational diseases among workers. Awkward body postures during work and manual material handling are among the most important risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in different jobs. Due to importance of recognizing these factors prevalence and risk factor of work related musculoskeletal disorders, this research was aimed to study the among employees of Kashan City’s Saipa automobile industry in 2011. .Material and Method: This study is a descriptive-cross sectional study conducted among workers with manual material handling 37 activities and 84 work duties. To recognize musculoskeletal disorders, body map questionnaire was applied and occupational risk factors were evaluated using Key Index Method (KIM. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. .Result: Highest prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was in low and upper back region (%92. Based on the results from KIM, workers in the installing the tire, shuttle-aided fitting of seat, and engine work station had higher risk level with the scores of 66, 52 and 52, respectively. Risk level among three individuals (%3.6 was at 1, 40 (%47.6 at 2, 38 (%45.2 risk level 3, and 3 (%3.6 at 4. .Conclusion: Awkward body posture, improper twisting and flexion of low back were major risk factor among worker doing manual material handling tasks. Regarding the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, appropriate ergonomic interventions such as engineering and organization interactions can reduce this risk factors (posture, heavy load, duration, workplace conditions as much as the risk level reach to an acceptable level.

  8. HIV decline associated with changes in risk behaviours among young key populations in Nepal: analysis of population-based HIV prevalence surveys between 2001 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuba, Keshab; Ekström, Anna Mia; Tomson, Göran; Shrestha, Rachana; Marrone, Gaetano

    2017-08-01

    We assessed changes in HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among young key populations in Nepal. A total of 7505 participants (aged 16-24 years) from key populations who were at increased risk of HIV infection (2767 people who inject drugs (PWID); 852 men who have sex with men/transgender (MSM/TG); 2851 female sex workers (FSW) and 1035 male labour migrants) were recruited randomly over a 12-year period, 2001-2012. Local epidemic zones of Nepal (Kathmandu valley, Pokhara valley, Terai Highway and West to Far West hills) were analysed separately. We found a very strong and consistent decline in HIV prevalence over the past decade in different epidemic zones among PWID and MSM/TG in Kathmandu, the capital city, most likely due to a parallel increase in safe needle and syringe use and increased condom use. A decrease in HIV prevalence in 22 Terai highway districts, sharing an open border with India, was also consistent with increased condom use among FSW. Among male labour migrants, HIV prevalence was low throughout the period in the West to Far West hilly regions. Condom use by migrant workers involved with FSW abroad increased while their condom use with Nepalese FSW declined. Other risk determinants such as mean age at starting first injection, injection frequency, place of commercial sex solicitation, their mean age when leaving to work abroad did not change consistently across epidemic zones among the young key populations under study. In Nepal, the decline in HIV prevalence over the past decade was remarkably significant and consistent with an increase in condom use and safer use of clean needles and syringes. However, diverging trends in risk behaviours across local epidemic zones of Nepal suggest a varying degree of implementation of national HIV prevention policies. This calls for continued preventive efforts as well as surveillance to sustain the observed downward trend.

  9. Ecological risk analysis as a key factor in environmental safety system development in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovskaya, Y A; Bolsunovskaya, L M

    2015-01-01

    Due to specific natural and climatic conditions combined with human intervention, the Arctic is regarded as a highly sensitive region to any environmental pressures. Arctic projects require continuous environmental monitoring. This poses for the government of the Russian Federation (RF) a tremendous task concerning the formation and implementation of sustainable nature management policy within the international framework. The current article examines the basic constraints to the effective ecological safety system implementation in the Arctic region of the RF. The ecological risks and their effects which influence the sustainable development of the region were analyzed. The model of complex environmental safety system was proposed

  10. NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System's (JPSS) Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program - Bringing JPSS Science into Support of Key NOAA Missions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, W.; McWilliams, G.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will focus on the continuity of the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) and key activities of the PGRR Initiatives. The PGRR Program was established in 2012, following the launch of the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The JPSS Program Office has used two PGRR Project Proposals to establish an effective approach to managing its science and algorithm teams in order to focus on key NOAA missions. The presenter will provide details of the Initiatives and the processes used by the initiatives that have proven so successful. Details of the new 2017 PGRR Call-for-Proposals and the status of project selections will be discussed.

  11. Genetic variations in key inflammatory cytokines exacerbates the risk of diabetic nephropathy by influencing the gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Iqra; Masoodi, Shariq R; Malik, Perveez A; Mir, Shahnaz A; Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ganai, Bashir A

    2018-06-30

    Diabetic nephropathy is the single strongest predictor of mortality in patients with diabetes. The development of overt nephropathy involves important inter-individual variations, even after adjusting for potential confounding influences of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Genome-wide transcriptome studies have reported the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and there is mounting indication of the role of genetic factors. We screened nine genetic variations in three cytokine genes (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-β) in 1326 unrelated subjects comprising of healthy controls (n = 464), type 2 diabetics with nephropathy (DN, n = 448) and type 2 diabetes without nephropathy (T2D, n = 414) by sequence-specific amplification. Functional implication of SNPs was elucidated by correlation studies and relative gene expression using Realtime-Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Individual SNP analysis showed highest association of IL-1β rs16944-TT genotype (OR = 3.51, 95%CI = 2.36-5.21, P = 0.001) and TNF-α rs1800629-AA genotype (OR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.64-4.59, P = 0.001) with T2D and DN respectively. The haplotype frequency showed significant risk of seven combinations among T2D and four combinations among DN subjects. The highest risk of T2D and DN was associated with GGTGAGTTT (OR = 4.25, 95%CI = 3.3-14.20, P = 0.0016) and GACGACCTT (OR = 21.3, 95%CI = 15.1-28.33, P = 0.026) haplotypes respectively. Relative expression by RT-qPCR showed increased cytokine expression in cases as compared to controls. TNF-α expression was increased by more than four-folds (n-fold = 4.43 ± 1.11) in DN. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β transcript levels were significantly modulated by promoter region SNPs. The present study implicates a strong association between cytokine TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β gene promoter polymorphisms and modulation of transcript levels with susceptibility to nephropathy in diabetes subjects. Copyright

  12. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A

    2013-03-23

    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  13. High-Risk Human Papillomaviral Oncogenes E6 and E7 Target Key Cellular Pathways to Achieve Oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo-Teh, Nicole S L; Ito, Yoshiaki; Jha, Sudhakar

    2018-06-08

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to several human cancers, the most prominent of which is cervical cancer. The integration of the viral genome into the host genome is one of the manners in which the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 achieve persistent expression. The most well-studied cellular targets of the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are p53 and pRb, respectively. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of these two viral factors to target many more cellular factors, including proteins which regulate epigenetic marks and splicing changes in the cell. These have the ability to exert a global change, which eventually culminates to uncontrolled proliferation and carcinogenesis.

  14. Airborne protein concentration: a key metric for type 1 allergy risk assessment-in home measurement challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulum, Liz; Deag, Zoë; Brown, Matthew; Furniss, Annette; Meech, Lynn; Lalljie, Anja; Cochrane, Stella

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to airborne proteins can be associated with the development of immediate, IgE-mediated respiratory allergies, with genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors also playing a role in determining the likelihood that sensitisation will be induced. The main objective of this study was to determine whether airborne concentrations of selected common aeroallergens could be quantified in the air of homes using easily deployable, commercially available equipment and analytical methods, at low levels relevant to risk assessment of the potential to develop respiratory allergies. Additionally, air and dust sampling were compared and the influence of factors such as different filter types on allergen quantification explored. Low volume air sampling pumps and DUSTREAM ® dust samplers were used to sample 20 homes and allergen levels were quantified using a MARIA ® immunoassay. It proved possible to detect a range of common aeroallergens in the home with sufficient sensitivity to quantify airborne concentrations in ranges relevant to risk assessment (Limits of Detection of 0.005-0.03 ng/m 3 ). The methodology discriminates between homes related to pet ownership and there were clear advantages to sampling air over dust which are described in this paper. Furthermore, in an adsorption-extraction study, PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) filters gave higher and more consistent recovery values than glass fibre (grade A) filters for the range of aeroallergens studied. Very low airborne concentrations of allergenic proteins in home settings can be successfully quantified using commercially available pumps and immunoassays. Considering the greater relevance of air sampling to human exposure of the respiratory tract and its other advantages, wider use of standardised, sensitive techniques to measure low airborne protein concentrations and how they influence development of allergic sensitisation and symptoms could accelerate our understanding of human dose-response relationships

  15. Two books on dementia care: Risk Assessment and management for living well with dementia, and Key issues in evolving dementia care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Manthorpe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk Assessment and Management for Living Well with Dementia. Charlotte L. Clarke, Heather Wilkinson, John Keady and Catherine E. Gibb. Foreword by Murna Downs. Part of the Bradford Dementia Group Good Practice Guides series. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2011, pp. 128, ISBN: 978-1-84905-005-0Key Issues in Evolving Dementia Care. International Theory-based Policy and Practice. Edited by Anthea Innes, Fiona Kelly and Louise McCabe. Foreword by Professor June Andrews. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2012, pp. 264, ISBN: 978-1-84905-242-9

  16. Improving comprehension and recall of information for an HIV vaccine trial among women at risk for HIV: reading level simplification and inclusion of pictures to illustrate key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D A; O'Keefe, Z H; Kaufman, A H

    1999-10-01

    A simplified version of the prototype HIV vaccine material was developed through (a) reducing reading grade level, (b) restructuring of the organization and categorization of the material, (c) adding pictures designed to emphasize key concepts, and (d) obtaining feedback on the simplified version through focus groups with the target population. Low-income women at risk for HIV (N = 141) recruited from a primary care clinic were randomly assigned to be presented the standard or the simplified version. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of education or Vocabulary, Block Design, and Passage Comprehension scores. Women who received the simplified version had significantly higher comprehension scores immediately following presentation of the material than did women who received the standard version and were also significantly more likely to recall study benefits and risks. These findings were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Implications for informed consent are discussed.

  17. Elevated risk of type 2 diabetes for development of Alzheimer disease: a key role for oxidative stress in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D Allan; Di Domenico, Fabio; Barone, Eugenio

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly and is characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognition. Epidemiological data show that the incidence of AD increases with age and doubles every 5 years after 65 years of age. From a neuropathological point of view, amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) leads to senile plaques, which, together with hyperphosphorylated tau-based neurofibrillary tangles and synapse loss, are the principal pathological hallmarks of AD. Aβ is associated with the formation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, and induces calcium-dependent excitotoxicity, impairment of cellular respiration, and alteration of synaptic functions associated with learning and memory. Oxidative stress was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which (i) represents another prevalent disease associated with obesity and often aging, and (ii) is considered to be a risk factor for AD development. T2DM is characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from increased hepatic glucose production, impaired insulin production and peripheral insulin resistance, which close resemble to the brain insulin resistance observed in AD patients. Furthermore, growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of insulin resistance and vice versa. This review article provides molecular aspects and the pharmacological approaches from both preclinical and clinical data interpreted from the point of view of oxidative stress with the aim of highlighting progresses in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging and Reemerging Neglected Tropical Diseases: a Review of Key Characteristics, Risk Factors, and the Policy and Innovation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A.; Cuomo, Raphael; Hafen, Ryan; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Lee, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In global health, critical challenges have arisen from infectious diseases, including the emergence and reemergence of old and new infectious diseases. Emergence and reemergence are accelerated by rapid human development, including numerous changes in demographics, populations, and the environment. This has also led to zoonoses in the changing human-animal ecosystem, which are impacted by a growing globalized society where pathogens do not recognize geopolitical borders. Within this context, neglected tropical infectious diseases have historically lacked adequate attention in international public health efforts, leading to insufficient prevention and treatment options. This subset of 17 infectious tropical diseases disproportionately impacts the world's poorest, represents a significant and underappreciated global disease burden, and is a major barrier to development efforts to alleviate poverty and improve human health. Neglected tropical diseases that are also categorized as emerging or reemerging infectious diseases are an even more serious threat and have not been adequately examined or discussed in terms of their unique risk characteristics. This review sets out to identify emerging and reemerging neglected tropical diseases and explore the policy and innovation environment that could hamper or enable control efforts. Through this examination, we hope to raise awareness and guide potential approaches to addressing this global health concern. PMID:25278579

  19. A programmatic challenge - accelerating, expanding, and innovating physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravelli, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the wake of the September 11th terrorists attacks, the Office of international material protection and cooperation is responding to the international community's call to strengthen a global response to the serious challenge of securing nuclear material with the aim of preventing nuclear terrorism. Recent events underline the urgency to proactively address the threat posed by insufficiently secured nuclear material. The sobering reality is that, at present, the threat is disproportional to international efforts to mitigate and stop the proliferation of nuclear materials. The potential consequences of failing to address deficiencies in security systems, or for that matter aiming at anything below 'comprehensive' nuclear material security' is a horrifying reminder of the incredible challenge that we are facing. Against this backdrop, our Office has undertaken a comprehensive program review and is making all possible efforts to expand, accelerate and innovate our physical protection approach. The presentation that I propose to deliver will provide an overview of our new thinking regarding the vulnerability of nuclear/radioactive material post 9-11, touch on some of the obstacles that we are experiencing, and outline the steps that we are aggressively pursuing with the aim of achieving real threat reduction. My presentation will begin with a look at the success and knowledge gained from the bilateral material protection, control and accounting (MPC and A) cooperation between the United States and the Russian Federation and use this as a platform from which to launch a wider discussion on international efforts to strengthen practices for protecting nuclear material. I will examine lessons learned from our cooperation in relation to their applicability to today's security challenges and will outline how we are expanding on our traditional mission to address emerging threats. I will discuss programmatic efforts to bolster traditional, first line of defense

  20. Tuberculosis contact screening and isoniazid preventive therapy in a South Indian district: operational issues for programmatic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothukuchi, Madhavi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Kelamane, Santosha; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Shashidhar; Babu, Sai; Dewan, Puneet; Wares, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    Under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), all household contacts of sputum smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients are screened for TB. In the absence of active TB disease, household contacts aged Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) (5 milligrams/kilogram body weight/day) for 6 months. To estimate the number of household contacts aged tablets in peripheral health centers. The reasons for non-evaluation of the remaining eligible children (n = 56, 33%) include no home visit by the health staff in 25 contacts, home visit done but not evaluated in 31 contacts. House-hold contacts in rural areas were less likely to be evaluated and initiated on IPT [risk ratio 6.65 (95% CI; 3.06-14.42)]. Contact screening and IPT implementation under routine programmatic conditions is sub-optimal. There is an urgent need to sensitize all concerned programme staff on its importance and establishment of mechanisms for rigorous monitoring.

  1. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë M McLaren

    Full Text Available Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context.We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing.Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133, lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089, lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048, and a lower proportion of low-income households

  2. Programmatic aspects of postpartum family planning in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    countries: a qualitative analysis of key informant interviews in ... CA 92103, USA, 3World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 ... analyzed data from 17 countries with high unmet.

  3. Joining the dots: conditional pass and programmatic assessment enhances recognition of problems with professionalism and factors hampering student progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Tweed, Mike J; Egan, Tony G; Ali, Anthony N; McKenzie, Jan M; Moore, MaryLeigh; Rudland, Joy R

    2011-06-07

    Programmatic assessment that looks across a whole year may contribute to better decisions compared with those made from isolated assessments alone. The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate a programmatic system to handle student assessment results that is aligned not only with learning and remediation, but also with defensibility. The key components are standards based assessments, use of "Conditional Pass", and regular progress meetings. The new assessment system is described. The evaluation is based on years 4-6 of a 6-year medical course. The types of concerns staff had about students were clustered into themes alongside any interventions and outcomes for the students concerned. The likelihoods of passing the year according to type of problem were compared before and after phasing in of the new assessment system. The new system was phased in over four years. In the fourth year of implementation 701 students had 3539 assessment results, of which 4.1% were Conditional Pass. More in-depth analysis for 1516 results available from 447 students revealed the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for failure was highest for students with problems identified in more than one part of the course (18.8 (7.7-46.2) p year under the new system on the basis of performance during the year (20 or 4.5% compared with four or 1.1% under the previous system (p pass has contributed to a paper trail that should improve defensibility. Most importantly it has helped detect and act on some of the more difficult areas to assess such as professionalism.

  4. Joining the dots: Conditional pass and programmatic assessment enhances recognition of problems with professionalism and factors hampering student progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmatic assessment that looks across a whole year may contribute to better decisions compared with those made from isolated assessments alone. The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate a programmatic system to handle student assessment results that is aligned not only with learning and remediation, but also with defensibility. The key components are standards based assessments, use of "Conditional Pass", and regular progress meetings. Methods The new assessment system is described. The evaluation is based on years 4-6 of a 6-year medical course. The types of concerns staff had about students were clustered into themes alongside any interventions and outcomes for the students concerned. The likelihoods of passing the year according to type of problem were compared before and after phasing in of the new assessment system. Results The new system was phased in over four years. In the fourth year of implementation 701 students had 3539 assessment results, of which 4.1% were Conditional Pass. More in-depth analysis for 1516 results available from 447 students revealed the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals for failure was highest for students with problems identified in more than one part of the course (18.8 (7.7-46.2 p Conclusions The new system detects more students in difficulty and has resulted in less "failure to fail". The requirement to state conditions required to pass has contributed to a paper trail that should improve defensibility. Most importantly it has helped detect and act on some of the more difficult areas to assess such as professionalism.

  5. The role of NEPA in agency decision-making: Department of Energy reconfiguration programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was drafted as a decision-making tool to ensure that Federal agencies make open, informed decisions. Equally effective as planning tool, NEPA can be applied to support an agency's planning process while providing requisite environmental analysis of specific proposals. The Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Office is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) as a means to assist in its long-range planning for the future of the Nation's nuclear weapons complex. The Secretary of Energy has proposed to reconfigure the weapons complex to be smaller, less diverse and more efficient to operate. The Reconfiguration PEIS will analyze the potential environmental impacts of alternative configurations, involving 13 sites in 12 states, and compare these to the current configuration. The Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA [40 CFR 1500] provide for Federal agencies to prepare PEISs for broad agency actions, including generically connected actions. Planning for the future weapons complex falls into such a category, involving complex-wide decisions to be made at a national level. DOE's long-range decisions regarding the future of the weapons complex will be based upon environmental considerations as well as other factors such as cost and technical feasibility. The NEPA process will serve to document the identification and analysis of the environmental impacts. In addition, the PEIS will be a key component in developing the Department's Reconfiguration Plan, which will guide the Department in preparing for the future complex. The Reconfiguration Plan will identify follow-on projects needed to implement the programmatic decisions and provide specific guidance for subsequence 'tiered' NEPA analyses

  6. Key Challenges and Opportunities Associated with the Use of In Vitro Models to Detect Human DILI: Integrated Risk Assessment and Mitigation Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A. Atienzar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a major cause of late-stage clinical drug attrition, market withdrawal, black-box warnings, and acute liver failure. Consequently, it has been an area of focus for toxicologists and clinicians for several decades. In spite of considerable efforts, limited improvements in DILI prediction have been made and efforts to improve existing preclinical models or develop new test systems remain a high priority. While prediction of intrinsic DILI has improved, identifying compounds with a risk for idiosyncratic DILI (iDILI remains extremely challenging because of the lack of a clear mechanistic understanding and the multifactorial pathogenesis of idiosyncratic drug reactions. Well-defined clinical diagnostic criteria and risk factors are also missing. This paper summarizes key data interpretation challenges, practical considerations, model limitations, and the need for an integrated risk assessment. As demonstrated through selected initiatives to address other types of toxicities, opportunities exist however for improvement, especially through better concerted efforts at harmonization of current, emerging and novel in vitro systems or through the establishment of strategies for implementation of preclinical DILI models across the pharmaceutical industry. Perspectives on the incorporation of newer technologies and the value of precompetitive consortia to identify useful practices are also discussed.

  7. Taking risk assessment and management to the next level - 59395

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jerel; Morton, Russel Lee; Castillo, Carlos; Dyer, George; Johnson, Natalie; McSwain, James T.; Kruskall, Gary Nick

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A multi-level (facility and programmatic) risk assessment was conducted for the facilities in the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Readiness in Technical Base and Facilities (RTBF) Program and results were included in a new Risk Management Plan (RMP), which was incorporated into the fiscal year (FY) 2010 Integrated Plans. Risks, risk events, probability, consequence(s), and mitigation strategies were identified and captured, for most scope areas (i.e., risk categories) during the facilitated risk workshops. Risk mitigations (i.e., efforts in addition to existing controls) were identified during the facilitated risk workshops when the risk event was identified. Risk mitigation strategies fell into two broad categories: threats or opportunities. Improvement projects were identified and linked to specific risks they mitigate, making the connection of risk reduction through investments for the annual Site Execution Plan. Due to the amount of that was collected, analysis to be performed, and reports to be generated, a Risk Assessment/ Management Tool (RAMtool) database was developed to analyze the risks in real-time, at multiple levels, which reinforced the site-level risk management process and procedures. The RAMtool database was developed and designed to assist in the capturing and analysis of the key elements of risk: probability, consequence, and impact

  8. The true effects of programmatic display marketing : A study on how advertisers could make use of programmatic in the different stages of the customer journey.

    OpenAIRE

    Hübinette, Stina

    2017-01-01

    In digital marketing, display advertising has always been the largest revenue stream for publishers, and the biggest channel for advertisers to increase the traffic to their sites as well as getting better brand recognition. However, with the ever increasing spread of the smartphone and the continuously smarter machine learning of today, the industry has changed.    This study began with a hypothesis that since traditional display marketing evolved into programmatically bought display, the va...

  9. Progressing from programmatic to discovery research: a case example with the overjustification effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S; Fisher, Wayne W; McDonough, Erin M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific research progresses along planned (programmatic research) and unplanned (discovery research) paths. In the current investigation, we attempted to conduct a single-case evaluation of the overjustification effect (i.e., programmatic research). Results of the initial analysis were contrary to the overjustification hypothesis in that removal of the reward contingency produced an increase in responding. Based on this unexpected finding, we conducted subsequent analyses to further evaluate the mechanisms underlying these results (i.e., discovery research). Results of the additional analyses suggested that the reward contingency functioned as punishment (because the participant preferred the task to the rewards) and that withdrawal of the contingency produced punishment contrast.

  10. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided in the main document, and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided in the Appendices A-D. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report

  11. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  12. 32 CFR 37.900 - May I tell a participant that information in financial and programmatic reports will not be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial and programmatic reports will not be publicly disclosed? 37.900 Section 37.900 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Related to Other Administrative Matters Financial and Programmatic...

  13. 76 FR 21003 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Possible Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Possible Land Use Plan Amendments for... to prepare a Programmatic EIS for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands... through local media, newsletters, and the project Web site at: http://blm.gov/st5c . The minutes and list...

  14. 78 FR 73555 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS). The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS considers programmatic... programmatic restoration alternatives. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS evaluates these restoration alternatives... the Framework Agreement. The Draft Phase III ERP/PEIS also evaluates the environmental consequences of...

  15. [Effect of polymorphisms on key enzymes in homocysteine metabolism, on plasma homocysteine level and on coronary artery-disease risk in a Tunisian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkahla, R; Omezzine, A; Kchok, K; Rebhi, L; Ben Hadj Mbarek, I; Rejeb, J; Ben Rejeb, N; Slimane, N; Nabli, N; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Boughzala, E; Bouslama, A

    2008-08-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent-risk factor for coronary-artery disease (CAD). However, the effect of homocystein metabolic enzymes polymorphisms on CAD is still controversed. We investigated the relation between homocystein metabolic key enzymes polymorphisms, homocystenemia and coronary stenosis in a Tunisian population. Samples were collected from 251 CAD patients documented by angiography. Genotyping were performed for C677T methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), A2756G methionine-synthase (MS) and 844ins 68 cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS). We measured fasting plasma tHcy, folate and vitamin B12. There was significant increase in homocysteinemia for homozygous genotypes of C677T MTHFR (p<0.001) and A2756G MS (p=0.01), but not for 844ins68 CBS (p=0.105). Potential confounders adjusted odds-ratios for significant coronary stenosis, associated with MTHFR TT, MS GG and CBS insertion, were respectively 1.78 (p=0.041); 2.33 (p=0.036) and 0.87 (p=0.823). The effect of mutated MTHFR genotype was more pronounced on homocysteinemia (21.4+/-9.1 micromol/L; p<0.001) and coronary stenosis (OR=2.73; p=0.033) at low folatemia (< or =6.1 ng/mL). MTHFR TT and MS GG genotypes increase tHcy concentration and coronary stenosis risk, especially with low folatemia.

  16. Test Area C-62 Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    grasses, leaves, fruits , seeds, and insects. The foods most frequently found in their diets are grasses (Poaceae spp.) and legume fruits (Fabaceae spp...heavily on grasses, herbs, fruits , and mast. They also feed on carrion and insects (Jonkel, 1978). The key habitat requirements of black bears are...transforming toxic compounds into harmless water, carbon dioxide, and/or methane (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1999). Soil and groundwater microbiota are

  17. The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G.; Shen, Y.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. 32 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs

  18. 78 FR 39725 - Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice Of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-001--Mississippi] Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice Of Proposed Restricted Service List for a... license for the proposed Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project No. 13702. The Programmatic Agreement, when... Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, the...

  19. 76 FR 24050 - Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Biscayne National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0003-422] Coral Reef Restoration Plan... for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan, Biscayne National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... availability of a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Coral Reef Restoration Plan (Plan...

  20. 75 FR 80798 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for Land Acquisition, South Texas Training Center (STTC), in McMullen... media sources. To ensure scoping comments are fully considered in the preparation of the PEIS, comments...

  1. Assessing Technical Writing in Institutional Contexts: Using Outcomes-Based Assessment for Programmatic Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael; Anson, Chris M.; Miller, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that technical writing instruction often operates in isolation from other components of students' communication education. Argues for altering this isolation by moving writing instruction to a place of increased programmatic perspective, which may be attained through a means of assessment based on educational outcomes. Discusses two models…

  2. 75 FR 69398 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Implementing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... process for this action may be submitted by: Mail: National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands... Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Implementing Recovery Actions for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  3. A quantitative approach to diagnosis and correction of organizational and programmatic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.; Johnson, K.

    1997-01-01

    A integrated approach to diagnosis and correction of critical Organizational and Programmatic (O and P) issues is summarized, and the quantitative special evaluations that ar used to confirm the O and P issues identified by the periodic common cause analysis and integrated safety assessments

  4. 75 FR 29357 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Deployment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... technology that is used to aid in inspecting high-density cargo containers for contraband such as illicit... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Deployment and Operation of High Energy X-Ray...

  5. Programmatic Factors Associated with Undergraduate Athletic Training Student Retention and Attrition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G.; Hertel, Jay; Wathington, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Athletic training programs (ATPs) are charged with meeting an increased demand for athletic trainers with adequate graduates. Currently, the retention rate of athletic training students in ATPs nationwide and the programmatic factors associated with these retention rates remain unknown. Objective: Determine the retention rate for athletic…

  6. 76 FR 57751 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Northern Border...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... particular place. Because this effort is programmatic in nature, the Draft PEIS does not define effects for a... the purposes of the PEIS, the Northern Border is defined as the area between the United States and... environmental quality and the government's role in protecting it. The essence of NEPA is the requirement that...

  7. 77 FR 73996 - Notice of Availability for the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Recycling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... for the purpose of recycling. The suspension was imposed in response to public concerns about the... for the Recycling of Scrap Metals Originating From Radiological Areas AGENCY: Department of Energy... public review and comment of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Recycling of...

  8. Developing Educational Leaders for Social Justice: Programmatic Elements that Work or Need Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.; Jacobs, Jennifer; Yamamura, Erica

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, Brown's (2004) tripartite theoretical framework on leadership preparation was used to explore the role programmatic elements played in development as social justice leaders within an educational leadership preparation program located in the United States. Findings from focus groups with twelve former graduate students…

  9. A programmatic framework for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.; Goldston, R.J.; Neilson, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the confinement of reactor-grade plasmas, so that the authors are now preparing for experiments at the open-quotes power breakevenclose quotes level in the JET and TFTR experiments. In ITER the authors will extend the performance of tokamaks into the burning plasma regime, develop the technology of fusion reactors, and produce over a gigawatt of fusion power. Besides taking these crucial steps toward the technical feasibility of fusion, the authors must also take steps to ensure its economic acceptability. The broad requirements for economically attractive tokamak reactors based on physics advancements have been set forth in a number of studies. An advanced physics data base is emerging from a physics program of concept improvement using existing tokamaks around the world. This concept improvements program is emerging as the primary focus of the US domestic tokamak program, and a key element of that program is the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). With TPX the authors can develop the scientific data base for compact, continuously-operating fusion reactors, using advanced steady-state control techniques to improve plasma performance. The authors can develop operating techniques needed to ensure the success of ITER and provide first-time experience with several key fusion reactor technologies. This paper explains the relationships of TPX to the current US fusion physics program, to the ITER program, and to the development of an attractive tokamak demonstration plant for this next stage in the fusion program

  10. Policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambisya Yoswa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a severe health worker shortage and a high demand for health care services. This study aimed to assess the policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative, descriptive study through 34 key informant interviews and eight (8 focus group discussions, with participants from various levels of the health system. Results Policy makers understood task shifting, but front-line health workers had misconceptions on the meaning and intention(s of task shifting. Examples were cited of task shifting within the Ugandan health system, some formalized (e.g. psychiatric clinical officers, and some informal ones (e.g. nurses inserting IV lines and initiating treatment. There was apparently high acceptance of task shifting in HIV/AIDS service delivery, with involvement of community health workers (CHW and PLWHA in care and support of AIDS patients. There was no written policy or guidelines on task shifting, but the policy environment was reportedly conducive with plans to develop a policy and guidelines on task shifting. Factors favouring task shifting included successful examples of task shifting, proper referral channels, the need for services, scarcity of skills and focused initiatives such as home based management of fever. Barriers to task shifting included reluctance to change, protection of professional turf, professional boundaries and regulations, heavy workload and high disease burden, poor planning, lack of a task shifting champion, lack of guidelines, the name task shifting itself, and unemployed health professionals. There were both positive and negative views on task shifting: the positive ones cast task shifting as one of the solutions to the dual problem of lack of skills and high demand for service, and as something that is already happening; while negative ones saw it as a quick fix intended for the poor, a threat to quality care and likely to compromise the health

  11. Education as a key objective of the interdisciplinary volcanic risk mitigation strategy VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE for developing resilient and sustainable areas around Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobran, F.; Imperatrice, A.

    2017-12-01

    VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE requires the achievement of 5 key objectives for Summa-Vesuvius area: (1) Development of temporary settlements for the inhabitants close to their native homeland until the volcanic crisis subsides; (2) Division of the danger zone into an exclusion nucleus that prohibits all future human settlements and discourages the existing ones, a resilience belt that houses most of the current populations, and a sustainable area beyond the resilience belt that allows for sustainable practices and temporary resettlements of resilience belt citizens following the volcanic crises; (3) Development of built environment construction codes for the population of the danger zone by utilizing plinian eruption scenarios, scenario-based seismic hazard assessment and zonation, global volcanic simulator, and dynamic structural analysis; (4) Implementation of volcanic risk information and education campaigns for different risk areas surrounding the volcano; and (5) Production of a memorandum of understanding between the authorities and scientific communities, and production of periodic progress reports for keeping the populations informed on the developments leading to the realization of the above objectives.For the past 20 years we have devoted considerable efforts towards the achievement of educational objectives. We worked with local volunteers and social and cultural organizations and with our colleagues delivered over 200 public and school seminars in 15 communities around Vesuvius, organized 2 international scientific meetings for allowing the public and high school children to interact directly with the scientists working on this volcano, and established numerous contacts with school teachers for helping them engage their students on Vesuvius from the scientific, artistic, social, and cultural perspectives. Every year GVES has been the promoter of Vesuvius area manifestations where the school children have the opportunities to expose their works on this volcano and

  12. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hazardous waste database: Waste management policy implications for the US Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Koebnick, B.; Dovel, M.; Stoll, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hazardous waste risk assessment modeling (HaWRAM) database is being developed to analyze the risk from treatment technology operations and potential transportation accidents associated with the hazardous waste management alternatives. These alternatives are being assessed in the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). To support the risk analysis, the current database contains complexwide detailed information on hazardous waste shipments from 45 Department of Energy installations during FY 1992. The database is currently being supplemented with newly acquired data. This enhancement will improve database information on operational hazardous waste generation rates, and the level and type of current on-site treatment at Department of Energy installations

  14. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  15. Hanford and Savannah River Site Programmatic and Technical Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, William Gene

    2013-01-01

    Abstract only. The Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site (SRS) were the primary plutonium production facilities within the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. Radioactive wastes were generated as part of these missions and are stored in similar fashion. The majority of radioactivity maintained by the two sites is located in underground carbon steel tanks in the physical form of supernatant, saltcake, or sludge. Disposition of SRS tank waste is ongoing by converting it into glass (pathway for sludge and radionuclides separated from supernatant or dissolved saltcake) or cement (pathway for the decontaminated supernatant and dissolved saltcake). Tank closure activity has also begun at SRS and will continue for the duration of mission. The Hanford tank waste inventory is roughly 2/3rds larger than SRS's by volume- but nominally half the radioactivity. The baseline disposition path includes high-level and low-activity waste vitrification with separate disposition of contact-handled transuranic tank waste. Retrieval of tank waste from aging single shell tanks (SSTs) into double-shell tanks (DSTs) is currently ongoing. As vitrification commences later this decade, Hanford will be in a similar operations mode as SRS. Site integration is increasing as the missions align. The ongoing integration is centered on key issues that impact both sites- regardless of mission timeframe. Three recent workshop exchanges have been held to improve communication with the primary intent of improving operations and technical work organization. The topics of these workshops are as follows: DST space utilization, optimization, and closure; Waste Feed Qualification; and, Cementitious Waste Forms. Key goals for these and future exchanges include aligning research and technology, preparing for joint initiatives (to maximize budgetary value for the customer), and reviewing lessons learned. Each site has played a leading role in the development of technology and operational practices that can be used

  16. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE's plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations

  17. Analysis of corrective action data from trial program on programmatic performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the use of cause codes as performance indicators (PIs) to monitor licensee performance. In conjunction with the cause codes, corrective action codes are also under consideration to describe licensee corrective actions for problems as represented by the cause codes. The set of cause codes and corrective actions employed in a trial program to assess their usefulness included: (1) administrative error -- training; (2) design/installation -- procedure modification; (3) fabrication error -- discipline; (4) random equipment failure -- management change; (5) licensed operator error -- design modification; and (6) other personal error -- equipment replacement/adjustment. These causes were selected to represent a broad range of licensee programs, hence the designation of programmatic PIs, that could be monitored in a systematic manner to identify trends in performance. They should establish a basis and focus for further investigation of a particular programmatic area if undesirable trends are evidence. 2 figs

  18. Comprehensiveness and programmatic vulnerability to stds/hiv/aids in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Ferreira do Val

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify programmatic vulnerability to STDs/HIV/AIDS in primary health centers (PHCs. This is a descrip - tive and quantitative study carried out in the city of São Paulo. An online survey was applied (FormSUS platform, involving administrators from 442 PHCs in the city, with responses received from 328 of them (74.2%, of which 53.6% were nurses. At - tention was raised in relation to program - matic vulnerability in the PHCs regarding certain items of infrastructure, prevention, treatment, prenatal care and integration among services on STDs/HIV/AIDS care. It was concluded that in order to reach comprehensiveness of actions for HIV/ AIDS in primary health care, it is necessary to consider programmatic vulnerability, in addition to more investment and reor - ganization of services in a dialogue with the stakeholders (users, multidisciplinary teams, and managers, among others.

  19. BioServices: a common Python package to access biological Web Services programmatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaer, Thomas; Pultz, Dennis; Harder, Lea M; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-12-15

    Web interfaces provide access to numerous biological databases. Many can be accessed to in a programmatic way thanks to Web Services. Building applications that combine several of them would benefit from a single framework. BioServices is a comprehensive Python framework that provides programmatic access to major bioinformatics Web Services (e.g. KEGG, UniProt, BioModels, ChEMBLdb). Wrapping additional Web Services based either on Representational State Transfer or Simple Object Access Protocol/Web Services Description Language technologies is eased by the usage of object-oriented programming. BioServices releases and documentation are available at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/bioservices under a GPL-v3 license.

  20. Scoping session of the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is about the scoping session which was held at the Community Center in Falls City, Texas. The purpose was to obtain public comment on the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA), specifically on the ground water project. Presentations made by the manager for the entire UMTRA program, manager of the site and ground water program, comments made by two residents of Fall City are included in this document

  1. Scoping session of the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-12-31

    This document is about the scoping session which was held at the Community Center in Falls City, Texas. The purpose was to obtain public comment on the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA), specifically on the ground water project. Presentations made by the manager for the entire UMTRA program, manager of the site and ground water program, comments made by two residents of Fall City are included in this document.

  2. Programmatic conversion of crystal structures into 3D printable files using Jmol

    OpenAIRE

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Williams, Antony J.; Tkachenko, Valery; Karapetyan, Karen; Pshenichnov, Alexey; Hanson, Robert M.; Liddie, Jahred M.; Bara, Jason E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) printed crystal structures are useful for chemistry teaching and research. Current manual methods of converting crystal structures into 3D printable files are time-consuming and tedious. To overcome this limitation, we developed a programmatic method that allows for facile conversion of thousands of crystal structures directly into 3D printable files. Results A collection of over 30,000 crystal structures in crystallographic information file (CIF) format from...

  3. Programmatic material on perfection of competition activity of highly skilled basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushko Ruslana Aleksandrovna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The special facilities are considered for creation of the programs of correction of training process and perfection of competitiveness activity. Basic estimations and structure of correction of technical tactical actions are resulted. It is set that programmatic material must take into account playing specialization of basketball-player, model indexes. It is also necessary to take into account optimization and modification of existent technologies of estimation of technical tactical actions.

  4. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  5. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  6. Radiological accidents potentially important to human health risk in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B.; Jackson, R.

    1995-01-01

    Human health risks as a consequence of potential radiological releases resulting from plausible accident scenarios constitute an important consideration in the US Department of Energy (DOE) national program to manage the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes. As part of this program, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) is currently preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that evaluates the risks that could result from managing five different waste types. This paper (1) briefly reviews the overall approach used to assess process and facility accidents for the EM PEIS; (2) summarizes the key inventory, storage, and treatment characteristics of the various DOE waste types important to the selection of accidents; (3) discusses in detail the key assumptions in modeling risk-dominant accidents; and (4) relates comparative source term results and sensitivities

  7. The second iteration of the Systems Prioritization Method: A systems prioritization and decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Volume 3, Analysis for final programmatic recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prindle, N.H.; Boak, D.M.; Weiner, R.F.

    1996-05-01

    Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) is a decision-aiding tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US DOE Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO). This tool provides an analytical basis for programmatic decision making for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SPM integrates decision-analysis techniques, performance,a nd risk-assessment tools, and advanced information technology. Potential outcomes of proposed activities and combination of activities are used to calculate a probability of demonstrating compliance (PDC) with selected regulations. The results are presented in a decision matrix showing cost, duration, and maximum PDC for all activities in a given cost and duration category. This is the third and final volume in the series which presents the analysis for final programmatic recommendations

  8. The second iteration of the Systems Prioritization Method: A systems prioritization and decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Volume 3, Analysis for final programmatic recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prindle, N.H.; Boak, D.M.; Weiner, R.F. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) is a decision-aiding tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US DOE Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO). This tool provides an analytical basis for programmatic decision making for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SPM integrates decision-analysis techniques, performance,a nd risk-assessment tools, and advanced information technology. Potential outcomes of proposed activities and combination of activities are used to calculate a probability of demonstrating compliance (PDC) with selected regulations. The results are presented in a decision matrix showing cost, duration, and maximum PDC for all activities in a given cost and duration category. This is the third and final volume in the series which presents the analysis for final programmatic recommendations.

  9. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  10. Market Reform, Programmatic (DeAlignment and Party System Stability in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. ROBERTS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although democratic regimes in Latin America since the early 1980s have been surprisingly durable, party systems in much of the region continue to experience very high levels of electoral instability. A critical juncture approach to institutional change suggests that variation in party system stability is related to the impact of market liberalization in the 1980s and 90s on the programmatic alignment –or (dealignment– of partisan competition. Market reforms that were adopted by conservative leaders and opposed by a major leftist rival aligned party systems programmatically, allowing societal opposition to be channeled into institutionalized forms of competition that were highly stable in the post-adjustment era. By contrast, «bait-and-switch» reforms adopted by populist or leftist leaders were programmatically de-aligning for party systems, leaving them vulnerable to highly destabilizing reactive sequences in the aftermath to the reform process-including mass social protests, the demise of historic conservative parties, and the outflanking of traditional populist or leftist parties by more radical, anti-neoliberal outsiders. The political dynamics of market-based economic adjustment thus heavily conditioned the ways in which party systems would process the post-adjustment revival of populist and leftist alternatives in the region.

  11. FY 2016 Grant Announcement: FY 2016 Technical Analysis and Programmatic Evaluation Support to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is announcing a Request for Proposals for applicants to provide the Chesapeake Bay Program partners with a proposal(s) for providing technical analysis and programmatic evaluation

  12. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume IV of V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Transportation is an integral component of the alternatives being considered for each type of radioactive waste in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The types of radioactive waste considered in Part I are high-level waste (HLW), low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRUW), and low-level mixed waste (LLMW). For some alternatives, radioactive waste would be shipped among the DOE sites at various stages of the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) process. The magnitude of the transportation-related activities varies with each alternative, ranging from minimal transportation for decentralized approaches to significant transportation for some centralized approaches. The human health risks associated with transporting various waste materials were assessed to ensure a complete appraisal of the impacts of each PEIS alternative being considered

  13. Tank waste remediation system risk management list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remedation System (TWRS) Risk Management List and it's subset of critical risks, the Critical Risk Management List, provide a tool to senior RL and WHC management (Level-1 and -2) to manage programmatic risks that may significantly impact the TWRS program. The programmatic risks include cost, schedule, and performance risks. Performance risk includes technical risk, supportability risk (such as maintainability and availability), and external risk (i.e., beyond program control, for example, changes in regulations). The risk information includes a description, its impacts, as evaluation of the likelihood, consequences and risk value, possible mitigating actions, and responsible RL and WHC managers. The issues that typically form the basis for the risks are presented in a separate table and the affected functions are provided on the management lists

  14. Estimation of costs for applications of remediation technologies for the Department of Energy's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, A.J.; Hansen, R.I.; Humphreys, K.K.; Paananen, J.M.; Gildea, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmatic Environmental impact Statement (PEIS) being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities expected to be carried out across the DOE's nationwide complex of facilities is assessing the impacts of removing, transporting, treating, storing, and disposing of waste from these ER and WM activities. Factors being considered include health and safety impacts to the public and to workers, impacts on the environment, costs and socio-economic impacts, and near-term and residual risk during those ER and WM operations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the methodology developed specifically for the PEIS to estimate costs associated with the deployment and application of individual remediation technologies. These individual costs are used in developing order-of-magnitude cost estimates for the total remediation activities. Costs are developed on a per-unit-of-material-to-be-treated basis (i.e., $/m 3 ) to accommodate remediation projects of varying sizes. The primary focus of this cost-estimating effort was the development of capital and operating unit cost factors based on the amount of primary media to be removed, handled, and treated. The unit costs for individual treatment technologies were developed using information from a variety of sources, mainly from periodicals, EPA documentation, handbooks, vendor contacts, and cost models. The unit cost factors for individual technologies were adjusted to 1991 dollars

  15. Current knowledge and future research on infant feeding in the context of HIV: basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chantry, Caroline J; Geubbels, Eveline P; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A; Latham, Michael C

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world.

  16. Current Knowledge and Future Research on Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV: Basic, Clinical, Behavioral, and Programmatic Perspectives12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chantry, Caroline J.; Geubbels, Eveline P.; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A.; Latham, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world. PMID:22332055

  17. Programmatic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2016-01-01

    , Rikke Luther and Cecilia Wendt. Inspired by graphic traditions within the field of pedagogical and instructive charts, Learning Site’s posters demonstrates an obvious instructive function which supports a social and relational project context, but these posters also challenge the established pictorial...

  18. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  19. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  20. A programmatic approach for implementing MOX fuel operation in advanced and existing boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, E.H.; Knecht, P.D.; Shirley, N.C.; Wadekamper, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a programmatic overview of the elements and issues associated with MOX fuel utilization. Many of the dominant considerations and integrated relationships inherent in initiating MOX fuel utilization in BWRs or the ABWR with partial or full MOX core designs are discussed. The most significant considerations in carrying out a MOX implementation program, while achieving commercially desirable fuel cycles and commercially manageable MOX fuel fabrication, testing, qualification, and licensing support activities, are described. The impact of politics and public influences and the necessary role of industry and government contributions are also discussed. (J.P.N.)

  1. Other programmatic agencies in the metropolis: a machinic approach to urban reterritorialization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Guatelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available What if the strength of the architectural object were associated with program and spatial strategies engendered at the service of “habitability” and future sociabilities rather than with the building of monumental architectural gadgets and optical events in the landscape? Based on the Deleuzean (from the philosopher Gilles Deleuze machinic phylum as well as concepts associated with it such as “bonding” and “agency,” using the Lacanian approach (from the psychiatrist Jacques Lacan to the gadget concept and the Derridian concept (from the philosopher Jacques Derrida of “supplement,” this article discusses a shift of the most current senses and representations of contemporary urban architectural design historically associated with the notable (meaning the wish to be noticed formal and composite materialization of the artistic object at the service of programmed sociabilities towards nother conceptualization. The building of architectural supports from residual (according to Deleuze, the possibility of producing other wishes, far from the dominant capitalist logic, lies in residues in the residual flows produced by the capital itself programmatic and spatial agencies emerges as a critical path to the categorical imperative of the generalizing global logic. It is a logic based on non-territorial landscapes and centered on investments in the composite view and intentional spatial and programmatic imprisonments in familiar formulae originating from domesticated and standardized prêt-à-utiliser thinking. To think about other architectural spatial and programmatic agencies originating from residues and flows that simultaneously rise from and escape the global logic is to bet on the chance of non-programmed sociabilities taking place. Ceasing to think about architecture as a formal object in its artistic and paradigmatic dimension would mean to conceive it as an urban syntagmatic machine of [de]constructive power

  2. Through Rubrics and Scaffolded Instruction: A Programmatic Self-Study of Writing Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfu Mi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colleagues in a teacher education program describe their journey of programmatic self-study as they examine how they teach and assess teacher candidates’ writing in a series of three required and sequenced undergraduate literacy courses. They lead the reader through the questions they asked themselves about their instruction and their reflective process with a goal of improving teacher candidates’ technical, reflective, and creative writing. Readers are encouraged to reflect on their expectations for teacher candidates’ writing in light of instruction and assessment. Implications for teacher education are explored.

  3. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed Stockpile Stewardship and Maintenance Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume I of the PEIS

  4. The development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators associated with maintenance at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreathall, J.; Fragola, J.; Appignani, P.; Burlile, G.; Shen, Y.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the development and evaluation of programmatic performance indicators of maintenance. These indicators were selected by: (1) creating a formal framework of plant processes; (2) identifying features of plant behavior considered important to safety; (3) evaluating existing indicators against these features; and (4) performing statistical analyses for the selected indicators. The report recommends additional testing. This document provides the appendices to the report. These appendices are: synopsis of process model; detailed results of statistical analysis; and signal processing analysis of daily power loss indicator

  5. RISK MANAGEMENT USING PROJECT RECON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    centralized database . • Project Recon (formerly Risk Recon) is designed to be used by all Program Management Offices, Integrated Project Teams and any...Create growth plans to proactively capture benefits • Customize reports to group opportunities by programmatic, technical, business, contracting, and

  6. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  7. Environmental settings for selected U.S. Department of Energy installations - support information for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 20 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS). The objective of the PEIS is to provide the public with information about the types of radiological and hazardous wastes and environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that these wastes pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. When possible, local experts participated in the initial development, fine tuning, and final review of the PEIS environmental settings

  8. Low physical activity as a key differentiating factor in the potential high-risk profile for depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Sofie; Mattsson, Sabina; Schele, Ingrid; Nordström, Peter; Nordström, Anna

    2017-09-01

    The identification of potential high-risk groups for depression is of importance. The purpose of the present study was to identify high-risk profiles for depressive symptoms in older individuals, with a focus on functional performance. The population-based Healthy Ageing Initiative included 2,084 community-dwelling individuals (49% women) aged 70. Explorative cluster analysis was used to group participants according to functional performance level, using measures of basic mobility skills, gait variability, and grip strength. Intercluster differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]-15), physical activity (PA; measured objectively with the ActiGraph GT3X+), and a rich set of covariates were examined. The cluster analysis yielded a seven-cluster solution. One potential high-risk cluster was identified, with overrepresentation of individuals with GDS scores >5 (15.1 vs. 2.7% expected; relative risk = 6.99, P risk cluster had significant overrepresentations of obese individuals (39.7 vs. 17.4% expected) and those with type 2 diabetes (24.7 vs. 8.5% expected), and underrepresentation of individuals who fulfilled the World Health Organization's PA recommendations (15.6 vs. 59.1% expected; all P risk profile for depressive symptoms among elderly community-dwelling individuals, which included low levels functional performance combined with low levels of PA. Including PA in medical screening of the elderly may aid in identification of potential high-risk individuals for depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Modeling individual movement decisions of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) as a key concept for realistic spatial behavior and exposure: A population model for landscape-level risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Joachim U; Wang, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition, and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape-level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments, a new method, "probabilistic walk," was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking into account food resources, vegetation cover, and the presence of conspecifics. At each movement step, animals decide where to move next based on probabilities being determined from this information. The model was parameterized to simulate populations of brown hares (Lepus europaeus). A detailed validation of the model demonstrated that it can realistically reproduce various natural patterns of brown hare ecology and behavior. Simulated proportions of time animals spent in fields (PT values) were also comparable to field observations. It is shown that these important parameters for the risk assessment may, however, vary in different landscapes. The results demonstrate the value of using population models to reduce uncertainties in risk assessment and to better understand which factors determine risk in a landscape context. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2299-2307. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. 'If she is a good woman …' and 'to be a real man …': gender, risk and access to HIV services among key populations in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J; Maksymenko, Kateryna M; Almodovar-Diaz, Yadira; Johnson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to grow in Tajikistan, especially among people who inject drugs, sex workers, men who have sex with men and incarcerated populations. Despite their susceptibility to HIV, members of these groups do not always have access to HIV prevention, testing and treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify and understand the gender constraints in accessing HIV services for key populations in Tajikistan. Using focus-group discussions and key-informant interviews the assessment team collected information from members of key populations and those who work with them. Several themes emerged from the data, including: low levels of HIV knowledge, gender constraints to condom use and safer drug use, gender constraints limit HIV testing opportunities, gender-based violence, stigma and discrimination, and the lack of female spaces in the HIV response. The results of this study show that there are well-defined gender norms in Tajikistan, and these gender norms influence key populations' access to HIV services. Addressing these gender constraints may offer opportunities for more equitable access to HIV services in Tajikistan.

  11. INL Site Portion of the April 1995 Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Mamagement Programmatic Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2005-06-30

    In April 1995, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of the Navy, as a cooperating agency, issued the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement (1995 EIS). The 1995 EIS analyzed alternatives for managing The Department's existing and reasonably foreseeable inventories of spent nuclear fuel through the year 2035. It also included a detailed analysis of environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The analysis supported facility-specific decisions regarding new, continued, or planned environmental restoration and waste management operations. The Record of Decision (ROD) was signed in June 1995 and amended in February 1996. It documented a number of projects or activities that would be implemented as a result of decisions regarding INL Site operations. In addition to the decisions that were made, decisions on a number of projects were deferred or projects have been canceled. DOE National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing procedures (found in 10 CFR Part 1 021.330(d)) require that a Supplement Analysis of site-wide EISs be done every five years to determine whether the site-wide EIS remains adequate. While the 1995 EIS was not a true site-wide EIS in that several programs were not included, most notably reactor operations, this method was used to evaluate the adequacy of the 1995 EIS. The decision to perform a Supplement Analysis was supported by the multi-program aspect of the 1995 EIS in conjunction with the spirit of the requirement for periodic review. The purpose of the SA is to determine if there have been changes in the basis upon which an EIS was prepared. This provides input for an evaluation of the continued adequacy of the EIS in light of those changes (i.e., whether there are substantial changes in the proposed

  12. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational risk factors in Kashan SAIPA automobile industry workers by key indicator method (KIM), 1390

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: work related musculoskeletal disorders are the most wide spread type of occupational diseases among workers. Awkward body postures during work and manual material handling are among the most important risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in different jobs. Due to importance of recognizing these factors prevalence and risk factor of work related musculoskeletal disorders, this research was aimed to study the among employees of Kashan City’s Saipa automobile industry in 2...

  13. Enhancing Key Competencies of Health Professionals in the Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk of Suicide Through Education and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kathryn; Tindall, Claudia; Strudwick, Gillian

    This article describes efforts undertaken to improve the clinical competencies of health professionals in the area of suicide risk assessment, documentation, and care planning. Best practices that fit the mental health and addictions setting were identified from the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline on Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour. A variety of methods were used to implement the guidelines at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. These included 3 in-person educational modules, an e-learning module, and the creation of an electronic health record suicide risk assessment documentation form. Results showed that interprofessional team members improved their suicide awareness and increased their confidence and knowledge in suicide risk assessment and the identification of interventions for clients at risk. Organizational level performance and quality improvement activities after implementation of the education and the electronic suicide risk assessment documentation form are being implemented through a collaboration between performance improvement, clinical education and informatics, and professional practice. The success of an interprofessional educational program of this nature is dependent on the collaboration of a number of stakeholders from a variety of areas of the organization.

  14. Surgical interventions for pulmonary tuberculosis in Mumbai, India: surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirodkar, S; Anande, L; Dalal, A; Desai, C; Corrêa, G; Das, M; Laxmeshwar, C; Mansoor, H; Remartinez, D; Trelles, M; Isaakidis, P

    2016-09-01

    Setting: While surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is considered an important adjunct for specific cases, including drug-resistant tuberculosis, operational evidence on its feasibility and effectiveness is limited. Objective: To describe surgical outcomes and programmatic challenges of providing surgery for PTB in Mumbai, India. Design: A descriptive study of routinely collected data of surgical interventions for PTB from 2010 to 2014 in two Mumbai hospitals, one public, one private. Results: Of 85 patients, 5 (6%) died and 17 (20%) had complications, with wound infection being the most frequent. Repeat operation was required in 12 (14%) patients. Most procedures were performed on an emergency basis, and eligibility was established late in the course of treatment. Median time from admission to surgery was 51 days. Drug susceptibility test (DST) patterns and final treatment outcomes were not systematically collected. Conclusion: In a high-burden setting such as Mumbai, important data on surgery for PTB were surprisingly limited in both the private and public sectors. Eligibility for surgery was established late, culture and DST were not systematically offered, the interval between admission and surgery was long and TB outcomes were not known. Systematic data collection would allow for proper evaluation of surgery as adjunctive therapy for all forms of TB under programmatic conditions.

  15. The National Environmental Policy Act and DOE's programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisenbaker, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 requires that all agencies of the federal government prepare a detailed statement on any action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Such a statement must include the environmental impact of the proposed action, any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided should the proposed action be implemented, and alternatives to the proposed action. In requiring environmental statements, NEPA encourages viewing related actions collectively and looking at cumulative impacts. A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) is a broad environmental analysis of a program or policy prepared when actions are connected and may have cumulative environmental impacts. The PEIS benefits include providing input into an agency's planning and decision making, assessing potential environmental consequences of a wide range of alternatives before options have been foreclosed, and allowing consideration of systemwide impacts of various alternatives early in the decision-making process. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare its PEIS on Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. The PEIS will consider programmatic issues and integrated approaches to the program; address national, program-wide alternatives rather than site-specific actions; and provide for subsequent NEPA documents of narrower scope to be prepared to address site-specific or project-specific actions

  16. Mitigating high ‘equity capital’ risk exposure to ‘small cap’ sector in India: analysing ‘key factors of success’ for ‘Institutional Investors’ whilst Investing in small cap sector in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Anish

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the subject of mitigating high ‘Equity Capital’ Risk Exposure to ‘Small Cap’ Sector in India. Institutional investors in India are prone to be risk averse when it comes to investing in the small cap sector in India as they find the companies risky and volatile. This paper will help analyse ‘Key Factors of success’ for ‘Institutional Investors’ whilst investing in Small Cap sector in India as some of these Indian small cap stocks offer handsome returns despite economic do...

  17. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  18. Overview of the facility accident analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Habegger, L.; Huizenga, D.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated risk-based approach has been developed to address the human health risks of radiological and chemical releases from potential facility accidents in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Accordingly, the facility accident analysis has been developed to allow risk-based comparisons of EM PEIS strategies for consolidating the storage and treatment of wastes at different sites throughout the country. The analysis has also been developed in accordance with the latest DOE guidance by considering the spectrum of accident scenarios that could occur in implementing the various actions evaluated in the EM PEIS. The individual waste storage and treatment operations and inventories at each site are specified by the functional requirements defined for each waste management alternative to be evaluated. For each alternative, the accident analysis determines the risk-dominant accident sequences and derives the source terms from the associated releases. This information is then used to perform health effects and risk calculations that are used to evaluate the various alternatives

  19. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled

  20. If We Build It, Will They Come? A Qualitative Study of Key Stakeholder Opinions on the Implementation of a Videogame Intervention for Risk Reduction in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pendergrass, Tyra M.; Hieftje, Kimberly; Crusto, Cindy A.; Montanaro, Erika; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Serious games are emerging as important tools that offer an innovative approach to teach adolescents behavioral skills to avoid risky situations. PlayForward: Elm City Stories, an interactive videogame targeting risk reduction, is currently undergoing evaluation. Collecting stakeholder data on its acceptability and real-life implementation strategies is critical for successful dissemination.

  1. Chemical and radiation environmental risk management at the crossroads: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Burke, T.; Locke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Although many of the major environmental risk management decisions we face today require the simultaneous evaluation and control of both radiological and chemical risks, the separation of radiation and chemical risk management persists along legal, regulatory, programmatic, training and professional practice levels. In June 1998, a panel of 40 chemical and radiation risk experts met at an interactive workshop entitled 'Addressing the Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Environmental Risk Management,' in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss several perspectives on harmonizing chemical and radiation risk management approaches. At the conclusion of the meeting, workshop participants recommended that case studies of clean-up sites at which radioactive materials and hazardous chemical risks were addressed, be developed to help educate participants in the harmonization dialogue about their counterpart's issues, stimulate discussion and sharpen issues in a way that they can be resolved. Several key risk management issues that were highlighted from the discussion at the Annapolis meeting are being evaluated in the case studies. They include: decision criteria, costs and public/stakeholder input. This paper presents these key issues and the approach taken in the case studies. (author)

  2. U.S. Department of energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C.; Scofield, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments

  3. U.S. Department of Energy worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with environmental restoration and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.; Travis, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Risk Management; Simek, M.A.; Sutherland, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Scofield, P.A. [Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document describes a worker health risk evaluation methodology for assessing risks associated with Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM). The methodology is appropriate for estimating worker risks across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex at both programmatic and site-specific levels. This document supports the worker health risk methodology used to perform the human health risk assessment portion of the DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) although it has applications beyond the PEIS, such as installation-wide worker risk assessments, screening-level assessments, and site-specific assessments.

  4. Tank waste remediation system tank waste retrieval risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimper, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This Risk Management Plan defines the approach to be taken to manage programmatic risks in the TWRS Tank Waste Retrieval program. It provides specific instructions applicable to TWR, and is used to supplement the guidance given by the TWRS Risk Management procedure

  5. Methodology and computational framework used for the US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Huttenga, A.; Jackson, R.; TenBrook, W.; Russell, J.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology, computational framework, and integrated PC-based database have been developed to assess the risks of facility accidents in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. The methodology includes the following interrelated elements: (1) screening of storage and treatment processes and related waste inventories to determine risk-dominant facilities across the DOE complex, (2) development and frequency estimation of the risk-dominant sequences of accidents, and (3) determination of the evolution of and final compositions of radiological or chemically hazardous source terms predicted to be released as a function of the storage inventory or treatment process throughput. The computational framework automates these elements to provide source term input for the second part of the analysis which includes (1) development or integration of existing site-specific demographics and meteorological data and calculation of attendant unit-risk factors and (2) assessment of the radiological or toxicological consequences of accident releases to the general public and to the occupational work force

  6. The Associations of Perceived Social Support with Key HIV Risk and Protective Factors Among Young Males Who Have Sex with Males in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa; Steinhaus, Mara; Sass, Justine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Siraprapasiri, Taweesap; Gass, Robert

    2018-06-01

    This study used respondent-driven sampling to explore the effects of social support on HIV risk and protective factors among young males who have sex with males (YMSM) in Bangkok (N = 273) and Chiang Mai (N = 243), Thailand. It compared different measures of social support, including living situation, the proportion of family and friends to whom the respondent had disclosed their same-sex attraction, and scores on the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support as predictors of two outcomes of interest-coerced first sex and HIV knowledge. Social support from family played a mediating role in both outcomes among YMSM in Bangkok but not those from Chiang Mai. Though social support from friends was also studied, it was less strongly associated with the outcomes of interest. The findings support interventions designed to leverage social support networks to increase HIV knowledge and decrease coerced first sex among YMSM. At the same time, they demonstrate that there is not a single risk or demographic profile encompassing all YMSM. Successful programs and policies will need to consider the specific attributes and social environment of YMSM in particular locations in order to effectively address HIV risks.

  7. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA's Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE

  8. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document consists of Volume III, Appendix I entitled ''National Ignition Facility Project-Specific Analysis,'' which investigates the environmental impacts resulting from constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility

  9. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering. [cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The latest technical and programmatic developments are considered as well as expansions of the Rockwell SPS cost model covering each phase of the program through the year 2030. Comparative cost/economic analyses cover elements of the satellite, construction system, space transportation vehicles and operations, and the ground receiving station. System plans to define time phased costs and planning requirements that support major milestones through the year 2000. A special analysis is included on natural resources required to build the SPS reference configuration. An appendix contains the SPS Work Breakdown Structure and dictionary along with detail cost data sheet on each system and main element of the program. Over 200 line items address DDT&E, theoretical first unit, investment cost per satellite, and operations charges for replacement capital and normal operations and maintenance costs.

  10. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  11. Oceans 2.0 API: Programmatic access to Ocean Networks Canada's sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, M.; Ross, R.; Hoeberechts, M.; Pirenne, B.; MacArthur, M.; Jeffries, M. A.; Morley, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) is a not-for-profit society that operates and manages innovative cabled observatories on behalf of the University of Victoria. These observatories supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to various scientific instruments located in coastal, deep-ocean and Arctic environments. The data from the instruments are relayed to the University of Victoria where they are archived, quality-controlled and made freely available to researchers, educators, and the public. The Oceans 2.0 data management system currently contains over 500 terabytes of data collected over 11 years from thousands of sensors. In order to facilitate access to the data, particularly for large datasets and long-time series of high-resolution data, a project was started in 2016 create a comprehensive Application Programming Interface, the "Oceans 2.0 API," to provide programmatic access to all ONC data products. The development is part of a project entitled "A Research Platform for User-Defined Oceanographic Data Products," funded through CANARIE, a Canadian organization responsible for the design and delivery of digital infrastructure for research, education and innovation [1]. Providing quick and easy access to ONC Data Products from within custom software solutions, allows researchers, modelers and decision makers to focus on what is important: solving their problems, answering their questions and making informed decisions. In this paper, we discuss how to access ONC's vast archive of data programmatically, through the Oceans 2.0 API. In particular we discuss the following: Access to ONC Data Products Access to ONC sensor data in near real-time Programming language support Use Cases References [1] CANARIE. Internet: https://www.canarie.ca/; accessed March 6, 2017.

  12. 76 FR 42121 - Final Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact for a Programmatic Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... for a Programmatic Environmental Assessment Implementing a Wind Energy Program at Marine Forces... Wind Energy Program at Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES) Facilities Located Across the United States... 12, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alain D. Flexer, Energy Manager, Marine Forces Reserve...

  13. 77 FR 19307 - Renewal of Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... solicit customer feedback on Government services and using such feedback regularly to make service..., policies. This area focuses on obtaining feedback from customers regarding fairness, adequacy, and... Number 1040-0001, DOI Programmatic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Surveys AGENCY: Department of the...

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  15. Deviation Management: Key Management Subsystem Driver of Knowledge-Based Continuous Improvement in the Henry Ford Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Richard J; Copeland, Jacqueline R; Varney, Ruan C

    2017-10-01

    To develop a business subsystem fulfilling International Organization for Standardization 15189 nonconformance management regulatory standard, facilitating employee engagement in problem identification and resolution to effect quality improvement and risk mitigation. From 2012 to 2016, the integrated laboratories of the Henry Ford Health System used a quality technical team to develop and improve a management subsystem designed to identify, track, trend, and summarize nonconformances based on frequency, risk, and root cause for elimination at the level of the work. Programmatic improvements and training resulted in markedly increased documentation culminating in 71,641 deviations in 2016 classified by a taxonomy of 281 defect types into preanalytic (74.8%), analytic (23.6%), and postanalytic (1.6%) testing phases. The top 10 deviations accounted for 55,843 (78%) of the total. Deviation management is a key subsystem of managers' standard work whereby knowledge of nonconformities assists in directing corrective actions and continuous improvements that promote consistent execution and higher levels of performance. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  17. Live Virus Vaccines Based on a Yellow Fever Vaccine Backbone: Standardized Template with Key Considerations for a Risk/Benefit Assessment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P.; Seligman, Stephen J.; Robertson, James S.; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B.; Condit, Richard C.; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called “chimeric virus vaccines”). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were replaced by the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of

  18. Live virus vaccines based on a yellow fever vaccine backbone: standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Seligman, Stephen J; Robertson, James S; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B; Condit, Richard C; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus vaccines"). Many viral vector vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of

  19. Addressing key issues in the consanguinity-related risk of autosomal recessive disorders in consanguineous communities: lessons from a qualitative study of British Pakistanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, A; Small, N; Ahmad, W I U; Atkin, K; Corry, P; Modell, B

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus regarding services required to help families with consanguineous marriages manage their increased genetic reproductive risk. Genetic services for communities with a preference for consanguineous marriage in the UK remain patchy, often poor. Receiving two disparate explanations of the cause of recessive disorders (cousin marriage and recessive inheritance) leads to confusion among families. Further, the realisation that couples in non-consanguineous relationships have affected children leads to mistrust of professional advice. British Pakistani families at-risk for recessive disorders lack an understanding of recessive disorders and their inheritance. Such an understanding is empowering and can be shared within the extended family to enable informed choice. In a three-site qualitative study of British Pakistanis, we explored family and health professional perspectives on recessively inherited conditions. Our findings suggest, firstly, that family networks hold strong potential for cascading genetic information, making the adoption of a family-centred approach an efficient strategy for this community. However, this is dependent on provision of high-quality and timely information from health care providers. Secondly, families' experience was of ill-coordinated and time-starved services, with few having access to specialist provision from Regional Genetics Services; these perspectives were consistent with health professionals' views of services. Thirdly, we confirm previous findings that genetic information is difficult to communicate and comprehend, further complicated by the need to communicate the relationship between cousin marriage and recessive disorders. A communication tool we developed and piloted is described and offered as a useful resource for communicating complex genetic information.

  20. If We Build It, Will They Come? A Qualitative Study of Key Stakeholder Opinions on the Implementation of a Videogame Intervention for Risk Reduction in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Tyra M; Hieftje, Kimberly; Crusto, Cindy A; Montanaro, Erika; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2016-08-01

    Serious games are emerging as important tools that offer an innovative approach to teach adolescents behavioral skills to avoid risky situations. PlayForward: Elm City Stories, an interactive videogame targeting risk reduction, is currently undergoing evaluation. Collecting stakeholder data on its acceptability and real-life implementation strategies is critical for successful dissemination. We collected interview data from four stakeholder groups regarding incorporating PlayForward into settings with adolescents. Transcripts were coded, creating a comprehensive code structure for each stakeholder group. We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews that included 14 adolescents (aged 12-15 years; 10 boys), eight parents/guardians (all women), 12 after-school/school coordinators (nine women), and 14 community partners (13 women). We identified four themes that reflected stakeholders' perceptions about how the videogame might be implemented in real-world settings. (1) Stakeholder groups expressed that the topics of sex, alcohol, and drugs were not being taught in an educational setting. (2) Stakeholder groups saw a videogame as a viable option to teach about sex, alcohol, and drugs. (3) Stakeholder groups thought that the videogame would fit well into other settings, such as after-school programs or community organizations. (4) Some stakeholder groups highlighted additional tools that could help with implementation, such as manuals, homework assignments, and group discussion questions. Stakeholder groups supported the game as a delivery vehicle for targeted content, indicating high acceptability but highlighting additional tools that would aid in implementation.

  1. Reasons for living, meaning in life, and suicide ideation: investigating the roles of key positive psychological factors in reducing suicide risk in community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Neufeld, Eva; Flett, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles of reasons for living (RFL) and meaning in life (MIL) in potentially promoting mental health and well-being and protecting against suicide ideation among community-residing older adults and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA). Of 173 older adults initially recruited into a longitudinal study on late-life suicide ideation, 109 completed the RFL-OA and measures of cognitive and physical functioning and positive and negative psychological factors at a two-year follow-up assessment. We tested a model in which RFL and MIL protect against suicide ideation, controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also assessed the psychometric properties of the RFL-OA in community-residing older adults, investigating its internal consistency and its convergent (MIL, perceived social support, and life satisfaction), divergent (loneliness, depressive symptom severity, and suicide ideation), and discriminant validity (cognitive and physical functioning). RFL-OA scores explained significant variance in suicide ideation, controlling for age, sex, depressive symptom severity, and loneliness. MIL explained significant unique variance in suicide ideation, controlling for these factors and RFL, and MIL significantly mediated the association between RFL and suicide ideation. Psychometric analyses indicated strong internal consistency (α = .94), convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity for the RFL-OA relative to positive and negative psychological factors and cognitive and physical functioning. These findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting merit in investigating positive psychological factors together with negative factors when assessing suicide risk and planning psychological services for older adults.

  2. Integrated analysis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma identifies key variants and pathways linked to risk habits, HPV, clinical parameters and tumor recurrence [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC are a homogeneous group of tumors characterized by aggressive behavior, early spread to lymph nodes and a higher rate of regional failure. Additionally, the incidence of OTSCC among younger population (<50yrs is on the rise; many of whom lack the typical associated risk factors of alcohol and/or tobacco exposure. We present data on single nucleotide variations (SNVs, indels, regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH, and copy number variations (CNVs from fifty-paired oral tongue primary tumors and link the significant somatic variants with clinical parameters, epidemiological factors including human papilloma virus (HPV infection and tumor recurrence. Apart from the frequent somatic variants harbored in TP53, CASP8, RASA1, NOTCH and CDKN2A genes, significant amplifications and/or deletions were detected in chromosomes 6-9, and 11 in the tumors. Variants in CASP8 and CDKN2A were mutually exclusive. CDKN2A, PIK3CA, RASA1 and DMD variants were exclusively linked to smoking, chewing, HPV infection and tumor stage. We also performed a whole-genome gene expression study that identified matrix metalloproteases to be highly expressed in tumors and linked pathways involving arachidonic acid and NF-k-B to habits and distant metastasis, respectively. Functional knockdown studies in cell lines demonstrated the role of CASP8 in a HPV-negative OTSCC cell line. Finally, we identified a 38-gene minimal signature that predicts tumor recurrence using an ensemble machine-learning method. Taken together, this study links molecular signatures to various clinical and epidemiological factors in a homogeneous tumor population with a relatively high HPV prevalence.

  3. Risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Mcmanus, John

    2009-01-01

    Few projects are completed on time, on budget, and to their original requirement or specifications. Focusing on what project managers need to know about risk in the pursuit of delivering projects, Risk Management covers key components of the risk management process and the software development process, as well as best practices for risk identification, risk planning, and risk analysis. The book examines risk planning, risk analysis responses to risk, the tracking and modelling of risks, intel...

  4. Programmatic Variation in Home Hemodialysis in Canada: Results from a Nationwide Survey of Practice Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Pauly

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 40% of patients with end stage renal disease in the United States were treated with home hemodialysis (HHD in the early 1970's. However, this number declined rapidly over the ensuing decades so that the overwhelming majority of patients were treated in-centre 3 times per week on a 3–4 hour schedule. Poor outcomes for patients treated in this fashion led to a renewed interest in home hemodialysis, with more intensive dialysis schedules including short daily (SDHD and nocturnal (NHD. The relative infancy of these treatment schedules means that there is a paucity of data on ‘how to do it’. Objective: We undertook a systematic survey of home hemodialysis programs in Canada to describe current practice patterns. Design: Development and deployment of a qualitative survey instrument. Setting: Community and academic HHD programs in Canada. Participants: Physicians, nurses and technologists. Measurements: Programmatic approaches to patient selection, delivery of dialysis, human resources available, and follow up. Methods: We developed the survey instrument in three phases. A focus group of Canadian nephrologists with expertise in NHD or SDHD discussed the scope the study and wrote questions on 11 domains. Three nephrologists familiar with all aspects of HHD delivery reviewed this for content validity, followed by further feedback from the whole group. Multidisciplinary teams at three sites pretested the survey and further suggestions were incorporated. In July 2010 we distributed the survey electronically to all renal programs known to offer HHD according to the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry. We compiled the survey results using qualitative and quantitative methods, as appropriate. Results: Of the academic and community programs that were invited to participate, 80% and 63%, respectively, completed the survey. We observed wide variation in programmatic approaches to patient recruitment, human resources, equipment, water

  5. Vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania: the impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy on coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekar Meera

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient delivery strategies for health interventions are essential for high and sustainable coverage. We report impact of a change in programmatic delivery strategy from routine delivery through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI+ approach to twice-yearly mass distribution campaigns on coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Tanzania Methods We investigated disparities in age, sex, socio-economic status, nutritional status and maternal education within vitamin A coverage in children between 1 and 2 years of age from two independent household level child health surveys conducted (1 during a continuous universal targeting scheme based on routine EPI contacts for children aged 9, 15 and 21 months (1999; and (2 three years later after the introduction of twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation campaigns for children aged 6 months to 5 years, a 6-monthly universal targeting scheme (2002. A representative cluster sample of approximately 2,400 rural households was obtained from Rufiji, Morogoro Rural, Kilombero and Ulanga districts. A modular questionnaire about the health of all children under the age of five was administered to consenting heads of households and caretakers of children. Information on the use of child health interventions including vitamin A was asked. Results Coverage of vitamin A supplementation among 1–2 year old children increased from 13% [95% CI 10–18%] in 1999 to 76% [95%CI 72–81%] in 2002. In 2002 knowledge of two or more child health danger signs was negatively associated with vitamin A supplementation coverage (80% versus 70% (p = 0.04. Nevertheless, we did not find any disparities in coverage of vitamin A by district, gender, socio-economic status and DPT vaccinations. Conclusion Change in programmatic delivery of vitamin A supplementation was associated with a major improvement in coverage in Tanzania that was been sustained by repeated campaigns for at least three years. There is a

  6. Hazardous waste storage facility accident scenarios for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, A.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Marmer, D.; Lazaro, M.; Mueller, C.; Freeman, W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the methods for developing accident categories and accident frequencies for internally initiated accidents at hazardous waste storage facilities (HWSFs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This categorization is a necessary first step in evaluating the risk of accidents to workers and the general population at each of the sites. This risk evaluation is part of the process of comparing alternative management strategies in DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Such strategies involve regionalization, decentralization, and centralization of waste treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Potential accidents at the HWSFs at the DOE sites are divided into categories of spill alone, spill plus fire, and other event combinations including spill plus fire plus explosion, fire only, spill and explosion, and fire and explosion. One or more accidents are chosen to represent the types of accidents for FY 1992 for 12 DOE sites were studied to determine the most representative set of possible accidents at all DOE sites. Each accident scenario is given a probability of occurrence that is adjusted, depending on the throughput and waste composition that passes through the HWSF at the particular site. The justification for the probabilities chosen is presented

  7. Hazardous waste storage facility accident scenarios for the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policastro, A.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Marmer, D.; Lazaro, M.; Mueller, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Freeman, W. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents the methods for developing accident categories and accident frequencies for internally initiated accidents at hazardous waste storage facilities (HWSFs) at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. This categorization is a necessary first step in evaluating the risk of accidents to workers and the general population at each of the sites. This risk evaluation is part of the process of comparing alternative management strategies in DOE`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Such strategies involve regionalization, decentralization, and centralization of waste treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Potential accidents at the HWSFs at the DOE sites are divided into categories of spill alone, spill plus fire, and other event combinations including spill plus fire plus explosion, fire only, spill and explosion, and fire and explosion. One or more accidents are chosen to represent the types of accidents for FY 1992 for 12 DOE sites were studied to determine the most representative set of possible accidents at all DOE sites. Each accident scenario is given a probability of occurrence that is adjusted, depending on the throughput and waste composition that passes through the HWSF at the particular site. The justification for the probabilities chosen is presented.

  8. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  9. Assessment of major nuclear technologies with decision and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1995-01-01

    Selecting technologies for major nuclear programs involves several complexities, including multiple stakeholders, multiple conflicting objectives, uncertainties, and risk. In addition, the programmatic risks related to the schedule, cost, and performance of these technologies often become major issues in the selection process. This paper describes a decision analysis approach for addressing these complexities in a logical manner

  10. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  11. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  12. DeepBlue epigenomic data server: programmatic data retrieval and analysis of epigenome region sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Felipe; List, Markus; Bock, Christoph; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-07-08

    Large amounts of epigenomic data are generated under the umbrella of the International Human Epigenome Consortium, which aims to establish 1000 reference epigenomes within the next few years. These data have the potential to unravel the complexity of epigenomic regulation. However, their effective use is hindered by the lack of flexible and easy-to-use methods for data retrieval. Extracting region sets of interest is a cumbersome task that involves several manual steps: identifying the relevant experiments, downloading the corresponding data files and filtering the region sets of interest. Here we present the DeepBlue Epigenomic Data Server, which streamlines epigenomic data analysis as well as software development. DeepBlue provides a comprehensive programmatic interface for finding, selecting, filtering, summarizing and downloading region sets. It contains data from four major epigenome projects, namely ENCODE, ROADMAP, BLUEPRINT and DEEP. DeepBlue comes with a user manual, examples and a well-documented application programming interface (API). The latter is accessed via the XML-RPC protocol supported by many programming languages. To demonstrate usage of the API and to enable convenient data retrieval for non-programmers, we offer an optional web interface. DeepBlue can be openly accessed at http://deepblue.mpi-inf.mpg.de. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Programmatic changes due to TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2]: Accident planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingert, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of the paper is lessons learned for emergency planning and preparedness form the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The lessons learned are examined from two perspectives: (a) lessons learned that have resulted in programmatic changes, and (b) lessons learned that have not been adequately addressed. There is no doubt that the TMI-2 accident is the pivotal event that caused a major rethinking of the pre-TMI emergency preparedness posture and led to a fundamentally different approach to emergency preparedness for commercial nuclear power plant accidents. While this new approach has evolved into a comprehensive, systematic, and even prototypical national program, it has also generated new problems: escalating costs for state and local governments and leveraging of the federal licensing process by state and local governments who do not want specific nuclear power plants to operate. A discussion of the primary lessons learned on emergency preparedness is presented under the following topics: beyond defense-in-depth, predetermined action, mandatory emergency planning and preparedness, and federal coordination

  14. Learning Team Review 2016-0001: Installing Outlets for Programmatic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bridgewater, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Frank X. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brenner, Andrew Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Ted T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gordon, Lloyd Baumgardner [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilburn, Dianne Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of a Learning Team is to transfer and communicate the information into operational feedback and improvement. We want to pay attention to the small things that go wrong because they are often early warning signals and may provide insight into the health of the whole system. An ESR was placed in the October of 2015 to move/install a number of 120V and 208V outlets in 455-104B to support programmatic furnace needs. Electrical design review was completed for ESR 22217 on February 22, 2016 and a Design Change Form completed describing the modification needed as: demolish 1 existing receptacle and circuit leaving conduit and jbox for use to install new receptacle and 5 new receptacles/circuits are required and one existing receptacle is to be relocated, listed under FSR 149229. The FSR scope of work was written:: Please have the Electricians come out to perform demolition (1ea.), installation (6ea.)& relocation (1ea.) of receptacles / circuits. ESR 22217 & DCF-16-35-0455-1281 is in place for this work. Coordinate final receptacle locations with Laboratory Resident. Contact John Dunwoody or O-MC for this information. WO# 545580-01 was signed on April 20, 2016.: Electricians to perform demolition, installation, & relocation of receptacles / circuits PER attached DCF-16-0455-1281-SK-1.

  15. New tools and methods for direct programmatic access to the dbSNP relational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Scott F; Quan, Jiaxi; Mehta, Gaurang; Bolze, Raphael; Thomas, Prasanth; Deelman, Ewa; Tischfield, Jay A; Rice, John P

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies often incorporate information from public biological databases in order to provide a biological reference for interpreting the results. The dbSNP database is an extensive source of information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for many different organisms, including humans. We have developed free software that will download and install a local MySQL implementation of the dbSNP relational database for a specified organism. We have also designed a system for classifying dbSNP tables in terms of common tasks we wish to accomplish using the database. For each task we have designed a small set of custom tables that facilitate task-related queries and provide entity-relationship diagrams for each task composed from the relevant dbSNP tables. In order to expose these concepts and methods to a wider audience we have developed web tools for querying the database and browsing documentation on the tables and columns to clarify the relevant relational structure. All web tools and software are freely available to the public at http://cgsmd.isi.edu/dbsnpq. Resources such as these for programmatically querying biological databases are essential for viably integrating biological information into genetic association experiments on a genome-wide scale.

  16. A programmatic view of metadata, metadata services, and metadata flow in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malon, D; Albrand, S; Gallas, E; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The volume and diversity of metadata in an experiment of the size and scope of ATLAS are considerable. Even the definition of metadata may seem context-dependent: data that are primary for one purpose may be metadata for another. ATLAS metadata services must integrate and federate information from inhomogeneous sources and repositories, map metadata about logical or physics constructs to deployment and production constructs, provide a means to associate metadata at one level of granularity with processing or decision-making at another, offer a coherent and integrated view to physicists, and support both human use and programmatic access. In this paper we consider ATLAS metadata, metadata services, and metadata flow principally from the illustrative perspective of how disparate metadata are made available to executing jobs and, conversely, how metadata generated by such jobs are returned. We describe how metadata are read, how metadata are cached, and how metadata generated by jobs and the tasks of which they are a part are communicated, associated with data products, and preserved. We also discuss the principles that guide decision-making about metadata storage, replication, and access.

  17. An application of programmatic assessment for learning (PAL) system for general practice training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwirth, Lambert; Valentine, Nyoli; Dilena, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Programmatic assessment for learning (PAL) is becoming more and more popular as a concept but its implementation is not without problems. In this paper we describe the design principles behind a PAL program in a general practice training context. Design principles: The PAL program was designed to optimise the meaningfulness of assessment information for the registrar and to make him/her use that information to self regulate their learning. The main principles in the program were cognitivist and transformative. The main cognitive principles we used were fostering the understanding of deep structures and stimulating transfer by making registrars constantly connect practice experiences with background knowledge. Ericsson's deliberate practice approach was built in with regard to the provision of feedback combined with Pintrich's model of self regulation. Mezirow's transformative learning and insights from social network theory on collaborative learning were used to support the registrars in their development to become GP professionals. Finally the principal of test enhanced learning was optimised. Epilogue: We have provided this example explain the design decisions behind our program, but not want to present our program as the solution to any given situation.

  18. Programmatic Environmental Scans: A Survey Based on Program Planning and Evaluation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Peterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Within Extension, environmental scans are most commonly used to assess community or organizational issues or for strategic planning purposes. However, Extension has expanded the use of environmental scans to systematically identify “what programs exist” on a given topic or focus area. Yet, despite recent attention to the topic of environmental scanning in Extension, survey instruments used to conduct environmental scans have not been published. Given the emphasis on implementation of evidence-based practices and programs, having a ready-made survey that can be used to identify programs on a specific topic and that could subsequently lead to an evaluability assessment of those programs would be a useful resource. To encourage the use of environmental scans to identify existing evidence-based programs, this article describes a survey instrument developed for the purpose of scanning for 4-H Healthy Living programs ready for rigorous outcome evaluation and/or national replication. It focuses on the rationale for survey items, as well as provides a summary and definition of those items. The survey tool can be easily adapted for future programmatic environmental scans both within and outside Extension.

  19. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Pope, R.B.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies

  20. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  1. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study, exhibit C. Volume 2, part 2: System engineering, cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2, Part 2, of a seven volume Satellite Power Systems (SPS) report is presented. Part 2 covers cost and programmatics and is divided into four sections. The first section gives illustrations of the SPS reference satellite and rectenna concept, and an overall scenario for SPS space transportation involvement. The second section presents SPS program plans for the implementation of PHASE C/D activities. These plans describe SPS program schedules and networks, critical items of systems evolution/technology development, and the natural resources analysis. The fourth section presents summary comments on the methods and rationale followed in arriving at the results documented. Suggestions are also provided in those areas where further analysis or evaluation will enhance SPS cost and programmatic definitions.

  2. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposl of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Volume II is an integral part of the Office of Environmental Management''s (EM''s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), which portrays the impacts of EM''s waste management activities at each of the 17 major DOE sites evaluated in the WM PEIS

  3. THE PROBLEM OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF HUMANITARIAN CYCLE SUBJECTS TO THE USE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMATIC FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena S. Tselykh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The actual questions related to the development of methods and receptions of improvement of preparation of future teachers of humanitarian cycle subjects to application the educational programmatic facilities (EPF in their professional activity are examined in the article. On the basis of the conducted research the level of readiness of students of humanitarian faculties of the South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University by K. D. Ushinskogo is analyzed the noted activity. It is set that application of educational programmatic facilities considerably intensifies professional preparation of future teachers of humanitarian cycle subjects. It is well-proven that teaching technologies which oriented on application of EPF in professional activity can considerably facilitate and improve teacher’s work to high-quality level, increase the level of knowledge and abilities of students.

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, S.

    1995-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities that the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during fiscal year 1995

  5. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities tat the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during Fiscal Year 1996

  6. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) is a nationwide study examining the environmental impacts of managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes generated by past and future nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites located around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste (LLMW), low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRUW), high-level waste (HLW), and hazardous waste (HW)

  7. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  8. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  9. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  10. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  11. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  12. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  13. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  14. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  15. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan; Limberis, Jason D; Pietersen, Elize; Phelan, Jody; Esmail, Aliasgar; Lesosky, Maia; Fennelly, Kevin P; te Riele, Julian; Mastrapa, Barbara; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Dolby, Tania; Abdallah, Abdallah; Ben Rached, Fathia; Simpson, John; Smith, Liezel; Gumbo, Tawanda; van Helden, Paul; Sirgel, Frederick A; McNerney, Ruth; Theron, Grant; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G; Warren, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    cases had HIV co-infection and ten (50%) had died by the end of the study. 22 (56%) of 39 isolates in patients discharged home after treatment failure were resistant to eight or more drugs. However, five (16%) of 31 isolates were susceptible to rifabutin and more than 90% were likely to be sensitive to linezolid, bedaquiline, and delamanid. Interpretation: More than half of the patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis were discharged into the community where they remained for an average of 16 months, were at risk of expectorating infectious cough aerosols, and posed a threat of transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Urgent action, including appropriate containment strategies, is needed to address this situation. Access to delamanid, bedaquiline, linezolid, and rifabutin, when appropriate, must be accelerated along with comprehensive drug susceptibility testing. Funding: UK Medical Research Council, South African Medical Research Council, South African National Research Foundation, European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, Oppenheimer Foundation, Newton Fund, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology.

  16. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan

    2017-01-19

    cases had HIV co-infection and ten (50%) had died by the end of the study. 22 (56%) of 39 isolates in patients discharged home after treatment failure were resistant to eight or more drugs. However, five (16%) of 31 isolates were susceptible to rifabutin and more than 90% were likely to be sensitive to linezolid, bedaquiline, and delamanid. Interpretation: More than half of the patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis were discharged into the community where they remained for an average of 16 months, were at risk of expectorating infectious cough aerosols, and posed a threat of transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Urgent action, including appropriate containment strategies, is needed to address this situation. Access to delamanid, bedaquiline, linezolid, and rifabutin, when appropriate, must be accelerated along with comprehensive drug susceptibility testing. Funding: UK Medical Research Council, South African Medical Research Council, South African National Research Foundation, European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, Oppenheimer Foundation, Newton Fund, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology.

  17. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  18. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  19. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  20. TWRS safety and technical integration risk management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety and Technical Integration (STI) programmatic risk management program are to assess, analyze, and handle risks associated with TWRS STI responsibilities and to communicate information about the actions being taken and the results to enable decision making. The objective of this TWRS STI Risk Management Plan is to communicate a consistent approach to risk management that will be used by the organization

  1. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled

  2. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  3. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-02

    versatility and impact of the technology, but also outlines various surmountable barriers to implementation. The study is not representative of all early implementer experiences with MTB/RIF testing but rather provides an overview of the shared issues as well as the many different approaches to programmatic MTB/RIF implementation.

  4. Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE`s Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry.

  5. Environmental settings for selected US Department of Energy installations - support information for the programmatic environmental impact statement and the baseline environmental management report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Fosmire, C.J.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 25 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS) and the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The common objective of the PEIS and the BEMR is to provide the public with information about the environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that radiological and hazardous contaminants pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS and BEMR schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same, time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry

  6. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  7. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  8. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  9. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  10. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  11. A model for determining the scope and level of detail that is appropriate for a programmatic EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1995-03-01

    Since the inception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), no definitive guidance has been established for determining the scope of topics and issues, or the level of detail suitable for presentation within a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (P-EIS). Lacking such guidance, an inordinate amount of time and resources can be expended in determining the scope that is most appropriately addressed within a P-EIS versus the more detailed scope that is best reserved for lower-tier documents. Faced with this predicament, agencies often err on the side of including too much detail, resulting in P-EISs that are over bloated and unnecessarily complex. Moreover, lack of definitive guidance leads to a great deal of inconsistency in the preparation of P-EISs among federal agency programs. A paradigm for assisting decisionmakers in making such determinations is presented below. This model expedites the preparation of P-EISs by providing a consistent and systematic approach for determining the scope and level of detail that is most appropriately addressed at the programmatic level. In many cases, the model provides agencies with an effective tool for managing and streamlining the NEPA process by de-scoping needless and unnecessary issues from the scope of a P-EIS

  12. Preliminary final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternative systems for conducting the ground water program. One of these systems is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies, because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS presents multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, that could be used to implement all the alternatives presented in the PEIS except the no action alternative. The no action alternative must be considered by law. It consists of taking no action to meet EPA standards. Implementing all PEIS alternatives (except no action) means applying a ground water compliance strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  13. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  16. Risk Factors for Acquired Rifamycin and Isoniazid Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neesha Rockwood

    Full Text Available Studies looking at acquired drug resistance (ADR are diverse with respect to geographical distribution, HIV co-infection rates, retreatment status and programmatic factors such as regimens administered and directly observed therapy. Our objective was to examine and consolidate evidence from clinical studies of the multifactorial aetiology of acquired rifamycin and/or isoniazid resistance within the scope of a single systematic review. This is important to inform policy and identify key areas for further studies.Case-control and cohort studies and randomised controlled trials that reported ADR as an outcome during antitubercular treatment regimens including a rifamycin and examined the association of at least 1 risk factor were included. Post hoc, we carried out random effects Mantel-Haenszel weighted meta-analyses of the impact of 2 key risk factors 1 HIV and 2 baseline drug resistance on the binary outcome of ADR. Heterogeneity was assessed used I2 statistic. As a secondary outcome, we calculated median cumulative incidence of ADR, weighted by the sample size of the studies.Meta-analysis of 15 studies showed increased risk of ADR with baseline mono- or polyresistance (RR 4.85 95% CI 3.26 to 7.23, heterogeneity I2 58%, 95% CI 26 to 76%. Meta-analysis of 8 studies showed that HIV co-infection was associated with increased risk of ADR (RR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28 to 7.11; there was considerable heterogeneity amongst these studies (I2 81%, 95% CI 64 to 90%. Non-adherence, extrapulmonary/disseminated disease and advanced immunosuppression in HIV co-infection were other risk factors noted. The weighted median cumulative incidence of acquired multi drug resistance calculated in 24 studies (assuming whole cohort as denominator, regardless of follow up DST was 0.1% (5th to 95th percentile 0.07 to 3.2%.Baseline drug resistance and HIV co-infection were significant risk factors for ADR. There was a trend of positive association with non-adherence which is likely

  17. Modeling Chronic Versus Acute Human Risk from Contaminants in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Jensen, Helen H.; Nusser, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of policies and regulations to address food safety concerns depends critically on appropriate assessment of health risk in foods. This paper evaluates the methods for assessing the population's exposure to a hazardous substance or contaminant in food and some aspects of the quantification of risk. We review current federal programmatic approaches to risk assessment and potential problems with these approaches. After developing procedures for estimating exposures of individuals...

  18. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  19. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System decisions and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize the highly radioactive Hanford Site tank wastes and encapsulated cesium and strontium materials in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Additionally, the TWRS conducts, as part of this mission, resolution of safety issues associated with the wastes within the 177 underground radioactive waste tanks. Systems engineering principles are being applied to determine the functions and establish requirements necessary for accomplishing the TWRS mission (DOE 1994 draft). This systematic evaluation of the TWRS program has identified key decisions that must be executed to establish mission scope, determine requirements, or select a technical solution for accomplishing identified functions and requirements. Key decisions identified through the systematic evaluation of the TWRS mission are presented in this document. Potential alternative solutions to each decision are discussed. After-discussion and evaluation of each decision with effected stakeholder groups, the US Department of Energy (DOE) will select a solution from the identified alternatives for implementation. In order to proceed with the development and execution of the tank waste remediation program, the DOE has adopted a planning basis for several of these decisions, until a formal basis is established. The planning bases adopted by the DOE is continuing to be discussed with stakeholder groups to establish consensus for proceeding with proposed actions. Technical and programmatic risks associated with the planning basis adopted by the DOE are discussed

  1. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  2. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  3. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  4. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  5. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  6. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  7. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  8. 75 FR 60721 - Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Implementing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... jeopardy or continued disadvantage to the species. Research and monitoring will continue to play a key role... to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which threatened and endangered species may depend may... volunteer programs to minimize human disturbance and other adverse impacts. Enhanced Implementation...

  9. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  10. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  11. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  12. Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3): Programmatic Access to Cloud-Based Processing of SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, R.; Horn, W. B.; Dimarchi, H.; Arko, S. A.; Hogenson, K.

    2017-12-01

    A problem often faced by Earth science researchers is the question of how to scale algorithms that were developed against few datasets and take them to regional or global scales. This problem only gets worse as we look to a future with larger and larger datasets becoming available. One significant hurdle can be having the processing and storage resources available for such a task, not to mention the administration of those resources. As a processing environment, the cloud offers nearly unlimited potential for compute and storage, with limited administration required. The goal of the Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3) project was to demonstrate the utility of the Amazon cloud to process large amounts of data quickly and cost effectively. Principally built by three undergraduate students at the ASF DAAC, the HyP3 system relies on core Amazon cloud services such as Lambda, Relational Database Service (RDS), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Storage Service (S3), and Elastic Beanstalk. HyP3 provides an Application Programming Interface (API) through which users can programmatically interface with the HyP3 system; allowing them to monitor and control processing jobs running in HyP3, and retrieve the generated HyP3 products when completed. This presentation will focus on the development techniques and enabling technologies that were used in developing the HyP3 system. Data and process flow, from new subscription through to order completion will be shown, highlighting the benefits of the cloud for each step. Because the HyP3 system can be accessed directly from a user's Python scripts, powerful applications leveraging SAR products can be put together fairly easily. This is the true power of HyP3; allowing people to programmatically leverage the power of the cloud.

  13. A continuous quality improvement program to focus a college of pharmacy on programmatic advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip D; Dipiro, Joseph T; Rowen, Randall C; McNair, David

    2013-08-12

    To enhance the achievement of a college of pharmacy's goals for education, research, and service missions by implementing an excellence program based on the Studer Group model for continuous quality improvement. The Studer model was combined with university strategic planning for a comprehensive quality-improvement program that was implemented over 5 years. The program included identifying and measuring key performance indicators, establishing specific "pillar" goals, aligning behaviors with goals and values, and training leaders. Assessment of key performance indicators over 5 years demonstrated progress toward achieving college goals for student and faculty satisfaction, research funding, numbers of students seeking formal postgraduate training, and private giving. Implementation of a continuous quality-improvement program based on the Studer program enabled the college to focus on and meet its yearly and strategic goals for all components of its mission.

  14. An Analysis of Programmatic Variables Relating to the Pass Rates on the Licensure Examination by Practical Nurses in Tennessee Technology Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janis Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the degree to which Licensed Practical Nursing programmatic variables positively correlate with select Tennessee Technology Center institution pass rates on the licensure examination--NCLEX-PNRTM. This study investigated the relationship between the dependent variable of NCLEX-PNRTM…

  15. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  16. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  17. Leveraging National Cancer Institute Programmatic Collaboration for Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient Accrual in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Kunos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Women in the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (PR have a higher age-adjusted incidence rate for uterine cervix cancer than the U.S. mainland as well as substantial access and economic barriers to cancer care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI funds a Minority/Underserved NCI Community Oncology Research Program in PR (PRNCORP as part of a national network of community-based health-care systems to conduct multisite cancer clinical trials in diverse populations. Participation by the PRNCORP in NCI’s uterine cervix cancer clinical trials, however, has remained limited. This study reports on the findings of an NCI site visit in PR to assess barriers impeding site activation and accrual to its sponsored gynecologic cancer clinical trials. Qualitative, semi-structured individual, and group interviews were conducted at six PRNCORP-affiliated locations to ascertain: long-term trial accrual objectives; key stakeholders in PR that address uterine cervix cancer care; key challenges or barriers to activating and to enrolling patients in NCI uterine cervix cancer treatment trials; and resources, policies, or procedures in place or needed on the island to support NCI-sponsored clinical trials. An NCI-sponsored uterine cervix cancer radiation–chemotherapy intervention clinical trial (NCT02466971, already activated on the island, served as a test case to identify relevant patient accrual and site barriers. The site visit identified five key barriers to accrual: (1 lack of central personnel to coordinate referrals for treatment plans, medical tests, and medical imaging across the island’s clinical trial access points; (2 patient insurance coverage; (3 lack of a coordinated brachytherapy schedule at San Juan-centric service providers; (4 limited credentialed radiotherapy machines island-wide; and (5 too few radiology medical physicists tasked to credential trial-specified positron emission tomography scanners island-wide. PR offers a unique opportunity to

  18. Opportunities for Enhanced Strategic Use of Surveys, Medical Records, and Program Data for HIV Surveillance of Key Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan D; Edwards, Jessie K; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Hargreaves, James; Zhao, Jinkou; Sabin, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. Objective The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. Methods To provide a historical perspective, we completed a scoping review of the expansion of HIV surveillance among key populations over the past three decades. To describe current efforts, we conducted a review of the literature to identify published examples of SI indicator estimates among key populations. To describe anticipated challenges and future opportunities to improve measurement of strategic information indicators, particularly from routine program and health data, we consulted participants of the Third Global HIV Surveillance Meeting in Bangkok, where the 2015 World Health Organization strategic information guidelines were launched. Results There remains suboptimal alignment of surveillance and programmatic data, as well as routinely collected medical records to facilitate the reporting of the 90-90-90 indicators for HIV among key populations. Studies (n=3) with estimates of all three 90-90-90 indicators rely on cross-sectional survey data. Programmatic data and

  19. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  20. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium Facility's evaluation basis fire operational accident. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumburgh, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous programmatic activities involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of improved and/or unique fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed in July 1994 to address operational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environmental. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EBF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility

  1. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlman, P.A.; Wollert, D.A.; Phillippi, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  2. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  3. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  4. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  5. Programmatic challenges in obtaining and confirming the pneumococcal vaccination status of cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ryan M; Limb, Charles J; Francis, Howard W; Gottschalk, Barbara; Niparko, John K

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial meningitis represents a substantial concern for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs). Chart review and direct patient and family correspondence to ascertain vaccination status. Information dissemination via brochure and electronic media, ongoing reminders of the importance of vaccination when confirmation of vaccination was not received. Marked improvement in vaccination rates ranging from 49% to 99% across different patient populations. Importantly, many patients received their vaccinations only after follow-up reminders. Ensuring optimal vaccination of all CI recipients against high-risk pathogens is a significantly challenging task. Maximizing vaccination rates in CI users will require an ongoing, active effort of information dissemination, documentation of compliance, and well-designed behavioral systems to streamline the pragmatic challenges in vaccination delivery.

  6. Sociocultural dimensions of tuberculosis: an overview of key concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P H; Degeling, C; Denholm, J

    2015-10-01

    Biomedical innovations are unlikely to provide effective and ethical tuberculosis (TB) control measures without complementary social science research. However, a strong interest in interdisciplinary work is often undermined by differences in language and concepts specific to each disciplinary approach. Accordingly, biological and social scientists need to learn how to communicate with each other. This article will outline key concepts relating to TB from medical anthropology and health sociology. Distilling these concepts in an introductory framework is intended to make this material accessible to researchers in laboratory, clinical and fieldwork settings, as well as to encourage more social scientists to engage with TB research among target groups critical for successful programmatic interventions. For pedagogical purposes, the relevant concepts are grouped into three categories: 1) structures and settings, which includes overarching themes such as syndemics, local biologies, medicalisation, structural violence and surveillance; 2) practices and processes, encompassing gender, stigma, taboo, and victim blaming; and 3) experience and enculturation, which includes illness narratives, biographical disruption and dynamic nominalism. By helping to navigate this literature, we hope to foster more cross-disciplinary conversations between qualitative and quantitative researchers. TB, a quintessential social disease, will be controlled more effectively using a multistranded research approach.

  7. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuehler, Sara E; Biga Hassoumi, Abdoulazize

    2011-04-01

    Due to limited progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children security, and hygienic practices. The results reported are limited by the availability of documents for review. Mortality rates are on track to reaching the Millennium Development Goal to reduce mortality among young children by two-thirds by 2015, but there has been no change in undernutrition, and total mortality rates are still high among young children. Nearly all of the key IYCN topics were addressed, specifically or generally, in national policy documents, training materials, and programmes. A national nutrition council meets regularly to coordinate programme activities nationally. Many of the IYCN-related programmes are intended for national coverage, but few reach this coverage. Monitoring and impact evaluations were conducted on some programmes, but few of these reported on whether the specific IYCN components of the programme were implemented as designed or compared outcomes with non-intervention sites. Human resources have been identified as inadequate to fully carry out nutrition programmes in Niger. Due to these limitations, we could not confirm whether the lack of progress in reducing malnutrition was due to ineffective or inadequately implemented programmes, though both of these were likely contributors. The policy framework is well established for the promotion of optimal IYCN practices, but greater resources and capacity building are needed to: (i) increase human capacities to carry out nutrition programmes; (ii) expand and track the implementation of evidence-based programmes nationally; (iii) improve and carry out monitoring and evaluation that identify effective and ineffective programmes; and (iv) apply these findings in developing, expanding, and improving effective programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for large block testing of coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the technical basis and programmatic requirements for a scientific investigation plan that governs tests on a large block of tuff for understanding the coupled thermal- mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes. This study is part of the field testing described in Section 8.3.4.2.4.4.1 of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain Project. The first, and most important objective is to understand the coupled TMHC processes in order to develop models that will predict the performance of a nuclear waste repository. The block and fracture properties (including hydrology and geochemistry) can be well characterized from at least five exposed surfaces, and the block can be dismantled for post-test examinations. The second objective is to provide preliminary data for development of models that will predict the quality and quantity of water in the near-field environment of a repository over the current 10,000 year regulatory period of radioactive decay. The third objective is to develop and evaluate the various measurement systems and techniques that will later be employed in the Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT)

  9. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  10. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses

  11. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes

  12. Telekomunikāciju operatora "Lattelecom" lietotnes "mansTV" programmatūras izstrāde Android operētājsistēmai

    OpenAIRE

    Supe, Edgars

    2016-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā ir aprakstīta mobilās operētājsistēmas Android lietotnes “mansTV” izstrāde. Programmatūras galvenās funkcijas ir sniegt piekļuvi televīzijai, televīzijas arhīvam un video nomas katalogam, izmantojot viedtālruni vai planšetdatoru ar Android operētājsistēmu Latvijas teritorijā. Programmatūra izstrādāta, izmantojot Java programmēšanas valodu un Android platformu. Projekts īstenots, izmantojot spējās izstrādes metodoloģiju.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes

  14. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  15. Addressing tuberculosis patients' medical and socio-economic needs: a comprehensive programmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carmen C; Millones, Ana K; Santa Cruz, Janeth; Aguilar, Margot; Clendenes, Martin; Toranzo, Miguel; Llaro, Karim; Lecca, Leonid; Becerra, Mercedes C; Yuen, Courtney M

    2017-04-01

    For a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Carabayllo, Peru, we describe the prevalence of medical comorbidities and socio-economic needs, the efforts required by a comprehensive support programme ('TB Cero') to address them and the success of this programme in linking patients to care. Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Carabayllo underwent evaluations for HIV, diabetes, mental health and unmet basic needs. For patients initiating treatment during 14 September, 2015-15 May, 2016, we abstracted data from evaluation forms and a support request system. We calculated the prevalence of medical comorbidities and the need for socio-economic support at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis, as well as the proportion of patients successfully linked to care or support. Of 192 patients, 83 (43%) had at least one medical comorbidity other than tuberculosis. These included eight (4%) patients with HIV, 12 (6%) with diabetes and 62 (32%) deemed at risk for a mental health condition. Of patients who required follow-up for a comorbidity, 100% initiated antiretroviral therapy, 71% attended endocrinology consultations and 66% attended psychology consultations. Of 126 (65%) patients who completed the socio-economic evaluation, 58 (46%) reported already receiving food baskets from the municipality, and 79 (63%) were given additional support, most commonly food vouchers and assistance in accessing health care. Carabayllo tuberculosis patients face many challenges in addition to tuberculosis. A collaborative, comprehensive treatment support programme can achieve high rates of linkage to care for these needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Malaria risk factors and care-seeking behaviour within the private sector among high-risk populations in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ingrid; Thanh, Huong Ngo Thi; Lover, Andrew; Thao, Phung Thi; Luu, Tang Viet; Thang, Hoang Nghia; Thang, Ngo Duc; Neukom, Josselyn; Bennett, Adam

    2017-10-16

    Vietnam has successfully reduced malaria incidence by more than 90% over the past 10 years, and is now preparing for malaria elimination. However, the remaining malaria burden resides in individuals that are hardest to reach, in highly remote areas, where many malaria cases are treated through the informal private sector and are not reported to public health systems. This qualitative study aimed to contextualize and characterize the role of private providers, care-seeking behaviour of individuals at high risk of malaria, as well as risk factors that should be addressed through malaria elimination programmes in Vietnam. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 key informants in Hanoi, 30 providers, 9 potential patients, and 11 individuals at risk of malaria in Binh Phuoc and Kon Tum provinces. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed and uploaded to Atlas TI™, themes were identified, from which programmatic implications and recommendations were synthesized. Qualitative interviews revealed that efforts for malaria elimination in Vietnam should concentrate on reaching highest-risk populations in remote areas as well their care providers, in particular private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Among these private providers, diagnosis is currently based on symptoms, leaving unconfirmed cases that are not reported to public health surveillance systems. Among at-risk individuals, knowledge of malaria was limited, and individuals reported not taking full courses of treatment, a practice that threatens selection for drug resistance. Access to insecticide-treated hammock nets, a potentially important preventive measure for settings with outdoor biting Anopheles vectors, was also limited. Malaria elimination efforts in Vietnam can be accelerated by targeting improved treatment, diagnosis, and reporting practices to private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Programmes should also seek to increase awareness and

  17. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  18. A successful programmatic structure and strategies to attract and educate students in earth and environmental sciences: an example from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of sustainable use of our natural world is one of the major issues confronting humankind today. Environmental issues are inherently complex and difficult to resolve. Successful resolution of our most pressing environmental problems, such as climate change and ocean acidification, will require well-trained earth and environmental scientists that think critically in a multi-dimensional framework at variable spatial and temporal scales. This begs the question as to how we can both attract and successfully educate students in such a way that will permit them to tackle the multitude of environmental problems currently facing society. This poster details one way to successfully attract and train students in an interdisciplinary environmental education framework by sharing: (1) some of the successful strategies and programmatic structure of the University of Delaware's undergraduate environmental programs that have grown over 60% in two years after a major programmatic revision; and (2) the current round of programmatic revisions that will complete the strategic planning process.* The interdisciplinary environmental education program at the University of Delaware has a strong programmatic core that provides students with the requisite quantitative training and field experience to solve complicated environmental issues. At the same time, the environmental program includes the social, political, and economic contexts of environmental issues. Together, these two parts of the core best equip students to mitigate environmental problems. Following a strategic planning effort, the University of Delaware is building upon past successes in training environmental scientists and managers by further reformulating its environmental programs to leverage the power of theme-based learning which complements the programmatic core in such a way to teach problem-solving skills. This poster details the multidimensional nature of the University of Delaware's environmental

  19. Socioeconomic and programmatic determinants of renewal of membership in a voluntary micro health insurance scheme: evidence from Chakaria, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Asiful Haidar; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Mia, Mohammad Nahid; Hanifi, S M A; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) healthcare expenditure is a major obstacle for achieving universal health coverage in low-income countries including Bangladesh. Sixty-three percent of the USD 27 annual per-capita healthcare expenditure in Bangladesh comes from individuals' pockets. Although health insurance is a financial tool for reducing OOP, use of such tools in Bangladesh has been limited to some small-scale voluntary micro health insurance (MHI) schemes run by non-governmental organizations (NGO). The MHI, however, can orient people on health insurance concept and provide learning for product development, implementation, barriers to enrolment, membership renewal, and other operational challenges and solutions. Keeping this in mind, icddr,b in 2012 initiated a pilot MHI, Amader Shasthya, in Chakaria, Bangladesh. This paper explores the determinants of membership renewal in this scheme, which is a perpetual challenge for MHI. Identify socioeconomic and programmatic determinants and their effects on membership renewal in a voluntary MHI scheme. Data came from the online management information system of the scheme and Health and Demographic Surveillance System of Chakaria, covering the period February 2012-May 2015. Association between renewal and independent variables was examined using cross-tabular and logistic regression analyses. Nearly 20% of households in the catchment area ever enroled in the scheme, and 38% renewed membership over the initial 3 years of operation. Frequency of consultation with healthcare providers, benefits received, proximity of member's residence to health facility, socioeconomic status, educational level, and age of the household head showed significant positive association with renewal of membership. Villagers' enrolment in the scheme indicated that even in poor economic and literacy conditions people can be motivated to enrol in insurance schemes. Degree of service utilization and benefits received can greatly enhance the probability of

  20. Modelling the elimination of river blindness using long-term epidemiological and programmatic data from Mali and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Walker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The onchocerciasis transmission models EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM have been independently developed and used to explore the feasibility of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa with mass (annual or biannual distribution of ivermectin within the timeframes proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO and endorsed by the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (i.e. by 2020/2025. Based on the findings of our previous model comparison, we implemented technical refinements and tested the projections of EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM against long-term epidemiological data from two West African transmission foci in Mali and Senegal where the observed prevalence of infection was brought to zero circa 2007–2009 after 15–17 years of mass ivermectin treatment. We simulated these interventions using programmatic information on the frequency and coverage of mass treatments and trained the model projections using longitudinal parasitological data from 27 communities, evaluating the projected outcome of elimination (local parasite extinction or resurgence. We found that EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM captured adequately the epidemiological trends during mass treatment but that resurgence, while never predicted by ONCHOSIM, was predicted by EPIONCHO in some communities with the highest (inferred vector biting rates and associated pre-intervention endemicities. Resurgence can be extremely protracted such that low (microfilarial prevalence between 1% and 5% can be maintained for 3–5 years before manifesting more prominently. We highlight that post-treatment and post-elimination surveillance protocols must be implemented for long enough and with high enough sensitivity to detect possible residual latent infections potentially indicative of resurgence. We also discuss uncertainty and differences between EPIONCHO and ONCHOSIM projections, the potential importance of vector control in high-transmission settings as a complementary intervention strategy, and the

  1. Implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement for the Department of Energy UMTRA Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up contamination to protect human health and the environment at 24 inactive uranium processing sites located in 10 states. Five of the sites are either on or near Native American lands. The UMTRA Project is divided into two projects: Surface and Ground Water. On November 18, 1992, the DOE issued a notice of intent (57 FR 54374, 1992) to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The PEIS will result in a record of decision that will determine how the UMTRA Ground Water Project will address ground water contamination resulting from milling operations at the UMTRA Project processing sites. DOE regulations (10 CFR section 1021.312) require that an implementation plan be prepared to provide guidance for preparing a PEIS and to record the results of the scoping process. This implementation plan describes and records the results of the PEIS scoping process; summarizes comments received and their disposition; describes the purpose of and need for agency action, the proposed action, and alternatives; lists alternatives considered and eliminated from review; identifies cooperating agencies, their roles, and responsibilities; provides a draft PEIS outline, which includes the planned PEIS scope and content (Attachment A); and provides a schedule for the PEIS process. This plan will be placed in the UMTRA Project libraries listed in Attachment B. The PEIS will identify and evaluate the potential impacts associated with alternatives for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The PEIS will not assess site-specific impacts; site-specific impacts must be analyzed in separate National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents that will tier off the PEIS. This tiering process will streamline the preparation of site-specific NEPA documents

  2. Description of source term data on contaminated sites and buildings compiled for the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (WMPEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Smith, D.E.; Hill, J.G.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically had responsibility for carrying out various national missions primarily related to nuclear weapons development and energy research. Recently, these missions have been expanded to include remediation of sites and facilities contaminated as a result of past activities. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy announced that DOE would prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on the DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program; the primary focus was the evaluation of (1) strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE contaminated sites and facilities and (2) potential configurations for waste management capabilities. Several different environmental restoration strategies were identified for evaluation, ranging from doing no remediation to strategies where the level of remediation was driven by such factors as final land use and health effects. A quantitative assessment of the costs and health effects of remediation activities and residual contamination levels associated with each remediation strategy was made. These analyses required that information be compiled on each individual contaminated site and structure located at each DOE installation and that the information compiled include quantitative measurements and/or estimates of contamination levels and extent of contamination. This document provides a description of the types of information and data compiled for use in the analyses. Also provided is a description of the database used to manage the data, a detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions used in compiling the data, and a summary of the data compiled into the database as of March 1995. As of this date, over 10,000 contaminated sites and structures and over 8,000 uncontaminated structures had been identified across the DOE complex of installations

  3. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1995-04-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE's Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE's 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases

  4. Information related to low-level mixed waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.D.; Dolak, D.A.; Wang, Y.Y.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report was prepared to support the analysis of risks and costs associated with the proposed treatment of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) under management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The various waste management alternatives for treatment of LLMW have been defined in the DOE's Office of Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. This technical memorandum estimates the waste material throughput expected at each proposed LLMW treatment facility and analyzes potential radiological and chemical releases at each DOE site resulting from treatment of these wastes. Models have been developed to generate site-dependent radiological profiles and waste-stream-dependent chemical profiles for these wastes. Current site-dependent inventories and estimates for future generation of LLMW have been obtained from DOE's 1994 Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR-2). Using treatment procedures developed by the Mixed Waste Treatment Project, the MWIR-2 database was analyzed to provide waste throughput and emission estimates for each of the different waste types assessed in this report. Uncertainties in the estimates at each site are discussed for waste material throughputs and radiological and chemical releases

  5. Security for Key Management Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer , Steve; Steel , Graham; Warinschi , Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We propose a much-needed formal definition of security for cryptographic key management APIs. The advantages of our definition are that it is general, intuitive, and applicable to security proofs in both symbolic and computational models of cryptography. Our definition relies on an idealized API which allows only the most essential functions for generating, exporting and importing keys, and takes into account dynamic corruption of keys. Based on this we can define the ...

  6. 104 Key words: Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... spoilage thus limiting economic loss and possible heath risk to consumers. Key words: Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried. Introduction ..... were reared because E. coli is an indicator organism and its ...

  7. Study protocol: Transition from localized low back pain to chronic widespread pain in general practice: Identification of risk factors, preventive factors and key elements for treatment – A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniol Annika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic localized pain syndromes, especially chronic low back pain (CLBP, are common reasons for consultation in general practice. In some cases chronic localized pain syndromes can appear in combination with chronic widespread pain (CWP. Numerous studies have shown a strong association between CWP and several physical and psychological factors. These studies are population-based cross-sectional and do not allow for assessing chronology. There are very few prospective studies that explore the predictors for the onset of CWP, where the main focus is identifying risk factors for the CWP incidence. Until now there have been no studies focusing on preventive factors keeping patients from developing CWP. Our aim is to perform a cross sectional study on the epidemiology of CLBP and CWP in general practice and to look for distinctive features regarding resources like resilience, self-efficacy and coping strategies. A subsequent cohort study is designed to identify the risk and protective factors of pain generalization (development of CWP in primary care for CLBP patients. Methods/Design Fifty-nine general practitioners recruit consecutively, during a 5 month period, all patients who are consulting their family doctor because of chronic low back pain (where the pain is lasted for 3 months. Patients are asked to fill out a questionnaire on pain anamnesis, pain-perception, co-morbidities, therapy course, medication, socio demographic data and psychosomatic symptoms. We assess resilience, coping resources, stress management and self-efficacy as potential protective factors for pain generalization. Furthermore, we raise risk factors for pain generalization like anxiety, depression, trauma and critical life events. During a twelve months follow up period a cohort of CLBP patients without CWP will be screened on a regular basis (3 monthly for pain generalization (outcome: incident CWP. Discussion This cohort study will be the largest

  8. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  9. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haipeng; Han Chongzhao; Liu Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise

  10. Surrounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Steffensen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in insurance and finance was always intersecting although they were originally and generally viewed as separate disciplines. Insurance is about transferring risks between parties such that the burdens of risks are borne by those who can. This makes insurance transactions a beneficial activity for the society. It calls on detection, modelling, valuation, and controlling of risks. One of the main sources of control is diversification of risks and in that respect it becomes an issue in itself to clarify diversifiability of risks. However, many diversifiable risks are not, by nature or by contract design, separable from non-diversifiable risks that are, on the other hand, sometimes traded in financial markets and sometimes not. A key observation is that the economic risk came before the insurance contract: Mother earth destroys and kills incidentally and mercilessly, but the uncertainty of economic consequences can be more or less cleverly distributed by the introduction of an insurance market.

  11. Energy-programmatic ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    On the energy markets a new round of the game is starting. But all trump cards are not played yet. Above all it is not clear until now in which way the individual sources of energy will profit from increasing ecological demands. The Federal Minister of Economics and the Federal Minister of the Environment have soon to agree on future basic data for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. At the same time it is necessary that the Federal Government and the EC-Commission reach an agreement about state burden and relief. Above all German coal needs a clear framework for long-term investment decisions. (orig.) [de

  12. Superfund Programmatic Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes an inventory of program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the...

  13. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  14. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    structures and practices of higher education. This essay is programmatic and thus deliberately combines facts and values, past and future, summaries of first person observations and third person factual information, without the burden of systematic referencing required by scholarly writing. It does not claim to replace empirical surveys which, however, are still lacking to date regarding the actual state of affairs of higher education inspired by integral and likeminded approaches in Europe. Accordingly, at this stage, the essay is an exercise of awareness-raising to stimulate more and better collaboration across streams, disciplines and countries between those scholars, students and activists who are already inspired by integral and likeminded approaches and interested or already engaged in developing and sustaining higher education programs according to a more integral spirit.

  15. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    of higher education.This essay is programmatic and thus deliberately combines facts and values, past andfuture, summaries of first person observations and third person factual information,without the burden of systematic referencing required by scholarly writing. It does notclaim to replace empirical surveys which, however, are still lacking to date regarding theactual state of affairs of higher education inspired by integral and likeminded approachesin Europe. Accordingly, at this stage, the essay is an exercise of awareness-raising tostimulate more and better collaboration across streams, disciplines and countries betweenthose scholars, students and activists who are already inspired by integral and likeminded approaches and interested or already engaged in developing and sustaining highereducation programs according to a more integral spirit.

  16. Assessing Risk and Driving Risk Mitigation for First-of-a-Kind Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Collins

    2011-09-01

    Planning and decision making amidst programmatic and technological risks represent significant challenges for projects. This presentation addresses the four step risk-assessment process needed to determine clear path forward to mature needed technology and design, license, and construct advanced nuclear power plants, which have never been built before, including Small Modular Reactors. This four step process has been carefully applied to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. STEP 1 - Risk Identification Risks are identified, collected, and categorized as technical risks, programmatic risks, and project risks, each of which result in cost and schedule impacts if realized. These include risks arising from the use of technologies not previously demonstrated in a relevant application. These risks include normal and accident scenarios which the SMR could experience including events that cause the disablement of engineered safety features (typically documented in Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) as produced with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and design needs which must be addressed to further detail the design. Product - Project Risk Register contained in a database with sorting, presentation, rollup, risk work off functionality similar to the NGNP Risk Management System . STEP 2 - Risk Quantification The risks contained in the risk register are then scored for probability of occurrence and severity of consequence, if realized. Here the scoring methodology is established and the basis for the scoring is well documented. Product - Quantified project risk register with documented basis for scoring. STEP 3 - Risk Handling Strategy Risks are mitigated by applying a systematic approach to maturing the technology through Research and Development, modeling, test, and design. A Technology Readiness Assessment is performed to determine baseline Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). Tasks needed to mature the technology are developed and documented in a roadmap

  17. Assessing Risk and Driving Risk Mitigation for First-of-a-Kind Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and decision making amidst programmatic and technological risks represent significant challenges for projects. This presentation addresses the four step risk-assessment process needed to determine clear path forward to mature needed technology and design, license, and construct advanced nuclear power plants, which have never been built before, including Small Modular Reactors. This four step process has been carefully applied to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. STEP 1 - Risk Identification Risks are identified, collected, and categorized as technical risks, programmatic risks, and project risks, each of which result in cost and schedule impacts if realized. These include risks arising from the use of technologies not previously demonstrated in a relevant application. These risks include normal and accident scenarios which the SMR could experience including events that cause the disablement of engineered safety features (typically documented in Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) as produced with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) and design needs which must be addressed to further detail the design. Product - Project Risk Register contained in a database with sorting, presentation, rollup, risk work off functionality similar to the NGNP Risk Management System . STEP 2 - Risk Quantification The risks contained in the risk register are then scored for probability of occurrence and severity of consequence, if realized. Here the scoring methodology is established and the basis for the scoring is well documented. Product - Quantified project risk register with documented basis for scoring. STEP 3 - Risk Handling Strategy Risks are mitigated by applying a systematic approach to maturing the technology through Research and Development, modeling, test, and design. A Technology Readiness Assessment is performed to determine baseline Technology Readiness Levels (TRL). Tasks needed to mature the technology are developed and documented in a roadmap

  18. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  19. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  20. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume III of V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type

  1. Evaluating emergency risk communications: a dialogue with the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Craig W; Vanderford, Marsha L; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    Evaluating emergency risk communications is fraught with challenges since communication can be approached from both a systemic and programmatic level. Therefore, one must consider stakeholders' perspectives, effectiveness issues, standards of evidence and utility, and channels of influence (e.g., mass media and law enforcement). Evaluation issues related to timing, evaluation questions, methods, measures, and accountability are raised in this dialogue with emergency risk communication specialists. Besides the usual evaluation competencies, evaluators in this area need to understand and work collaboratively with stakeholders and be attuned to the dynamic contextual nature of emergency risk communications. Sample resources and measures are provided here to aid in this emerging and exciting field of evaluation.

  2. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  3. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  4. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  5. How close are countries of the WHO European Region to achieving the goal of vaccinating 75% of key risk groups against influenza? Results from national surveys on seasonal influenza vaccination programmes, 2008/2009 to 2014/2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Pernille; Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Johansen, Kari; Tsolova, Svetla; Brown, Caroline

    2018-01-25

    Influenza vaccination is recommended especially for persons at risk of complications. In 2003, the World Health Assembly urged Member States (MS) to increase vaccination coverage to 75% among older persons by 2010. To assess progress towards the 2010 vaccination goal and describe seasonal influenza vaccination recommendations in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Data on seasonal influenza vaccine recommendations, dose distribution, and target group coverage were obtained from two sources: European Union and European Economic Area MS data were extracted from influenza vaccination surveys covering seven seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) published by the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. For the remaining WHO European MS, a separate survey on policies and uptake for all seasons (2008/2009-2014/2015) was distributed to national immunization programmes in 2015. Data was available from 49 of 53 MS. All but two had a national influenza vaccination policy. High-income countries distributed considerably higher number of vaccines per capita (median; 139.2 per 1000 population) compared to lower-middle-income countries (median; 6.1 per 1000 population). Most countries recommended vaccination for older persons, individuals with chronic disease, healthcare workers, and pregnant women. Children were included in < 50% of national policies. Only one country reached 75% coverage in older persons (2014/2015), while a number of countries reported declining vaccination uptake. Coverage of target groups was overall low, but with large variations between countries. Vaccination coverage was not monitored for several groups. Despite policy recommendations, influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. Low levels of vaccination is not only a missed opportunity for preventing influenza in vulnerable groups, but could negatively affect pandemic preparedness. Improved understanding of barriers to

  6. Hanford waste vitrification systems risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Hamilton, D.W.; Holton, L.K.; Bailey, J.W.

    1991-09-01

    A systematic Risk Assessment was performed to identify the technical, regulatory, and programmatic uncertainties and to quantify the risks to the Hanford Site double-shell tank waste vitrification program baseline (as defined in December 1990). Mitigating strategies to reduce the overall program risk were proposed. All major program elements were evaluated, including double-shell tank waste characterization, Tank Farms, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and grouting. Computer-based techniques were used to quantify risks to proceeding with construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant on the present baseline schedule. Risks to the potential vitrification of single-shell tank wastes and cesium and strontium capsules were also assessed. 62 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Secret key rates in quantum key distribution using Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bratzik, Sylvia; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The secret key rate r of a quantum key distribution protocol depends on the involved number of signals and the accepted ''failure probability''. We reconsider a method to calculate r focusing on the analysis of the privacy amplification given by R. Renner and R. Koenig (2005). This approach involves an optimization problem with an objective function depending on the Renyi entropy of the density operator describing the classical outcomes and the eavesdropper system. This problem is analyzed for a generic class of QKD protocols and the current research status is presented.

  8. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  9. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel

  10. Preliminary Hanford technical input for the Department of Energy programmatic spent nuclear fuel management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory environmental restoration and waste management programs environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating its programmatic options for the safe management of its diverse spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory in the Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (SNF and INEL EIS). In the SNF and INEL EIS, the DOE is assessing five alternatives for SNF management, which consider at which of the DOE sites each of the various SNF types should be managed until ultimate disposition. The range of SNF inventories considered for management at the Hanford Site in the SNF and INEL EIS include the current Hanford Site inventory, only the current Hanford Site defense production SNF inventory, the DOE complex-wide SNF inventory, or none at all. Site-specific SNF management decisions will be evaluated in separate National Environmental Policy Act evaluations. Appendixes A and B include information on (1) additional facilities required to accommodate inventories of SNF within each management alternative, (2) existing and new SNF management facility descriptions, (3) facility costs for construction and operation, (4) facility workforce requirements for construction and operation, and (5) facility discharges. The information was extrapolated from existing analyses to the extent possible. New facility costs, manpower requirements, and similar information are based on rough-order-of-magnitude estimates

  11. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures

  12. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  13. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  14. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  16. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings ' ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.' Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  17. Effectiveness of a live oral human rotavirus vaccine after programmatic introduction in Bangladesh: A cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zaman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus vaccines are now globally recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, but in early 2009 WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization reviewed available data and concluded that there was no evidence for the efficacy or effectiveness of a two-dose schedule of the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix given early at 6 and 10 wk of age. Additionally, the effectiveness of programmatic rotavirus vaccination, including possible indirect effects, has not been assessed in low-resource populations in Asia.In Bangladesh, we cluster-randomized (1:1 142 villages of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System to include two doses of HRV with the standard infant vaccines at 6 and 10 wk of age or to provide standard infant vaccines without HRV. The study was initiated November 1, 2008, and surveillance was conducted concurrently at Matlab Diarrhoea Hospital and two community treatment centers to identify children less than 2 y of age presenting with acute rotavirus diarrhea (ARD through March 31, 2011. Laboratory confirmation was made by enzyme immunoassay detection of rotavirus antigen in stool specimens. Overall effectiveness of the HRV vaccination program (primary objective was measured by comparing the incidence rate of ARD among all children age-eligible for vaccination in villages where HRV was introduced to that among such children in villages where HRV was not introduced. Total effectiveness among vaccinees and indirect effectiveness were also evaluated. In all, 6,527 infants were age-eligible for vaccination in 71 HRV villages, and 5,791 in 71 non-HRV villages. In HRV villages, 4,808 (73.7% infants received at least one dose of HRV. The incidence rate of ARD was 4.10 cases per 100 person-years in non-HRV villages compared to 2.8 per 100 person-years in HRV villages, indicating an overall effectiveness of 29.0% (95% CI, 11.3% to 43.1%. The total effectiveness of HRV against ARD among vaccinees was 41.4% (95% CI

  18. Effectiveness of a live oral human rotavirus vaccine after programmatic introduction in Bangladesh: A cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K; Sack, David A; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Yunus, Mohammad; Moulton, Lawrence H; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Fleming, Jessica A; Hossain, Ilias; Arifeen, Shams El; Azim, Tasnim; Rahman, Mustafizur; Lewis, Kristen D C; Feller, Andrea J; Qadri, Firdausi; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Cravioto, Alejandro; Victor, John C

    2017-04-01

    Rotavirus vaccines are now globally recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but in early 2009 WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization reviewed available data and concluded that there was no evidence for the efficacy or effectiveness of a two-dose schedule of the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; Rotarix) given early at 6 and 10 wk of age. Additionally, the effectiveness of programmatic rotavirus vaccination, including possible indirect effects, has not been assessed in low-resource populations in Asia. In Bangladesh, we cluster-randomized (1:1) 142 villages of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System to include two doses of HRV with the standard infant vaccines at 6 and 10 wk of age or to provide standard infant vaccines without HRV. The study was initiated November 1, 2008, and surveillance was conducted concurrently at Matlab Diarrhoea Hospital and two community treatment centers to identify children less than 2 y of age presenting with acute rotavirus diarrhea (ARD) through March 31, 2011. Laboratory confirmation was made by enzyme immunoassay detection of rotavirus antigen in stool specimens. Overall effectiveness of the HRV vaccination program (primary objective) was measured by comparing the incidence rate of ARD among all children age-eligible for vaccination in villages where HRV was introduced to that among such children in villages where HRV was not introduced. Total effectiveness among vaccinees and indirect effectiveness were also evaluated. In all, 6,527 infants were age-eligible for vaccination in 71 HRV villages, and 5,791 in 71 non-HRV villages. In HRV villages, 4,808 (73.7%) infants received at least one dose of HRV. The incidence rate of ARD was 4.10 cases per 100 person-years in non-HRV villages compared to 2.8 per 100 person-years in HRV villages, indicating an overall effectiveness of 29.0% (95% CI, 11.3% to 43.1%). The total effectiveness of HRV against ARD among vaccinees was 41.4% (95% CI, 23.2% to 55

  19. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  20. Synthesis of Enterprise and Value-Based Methods for Multiattribute Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C. Robert; Collins, John W.; Beck, John M.; Heydt, Harold J.; Garcia, Chad B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a method for performing multiattribute decision analysis to prioritize ap-proaches to handling risks during the development and operation of complex socio-technical systems. The method combines risk categorization based on enterprise views, risk prioritization of the categories based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and more standard probability-consequence ratings schemes. We also apply value-based testing me-thods used in software development to prioritize risk-handling approaches. We describe a tool that synthesizes the methods and performs a multiattribute analysis of the technical and pro-grammatic risks on the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) enterprise.

  1. Global risk & global challenges - Space as a game changer for socioeconomic sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Christopher; Karlsson, Evelina; Giannopapa, Christina

    2017-11-01

    The world's societies at the beginning of the 21st century are better off than ever before. (Gapminder, 2015) At the same time, the world is also threatened by global challenges where space as a tool has and can play a pivotal role in meeting those challenges. The challenges range from climate change, over mass unemployment, to terrorism or migration - to name but a few. Space activities have started to respond to this changing world, not only by providing a deeper understanding of our universe, but by using space as an additional sphere and sector, through which humankind can increase and secure its wealth - it is thus game changing in the way we sustain humanity's existence. This paper is meant to capture this development. In the first part, an overview is given on the risks that humankind is facing. The second part describes the way that space can be used as a tool to prevent and manage these risks. The overview in the first part is based on the examination of the most recent reports and overall strategies of key International Governmental Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations that are involved in agenda-setting, policy formulation and implementation. The second part includes an overview on current activities of the European Space Agency (ESA) that play a role in responding to these risks. To better understand ESA's activities that contain humanity's risks, a standard classification for risks management is used, which distinguishes between four components: Identification, Assessment, Management and Communication (Renn, 2005). The analysis reveals how space activities already today play a pivotal role in all four types of risk management. Space activities contribute very tangible to the management of risks through its space mission, but also in a more indirect way, as providing the technical backbone for stable and reliable cooperation in the international governance arena, and serve as crucial economic stimulator. The overall results show that space

  2. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  3. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  5. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  6. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  7. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  8. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  9. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  10. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  11. [Key informers. When and How?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  12. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  13. NASA's Risk Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is key to success. Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks -- risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  14. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  15. National Ignition Facility risk management plan, rev. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S J; Lane, M A

    1998-01-01

    The initial release of the National Ignition Facility (AUF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported Critical Decision 3 (CD3), Approval to Initiate Construction (DOE, 1997a). The objectives of the plan were to: (1) Identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule. (2) Assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES and H (environmental, safety and health), costs, and schedule. (3) Address suitable risk mitigation measures for each identified risk. This revision of the Risk Management Plan considers project risks and vulnerabilities after CD3 (DOE, 1997a) was approved by the Secretary of Energy. During the one-year period since the initial release, the vulnerabilities of greatest concern have been the litigation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (DOE, 1996b) by a group of environmental organizations led by the Natural Resources Defense Council; the finding and successful clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-filled electrical capacitors at the NIF site excavation; the FY98 congressional budget authorization and request for the FY99 budget authorization; funding for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)/NIF programmatic activities (including French and other sources of funding); and finally, progress in the core science and technology, and optics program that form the basis for the NIF design

  16. Diversity in Risk Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Nur Probohudono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the communication of the five major categories of risk (business, strategy, market and credit risk disclosure over the volatile 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC time period in key South East Asian countries’ manufacturing listed companies. This study is important as it contributes to the literature by providing insights into the voluntary risk disclosure practices using sample countries with different economic scenarios. Key findings are that business risk is the most disclosed category and strategy risk is the least disclosed. Business and credit risk disclosure consistently increase over the three year period, while operating, market and strategy risk disclosure increase in 2008, but then decrease slightly in 2009. Statistical analysis reveals that country of incorporation and size help predict risk disclosure levels. The overall low disclosure levels (26-29% highlight the potential for far higher communication of key risk factors.

  17. Drinker Identity: Key Risk Factor for Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adolescent alcohol use continues to be a critical public health problem with both short- and long-term negative health consequences. Defining oneself in terms of alcohol, a drinking-related identity, has been shown to predict high levels of alcohol use. Because adolescence is the developmental period during which identity development…

  18. Coping with Economic Uncertainty: Focus on Key Risks Essential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    During this period of continued economic uncertainty, higher-education institutions are facing a variety of challenges that by now are very familiar to governing boards and institutional leaders, including poor investment returns, reduced liquidity, limited choices in how they structure debt issues, and threats to flexibility in tuition pricing.…

  19. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  20. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  1. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  2. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  3. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  4. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  5. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  6. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities: Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  7. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  8. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  9. Do Differences in Programmatic Resource Investments Result in Different 3-Year Pass Rates on the U.S. National Physical Therapy Examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Kyle; McCallum, Christine; Engelhard, Chalee; Landry, Michel D; Cook, Chad

    2016-01-01

    The rising cost of health professions education is well documented and a growing concern among educators; however, little is known about the implications of resource investment on student success. The objective of this study was to determine whether programs with higher National Physical Therapist Exam (NPTE) pass rates invested significantly more on programmatic resources. This observational study used data from the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education's (CAPTE) Annual Accreditation Report including all accredited physical therapist programs from the United States who graduated physical therapist students in 2011. Resource expenditures were recorded as both raw and as an index variable (resources per student). Descriptive statistics and comparisons (using chi-square and t-tests) among programs with invested significantly more per student for selected resources.

  10. Follow-up and programmatic outcomes of HIV-exposed infants registered in a large HIV centre in Lilongwe, Malawi: 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ambi, Wingston F; Ade, Serge; Harries, Anthony D; Midiani, Dalitso; Owiti, Philip; Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Gugsa, Salem; Phiri, Sam

    2016-08-01

    To assess follow-up and programmatic outcomes of HIV-exposed infants at Martin Preuss Centre, Lilongwe, from 2012 to 2014. Retrospective cohort study using routinely collected HIV-exposed infant data. Data were analysed using frequencies and percentages in Stata v.13. Of 1035 HIV-exposed infants registered 2012-2014, 79% were available to be tested for HIV and 76% were HIV-tested either with DNA-PCR or rapid HIV test serology by 24 months of age. Sixty-five infants were found to be HIV-positive and 43% were started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at different ages from 6 weeks to 24 months. Overall, 48% of HIV-exposed infants were declared lost-to-follow-up in the database. Of these, 69% were listed for tracing; of these, 78% were confirmed as lost-to-follow-up through patient charts; of these, 51% were traced; and of these, 62% were truly not in care, the remainder being wrongly classified. Commonest reasons for being truly not in care were mother/guardian unavailability to bring infants to Martin Preuss Centre, forgetting clinic appointments and transport expenses. Of these 86 patients, 36% were successfully brought back to care and 64% remained lost-to-follow-up. Loss to follow-up remains a huge challenge in the care of HIV-exposed infants. Active tracing facilitates the return of some of these infants to care. However, programmatic data documentation must be urgently improved to better follow-up and link HIV-positive children to ART. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A probabilistic risk assessment of the LLNL Plutonium facility's evaluation basis fire operational accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumburgh, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Plutonium Facility conducts numerous involving plutonium to include device fabrication, development of fabrication techniques, metallurgy research, and laser isotope separation. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the building 332 Plutonium Facility was completed rational safety and acceptable risk to employees, the public, government property, and the environment. This paper outlines the PRA analysis of the Evaluation Basis Fire (EDF) operational accident. The EBF postulates the worst-case programmatic impact event for the Plutonium Facility

  12. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  13. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  14. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  15. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...

  16. Risk evaluation: A cost-oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    This method provides a structured and cost-oriented way to determine risks associated with loss and destruction of industrial security interests consisting of material assets and human resources. Loss and destruction are assumed to be adversary perpetrated, high-impact events in which the health and safety of people or high-value property is at risk. This concept provides a process for: (1) assessing effectiveness of all integrated protection system, which includes facility operations, safety, emergency and security systems, and (2) a qualitative prioritization scheme to determine the level of consequence relative to cost and subsequent risk. The method allows managers the flexibility to establish asset protection appropriate to programmatic requirements and priorities and to decide if funding is appropriate. The evaluation objectives are to: (1) provide for a systematic, qualitative tabletop process to estimate the potential for an undesirable event and its impact; and (2) identify ineffective protection and cost-effective solutions

  17. Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-12

    polarization control and the CV state and the LO state are separated at a polarizing beam splitter . The CV state is delayed relative to the LO state, and... splitter or loss imperfections. We have identified a number of risks associated with implementing this design . The two most critical risks are: • The...Contractor Address: 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Title of the Project: Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY

  18. Nutrition and healthy ageing: the key ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mathers, John C; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-05-01

    Healthy longevity is a tangible possibility for many individuals and populations, with nutritional and other lifestyle factors playing a key role in modulating the likelihood of healthy ageing. Nevertheless, studies of effects of nutrients or single foods on ageing often show inconsistent results and ignore the overall framework of dietary habits. Therefore, the use of dietary patterns (e.g. a Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the specific dietary recommendations (e.g. dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Polymeal and the American Healthy Eating Index) are becoming more widespread in promoting lifelong health. A posteriori defined dietary patterns are described frequently in relation to age-related diseases but their generalisability is often a challenge since these are developed specifically for the population under study. Conversely, the dietary guidelines are often developed based on prevention of disease or nutrient deficiency, but often less attention is paid to how well these dietary guidelines promote health outcomes. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the state of the art of dietary patterns and dietary recommendations in relation to life expectancy and the risk of age-related disorders (with emphasis on cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive outcomes). According to both a posteriori and a priori dietary patterns, some key 'ingredients' can be identified that are associated consistently with longevity and better cardiometabolic and cognitive health. These include high intake of fruit, vegetables, fish, (whole) grains and legumes/pulses and potatoes, whereas dietary patterns rich in red meat and sugar-rich foods have been associated with an increased risk of mortality and cardiometabolic outcomes.

  19. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  20. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  1. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  2. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  3. KEY PERFORMING FACTORS OF LEADING ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of financial economic ratios provides managers and external partners feedback on the results obtained from operational activities and the associated performance and risks. This paper studies the functional dependence of the companies’ success (on performance over internal financial management elements. The research was carried out for the most traded non-financial securities Bucharest listed companies and covers the period 2011- 2013. To carry out its purpose it analyzed the interdependence between the key financial ratios, studying the impact of liquidity ratios, solvency and efficiency on profitability. The study provides empirical evidences to identify factors that have ensured the performance of companies and their ranking in the segment of the most traded companies in Romania. Results suggest the view that the source of company success on the capital market lies in the positive signals sent to investors regarding profitability and the low risk of solvency. This study gives additional information for managerial decision-making in order to create more value and a better positioning of the companies in the market

  4. Key to Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavian Mantiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.

  5. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  6. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  7. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  8. 25 CFR 502.14 - Key employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Key employee. 502.14 Section 502.14 Indians NATIONAL....14 Key employee. Key employee means: (a) A person who performs one or more of the following functions... gaming operation. (d) Any other person designated by the tribe as a key employee. [57 FR 12392, Apr. 9...

  9. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  10. Quantum key distribution and cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Originally proposed by classical cryptographers, the ideas behind Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) have attracted considerable interest among the quantum optics community, which has significantly helped bring these ideas to reality. Experimental realizations have quickly evolved from early lab demonstrations to QKD systems that are now deployed in real conditions and targeting commercial applications. Although QKD can be theoretically proven to rely on 'unconditional security proofs' and should thus be able to provide security levels unachievable through computationally-based cryptographic techniques, the debate on the cryptographic applications of QKD remains somehow controversial. It seems that a consensus on that matter cannot be reached without a careful analysis of assumptions and definitions related to security models used in classical or in quantum cryptography. In this talk, we will try to present a comprehensive synthesis on this topic. We have initiated this work as a contribution to the European IP SECOQC project, confronting views and knowledge among experimental and theoretical quantum physicists, as well as classical cryptographers. (author)

  11. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  12. The global pendulum swing towards community health workers in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review of trends, geographical distribution and programmatic orientations, 2005 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Okello, Dickson; Lehmann, Uta

    2016-10-26

    There has been a substantial increase in publications and interest in community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) over the last years. This paper examines the growth, geographical distribution and programmatic orientations of the indexed literature on CHWs in LMIC over a 10-year period. A scoping review of publications on CHWs from 2005 to 2014 was conducted. Using an inclusive list of terms, we searched seven databases (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane) for all English-language publications on CHWs in LMIC. Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts, downloading full-text publications meeting inclusion criteria. These were coded in an Excel spreadsheet by year, type of publication (e.g. review, empirical), country, region, programmatic orientation (e.g. maternal-child health, HIV/AIDS, comprehensive) and CHW roles (e.g. prevention, treatment) and further analysed in Stata14. Drawing principally on the subset of review articles, specific roles within programme areas were identified and grouped. Six hundred seventy-eight publications from 46 countries on CHWs were inventoried over the 10-year period. There was a sevenfold increase in annual number of publications from 23 in 2005 to 156 in 2014. Half the publications were reporting on initiatives in Africa, a third from Asia and 11 % from the Americas (mostly Brazil). The largest single focus and driver of the growth in publications was on CHW roles in meeting the Millennium Development Goals of maternal, child and neonatal survival (35 % of total), followed by HIV/AIDS (16 %), reproductive health (6 %), non-communicable diseases (4 %) and mental health (4 %). Only 17 % of the publications approached CHW roles in an integrated fashion. There were also distinct regional (and sometimes country) profiles, reflecting different histories and programme traditions. The growth in literature on CHWs provides empirical evidence of ever-increasing expectations for addressing

  13. Internal Audit and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Nicolae Vasile; Alexandru Georgiana

    2011-01-01

    Internal audit and risk management have the same goal: the control of risk. There are various roles for the internal audit in respect of risk management. The main limitations of internal audit in respect of risk management regards assuming risk management tasks. One of the main issues regarding risk management is to make sure that the key risks are taken into consideration and that the management and the board of the organization take action as needed. Internal audit could give advice to mana...

  14. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  15. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  16. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  17. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Atkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT to ensure treatment adherence. Objective: This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA. Design: Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results: The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions: The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics.

  18. Identifying Programmatic Gaps: Inequities in Harm Reduction Service Utilization among Male and Female Drug Users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambdin, Barrot H.; Bruce, R. Douglas; Chang, Olivia; Nyandindi, Cassian; Sabuni, Norman; Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; McCurdy, Sheryl; Masao, Frank; Ivo, Yovin; Msami, Amani; Ubuguy, Omar; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT) for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. Materials and Methods Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. Results From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. Conclusions Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services. PMID:23825620

  19. Identifying programmatic gaps: inequities in harm reduction service utilization among male and female drug users in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrot H Lambdin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Current estimates suggest an HIV prevalence of 42% among people who inject drugs (PWIDs in Dar es Salaam, while HIV prevalence is estimated to be 8.8% among the general population in the city. To address the HIV epidemic in this population, the government of Tanzania began establishing HIV prevention, treatment and care services including outreach and medication assisted treatment (MAT for PWIDs in 2010. We assessed gender inequities in utilization of outreach and MAT services and evaluated differences in HIV risk behaviors between female and male PWIDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Routine outreach data between December 2010 to mid-August 2012 and baseline data on clients enrolling in methadone from February 2011 to August 2012 were utilized. Binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk estimates comparing females to males. RESULTS: From December 2010 to August 2012, 8,578 contacts were made to drug users; among them 1,898 were injectors. A total of 453 injectors were eligible and referred to MAT, of which, 443 enrolled in treatment. However, regarding total outreach contacts, outreach to PWID, referral to MAT and enrollment in MAT, 8% or less of drug users accessing services were women. In contrast, weighted estimations from surveys suggest that 34% of PWIDs are female, and this approximation is similar to recent population size estimations. Overall, 43% of traditional outreach workers conducting outreach with drug users were female. Though reporting higher levels of condom usage, female PWID were more likely to report multiple sex partners, anal sex, commercial sex work and struggle under a higher burden of addiction, mental disorders and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Services have not been mobilized adequately to address the clear needs of females who inject drugs. A clear and urgent need exists for women-centered strategies that effectively engage female PWID into HIV prevention services.

  20. Key Distribution and Changing Key Cryptosystem Based on Phase Retrieval Algorithm and RSA Public-Key Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical image encryption has attracted more and more researchers’ attention, and the various encryption schemes have been proposed. In existing optical cryptosystem, the phase functions or images are usually used as the encryption keys, and it is difficult that the traditional public-key algorithm (such as RSA, ECC, etc. is used to complete large numerical key transfer. In this paper, we propose a key distribution scheme based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the RSA public-key algorithm, which solves the problem for the key distribution in optical image encryption system. Furthermore, we also propose a novel image encryption system based on the key distribution principle. In the system, the different keys can be used in every encryption process, which greatly improves the security of the system.

  1. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy's Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site

  2. Clinical and programmatic considerations in the treatment of MDR-TB in children: a series of 16 patients from Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, J S; Joseph, J K; Rich, M L; Shin, S S; Furin, J J; Seung, K J; Sloutsky, A; Socci, A R; Vanderwarker, C; Vasquez, L; Palacios, E; Guerra, D; Viru, F A; Farmer, P; Del Castillo, H E

    2003-07-01

    Since 2000, the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy has been expanded in several countries to include treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This strategy is known as DOTS-Plus. Tuberculosis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality for children throughout the developing world. Children may also be infected with MDR-TB, yet most developing countries do not specifically address pediatric MDR-TB. To present the intermediate outcomes of the first 16 children enrolled in the Peruvian DOTS-Plus program and to demonstrate the tolerability of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Three children completed therapy and are cured, one child had bacteriologic and clinical failure after 12 months of therapy and died of respiratory insufficiency, and 12 have intermediate outcomes demonstrating favorable clinical, bacteriologic, and radiographic evidence of improvement after 9-19 months of therapy. Of the 16 pediatric DOTS-Plus patients, 15 have tolerated therapy well and have had favorable clinical evolution. However, the diagnosis of pediatric MDR-TB is often extremely delayed due to reliance on the adult case definition and should be changed to prevent progressive, chronic illness in such children. Programmatic changes could facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment of pediatric MDR-TB in Peru and in other DOTS-Plus programs.

  3. Quality Management and Key Performance Indicators in Oncologic Esophageal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Ahlbrand, Constantin Johannes; Arras, Michael; Schreiber, Elke Maria; Lang, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Ranking systems and comparisons of quality and performance indicators will be of increasing relevance for complex "high-risk" procedures such as esophageal cancer surgery. The identification of evidence-based standards relevant for key performance indicators in esophageal surgery is essential for establishing monitoring systems and furthermore a requirement to enhance treatment quality. In the course of this review, we analyze the key performance indicators case volume, radicality of resection, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, leading to continuous quality improvement. Ranking systems established on this basis will gain increased relevance in highly complex procedures within the national and international comparison and furthermore improve the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  4. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  5. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  6. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  7. Utilizing a programmatic focus on energy efficiency and customer feedback to improve the effectiveness of demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Tharp, A.

    2006-01-01

    A project to encourage effective demand side management (DSM) programs through price-responsive load management was presented. The project was conducted through literature searches, surveys of utility programs and interviews with experts. National security, environmental awareness and economic factors were identified as the primary drivers for DSM. A overview of DSM strategies included details of: price responsive programs; power buyback; direct load control; and conservation-based rebates. Target sectors for DSM programs were divided into 4 sectors: (1) residential; (2) agricultural; (3) commercial/industrial; and (4) institutional. A customer decision cycle for DSM was presented, and various programs were evaluated. A comparison between DR and energy efficiency programs in the United States suggested that an increased focus on energy efficiency will benefit DR programs. However, perception of risk due to pricing exposure and the potential for loss of comfort are significant barriers to effective DSM. Studies have shown that DSM is most effective when participants receive direct feedback on consumption. Simple mechanisms for alerting participants of peak periods were recommended, as well as disaggregation tools to highlight areas of high energy usage and spotlight corrective measures. National and regional coordination of DSM activities was also recommended. It was concluded that DSM programs are successful when both customers and suppliers have an equal stake in their success. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Nuclear energy: a key role despite problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy is projected to be the fastest growing power source and a key to meeting power demands in spite of the many problems facing the nuclear industry in the form of delays, protests, and cancellations. Pressures for a nuclear moratorium will slow the industry, Mr. Anderson feels, but in the long run nuclear reactors will make up an increasing share of the power generating capacity. The Arthur D. Little Co. projects a fourfold increase between 1975 and 1985 on the basis of 10-year lead times for construction of nuclear power plants. Half the new generating capacity after 1985 will be nuclear. Problems besetting every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle result from debates over proliferation, waste disposal, reactor safety, and environmental damage and lead to controversy over regulations and licensing. U.S. utilities are not ordering reactors, but manufacturers are finding markets in other countries. Financial difficulties have kept domestic utilities from undertaking large investment programs until they can resolve problems of fuel costs and rate structures. New construction is inevitable, however, to meet future electrical requirements. Nuclear companies, which number nearly 1300 manufacturers and service providers, need to develop a better public image by working together to demonstrate their ability to manage the risks and uncertainties

  9. Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.

  10. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  11. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attribute is fire district name. Published to scfiredia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire and EMS Districts dataset current as of 2008. Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts....

  12. Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo

    2001-01-01

    A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).

  13. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  14. Improved Anonymity for Key-trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.; Beye, M.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized hash-lock protocols for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags offer forward untraceability, but incur heavy search on the server. Key trees have been proposed as a way to reduce search times, but because partial keys in such trees are shared, key compromise affects several tags.

  15. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  16. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DunnGalvin, A.; Chan, C. -H.; Crevel, R.

    2015-01-01

    to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry...... and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices....... The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated...

  17. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  18. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  19. An analysis of key issues in the clean development mechanism based on the UNEP Risoe clean development mechanism pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Staun, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    is documented. The CDM pipeline includes calculation of the investment in the CDM projects. The total investment in the 2171 registered CDM projects is approximately US$60 billion. It is shown that programmatic CDM gives hope for an increased share of projects in Africa, since 16% of the programmatic CDM...

  20. Key Nutritional Strategies to Optimize Performance in Para Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Jacque; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Broad, Elizabeth

    2018-05-01

    Para athletes are a high-risk population for inadequate dietary intake leading to insufficiencies in nutrients important to athletic performance. This is partly due to minimal support and resources, especially in sport nutrition education, combined with limited prior nutrition knowledge and risks associated with different impairment types. Inadequate energy, carbohydrate, protein, iron, and vitamin D status are of particular concern in Para athletes. Assessment of these key nutrients, along with sport nutrition education, is needed to empower Para athletes with the knowledge to understand their individual nutrition needs and maximize athletic performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.