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Sample records for kentucky bluegrass poa

  1. Effects of alkali stress on growth, free amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Longxing

    2012-10-01

    Soil alkalization is one of the most prominent adverse environmental factors limiting plant growth, while alkali stress affects amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism. The objective of this study was conducted to investigate the effects of alkali stress on growth, amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Seventy-day-old plants were subjected to four pH levels: 6.0 (control), 8.0 (low), 9.4 (moderate) and 10.3 (severe) for 7 days. Moderate to severe alkali stress (pH >9.4) caused a significant decline in turf quality and growth rate in Kentucky bluegrass. Soluble protein was unchanged in shoots, but decreased in roots as pH increased. The levels of amino acids was kept at the same level as control level at 4 days after treatment (DAT) in shoots, but greater at 7 DAT, when plants were subjected to severe (pH 10.3) alkali stress. The alkali stressed plants had a greater level of starch, water soluble carbohydrate and sucrose content, but lower level of fructose and glucose. Fructan and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) increased at 4 DAT and decreased at 7 DAT for alkali stressed plants. These results suggested that the decrease in fructose and glucose contributed to the growth reduction under alkali stress, while the increase in amino acids, sucrose and storage form of carbohydrate (fructan, starch) could be an adaptative mechanism in Kentucky bluegrass under alkali stress.

  2. Amending Subsoil with Composted Poultry Litter-II: Effects on Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis Establishment, Root Growth, and Weed Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Mandal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrasses established on a soil deprived of the topsoil during construction disturbance often have low levels of density and uniformity making them susceptible to weeds. Field experiments evaluated composted poultry litter incorporation into subsoil on Kentucky bluegrass growth attributes and subsequent effects on weed populations. Top 20 cm of topsoil was removed and composted poultry litter was incorporated at 0.1, or 0.2, or 0.4 cm/cm-soil into the exposed subsoil to a depth of 12.7 cm before seeding or sodding, and was compared to N-fertilized (50 × 10−4 kg m−2 and control plots. A greenhouse experiment was also conducted to determine the effect of compost incorporation rates on turfgrass rooting depth. Turfgrass yield from seeded plots with compost incorporation rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 cm/cm-soil, were 200%, 300%, and 500% more, respectively, compared to control plots. Composted poultry litter incorporated at 0.1 cm/cm-soil resulted in at least 70 seedlings in 7.6 cm−2, which was sufficient to attain 100% turf cover. Higher incorporation rates in seeded plots maintained lower numbers of buckhorn plantain and red clover than untreated plots. Rooting depth also increased linearly with compost rates. Overall, compost treatments were able to maintain superior turf cover and quality compared to conventionally fertilized or control plots.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains selectively suppress annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a cool-season annual grass that is a major weed species in turf, turfgrass-seed production, sod production, and golf courses of the western United States. There are few selective herbicides available for the management of annual bluegrass. While the life cycles o...

  4. DNA fingerprinting of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a high polyploidy, apomictic, self-incompatible, perennial grass, Kentucky bluegrass has such complex genetic architecture that conducting standard Mendelian genetic selection is currently impossible. One large hurdle is the inability to differentiate true hybrids from other apomictic progenies....

  5. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  6. Elevated CO2-mitigation of high temperature stress associated with maintenance of positive carbon balance and carbohydrate accumulation in Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism.

  7. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on the morphology, physiology, carbon allocation and nonstructural carbohydrates of three Kentucky bluegrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. R.; Ma, L.; Liu, Y. K.; Liu, T. J.; Lu, J. N.; Wang, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has been assessed in a wide number of field and fruit crops. However, few are the studies dealing with turfgrass. This study was conducted to investigate the morphology, physiology and carbon metabolic responses to regulated deficit irrigation for three Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars. Three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars were grown in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) tubes in a greenhouse and subjected to three soil water treatments in a growth chamber: 1) full irrigation; 2) drought stress, 21 days without water after full irrigation; and 3) drought recovery, stressed plants were re-watered for an additional 21 d. The present study indicated that drought resulted in a decline in turf quality (TQ), leaf relative water content (RWC), and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) for the cultivars. The turf quality, RWC, and Fv/Fm of the three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars increased with re-watering. The allocation of /sup 14/ C increased in the roots of these cultivars during the initial phase of drought stress, where a /sup 14/ C distribution shift from the roots to the stem and leaves appeared with further drought stress. Moreover, there was a significant accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in the leaves and stem. The TNC content in the leaves, stem, and roots did not completely return to the control levels following 21 d of re-watering, which was consistent with the recovery of TQ, RWC, Fv/Fm, and EL. In addition, during the re-watering treatment, the reduction in the TNC content may be due to increases in the demand or usage as a result of a rapid recovery in the growth and physiological activities as shown by increased TQ, RWC, and Fv/Fm and decreased EL. Our results suggested that the changes in the carbon allocation model and the accumulation and storage of TNC, as well as the changes in TQ, RWC, Fv/Fm, and EL, for the three cultivars are an adaptive reaction to

  8. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaching and mass balance of 15N-labeled urea applied to a Kentucky bluegrass turf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miltner, E.D.; Branham, B.E.; Paul, E.A.; Rieke, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    The fate of urea applied to Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) turf was studied over a 2-yr period using a combination of intact monolith lysimeters and small plots. Soil type was a Marlette fine sandy loam (fine-loamy mixed mesic Glossoboric Hapludalfs). Urea was applied at a rate of 196 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in five equal applications of 39.2 kg N ha-1, using two application schedules. Treatments were fertilized at approximately 38-d intervals with the 'Spring' treatment fertilized from late April through late September and the 'Fall' treatment from early June through early November. In 1991 only, the April and November applications used 15N-labeled urea (LFN). For the Spring treatment, 31% of LFN was recovered from thatch at 18 DAT. This value remained constant for the next year, then gradually declined to 20% after 2 yr. Only 8% of the LFN was recovered from soil at 18 DAT and increased to only 20% 2 yr after application. Approximately 35% of the LFN was harvested in clippings over 2 yr. Through May 1993 (748 DAT), LFN in leachate totaled 0.18% of the amount applied. For the Fall treatment, 62% of the LFN was recovered from thatch d 18 DAT. This value declined to 35% by the following June. LFN in soil increased from 12% to 25% over 2 yr. Approximately 38% of the LFN was harvested in clippings over 2 yr. Total leachate LFN recovery was 0.23% over the 2-yr period. Total recovery of LFN was 64 and 81% for the Spring and Fall treatments, respectively, suggesting volatile losses of N. Whether the N was applied in the spring or late fall, rapid uptake and immobilization of the LFN resulted. A maximum of 25% of applied LFN was recovered in the soil from either application timing at any time over the 2 yr of the experiment. A well-maintained turf intercepts and immobilizes LFN quickly making leaching an unlikely avenue of N loss from a turf system

  10. Development of ent-kaurene Oxidase-Based Conserved Intron Spanning Primers for Species Identification in the Genus Poa (Poaceae; Bluegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. LaMantia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization has been attempted to combine the heat and drought of Poa arachnifera Torr. with the turf quality characteristics of several Poa species. Confirmation of an F1 hybrid through morphological analysis of vegetative and flowering characteristics is often time consuming and ambiguous. Ent-kaurene oxidase (KO has been sequenced in rice, barley, and wheat. In rice, each of the five copies of KO gene has unique lengths for the first intron. Conserved intron spanning primers (CISP can be used as a DNA marker to exploit variations of intron lengths that flank conserved gene sequences. In the present study, we developed CISP to sequence partial genomic fragments of the KO gene from seven Poa species. Through sequence analysis, species-specific primers were also developed to produce co-dominant markers that can be used to identify interspecific hybrids between Texas bluegrass and six other Poa species used in the present study.

  11. Rapid and recent world-wide diversification of bluegrasses (Poa, Poaceae and related genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias H Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Rapid species diversifications provide fascinating insight into the development of biodiversity in time and space. Most biological radiations studied to date, for example that of cichlid fishes or Andean lupines, are confined to isolated geographical areas like lakes, islands or island-like regions. Using DNA sequence data of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS for many species of the Poa alliance, a group comprising about 775 C3 grass species, revealed rapid and parallel diversifications in various parts of the world. Some of these radiations are restricted to isolated areas like the Andes, whereas others are typical of the lowlands of mainly the northern hemisphere. These radiations thus are not restricted to island-like areas and are seemingly actively ongoing. The ages of the diversifying clades are estimated to be 2.5-0.23 million years (Myr. Conservative diversification rates in the Poa alliance amount to 0.89-3.14 species per Myr, thus are in the order of, or even exceeding, other instances of well-known radiations. The grass radiations of the mainly cold-adapted Poa alliance coincide with the Late Tertiary global cooling, which resulted in the retreat of forests and the subsequent formation of cold-adapted grasslands especially in the northern, but also in parts of the southern hemisphere. The cold tolerance, suggested to be one of the ecological key innovations, may have been acquired during the early diversification of the subfamily Pooideae, but became significant millions of years later during the Pliocene/Pleistocene radiation of the Poa alliance.

  12. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Beirn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread throughout the world and highly destructive to cool-season turfgrasses, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turf loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass anthracnose has been performed in the field, but knowledge of the causal organism and its basic biology is still needed. In particular, the lack of a reliable greenhouse-based inoculation protocol performed under controlled environmental conditions is an obstacle to the study of C. cereale and anthracnose disease. Our objective was to develop a consistent and reproducible inoculation protocol for the two major genetic lineages of C. cereale. By adapting previously successful field-based protocols and combining with components of existing inoculation procedures, the method we developed consistently produced C. cereale infection on two susceptible P. annua biotypes. Approximately 7 to 10 days post-inoculation, plants exhibited chlorosis and thinning consistent with anthracnose disease symptomology. Morphological inspection of inoculated plants revealed visual signs of the fungus (appressoria and acervuli, although acervuli were not always present. After stringent surface sterilization of inoculated host tissue, C. cereale was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue. Real-time PCR detection analysis based on the Apn2 marker confirmed the presence of the pathogen in host tissue, with both lineages of C. cereale detected from all inoculated plants. When a humidifier was not used, no infection developed for any biotypes or fungal isolates tested. The inoculation protocol described here marks significant progress for in planta studies of C. cereale, and will enable scientifically reproducible investigations of the biology, infectivity and lifestyle of this important grass pathogen.

  13. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Predict Optimal Sowing Region and Timing for Kentucky Bluegrass in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erxu Pi

    Full Text Available Temperature is a predominant environmental factor affecting grass germination and distribution. Various thermal-germination models for prediction of grass seed germination have been reported, in which the relationship between temperature and germination were defined with kernel functions, such as quadratic or quintic function. However, their prediction accuracies warrant further improvements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative prediction accuracies of genetic algorithm (GA models, which are automatically parameterized with observed germination data. The seeds of five P. pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass, KB cultivars were germinated under 36 day/night temperature regimes ranging from 5/5 to 40/40 °C with 5 °C increments. Results showed that optimal germination percentages of all five tested KB cultivars were observed under a fluctuating temperature regime of 20/25 °C. Meanwhile, the constant temperature regimes (e.g., 5/5, 10/10, 15/15 °C, etc. suppressed the germination of all five cultivars. Furthermore, the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN algorithm was integrated to optimize temperature-germination response models from these observed germination data. It was found that integrations of GA-BP-ANN (back propagation aided genetic algorithm artificial neural network significantly reduced the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values from 0.21~0.23 to 0.02~0.09. In an effort to provide a more reliable prediction of optimum sowing time for the tested KB cultivars in various regions in the country, the optimized GA-BP-ANN models were applied to map spatial and temporal germination percentages of blue grass cultivars in China. Our results demonstrate that the GA-BP-ANN model is a convenient and reliable option for constructing thermal-germination response models since it automates model parameterization and has excellent prediction accuracy.

  14. Transcriptome Assembly and Comparison of an Allotetraploid Weed Species, Annual Bluegrass, with its Two Diploid Progenitor Species, Poa supina Schrad and Poa infirma Kunth

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    Shu Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual bluegrass ( L. is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind ’s wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species. Total RNA was extracted from and its two proposed diploid parents, Schrad and Kunth, and sequenced in Illumina Hiseq2000. Optimized, nonredundant transcriptome references were generated for each species using four de novo assemblers (Trinity, Velvet, SOAPdenovo, and CLC Genomics Workbench and a redundancy-reducing pipeline (CD-HIT-EST and EvidentialGene tr2aacds. Using the constructed transcriptomes together with sequencing reads, we found high similarity in nucleotide sequences and homeologous polymorphisms between and the two proposed parents. Comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrion genes further confirmed as the maternal parent. Less nucleotide percentage differences were observed between and homeologs than between and homeologs, indicating a higher nucleotide substitution rates in homeologs than in homeologs. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis suggested the more compatible cytoplasmic environment and cellular apparatus for homeologs as the major cause for this phenomenon.

  15. Differential metabolic responses of perennial grass Cynodon transvaalensis×Cynodon dactylon (C₄) and Poa Pratensis (C₃) to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongmei; Wang, Zhaolong; Yu, Wenjuan; Liu, Yimin; Huang, Bingru

    2011-03-01

    Differential metabolic responses to heat stress may be associated with variations in heat tolerance between cool-season (C₃) and warm-season (C₄) perennial grass species. The main objective of this study was to identify metabolites associated with differential heat tolerance between C₄ bermudagrass and C₃ Kentucky bluegrass by performing metabolite profile analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plants of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa Pratensis'Midnight') and hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis x Cynodon dactylon'Tifdwarf') were grown under optimum temperature conditions (20/15 °C for Kentucky bluegrass and 30/25 °C for bermudagrass) or heat stress (35/30 °C for Kentucky bluegrass and 45/40 °C for bermudagrass). Physiological responses to heat stress were evaluated by visual rating of grass quality, measuring photochemical efficiency (variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence) and electrolyte leakage. All of these parameters indicated that bermudagrass exhibited better heat tolerance than Kentucky bluegrass. The metabolite analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 36 heat-responsive metabolites identified in both grass species, mainly consisting of organic acids, amino acids, sugars and sugar alcohols. Most metabolites showed higher accumulation in bermudagrass compared with Kentucky bluegrass, especially following long-term (18 days) heat stress. The differentially accumulated metabolites included seven sugars (sucrose, fructose, galactose, floridoside, melibiose, maltose and xylose), a sugar alcohol (inositol), six organic acids (malic acid, citric acid, threonic acid, galacturonic acid, isocitric acid and methyl malonic acid) and nine amino acids (Asn, Ala, Val, Thr, γ-aminobutyric acid, IIe, Gly, Lys and Met). The differential accumulation of those metabolites could be associated with the differential heat tolerance between C₃ Kentucky bluegrass and C₄ bermudagrass. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  16. Challenges of using electrical resistivity method to locate karst conduits-A field case in the Inner Bluegrass Region, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Currens, J.C.; Dinger, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Conduits serve as major pathways for groundwater flow in karst aquifers. Locating them from the surface, however, is one of the most challenging tasks in karst research. Geophysical methods are often deployed to help locate voids by mapping variations of physical properties of the subsurface. Conduits can cause significant contrasts of some physical properties that can be detected; other subsurface features such as water-bearing fractures often yield similar contrasts, which are difficult to distinguish from the effects of the conduits. This study used electrical resistivity method to search for an unmapped karst conduit that recharges Royal Spring in the Inner Bluegrass karst region, Kentucky, USA. Three types of resistivity techniques (surface 2D survey, quasi-3D survey, and time-lapse survey) were used to map and characterize resistivity anomalies. Some of the major anomalies were selected as drilling targets to verify the existence of the conduits. Drilling near an anomaly identified by an electrical resistivity profile resulted in successful penetration of a major water-filled conduit. The drilling results also suggest that, in this study area, low resistivity anomalies in general are associated with water-bearing features. However, differences in the anomaly signals between the water-filled conduit and other water-bearing features such as water-filled fracture zones were undistinguishable. The electrical resistivity method is useful in conduit detection by providing potential drilling targets. Knowledge of geology and hydrogeology about the site and professional judgment also played important roles in locating the major conduit. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Development of ent-kaurene Oxidase-Based Conserved Intron Spanning Primers for Species Identification in the Genus Poa (Poaceae; Bluegrass)

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan M. LaMantia; Ambika Chandra; David R. Huff

    2018-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization has been attempted to combine the heat and drought of Poa arachnifera Torr. with the turf quality characteristics of several Poa species. Confirmation of an F1 hybrid through morphological analysis of vegetative and flowering characteristics is often time consuming and ambiguous. Ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) has been sequenced in rice, barley, and wheat. In rice, each of the five copies of KO gene has unique lengths for the first intron. Conserved intron spanning prime...

  18. Relating adaptive genetic traits to climate for Sandberg bluegrass from the intermountain western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Johnson; Matthew E. Horning; Erin Espeland; Ken Vance-Borland

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation for potentially adaptive traits of the key restoration species Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl) was assessed over the intermountain western United States in relation to source population climate. Common gardens were established at two intermountain west sites with progeny from two maternal parents from each of 130 wild populations. Data were...

  19. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Steven P.; Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Sylvester, Mitsy D.P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa’s by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected. PMID:27489489

  20. Mapping of epitopes on Poa p I and Lol p I allergens with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z W; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Jaggi, K S; Dzuba-Fischer, J; Rector, E; Kisil, F T

    1990-01-01

    Allergen Poa p I isolated from the dialysed aqueous extract of Kentucky blue grass pollen by affinity chromatography with an anti-Lol p I murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 290A-167 was previously shown to consist of a 35.8-kilodalton (kD) component with a pI of 6.4, designated as Poa p Ia, and a 33-kD component with a pI of 9.1, designated as Poa p Ib. The present study reports on the comparative antigenic analyses of these two components, using MAbs produced separately against Poa p I and Lol p I. Thus, anti-Poa p I MAbs 60 and 61 and anti-Lol p I MAb 290A-167 recognized Poa p Ia and Poa p Ib whereas anti-Poa p I MAbs 62, 63 and 64 and anti-Lol p I MAb 348A-6 recognized only Poa p Ia. The specificities of the MAbs were further resolved by comparing their respective abilities to inhibit the binding of 125I-Poa p I or 125I-Lol p I to the different MAbs prepared in the form of solid phase. These studies revealed that at least 4 distinct epitopes (designated as E1, E2, E3 and E4) were shared by both Poa p I and Lol p I. All 4 epitopes were present on Poa p Ia whereas only E1 and E3 were detected on Poa p Ib. E1 was recognized by MAbs 60 and 61, E2 by MAbs 62, 63 and 64, E3 by MAb 290A-167 and E4 by MAb 348A-6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. 78 FR 29091 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the... vessels from a portion of Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display...

  2. Inhibitor chymotrypsynowy nasion wiechliny łąkowej (Poa pratensis [Chymotrypsin inhibitor from Poa pratensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A chymotrypsin inhibitor was isolated from Poa pratensis seeds. The inhibitor showed also antytriptic activity. It is a termostable protein, soluble in water, sodium chloride, but insoluble in 5% trichloracetic acid and 0.15 M sulphosalicylic acid.

  3. 78 FR 40394 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards... Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  4. Bringing the Family Tradition in Bluegrass Music to the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan W.

    2009-01-01

    National Standard 9, "understanding music in relation to history and culture," forms the basis for this article about family traditions found in bluegrass music. With historical information about the roots of bluegrass music in the Old Time tradition, the author provides helpful links and instructional strategies to help general music…

  5. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River Basin, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and south Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. 205 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. 76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... engineered for herbicide tolerance without the use of plant pest components, does not meet the definition of... Environmental Analysis Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 147, Riverdale... introduction of a plant pest or noxious weed into the United States or dissemination of a plant pest or noxious...

  7. HAC-POA Policy Effects on Hospitals, Patients and Other...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in HAC-POA Policy Effects on Hospitals, Patients, and Other Payers, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  8. Extension of POA based on Fiber Element to Girder Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenxin; Qiang Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Because of its main advantage of simplicity, practicality, lower computational cost and relative good results Pushover analysis (POA) has become an effective analytical tool during the last decade for the seismic assessment of buildings. But such work on bridges has been very limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to adapt POA for nonlinear seismic analysis of girder bridges, and investigate its applicability in the case of an existing river-spanning approach bridge. To three different types bridge models the nonlinear POA, which adopts fiber model nonlinear beam-column element based on flexibility approach, with return period about 2500 years is carried out. It can be concluded that POA is applicable for bridges, with some shortcomings associated with the method in general, even when it is applied for buildings. Finally the applicable selection for monitoring point and lateral load pattern is suggested according to dynamic characteristic of girder bridges.

  9. Poa secunda local collections and commercial releases: A genotypic evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna N Shaw

    Full Text Available The genetics of native plants influence the success of ecological restoration, yet genetic variability of local seed collections and commercial seed releases remains unclear for most taxa. Poa secunda, a common native grass species in Intermountain West grasslands and a frequent component of restoration seed mixes, is one such species. Here, we evaluate the genetic variation of local Poa secunda collections in the context of wild populations and commercial seed releases. We evaluated AFLP markers for seven Poa secunda collections made over a 4000-hectare area and four commercial releases (High Plains, MT-1, Opportunity, and Sherman. We compare the genetic distance and distribution of genetic variation within and between local collections and commercial releases. The extent and patterns of genetic variation in our local collections indicate subtle site differences with most variation occurring within rather than between collections. Identical genetic matches were usually, but not always, found within 5 m2 collection sites. Our results suggest that the genetic variation in two Poa secunda releases (High Plains and MT-1 is similar to our local collections. Our results affirm that guidelines for Poa secunda seed collection should follow recommendations for selfing species, by collecting from many sites over large individual sites.

  10. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  11. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  12. Synopsis: the role of prescribed burning in regenerating Quercus macrocarpa and associated woody plants in stringer woodlands in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Henry A. Wright

    1998-01-01

    Poor tree reproduction, sparse shrub cover, and increasing amounts of exotic species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) are common problems in woody draws in the Northern Great Plains. Although the historic role of fire in maintaining woody draws is unclear, it is likely that these woodlands burned periodically, especially in dry years on hot...

  13. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  14. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  15. Agrochemical residues in rivers sediments, Poas, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis, Federico; Valdez, Juan; Leon, Sandra; Coto, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus and organochlorine agrochemical residues distribution in sediments of 3 rivers located in an ornamental plant production area were analyzed in Poas canton, Alajuela, Costa Rica. The study comprised 8 months in order to assure 3 seasonal episodes: dry, transitional, and rainy seasons. Sediments were taken in 10 sampling stations along the rivers and characterized by a determination of their organic matter and texture. In 7 out of 10 sampling stations pesticide residues were detected in at least 1 of 4 samplings, but quantified only in 4 stations. Agrochemical residues evaluated included 21 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides; however, we found residues of only 3 organochlorine pesticides, due their high persistence in the sediment. Residues corresponded to PCNB (80-800 μg.kg -1 ), Endosulfan-β (40-50 μg.kg -1 ), and Endosulfan-α (90 μg.kg -1 ). Chlorothalonil was detected in only one sample. (author) [es

  16. Preliminary studies on ribonucleases from Poa pratensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease was extracted from Poa pratensis seeds with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.1, and then precipitated with alcohol. The enzyme was separated into 5 fractions (I-V after chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH 5.1. The enzymes were stable at 50°C, at pH 7.1. The activity of ribonucleases I, II, III and V were optimal at pH 7.1-7.3, and that of ribonuclease IV at pH 8.1. Ali enzymes were inhibited by Ca2+ and EDTA. Mg2+ inhibited the activity of ribonucleases II, III, IV, and had no influence on that of ribonucleases I and V. Ribonucleases IV and V showed only one activity band in disc electrophoresis, whereas ribonucleases, I, II and III were found to be heterogenous.

  17. Kentucky physicians and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  18. Geochemical and Geophysical Signatures of Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.; van Bergen, M.; Fernandez, E.; Takano, B.; Barboza, V.; Saenz, W.

    2007-05-01

    still remains open to a question if they will play a helpful role as a geophysical monitoring tool in determining the commencement of volcanic events. A range of Poas volcano geochemical and geophysical parameters have been combined to envisage relationships between them and to gain a better insight in the understanding of the Poas volcanic system.

  19. Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Chaves

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease.

  20. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Maria; Herrera-Murillo, Franklin; Chaves-Barrantes, Nestor; Hernandez-Diaz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations was observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish), with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim has exercised good control (S population), and from another farm where clethodim has showed a deficient control (R population). Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0,5X, 1,0X, 1,5X and 2,0X), being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control has been satisfactory (S), and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R). Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim. (author) [es

  1. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  2. An influence of abiotic factors on the germinability of Agrostis species and Poa species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Knot

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to interpret the impact of some abiotic factors on the germinability. Primarily was observed the stress that they cause on germinability and also on the energy of other perennial grass caryopsis' germinability. Withal there were considered differences in germinability of some perennial grass species, variances of strains and the influence of today`s seeds dressing technologies, which are used to improve the germination. The light factor has the biggest influence of all factors on germination of Agrostis stolonifera (Penn G-2, Providence, Poa supina (Supranova and Poa pratensis (Julius, Julius PreGerm. All these species had germination evidential higher in the light, than in the dark. With species Poa pratensis (Coctail, Coctail Headstart and Poa annua were not observed any essential variations between the dark and the light variants. Only with Poa annua there were reached noticeably lower values with variant in the light, where was used polyethyleneglycol, than in the dark. The analysis of variance demonstrated, that the biggest influence had the factor of stratification together with the light factor with Agrostis capilaris (Bardot and Agrostis stolonifera Providence. With Poa annua there was established the biggest influence of the light factor together with the factor of the used medium. The factor of stratification noticeably affected only the germination of Agrostis capillaris Bardot. The germination of Agrostis stolonifera Providence, Poa pratensis Cocktail, Cocktail Headstart, Julius and Poa annua was not noticeably affected by stratification. The reaction on the factor of stratification was with Agrostis capillaris Bardot in the dark adverse and in the light minimal. Poa pratensis Julius PreGerm germination was negative in the dark as well as in the light. With Poa supina Supranova it was not the most important factor, but still affected the germination significiantly. The nitrogen nutrition, as the

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; results of investigations of surface-water quality, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K.H.; Garcia, Rene; Jarrett, G.L.; Porter, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the water quality of the Kentucky River Basin in Kentucky as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Data collected during 1987-90 were used to describe the spatial and temporal variability of water-quality constituents including metals and trace elements, nutrients, sediments, pesticides, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. Oil-production activities were the source of barium, bromide, chloride, magnesium, and sodium in several watersheds. High concentrations of aluminum, iron, and zinc were related to surface mining in the Eastern Coal Field Region. High concentrations of lead and zinc occurred in streambed sediments in urban areas, whereas concentrations of arsenic, strontium, and uranium were associated with natural geologic sources. Concentrations of phosphorus were significantly correlated with urban and agricultural land use. The high phosphorus content of Bluegrass Region soils was an important source of phosphorus in streams. At many sites in urban areas, most of the stream nitrogen load was attributable to wastewater-treatment-plant effluent. Average suspended-sediment concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. There was a downward trend in suspended-sediment concentrations downstream in the Kentucky River main stem during the study. The most frequently detected herbicides in water samples were atrazine, 2,4-D, alachlor, metolachlor, and dicamba. Diazinon, malathion, and parathion were the most frequently detected organophosphate insecticides in water samples. Detectable concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, DDT, DDE, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, heptachlor, and lindane were found in streambed-sediment samples. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were sometimes below the minimum concentration needed to sustain aquatic life. At some sites, high concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were found and water samples did not meet sanitary water-quality criteria.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kentucky single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Poa pratensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Poa pratensis 名詞 一般 * * * * ケンタッキ...ーブルーグラス ケンタッキーブルーグラス ケンタッキーブルーグラス Thesaurus2015 200906044930765213 C LS06/LS66 UNKNOWN_2 Poa pratensis

  6. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoyong; Li Ning; Shen Lang; Li Yuanyuan

    2003-01-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population

  7. Genetic structure along a gaseous organic pollution gradient: a case study with Poa annua L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoyong, Chen; Ning, Li; Lang, Shen; Yuanyuan, Li

    2003-08-01

    Genetic composition of Poa annua populations showed clinal change along an organic pollution gradient. - The population genetic composition of Poa annua L. was studied by starch electrophoresis along a transect running NE from an organic reagents factory at Shanghai, China. Five enzyme systems were stained. We have reached the following preliminary conclusions: (1) Organic pollution has dramatically changed genotypic frequencies at some loci of Poa annua populations. At polluted sites, significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Sod-1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygote. Especially in the two nearest sites to pollution source, all the individuals were heterozygous at locus Sod-1. The data suggests that heterozygotes were more tolerant to organic pollution than homozygotes, indicating the fitness superiority of heterozygotes. (2) A tendency towards clinal changes of allele frequencies was found at some polymorphic loci. Frequencies of the common alleles at loci Sod-1, Me and Fe-1 increased as the distance to the pollution source increased. (3) The effective number of alleles per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were much higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site (Botanic Park population), but genetic multiplicity (number of alleles per locus) was lower than for the control. (4) Most genetic variability was found within populations, and only 2.56% were among populations of the polluted series. However, 9.48% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations when including the Botanic Park population. The genetic identity between populations of the pollution series (0.9869-1.0000, mean 0.9941) was higher than those between the pollution series and the Botanic Park population. UPGMA divided the five populations into two groups. One contained the four polluted populations, and the other only contained the Botanic Park population.

  8. Water chemistry and soil radon survey at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Seidel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Radon-in-soil monitoring at the Poas volcano (Costa Rica has been performed together with water chemistry from the hot crater lake since 1981 and 1983 respectively. The results are discussed as a function of the eruptive evolution of the volcano over a 13 years period (1981-1994. It is shown that no definitely clear precursory radon signals have been recorded. On the contrary, ionic species concentrations are likely to be considered good precursors, together with the temperature variations of the crater lake water.

  9. Sediment discharges during storm flow from proximal urban and rural karst springs, central Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T.M.; Todd, McFarland J.; Fryar, A.E.; Fogle, A.W.; Taraba, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, various studies have addressed the timing of sediment transport to karst springs during storm flow or the composition and provenance of sediment discharged from springs. However, relatively few studies have focused on the flow thresholds at which sediment is mobilized or total sediment yields across various time scales. We examined each of these topics for a mainly urban spring (Blue Hole) and a rural spring (SP-2) in the Inner Bluegrass region of central Kentucky (USA). Suspended sediment consisted mostly of quartz silt and sand, with lesser amounts of calcite and organic matter. Total suspended sediment (TSS) values measured during storm flow were greater at SP-2 than at Blue Hole. By aggregating data from four storms during 2 years, we found that median suspended-sediment size jumped as Q exceeded ???0.5 m3/s for both springs. At Blue Hole, TSS tended to vary with Q and capacity approached 1 g/L, but no systematic relationship between TSS and Q was evident at SP-2. Sediment fluxes from the Blue Hole basin were ???2 orders of magnitude greater for storms in March (2002 and 2004) than September (2002 and 2003). In contrast, sediment fluxes from the SP-2 basin were of similar magnitude in September 2003 and March 2004. The overall range of area-normalized fluxes for both springs, 9.16 ?? 10-3-4.45 ?? 102 kg/(ha h), overlaps values reported for farm plots and a stream in the Inner Bluegrass region and for other spring basins in the eastern USA and western Europe. Sediment compositions, sizes, and responses to storms in the basins may differ because of land use (e.g., the extent of impervious cover in the Blue Hole basin), basin size (larger for Blue Hole), conduit architecture, which appears to be more complex in the Blue Hole basin, and the impoundment of SP-2, which may have promoted decadal-scale storage of sediment upgradient. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mandated Preparation Program Redesign: Kentucky Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    This case study presents a chronicle of events spanning a decade in Kentucky that led to state policy changes for principal preparation and details the response to those mandated changes by professors at the University of Kentucky. Professors' collaborative efforts resulted in a new teacher leadership program and redesigned principal certification…

  11. Suicide Mortality among Kentucky Farmers, 1979-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann

    1990-01-01

    Compared age-specific suicide rates for Kentucky White farmers, Kentucky White males, and United States White males. Found suicide rates highest for farmers, followed by Kentucky males, and the United States males. All males were most likely to use firearms to commit suicide, but farmers and other Kentucky males used firearms significantly more…

  12. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Muntifering, R.B.; Lin, J.C.; Weigel, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O 3 ) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O 3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O 3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O 3 (elevated O 3 ). Biomass production was not affected by O 3 , but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O 3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O 3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O 3 exposure. - Early-season O 3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O 3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  13. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  14. Risk management and measuring productivity with POAS--point of act system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masanori; Kondo, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    The concept of our system is not only to manage material flows, but also to provide an integrated management resource, a means of correcting errors in medical treatment, and applications to EBM through the data mining of medical records. Prior to the development of this system, electronic processing systems in hospitals did a poor job of accurately grasping medical practice and medical material flows. With POAS (Point of Act System), hospital managers can solve the so-called, "man, money, material, and information" issues inherent in the costs of healthcare. The POAS system synchronizes with each department system, from finance and accounting, to pharmacy, to imaging, and allows information exchange. We can manage Man, Material, Money and Information completely by this system. Our analysis has shown that this system has a remarkable investment effect - saving over four million dollars per year - through cost savings in logistics and business process efficiencies. In addition, the quality of care has been improved dramatically while error rates have been reduced - nearly to zero in some cases.

  15. Fructan accumulation and transcription of candidate genes during cold acclimation in three varieties of Poa pratensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Poa pratensis, a type species for the grass family (Poaceae), is an important cool season grass that accumulates fructans as a polysaccharide reserve. We studied fructan contents and expression of candidate fructan metabolism genes during cold acclimation in three varieties of P. pratensis adapted...... to different environments: Northern Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Fructan content increased significantly during cold acclimation and varieties showed significant differences in the level of fructan accumulation. cDNA sequences of putative fructosyltransferase (FT), fructan exohydrolase (FEH), and cold...... acclimation protein (CAP) genes were identified and cloned. In agreement with a function in fructan biosynthesis, transcription of a putative sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (Pp6-SFT) gene was induced during cold acclimation and fructan accumulation in all three P. pratensis varieties. Transcription...

  16. Mutagentic effects of aerospace on Poa pratensis L.. Pt.2: Photosynthesis characters and chlorophyll contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lei; Sun Zhenyuan; Ju Guansheng; Qian Yongqiang; Li Yinfeng; Peng Zhenhua

    2005-01-01

    The dry seeds of Poa pratensis L. 'Nassau' were carried by 'Shenzhou No.3' and three mutants were screened based on presentational characters from the treated plants and asexual reproduced them as PM 1 , PM 2 and PM 3 . The effects of the space environment on the photosynthesis characters and the contents of chlorophyll of the plants were investigated. Compared to CK, the contents of the chlorophyll a and b were reduced both in PM 1 and PM 3 , and the photosynthetic ability also decreased. The content of the chlorophyll in PM 2 increased greatly, but the ratio of the chlorophyll a/b was reduced, and the apparent quantum efficiency and the photosynthetic ability also decreased. The approximately CO 2 saturation point of the three mutants were higher than CK, but the CO 2 compensation points showed no difference between the mutants and CK. The carboxylation efficiency was PM 2 3 1 . (authors)

  17. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. I. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 was extracted with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction Il-b (acid phosphatase II. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward β-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards β-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca2+ and fluoride, but activated by Mg2+. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme.

  18. Acid phosphatase from stored Poa pratensis caryopses and its ability for binding to lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the storage period of Poa pratensis caryopses on acid phosphatase activity and on the ability of this enzyme to interact with lectins has been studied. It has been shown that after ten years of caryopses storage, the activity of acid phosphatase decreased about 50 per cent, while the content of proteins and carbohydrates did not change. The decrease of enzyme activity during the long period of storage was found only in seeds, but not in chaffs. Acid phosphatase was isolated from caryopses stored one, two, three, five and ten years. The enzyme showed the ability to bind to immoblized as well as to free conA during the whole period of storage, hut did not react with Wheat Germen Agglutinin (WGA. The activation of acid phosphatase by binding to conA decreased with the length of storage period.

  19. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. l. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenc-Kubis, I.; Morawiecka, B.

    1973-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) was extracted from 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction II-b (acid phosphatase II). The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward ..beta..-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards ..beta..-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/ and fluoride, but activated by Mg/sup 2 +/. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme. 12 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  20. The effects of CO2 and nutrient enrichment on photosynthesis and growth of Poa annua in two consecutive generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, T.M.; Jones, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    We studied short- and long-term growth responses of Poa annua L. (Gramineae) at ambient and elevated (ambient +200 lmol mol 1) atmospheric CO2. In experiment 1 we compared plant growth during the early, vegetative and final, reproductive growth phases. Plant growth in elevated CO2 was significantly

  1. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  2. Archived data management system in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Archived Data User Service (ADUS) was added to the national ITS architecture in 1999 to enable multiple uses for ITS-generated data. In Kentucky, ARTIMIS and TRIMARC are collecting volume, speed, occupancy, length-based classification, and incident d...

  3. Nursing Manpower Licensed in Kentucky, 1979-1981. Kentucky Nursing Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Council on Higher Education, Frankfort.

    Data on nurses licensed in Kentucky for 1979-1981 are presented, as part of the Kentucky Nursing Education Project. Information is provided on: licensure status, home state/district/county, employment status, employment state/district/county, field of employment in nursing, position, highest educational level attained, age, sex, marital status,…

  4. Projections of Distributed Photovoltaic Adoption in Kentucky through 2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Das, Paritosh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    NREL has used the dGen (Distributed Generation Market Demand Model) to project the adoption of distributed Photovoltaics in Kentucky through 2040. This analysis was conducted by the STAT Network at the request of the Kentucky Energy Office.

  5. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report includes an analysis of traffic accident data in Kentucky for the years of 2003 through 2007. A primary objective of this study was to determine average accident statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of ...

  6. Assessing the importance of human activities for the establishment of the invasive Poa annua in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Molina-Montenegro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its harsh environmental conditions and remoteness, Antarctica is often considered to be at low risk of plant invasion. However, an increasing number of reports have shown the presence and spread of non-native plants in Antarctica; it is therefore important to study which factors control the invasion process in this ecosystem. Here, we assessed the role of different human activities on the presence and abundance of the invasive Poa annua. In addition, we performed a reciprocal transplant experiment in the field, and a manipulative experiment of germination with P. annua and the natives Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica, in order to unravel the effects of physical soil disturbance on the establishment and survival of P. annua. We found a positive correlation between abundance of P. annua and level of soil disturbance, and that survival of P. annua was 33% higher in sites with disturbed soil than non-disturbed. Finally, we found that disturbance conditions increased germination for P. annua, whereas for native species germination in experimentally disturbed soil was either unchanged or reduced compared to undisturbed soil. Our results indicate that human activities that modify abiotic soil characteristics could play an important role in the abundance of this invasive species. If the current patterns of human activities are maintained in Antarctica, the establishment success and spread of P. annua could increase, negatively affecting native flora.

  7. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  8. Modified Bluegrass Appliance: A Nonpunitive Therapy for Thumb Sucking in Pediatric Patients—A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amish Diwanji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral habits in form of digit/thumb sucking are common phenomenon and part of childhood behavior. They are normally associated with oral pleasure, hunger, anxiety, and sometimes psychological disturbances. Chronic practice can cause major orthopedic alterations to the skeletal structures of the oral cavity and lower face. Aversive approaches in form of punitive therapy have been moderately effective. Modified bluegrass appliance is nonpunitive therapy to treat sucking habits. It acts as a habit reversal technique and installs positive reinforcement in children. Modified blue grass appliance proved to be very comfortable to patients and encourages neuromuscular stimulations.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of tumor markers (CEA, TPA, CA19-9, POA and Ferritin) and pancreatic exocrine enzymes(Amylase and Elastase 1) in pancreatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    脇谷, 勇夫

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), pancreatic oncofetal antigen (POA), Ferritin, Amylase and Elastase 1 was studied immunohistochemically using an immunoperoxidase method in 26 conventional histopathologic sections of pancreatic tumor. CEA and CA19-9 were regarded as markers secreted into the glandular lumina from cancer cells, but TPA and POA were not. The expression of these markers was different from one...

  10. VARIABILIDAD MORFOLÓGICA DE LAS ESPECIES DEL COMPLEJO POA RESINULOSA (POACEAE Y SU RELACIÓN CON LAS ESPECIES DE LA SECCIÓN DIOICOPOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Fernández Pepi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El complejo Poa resinulosa incluye un grupo de especies conformado por P. calchaquiensis, P. pedersenii y P. resinulosa, de difícil delimitación debido a que las entidades son afines en cuanto a su morfología, aunque presentan distribución disyunta. Para evaluar y analizar a las especies del complejo Poa resinulosa y especies afines al mismo complejo, se midieron 40 caracteres morfológicos y anatómicos en ejemplares de Poa calchaquiensis, P. lanigera, P. pilcomayensis y P. resinulosa. Esos datos se incorporaron a la matriz del conjunto de especies de Poa sección Dioicopoa confeccionada por Giussani (2000, incluyendo también a P. nubensis una nueva especie afín a P. calchaquiensis. Mediante el análisis de componentes principales y pruebas estadísticas, se circunscribió a las especies del complejo Poa resinulosa. Se describió a P. resinulosa como una variedad de P. ligularis, de la que se diferencia por poseer lígula corta, hojas y cañas de menor longitud, menor ancho de la lámina y estomas de menor tamaño. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de Poa ligularis var. resinulosa y taxones afines, y un mapa con la distribución geográfica de ambas variedades de P. ligularis.

  11. 7 CFR 201.17 - Noxious-weed seeds in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), giant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon var. aridus), annual bluegrass (Poa annua), and wild garlic or wild...

  12. 78 FR 11796 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... --$2,000 per acre and each fraction thereof for operations on previously mined areas. --$3,500 per acre... program (``the Kentucky program'') for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under the Surface... the amount of the performance bond for each surface coal mining and reclamation operation is...

  13. East Kentucky Bioenergy Capacity Assessment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. Michael [Morehead State Univ., KY (United States); Montross, Michael [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Mark, Tyler [Morehead State Univ., KY (United States)

    2013-03-31

    When you look across the landscape of Kentucky you will find a very diverse topography. In the western portions of the state you will find fertile and gently rolling soils that are prime land for traditional row crop production. As you move east towards the Appalachian Mountains the terrain becomes increasing roughed and less productive soils. One of the primary objectives of Morehead State University is to serve the eastern Kentucky population of Kentucky. Fitting within that mission is identifying new opportunities for people living in this region. With the passing of the Renewable Fuels Standard in 2005 there was a focus put on the production of biomass crops that can be used in the production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol. The majority of US ethanol production is derived from corn. The eastern portion of Kentucky is not well suited for corn production, but might be a location for other biomass crops to be produced. Additionally, many farmers in the region were looking for alternative crops to tobacco that might be well suited for the region.

  14. 76 FR 50436 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... instructions; or Mail/Hand Delivery/Courier: Joseph L. Blackburn, Field Office Director, Lexington Field Office... Office. Joseph L. Blackburn, Field Office Director, Lexington Field Office, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, 2675 Regency Road, Lexington, Kentucky 40503, (859) 260-3900. Carl E. Campbell...

  15. Water resources activities in Kentucky, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, conducts three major types of activities in Kentucky in order to provide hydrologic information and understanding needed for the best management of Kentucky 's and the Nation 's water resources. These activities are: (1) Data collection and dissemination; (2) Water-resources appraisals (interpretive studies); and (3) Research. Activities described in some detail following: (1) collection of surface - and groundwater data; (2) operation of stations to collect data on water quality, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation; (3) flood investigations; (4) water use; (5) small area flood hydrology; (6) feasibility of disposal of radioactive disposal in deep crystalline rocks; (7) development of a groundwater model for the Louisville area; (8) travel times for streams in the Kentucky River Basin; (9) the impact of sinkholes and streams on groundwater flow in a carbonate aquifer system; (10) sedimentation and erosion rates at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Burial site; and (11) evaluation of techniques for evaluating the cumulative impacts of mining as applied to coal fields in Kentucky. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Mid and long-term optimize scheduling of cascade hydro-power stations based on modified GA-POA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to explore the efficiency and rationality of the cascade combined generation, a cascade combined optimal model with the maximum generating capacity is established, and solving the model by the modified GA-POA method. It provides a useful reference for the joint development of cascade hydro-power stations in large river basins. The typical annual runoff data are selected to calculate the difference between the calculated results under different representative years. The results show that the cascade operation of cascaded hydro-power stations can significantly increase the overall power generation of cascade and ease the flood risk caused by concentration of flood season.

  17. 75 FR 51119 - Kentucky Disaster Number KY-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Loans): Madison, Mason, Rowan. Contiguous Counties: (Economic Injury Loans Only): Kentucky: Bath... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James E. Rivera, Associate Administrator for Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc...

  18. The forest-land owners of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas S. Powell

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of the commercial forest land in Kentucky--11 million acres--is in the hands of some 455,600 private owners. Ninety-four percent of these owners are individuals. The "average" individual owner is in late middle age, has little formal education, receives a modest income, has a farm or rural background, has owned his woodland more than 10...

  19. Risk Management Education for Kentucky Farm Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how an agricultural and farm risk management education program, known as Annie’s Project, was adapted from a midwestern focus to meet the diversity of Kentucky agriculture and shares the results of a longer-term evaluation of the Kentucky program. The Annie’s Project program is geared specifically to the needs of farm women. The program adaption process, which began in late 2006, is detailed from inception through pilot testing to the full launch of the program. Over a four year period, the Kentucky Annie’s Project program reached 425 farm women in 41 of Kentucky’s 120 counties. The evaluation draws on the results of a questionnaire mailed to program participants 18 months to 5 years after programming. Participants reported statistically significant gains in all topical areas representing agricultural risk management education, including production, human resources, marketing, legal, and financial. Key actions which occurred as a result of participating in the program included increasing confidence in management abilities, reviewing personal/farm insurances policies, developing a network of peers and professionals, and using financial statements.

  20. Kentucky DOE EPSCoR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, Eric; Stencel, John [no longer with UK

    2011-09-13

    The KY DOE EPSCoR Program supports two research clusters. The Materials Cluster uses unique equipment and computational methods that involve research expertise at the University of Kentucky and University of Louisville. This team determines the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of nanostructured materials and examines the dominant mechanisms involved in the formation of new self-assembled nanostructures. State-of-the-art parallel computational methods and algorithms are used to overcome current limitations of processing that otherwise are restricted to small system sizes and short times. The team also focuses on developing and applying advanced microtechnology fabrication techniques and the application of microelectrornechanical systems (MEMS) for creating new materials, novel microdevices, and integrated microsensors. The second research cluster concentrates on High Energy and Nuclear Physics. lt connects research and educational activities at the University of Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University and national DOE research laboratories. Its vision is to establish world-class research status dedicated to experimental and theoretical investigations in strong interaction physics. The research provides a forum, facilities, and support for scientists to interact and collaborate in subatomic physics research. The program enables increased student involvement in fundamental physics research through the establishment of graduate fellowships and collaborative work.

  1. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky : 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2004 through 2008. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Average and critical numbers and rates of crashe...

  2. Analysis of Traffic Crash Data in Kentucky (2012-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2012 through 2016. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  3. Analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky (2009-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report documents an analysis of traffic crash data in Kentucky for the years of 2009 through 2013. A primary objective of this study was to determine average crash statistics for Kentucky highways. Rates were calculated for various types of high...

  4. Kentucky's Individualized Kindergartens: A State Network Design for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B.; Cansler, D. P.

    The KIK (Kentucky Individualized Kindergartens) project, a collaborative project between Kentucky's Department of Education and the Chapel Hill (NC) Training-Outreach project, is designed to serve high risk children. KIK provides early identification of high risk kindergarteners, development of individualized education programs, and implementation…

  5. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  6. University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Search Help Research Our Expertise University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research | An Equal Opportunity University All Rights Remediation Power Generation CAER TechFacts CAER Factsheets CAER Affiliations Research Contacts Publications

  7. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Teachers (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. This was a continuation study for Eastern Kentucky that collected data on how men and women teachers and men and women administrators handle stress. A stress survey (Appendix C) was…

  8. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Kentucky Supplement (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    FEDERAL INSECTICIDE , FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA) Kentucky Supplement Derfmitions The following definitions are taken from the Kentucky...Hedge- nettle s Stellaria 1ongifolia Switchwort s Streptopus roseus Twisted Stalk e Styrax grandifolia Storax s Sullivantia sullivantii Sullivant’s

  9. A next-generation sequencing method for overcoming the multiple gene copy problem in polyploid phylogenetics, applied to Poa grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Charles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy is important from a phylogenetic perspective because of its immense past impact on evolution and its potential future impact on diversification, survival and adaptation, especially in plants. Molecular population genetics studies of polyploid organisms have been difficult because of problems in sequencing multiple-copy nuclear genes using Sanger sequencing. This paper describes a method for sequencing a barcoded mixture of targeted gene regions using next-generation sequencing methods to overcome these problems. Results Using 64 3-bp barcodes, we successfully sequenced three chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions (each of which contained two gene copies with up to two alleles per individual in a total of 60 individuals across 11 species of Australian Poa grasses. This method had high replicability, a low sequencing error rate (after appropriate quality control and a low rate of missing data. Eighty-eight percent of the 320 gene/individual combinations produced sequence reads, and >80% of individuals produced sufficient reads to detect all four possible nuclear alleles of the homeologous nuclear loci with 95% probability. We applied this method to a group of sympatric Australian alpine Poa species, which we discovered to share an allopolyploid ancestor with a group of American Poa species. All markers revealed extensive allele sharing among the Australian species and so we recommend that the current taxonomy be re-examined. We also detected hypermutation in the trnH-psbA marker, suggesting it should not be used as a land plant barcode region. Some markers indicated differentiation between Tasmanian and mainland samples. Significant positive spatial genetic structure was detected at Conclusions Our results demonstrate that 454 sequencing of barcoded amplicon mixtures can be used to reliably sample all alleles of homeologous loci in polyploid species and successfully investigate phylogenetic relationships among

  10. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  11. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. II. Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase Ia2 and Ia3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two acid phosphatases (Ia2, Ia3 have been isolated from Poa pratensis seeds and partially purified. Both enzymes showed maximal activity at pH 4,9. They exhibited high activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate and phenyl phosphate, much less activity towards glucose-6 phosphate, and mononucleotides. Phosphatases a2 and a3 differed in their activity towards ADP. Orthophosphate, fluoride and Zn2+ were effective inhibitors. EDTA, β-mercaptoethanol and Mg2+ activated phophatase a2 but had no effect on phosphatase a3. Zn2+ inhibited the activity of phosphatase a2 noncompetitively, whereas phosphatase a3 showed inhibition of mixed type. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and pronase had no effect on the enzyme activities of both molecular forms.

  12. Interspecific and intraspecific hybrid Epichloë species symbiotic with the North American native grass Poa alsodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Charlton, Nikki D; Musso, Ashleigh M; Scheerer, Jonathan; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H; Young, Carolyn A

    2017-01-01

    The endophyte presence and diversity in natural populations of Poa alsodes were evaluated along a latitudinal transect from the southern distribution range in North Carolina to New York. Two distinct Epichloë hybrid taxa were identified from 23 populations. Each taxon could easily be distinguished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping with primers designed to mating type genes and alkaloid biosynthesis genes that encode key pathway steps for ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine. The most commonly found Epichloë taxon, Poa alsodes Taxonomic Group-1 (PalTG-1), was detected in 22 populations at high infection frequencies (72-100%), with the exception of one population at high elevation (26% infection). The second taxon, PalTG-2, was observed only in five populations in Pennsylvania constituting 12% of infected samples. Phylogenetic analyses placed PalTG-1 as an interspecific hybrid of E. amarillans and E. typhina subsp. poae ancestors, and it is considered a new hybrid species, which the authors name Epichloë alsodes. PalTG-2 is an intraspecific hybrid of two E. typhina subsp. poae ancestors, similar to E. schardlii from the host Cinna arundinacea, which the authors propose as a new variety, Epichloë schardlii var. pennsylvanica. Epichloë alsodes isolates were all mating type MTA MTB and tested positive for dmaW, easC, perA, and some LOL genes, but only the alkaloid N-acetylnorloline was detected in E. alsodes-infected plant material. Epichloë schardlii var. pennsylvanica isolates were all mating type MTB MTB and tested positive for perA, but peramine was not produced. Both E. alsodes and E. schardlii var. pennsylvanica appeared to have complete perA genes, but point mutations were identified in E. alsodes that would render the encoded perA gene nonfunctional.

  13. Closing Kynect and Restructuring Medicaid Threaten Kentucky's Health and Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles B; Vanderford, Nathan L

    2017-08-01

    Following passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States, the Kentucky Health Benefit Exchange, Kynect, began operating in Kentucky in October 2013. Kentucky expanded Medicaid eligibility in January 2014. Together, Kynect and Medicaid expansion provided access to affordable health care coverage to hundreds of thousands of individuals in Kentucky. However, following the Kentucky gubernatorial election in 2015, the newly inaugurated governor moved to dismantle Kynect and restructure the Medicaid expansion, jeopardizing public health gains and the state economy. As the first state to announce both the closure and restructuring of a state health insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion, Kentucky may serve as a test case for the rest of the nation for reversal of ACA-related health policies. This article describes Kynect and the Kentucky Medicaid expansion and examines the potential short-term and long-term impacts that may occur following changes in state health policy. Furthermore, this article will offer potential strategies to ameliorate the expected negative impacts of disruption of both Kynect and the Medicaid expansion, such as the creation of a new state insurance marketplace under a new governor, the implementation of a private option, and increasing the state minimum wage for workers. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  14. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  15. Development of Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    ven though Kentucky has undertaken many initiatives to improve specific aspects of incident management, there has never been a plan that establishes an overall framework for a systematic, statewide, multi-agency effort to improve the management of hi...

  16. Evaluation of Kentucky's "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report was to document the results of the "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign in Kentucky. The campaign involved a combination of earned media, paid media, and enforcement. : The evaluation of the campaign included documenting th...

  17. Intelligent transportation systems business plan for Kentucky : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents a Business Plan for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in Kentucky. The purpose of the Business Plan is to define ITS projects that are planned for implementation from 2002 through 2007. The list of projects contained withi...

  18. Semivolatile POA and parameterized total combustion SOA in CMAQv5.2: impacts on source strength and partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Murphy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence from field and laboratory observations coupled with atmospheric model analyses shows that primary combustion emissions of organic compounds dynamically partition between the vapor and particulate phases, especially as near-source emissions dilute and cool to ambient conditions. The most recent version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality model version 5.2 (CMAQv5.2 accounts for the semivolatile partitioning and gas-phase aging of these primary organic aerosol (POA compounds consistent with experimentally derived parameterizations. We also include a new surrogate species, potential secondary organic aerosol from combustion emissions (pcSOA, which provides a representation of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA from anthropogenic combustion sources that could be missing from current chemical transport model predictions. The reasons for this missing mass likely include the following: (1 unspeciated semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compound (SVOC and IVOC, respectively emissions missing from current inventories, (2 multigenerational aging of organic vapor products from known SOA precursors (e.g., toluene, alkanes, (3 underestimation of SOA yields due to vapor wall losses in smog chamber experiments, and (4 reversible organic compounds–water interactions and/or aqueous-phase processing of known organic vapor emissions. CMAQ predicts the spatially averaged contribution of pcSOA to OA surface concentrations in the continental United States to be 38.6 and 23.6 % in the 2011 winter and summer, respectively. Whereas many past modeling studies focused on a particular measurement campaign, season, location, or model configuration, we endeavor to evaluate the model and important uncertain parameters with a comprehensive set of United States-based model runs using multiple horizontal scales (4 and 12 km, gas-phase chemical mechanisms, and seasons and years. The model with representation of semivolatile POA

  19. Infiltration barrier demonstration at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1983-01-01

    At the 1982 DOE LLWMP meeting, the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet presented a history of the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Facility, its status, and current Commonwealth activities leading toward stabilization and decommissioning. Information was presented at that time on the purpose of the DOE Trench Moisture Barrier Demonstration Grant and the early phases of construction and implementation. In this paper, final construction and implementation of the trench moisture barrier demonstration are discussed. Data including trench water level measurements, lateral liquid flow in experimental sections, and soil moisture measurements are presented and discussed. The Paper is completed with a brief discussion of remediation activities currently being implemented at Maxey Flats. 9 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  20. Smoke-free legislation and charitable gaming in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, M K; Hahn, E J

    2009-02-01

    To determine the effect of municipal smoke-free laws in Kentucky on gross and/or net revenues from charitable gaming activities. Between January 2000 and June 2007, 13 Kentucky communities implemented smoke-free legislation; only three specifically exempted charitable gaming facilities and compliance in several communities was not consistent. Kentucky is a tobacco-growing state that has the highest smoking rate in the United States. A fixed-effects time series design to estimate the impact of municipal smoke-free laws on charitable gaming. 13 Kentucky counties that implemented smoke-free laws during the study period of January 2000 through June 2007. All charitable gaming facilities in 13 counties in which a smoke-free ordinance was enacted during the study period. Gross and net revenues from charitable gaming activities in each county for each quarter of the study period, obtained from the Kentucky Department of Charitable Gaming. When controlling for economic variables, county-specific effects and time trends using a robust statistical framework, there was no significant relation between smoke-free laws and charitable gaming revenues. Municipal smoke-free legislation had no effect on charitable gaming revenues. No significant harm to charitable gaming revenues was associated with the smoke-free legislation during the 7.5-year study period, despite the fact that Kentucky is a tobacco-producing state with higher-than-average smoking rates.

  1. Kentucky Transportation Cabinet : annual assessment of customer needs and satisfaction : mail survey report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, both through its own quality initiative and a statewide 'Empower Kentucky' campaign, has a commitment to achieve new levels of quality in the development, construction and maintenance of highways. In order to gage...

  2. Kentucky Peer Exchange : Strategic Highway Safety Plans (SHSPs) - An RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a peer exchange hosted by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) and the Kentucky Office of Highway Safety (KOHS) on June 16-17, 2015, in Frankfort, KY. The event included peer representatives from the Georgia Department of...

  3. Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration : KYTC—Roundabout Installation Project in London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This document serves as the final report on the construction and opening of the Roundabout Project in London, Kentucky (Kentucky Item Number 11904.1). This project (hereafter referred to as the London Roundabout) was constructed on the authority o...

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  5. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    production and combustion of ethanol and 41 % by bio-diesel. Bio-diesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. Bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol due to its lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion. Thus, to be a viable alternative, a bio-fuel firstly should be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. In this aspect, larger quantity supplies of cellulose biomass are likely viable alternatives. U. S. Congress has introduced an initiative and subsequently rolled into the basic energy package, which encourages the production of fuel from purely renewable resources, biomass. Secondly, a bio-fuel should also provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits and be economically competitive. In this aspect, bio-diesel has advantages over ethanol. The commonwealth of Kentucky is fortunate to have a diverse and abundant supply of renewable energy resources. Both Kentucky Governor Beshear in the energy plan for Kentucky "Intelligent Energy Choices for Kentucky's Future", and Kentucky Renewable Energy Consortium, outlined strategies on developing energy in renewable, sustainable and efficient ways. Smart utilization of diversified renewable energy resources using advanced technologies developed by Kentucky public universities, and promotion of these technologies to the market place by collaboration between universities and private industry, are specially encouraged. Thus, the initially question answering Governor's strategic plan is if there is any economical way to make utilization of larger quantities of cellulose and hemicellulose for production of bio-fuels, especially bio-diesel. There are some possible options of commercially available technologies to convert cellulose based biomass energy to bio-fuels. Cellulose based biomass can be firstly gasified to obtain synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}), which is followed up by being converted into liquid hydrocarbon fuels or oxygenate

  6. Clothianidin and Imidacloprid Residues in Poa annua (Poales: Poaceae) and Their Effects on Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavet, Christopher; Requintina, Matthew; Hampton, Emily; Cowles, Richard S; Byrne, Frank J; Alm, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the amounts of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid in Poa annua L. clippings from treated golf course fairways. Average clothianidin residues 7 d after application ranged from 674 to 1,550 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 455-2,220 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average clothianidin residues the day of application ranged from 17,100-38,800 ng/g tissue in 2014. Average imidacloprid residues 7 d after treatment ranged from 1,950-3,030 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 7,780-9,230 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average imidacloprid residues the day of application ranged from 31,500-40,400 ng/g tissue in 2014. Neonicotinoid or bifenthrin-neonicotinoid combination products applied in field plots in 2012 did not significantly reduce the numbers of larvae relative to the untreated control. However, in 2013, statistically significant reductions in the numbers of larvae recovered from treated field plots were associated with the presence of bifenthrin alone or when used in combination with neonicotinoid active ingredients. Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby) adults caged on neonicotinoid-, bifenthrin-, and bifenthrin-neonicotinoid-treated P. annua turf plugs fed on P. annua leaves, but mortality was only highly significantly different between treated and untreated foliage when weevils were placed on treated foliage the day after treatment and allowed to feed for 7 d. The modest degree of population suppression with bifenthrin in these experiments may not be adequate to justify the continued use of these products due to the increased risk of insecticide resistance and disruption of biological control. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  7. Kentucky Career and Technical Teacher Education Programs/Ongoing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Ed; Stubbs, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    What is Career and Technical Education (CTE)? How does one identify and recognized strong CTE educational programs? And after one has answers to the first two questions, how does one successfully align CTE teacher education (CTTE) programs across large institutions such as colleges within universities, or in Kentucky's endeavor within universities…

  8. Selling “Performance” Assessments with Inaccurate Pictures from Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Innes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new white paper from Ace Parsi and Linda Darling-Hammond, “Performance Assessments: How State Policy Can Advance Assessments for 21st Century Learning,” has a discussion on Page 7 about supposed success of the Kentucky Instructional Results Information System (KIRIS used in that state from 1992 to 1998. This discussion paper explains the numerous problems with that description. The Kentucky-related comments in the Parsi/Darling-Hammond paper claim a basis in a technical report titled “Commonwealth Accountability and Testing System: 2007–08 Technical report, Version 1.2” created by Measured Progress in 2009. Unfortunately, the Kentucky Department of Education recently redesigned its web site and this technical report is no longer online. However, if the report actually does show the information attributed to it by Parsi and Darling-Hammond, that information is incorrect. Of course, as a closeout epitaph of yet another failure, Kentucky’s now failed Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, which succeeded the failed KIRIS system, the 2007-08 technical report may not have received an appropriate level of attention to detail. The comments below are referenced to reports issued during or shortly after the events occurred and are known to this long-time Kentucky resident to present an accurate picture.

  9. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  10. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Kentucky. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  11. Expedited Permanency Planning: Evaluation of the Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mavin H.; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky F.; Sar, Bibhuti

    2002-01-01

    Presents evaluation findings of a 3-year Kentucky Adoptions Opportunities Project. Notes that a majority of children had one or both parents coping with multiple risk factors including mental illness, substance abuse, mental retardation, or family violence. Discusses major barriers to permanency, as well as policy and practice implications in the…

  12. Kentucky Preschool Evaluation Project, 1998-1999. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Townley, Kim; Wilson, Stephen; Epstein, Ann; Hines, Huyi

    This evaluation of the Kentucky Preschool Program (KPP) focused on two broad areas: (1) readiness for kindergarten; and (2) promotion of language and literacy in the classroom and at home. Key findings include the following: (1) most children who were ineligible because of family income status successfully transitioned to kindergarten; (2) several…

  13. Needs Assessment of Hospitality/Tourism Industry in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Shirley

    This report of an assessment of the hospitality/tourism industry in Kentucky begins with a history/description of the hospitality/tourism industry written from research; the hospitality/tourism training programs conducted by various institutions in the state are also described. For the assessment itself, two survey instruments were prepared and…

  14. The Fiscal Impact of the Kentucky Education Tax Credit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of a proposal to create a personal tax credit for educational expenses and a tax-credit scholarship program in Kentucky. It finds that the actual fiscal impact of the program would be much less than its nominal dollar size, due to the reduced public school costs resulting from migration of students from public…

  15. The Equity of School Facilities Funding: Examples from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William J.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Odden, Allan; Aportela, Anabel

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity,…

  16. Influences of the activity of the Poas Volcano in the chemistry of the rain water in the region of Tacares, Grecia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte Fernandez, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Quantifie the concentration of majority ions in samples of rain water gathered in the University Enclosure of Tacares of the University of Costa Rica, during the months of August, September and October of 1993, and May to October of 1994. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Quality of Water of the Center of Investigation in Environmental Contamination (CICA), using technical of ionic chromatography of unique column, atomic absorption with oven of graphite potentiometer and colorimetry. The concentrations of each species was expressed like monthly average pondered by precipitation volume. It was found that the concentrations of the anions sulfate and chloride, and the cationes sodium and calcium increased in a significant way starting from May of 1994, month when was incremented the activity of the Poas Volcano. For each day of gathering samples was determined a predominant wind direction, the average of the whole period allowed to establish that the magnesium and the sulfate presented vectors of more magnitude that in other directions, guided toward the volcano. The development of the project determined the influence of the activity of the Poas volcano in the concentration of sulfate in the gathered rain waters [es

  17. Influences of the volcanic activity and anthropogenic in the chemical composition of the rain of the surroundings of the Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Cruz, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the results of a study are described on the physico chemicals characteristic of the rain water of the surroundings of the Poas Volcano . The main objective was to establish a general profile of the gradients of some physico chemicals parameters of the rain in function of the localization and the distance of the stations rain collectors, with regard to the column of gases, aerosols and vapors that emanate through the fumaroles of the active crater of the Poas Volcano, for this reason a net of collectors of rain water settled down in four places located along the Southwest flank of the Volcano until a distance of 19 km, following the predominant address of the wind. In Heredia to place a fifth collector of rain water which I play the part of station control. The rain was gathered from to March and November of 1996, for daily precipitation events every 24 hours. To sample of rain are determined the following parameters: HP, electric conductivity, ions fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulfate for chromatography of ions of high resolution (HPIC) ammonia by means of analysis for injection of flow (FIA), and some such metals as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese and aluminum for spectrophotometer of atomic absorption (EAA) [es

  18. Risk management and measuring productivity with POAS--Point of Act System--a medical information system as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) for hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, M

    2007-01-01

    The concept of our system is not only to manage material flows, but also to provide an integrated management resource, a means of correcting errors in medical treatment, and applications to EBM (evidence-based medicine) through the data mining of medical records. Prior to the development of this system, electronic processing systems in hospitals did a poor job of accurately grasping medical practice and medical material flows. With POAS (Point of Act System), hospital managers can solve the so-called, "man, money, material, and information" issues inherent in the costs of healthcare. The POAS system synchronizes with each department system, from finance and accounting, to pharmacy, to imaging, and allows information exchange. We can manage Man (Business Process), Material (Medical Materials and Medicine), Money (Expenditure for purchase and Receipt), and Information (Medical Records) completely by this system. Our analysis has shown that this system has a remarkable investment effect - saving over four million dollars per year - through cost savings in logistics and business process efficiencies. In addition, the quality of care has been improved dramatically while error rates have been reduced - nearly to zero in some cases.

  19. Flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of the Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Frankfort Office of Emergency Management. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky (station no. 03287500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03287500). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Kentucky River reach by using HEC–RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2013) stage-discharge relation for the Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky, in combination with streamgage and high-water-mark measurements collected for a flood event in May 2010. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 26 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bankfull to the elevation that breached the levees protecting the City of Frankfort. To delineate the flooded area at

  20. Cool-Season Turfgrass Species and Cultivars: Response to Simulated Traffic in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo F. Cereti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrass species differ greatly in their ability to withstand the abrasion and compaction of traffic. Wear tolerance of turfgrass species and cultivars has been evaluated abroad by many researchers, while only few and partial studies have been conducted in Italy. Field experiment was carried out in Viterbo in 2001, 2002 and 2003 to evaluate the effect of the simulated traffic on 110 varieties belonging to four turfgrass cool-season species: tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb., fine fescues (Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra Gaud., ssp. commutata Gaud., ssp. tricophylla Gaud., perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.. Shoot density, visual turfgrass quality and thatch thickness were the major characters recorded to estimate wear tolerance. Traffic was simulated using a device containing three rollers pulled by a small tractor. The traffic simulator weighed 564 kg and applied a pressure of about 3 MPa. Results indicated that perennial ryegrass and tall fescue had high wear tolerance and low statistical variation among cultivars. Kentucky bluegrass showed an average wear tolerance owing to its shoot density and good recovery potential. In spite of their high shoot density, fine fescues exhibited poor wear tolerance because of their scarce resistance to high temperatures which are typical of the Mediterranean climate in late spring and summer. This study enabled a preliminary selection of the most suitable cool-season grasses and cultivars for trafficked and non-trafficked areas in Central Italy and highlighted that different turfgrass species have different wear tolerance mechanisms.

  1. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  2. Persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raufu, Ibrahim A.; Fashae, Kayode; Ameh, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance and clonality of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky in poultry and poultry sources in Nigeria, and compared the isolates with the clone of S. Kentucky STI98-X1 CIPR using (PFGE) and (MIC). Methodology: Fecal samples from chickens...... and poultry sources (litter, water, rodent and lizard fecal samples) were collected from fourteen (14) poultry farms in 2007, 2010 and 2011 and were analyzed for S. Kentucky. Results and conclusions: Six percent of the samples were positive for S. Kentucky - all resistant to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin...

  3. Summary of Available Hydrogeologic Data for the Northeast Portion of the Alluvial Aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unthank, Michael D; Nelson, Jr., Hugh L

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific...

  4. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  5. The equity of school facilities funding: Examples from Kentucky.

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Glenn; Lawrence O. Picus; Allan Odden; Anabel Aportela

    2009-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature analyzing the relative equity of state funding systems for current operating revenues, there is a dearth of research on capital funding systems. This article presents an analysis of the school capital funding system in Kentucky since 1990, using the operating-revenue analysis concepts of horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality. In general one could tentatively conclude that Kentucky’s capital-funding system was reasonably equitable unti...

  6. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the Commonwealth of Kentucky, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, forest resources management, geologic resource assessment and hazards mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. “Kentucky from Above,” the Kentucky Aerial Photography and Elevation Data Program (http://kygeonet.ky.gov/kyfromabove/), provides statewide lidar coordination with local, Commonwealth, and national groups in support of 3DEP for the Commonwealth.

  7. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M.C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  8. Modeling the accumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in grasses (Agrotis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica on selected sites taking into account soil physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshoff M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil properties on the accumulation of metals in two vegetation types was evaluated at 10 sites with a wide variation in soil physicochemical properties pH, organic carbon, clay percentage , total soil metal concentration and exchangeable soil metal content. Accumulation modeling was conducted for grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp. and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica.

  9. Lithostratigraphy of Upper Ordovician strata exposed in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon Whitney; Peterson, Warren Lee; Swadley, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ordovician formations above the Lexington Limestone crop out in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky and along the Cumberland River and its tributaries. The formations are all conformable and in places intertongue and intergrade. The major Ordovician units above the Lexington Limestone in the Blue Grass region are: The Clays Ferry Formation, the Kope Formation, the Garrard Siltstone, the Fairview Formation, the Calloway Creek Limestone, the Grant Lake Limestone, the Ashlock Formation, the Bull Fork Formation, and the Drakes Formation. The Clays Ferry Formation is made up of subequal amounts of fossiliferous limestone and shale and minor siltstone; the Clays Ferry is as much as 300 ft thick and intertongues with the Lexington Limestone and the Kope Formation. The Kope Formation resembles the partly equivalent Clays Ferry but has a higher shale content (60-80 percent) and thicker layers of shale; the Kope, as much as 275 ft thick, is mostly restricted to the northern part of the State. The Garrard Siltstone, which consists of very calcitic siltstone and minor shale, overlies the Clays Ferry Formation in the southeastern part of the Blue Grass region; the Garrard, as much as 100 ft thick, feathers out into the upper part of the Clays Ferry in southern central and northern east-central Kentucky. The Fairview Formation is characterized by even-bedded limestone interlayered with nearly equal amounts of shale and minor siltstone. The Fairview crops out in the northern part of the Blue Grass region, where it generally overlies the Kope Formation or the Garrard Siltstone; it grades southward into the Calloway Creek Limestone. The Calloway Creek contains more limestone (generally at least 70 percent) and is more irregularly and thinner bedded than the Fairview. The Grant Lake Limestone is composed of nodular-bedded limestone (70-90 percent), interlayered and intermixed with shale; it overlies the Fairview Formation in the northern part of the Blue Grass region and the Calloway

  10. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  11. Superintendent Turnover in Kentucky. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jerry; Huffman, Tyler; Madden, Karen; Shope, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This study examines superintendent turnover in Kentucky public school districts for 1998/99-2007/08, looking at how turnover varies by rural status, Appalachian and non-Appalachian region, and 2007/08 school district characteristics. Key findings include: (1) Kentucky school districts averaged one superintendent turnover during 1998/99-2007/08;…

  12. 76 FR 2361 - Atmos Energy-Kentucky/Mid-States Division; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-77-000] Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division; Notice of Baseline Filing January 5, 2011. Take notice that on December 30, 2010, Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid- States Division submitted a revised baseline filing of their...

  13. Defining perennial, intermittent and ephemeral channels in eastern Kentucky: application to forestry best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Svec; R. K. Kolka; J. W. Stringer

    2003-01-01

    In Kentucky stream classification is used to determine which forestry best management practice (BMP) to apply in riparian zones. Kentucky defines stream classes as follows (Stringer and others 1998): a) perennial streams that hold water throughout the year, b) intermittent streams that hold water during wet portions of the year, and c) ephemeral channels that hold...

  14. Phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate humid regions of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, Prabha K; Li, Loretta Y

    2009-08-01

    The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the aboveground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  15. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky (final report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-07

    A contract was awarded in June 1976 for the installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system at 2400 Watteroon Trail, Louisville, Kentucky. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to the existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq ft office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offered a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site. The two systems are described in detail and information on the data acquisition system is included.

  16. Leaf waxes of slow-growing alpine and fast-growing lowland Poa species: inherent differences and responses to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, J.J.; Lambers, H.; Baas, W.; Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.; Atkin, O.K.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether alpine and lowland Poa species exhibit inherent differences in leaf cuticular waxes, leaf UV absorbing compounds and/or growth responses to UV-B treatment. All plants were grown hydroponically in a growth cabinet (constant 20°; 14 hr photoperiod; 520 μmol photons m −2 s −1 PAR). Two alpine (P. fawcettiae and P. costiniana), one sub-alpine (P. alpina) and three temperate lowland species (P. pratensis, P. compressa and P. trivialis) were grown under conditions without UV radiation for 36 days. In a subsequent experiment, four Poa species (P. costiniana, P. alpina, P. compressa and P. trivialis) were also exposed for 21 days to UV-B/(UV-A) radiation ('UV-B treatment') that resulted in daily UV-B radiation of 7.5 kJ m −2 day −1 , with control plants being grown without UV-B ('UV-A control treatment'). All treatments were carried out in the same growth cabinet. There was no altitudinal trend regarding wax concentrations per unit leaf area, when the six species grown under UV-less conditions, were compared at similar developmental stage (20–30 g shoot fresh mass). However, large differences in cuticular wax chemical composition were observed between the alpine and lowland species grown under UV-less conditions. For example, a single primary alcohol was present in the waxes of the lowland and sub-alpine species (C 26 H 53 OH), but was virtually absent in the alpine species. Although alkanes were present in all six species (primarily C 29 H 60 and C 31 H 64 ), the proportion of total wax present as alkanes was highest in the alpine species. Aldehydes were only present in the waxes of the alpine species. Conversely, substantial amounts of triterpenoids were mainly present in the three lowland species (squalene and lupeol were the dominant forms). The proportion of total wax present as long-chain esters (LCE-s) was similar in all six species grown in the absence of UV radiation. Acetates were observed only in the wax of

  17. Heroin and fentanyl overdoses in Kentucky: Epidemiology and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova, Svetla; Costich, Julia F; Bunn, Terry L; Luu, Huong; Singleton, Michael; Hargrove, Sarah L; Triplett, Jeremy S; Quesinberry, Dana; Ralston, William; Ingram, Van

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to describe recent changes in Kentucky's drug overdose trends related to increased heroin and fentanyl involvement, and to discuss future directions for improved drug overdose surveillance. The study used multiple data sources (death certificates, postmortem toxicology results, emergency department [ED] records, law enforcement drug submissions, and prescription drug monitoring records) to describe temporal, geographic, and demographic changes in drug overdoses in Kentucky. Fentanyl- and heroin-related overdose death rates increased across all age groups from years 2011 to 2015 with the highest rates consistently among 25-34-year-olds. The majority of the heroin and fentanyl overdose decedents had histories of substantial exposures to legally acquired prescription opioids. Law enforcement drug submission data were strongly correlated with drug overdose ED and mortality data. The 2016 crude rate of heroin-related overdose ED visits was 104/100,000, a 68% increase from 2015 (62/100,000). More fentanyl-related overdose deaths were reported between October, 2015, and September, 2016, than ED visits, in striking contrast with the observed ratio of >10 to 1 heroin-related overdose ED visits to deaths. Many fatal fentanyl overdoses were associated with heroin adulterated with fentanyl; fentanyl and other synthetic drugs. In order to inform coordinated public health and safety responses, drug overdose surveillance must move from a reactive to a proactive mode, utilizing the infrastructure for electronic health records. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R A; Shoop, W L

    1987-08-01

    Seventy raccoons (Procyon lotor) from western Kentucky were examined for helminths from December 1985 through May 1986. Twenty-three species of helminths were collected including 10 species of Trematoda (Brachylaima virginiana, Euryhelmis squamula, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Gyrosoma singulare, Maritreminoides nettae, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Metagonimoides oregonensis, Paragonimus kellicotti, Pharyngostomoides procyonis), 2 species of Cestoda (Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis), 10 species of Nematoda (Arthrocephalus lotoris, Baylisascaris procyonis, Capillaria putorii, C. plica, Crenosoma goblei, Dracunculus insignis, Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis), and 1 species of Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus ingens). A mean of 6.4 (3-11) helminth species per host was recorded. Fibricola cratera, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides variabilis, Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria plica, Dracunculus insignis, Molineus barbatus, and Physaloptera rara were ubiquitous parasites of the raccoon, whereas specific nidi were observed for Eurytrema procyonis, Gyrosoma singulare, Paragonimus kellicotti, Baylisascaris procyonis, Trichinella spiralis, and Macracanthorhyncus ingens. With an overall prevalence of 10% or higher, 15 of the 23 helminth species were considered common parasites of the raccoon in western Kentucky. When the 10% prevalence rate was applied within geographical quadrants to correct for the presence of nidi it was found that 18 of the 23 helminth species were common and 5 were regarded as rare parasites of the raccoon. Two species of nematodes, T. spiralis and B. procyonis, displayed a markedly higher prevalence in male raccoons.

  19. Options for Kentucky's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

  20. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  1. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  2. Application of information technology to transportation logistics and security at Northern Kentucky University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    This research grant provided the opportunity to research and deploy beneficial transportation technologies to support transit needs. Working with the Transit Authority of Northern Kentucky (TANK), solutions were developed that can apply to transit ag...

  3. Seismic evaluation and ranking of embankments for bridges on and over the parkways in Western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This study represents one of the Seismic Evaluation of Bridges on and over the Parkways in Western Kentucky investigative series. The effort is focused on the seismic vulnerability of bridge embankments against slope instability and liquefaction pote...

  4. Developing a byproduct materials information system for the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Kentucky has numerous coal-fired, electric generating facilities and, as a result, there are abundant byproduct materials being produced from these facilities that have environmental, engineering, and economic potential as materials for use in common...

  5. Safety on North Carolina and Kentucky trout farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsanya, T J; Durborow, R M; Myers, M L; Cole, H P; Thompson, S L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe work-related safety hazards, injuries, and near-injury events (close calls) that occurred on trout farms in North Carolina and Kentucky. An interview instrument was used to collect information on occupational hazards, injuries, and near-injury events that resulted from work-related activities. Trout farmers reported occupational hazards including falling live tank lids, slippery surfaces on hauling trucks, lifting strains, falls from raceway walls and walkways, needlesticks while vaccinating fish, allergies, hypothermia/drowning, falls from cranes, chemical exposure, fire/explosions related to oxygen exposure, and electrical contact with overhead power lines. This study also reports solutions suggested by farm safety researchers or used by farmers to prevent the safety hazards found on trout farms.

  6. Physical properties of Kentucky's AML landslides: Case studies analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Vallejo, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Once an abandoned mined land (AML) landslide occurs and is identified as an emergency, engineers must rapidly implement a slope stabilization design. Correct slope remediation solutions are generally derived from well-executed geotechnical examinations. This paper summarizes a large body of geotechnical data compiled by the US office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) from AML landslides in eastern Kentucky. Special attention is placed on the examination of subsurface failures, phreatic water levels, soil profiles, and soil composition information from numerous borehole exploration programs. Strength properties calculated from laboratory procedures and stability analysis techniques were also reviewed. Laboratory-determined soil shear strength values were found to be higher than those inferred from stability analysis. This suggests that postfailure determinations of the phreatic surface may be largely inappropriate when used in stability analysis or that laboratory-measured shear strengths are ineffective in replicating in situ colluvium/spoil slope properties

  7. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  8. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  9. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  10. Economic effects of Ohio's smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the Ohio statewide smoke-free law is associated with economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky counties that lie on the border between the two states. In November 2006, Ohio implemented a comprehensive statewide smoke-free law for all indoor workplaces. A feasible generalised least squares (FLGS) time series design to estimate the impact of the Ohio smoke-free law on Kentucky and Ohio border counties. Six Kentucky and six Ohio counties that lie on the border between the two states. All reporting hospitality and accommodation establishments in all Kentucky and Ohio counties including but not limited to food and drinking establishments, hotels and casinos. Total number of employees, total wages paid and number of reported establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services, 6 years before Ohio's law and 1 year after. There is no evidence of a disproportionate change in economic activity in Ohio or Kentucky border counties relative to their non-border counterparts. There was no evidence of a relation between Ohio's smoke-free law and economic activity in Kentucky border counties. The law generated a positive influence on wages and number of establishments in Ohio border counties. The null result cannot be explained by low test power, as minimum changes necessary in the dependent variables to detect a significant influence are very reasonable in size. Our data add to the large body of evidence that smoke-free laws are neutral with respect to the hospitality business across jurisdictions with and without laws.

  11. Females engage in stronger relationships: positive and negative effects of shrubs are more intense for Poa ligularis females than for males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Pamela; Aguiar, Martin R; Almeida, Rocio J

    2018-05-22

    Dioecious plants are of particular concern in view of global environmental changes because reproductive females are more sensitive to abiotic stresses, thus compromising population viability. Positive interactions with other plants may counteract the direct effects of any abiotic environmental stress, allowing them to thrive and maintain a viable population in suboptimal habitats, although this process has not been tested for dioecious species. Furthermore, almost no data are available on the outcome of such species interactions and their link with local spatial patterns and sex ratios. We set up a field experiment with Poa ligularis, a dioecious native grass from the arid grasslands of South America. We studied the interaction of male and female plants with cushion shrubs of contrasting ecological strategies. We experimentally limited direct shrub-grass competition for soil moisture and transplanted plants to evaluate the amelioration of abiotic stress by shrub canopies (i.e. sun and wind) on grasses. We also studied the distribution of naturally established female and male plants to infer process-pattern relationships. Positive canopy effects as well as negative below-ground effects were more intense for females than for males. Deep-rooted Mulinum spinosum shrubs strongly facilitated survival, growth and reproduction of P. ligularis females. Naturally established female plants tended to distribute more closely to Mulinum than co-occurring males. Female growth suffered intensive negative root competition from the shallow-rooted Senecio filaginoides shrub. Interactions with other plants may reduce or enhance the effect of abiotic stresses on the seemingly maladapted sex to arid environments. We found that these biased interactions are evident in the current organization of sexes in the field, confirming our experimental findings. Therefore, indirect effects of climate change on population sex ratios may be expected if benefactor species abundances are

  12. Genetic lineages of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky spreading in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Magdalena; Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Le Hello, Simon; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2013-10-25

    The purpose of the study was to define genetic diversity of reptilian Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Kentucky isolates and their epidemiological relations to the ones from poultry, food, and environmental origin in Poland. Between 2010 and 2012 twenty-four S. Kentucky isolates derived from snakes (N=8), geckos (N=7), chameleons (N=4), agamas (N=1), lizard (N=1), and environmental swabs taken from reptile exhibition (N=3) were identified. They were characterized with antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentration testing, XbaI-PFGE and MLST typing. The profiles compared to S. Kentucky available in BioNumerics local laboratory database (N=40) showed 67.3% of relatedness among reptile isolates. Three genetic lineages were defined. The first lineage gathered 20 reptile isolates with 83.4% of similarity and wild-type MICs for all antimicrobials tested but streptomycin in single case. The remaining three reptilian and one post-exhibition environment S. Kentucky isolates were clustered (87.2%) with isolates originating from poultry, mainly turkey, food, and environment and presented variable non-wild type MICs to numerous antimicrobials. The third S. Kentucky lineage was composed of two isolates from feed (96.3%). The results suggest diverse sources and independent routes of infection. Most of the isolates belonged to reptile-associated clones spread both horizontally and vertically. Simultaneously, PFGE profiles and MLST type indistinguishable from the ones observed in poultry point out carnivore reptiles as possible vector of infection with multidrug and high-level ciprofloxacin resistant (MIC≥8 mg/L) S. Kentucky. Public awareness and education are required to prevent potential reptile-associated S. Kentucky infections in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is the Quality of Life in the Kentucky Mountains Improving? The Opinions of Community "Knowledgeables" and Ordinary Residents in Four Eastern Kentucky Counties, RS-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. Lee; Gabbard, Anne V.

    As part of a larger study aimed at assessing how local people view recent changes and development programs in four Eastern Kentucky counties (Harlan, Perry, Whitley, and Wolfe), a survey on perceived quality of life was conducted. Data were derived from personal interviews with selected local leaders (varying from 21 to 33 interviews per county)…

  14. Baseline Geochemical Data for Medical Researchers in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2017-12-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, Kentucky has the highest cancer incidence and death rates in the country. New efforts by geochemists and medical researchers are examining ways to diagnose the origin and sources of carcinogenesis. In an effort to determine if naturally occurring geochemical or mineral elements contributes to the cancer causation, the Kentucky Geological Survey has established a Minerals and Geochemical Database that is available to medical researchers for examination of baseline geochemistry and determine if naturally occurring mineral or chemical elements contribute to the high rate of cancers in the state. Cancer causation is complex, so if natural sources can be accounted for, then researchers can focus on the true causation. Naturally occurring minerals, metals and elements occur in many parts of the state, and their presence is valuable for evaluating causation. For example, some data in the database contain maps showing (a) statewide elemental geochemistry, (b) areas of black shale oxidation occurrence, which releases metals in soil and surface waters, (c) some clay deposits in the state that can contain high content of rare earth elements, and (d) site-specific uranium occurrences. Knowing the locations of major ore deposits in the state can also provide information related to mineral and chemical anomalies, such as for base metals and mercury. Radionuclide data in soil and water analyses are limited, so future research may involve obtaining more analyses to determine radon potential. This database also contains information on faulting and geology in the state. Although the metals content of trees may not seem relevant, the ash and humus content of degraded trees affects soil, stream sediment and water geochemistry. Many rural homes heat with wood, releasing metals into the surrounding biosphere. Stressed vegetation techniques can be used to explore for ore deposits and look for high metal contents in soils and rocks. These

  15. A Descriptive Review of the Development and Implementation of a Funding Model for the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The First 10 Years, 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior to the passage of the 1997 Kentucky Postsecondary Education Reform Act, postsecondary education in Kentucky was governed by the Council on Higher Education. The council was responsible for overseeing the educational activities of the University of Kentucky, the University of Louisville, Morehead State University, Northern Kentucky…

  16. Annual Report FY2011: Establishment of a Laboratory for Biofuels Research at the University of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Mark [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Crofcheck, Czarena [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2011-12-21

    This project is aimed at the development of the biofuels industry in Kentucky by establishing a laboratory to develop improved processes for biomass utilization. The facility is based at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and the Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, and constitutes an open laboratory, i.e., its equipment is available to other Kentucky researchers working in the area. The development of this biofuels facility represents a significant expansion of research infrastructure, and will provide a lasting resource for biobased research endeavors at the University of Kentucky. In order to enhance the laboratory's capabilities and contribute to on-going biofuels research at the University of Kentucky, initial research at the laboratory has focused on the following technical areas: (i) the identification of algae strains suitable for oil production, utilizing flue gas from coal-fired power plants as a source of CO2; (ii) the conversion of algae to biofuels; and (iii) thermochemical methods for the deconstruction of lignin. Highlights from these activities include a detailed study of bio-oil production from the fast pyrolysis of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp.) and the application of pyrolytic gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to the characterization of high lignin biomass feedstocks.

  17. CRISPR Typing and Antibiotic Resistance Correlates with Polyphyletic Distribution in Human Isolates of Salmonella Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosik, Dorothy; Tewari, Deepanker; Dettinger, Lisa; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M; Shariat, Nikki W

    2018-02-01

    Although infrequently associated with reported salmonellosis in humans, Salmonella enterica, subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky (ser. Kentucky) is the most common nonclinical, nonhuman serovar reported in the United States. The goal of this study was to use Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) to subtype a collection of human clinical isolates of ser. Kentucky submitted to the Pennsylvania Department of Health and to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in these strains. This analysis highlighted the polyphyletic nature of ser. Kentucky, and separated our isolates into two groups, Group I and Group II, which were equally represented in our collection. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility testing on all isolates using a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel of antibiotics demonstrated that resistance profiles could be divided into two groups. Group I isolates were resistant to cephems and penicillins, whereas Group II isolates were resistant to quinolones, gentamicin, and sulfisoxazole. Collectively, 50% of isolates were resistant to three or more classes of antibiotics and 30% were resistant to five or more classes. The correlation of antibiotic resistance with the two different lineages may reflect adaptation within two distinct reservoirs of ser. Kentucky, with differential exposure to antimicrobials.

  18. Kentucky pharmacists' opinions of the potential reclassification of pseudoephedrine as a legend drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Kathleen E.; Freeman, Patricia R.; Goodin, Amie J.; Talbert, Jeffery; Blumenschein, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To collect and analyze Kentucky pharmacists' opinions of the effectiveness of current methamphetamine precursor controls, to analyze proposed legislation to make pseudoephedrine (PSE) a legend drug, and to analyze the potential impact of such legislation on pharmacy practice and patients. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental survey study. Setting Kentucky; June through October 2012. Participants 431 Kentucky community pharmacists. Intervention Mailed survey. Main outcome measures Perceived efficacy of current methamphetamine precursor controls, anticipated impact on individual pharmacy practices and patients of proposed legislation to make PSE available by prescription only, and current opinions about the proposed legislation. Results Analysis of 431 community pharmacists showed that approximately 77% believed proposed legislation to make PSE available by prescription only would be effective in reducing methamphetamine abuse and methamphetamine-related laboratory incidents, with 56.2% indicating support for the proposed legislation. Pharmacists practicing in chain pharmacies were 2.9 times more likely to support the legislation than pharmacists practicing in independent pharmacies. Additional factors influencing pharmacist support included Kentucky region of practice, anticipated impact on time spent on PSE activities, pharmacy profit, methamphetamine abuse, and methamphetamine-related laboratory incidents. Pharmacists practicing in regions of Kentucky associated with higher methamphetamine abuse appear to more strongly support the proposed legislation. Conclusion Pharmacists are at the frontline of PSE distribution. Gaining a better understanding of issues surrounding the distribution of PSE will enhance the likelihood that future legislation may be crafted to reduce methamphetamine production, laboratory incidents, and abuse while minimizing inconvenience and cost. PMID:25063261

  19. A spatial cluster analysis of tractor overturns in Kentucky from 1960 to 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Saman

    Full Text Available Agricultural tractor overturns without rollover protective structures are the leading cause of farm fatalities in the United States. To our knowledge, no studies have incorporated the spatial scan statistic in identifying high-risk areas for tractor overturns. The aim of this study was to determine whether tractor overturns cluster in certain parts of Kentucky and identify factors associated with tractor overturns.A spatial statistical analysis using Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was performed to identify county clusters at greatest risk for tractor overturns. A regression analysis was then performed to identify factors associated with tractor overturns.The spatial analysis revealed a cluster of higher than expected tractor overturns in four counties in northern Kentucky (RR = 2.55 and 10 counties in eastern Kentucky (RR = 1.97. Higher rates of tractor overturns were associated with steeper average percent slope of pasture land by county (p = 0.0002 and a greater percent of total tractors with less than 40 horsepower by county (p<0.0001.This study reveals that geographic hotspots of tractor overturns exist in Kentucky and identifies factors associated with overturns. This study provides policymakers a guide to targeted county-level interventions (e.g., roll-over protective structures promotion interventions with the intention of reducing tractor overturns in the highest risk counties in Kentucky.

  20. Establishment of a Laboratory for Biofuels Research at the University of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Mark [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Crofcheck, Czarena [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2013-03-29

    This project was aimed at the development of the biofuels industry in Kentucky by establishing a laboratory to develop improved processes for biomass utilization. The facility is based at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and the Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, and constitutes an “open” laboratory, i.e., its equipment is available to other Kentucky researchers working in the area. The development of this biofuels facility represents a significant expansion of research infrastructure, and will provide a lasting resource for biobased research endeavors at the University of Kentucky. In order to enhance the laboratory's capabilities and contribute to on-going biofuels research at the University of Kentucky, initial research at the laboratory has focused on the following technical areas: (i) the identification of algae strains suitable for oil production, utilizing flue gas from coal-fired power plants as a source of CO2; (ii) the conversion of algae to biofuels; and (iii) the development of methods for the analysis of lignin and its deconstruction products. Highlights from these activities include the development of catalysts for the upgrading of lipids to hydrocarbons by means of decarboxylation/decarbonylation (deCOx), a study of bio-oil production from the fast pyrolysis of algae (Scenedesmus), and the application of pyrolytic gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to the characterization of high lignin biomass feedstocks.

  1. 77 FR 28872 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky Utilities Stakeholder Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory... is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. SPP-ITO Louisville Gas & Electric/Kentucky...

  2. 77 FR 41980 - Uniontown Hydro, LLC, Project No. 12958-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Uniontown Hydroelectric Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Uniontown Hydroelectric Project; Newburgh Hydro, LLC, Project No. 12962-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Newburgh Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a... licenses for the proposed Uniontown Hydroelectric Project and Newburgh Hydroelectric Project. The...

  3. Providing Support for Rural Teachers of Students with Low Incidence Disabilities Who Are Completing the Kentucky Teacher Internship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Michael; Collins, Belva C.; Kleinert, Harold; Pennington, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Education and Professional Standards Board (EPSB) is the governing organization for teacher certification in Kentucky. According to the EPSB (2013a), only three institutions of higher education in the state (i.e., Morehead State University, University of Kentucky, University of Louisville) offer an approved alternate certificate program in…

  4. Exploring the inquiry experience: A focus on Kentucky teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Beth

    2007-12-01

    Inquiry-based instruction is driven by active participation by the learner. Through the learning process, critical thinking skills are practiced. While inquiry methods are often discussed in the realm of science education, the methods are not subject specific. In fact, the Kentucky Program of Studies calls for the incorporation of inquiry strategies into all areas of the curriculum. This call for more inquiry-based education occurs in the midst of a national testing debate in which accountability is tied to student test scores. This study takes a narrative approach to explore teachers' experiences with using inquiry methods. Interviews were conducted with teachers who, at least 1 year prior to participating in this study, had attended a weeklong intensive professional development workshop on using inquiry methods for instruction. A method is described for analyzing interview data direct in its digital audio form---without transcription. Eight teachers' experiences are presented here in the narrative form and their narratives are compared for an overall analysis. Themes of conflict previously reported in the literature are explored in participants' stories. This research concludes with a discussion of the results, a reflection on the method, and suggestions for the future based on teachers' experiences with using inquiry-based learning strategies.

  5. A Radiation Laboratory Curriculum Development at Western Kentucky University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-01-01

    We present the latest developments for the radiation laboratory curriculum at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Western Kentucky University. During the last decade, the Applied Physics Institute (API) at WKU accumulated various equipment for radiation experimentation. This includes various neutron sources (computer controlled d-t and d-d neutron generators, and isotopic 252 Cf and PuBe sources), the set of gamma sources with various intensities, gamma detectors with various energy resolutions (NaI, BGO, GSO, LaBr and HPGe) and the 2.5-MeV Van de Graaff particle accelerator. XRF and XRD apparatuses are also available for students and members at the API. This equipment is currently used in numerous scientific and teaching activities. Members of the API also developed a set of laboratory activities for undergraduate students taking classes from the physics curriculum (Nuclear Physics, Atomic Physics, and Radiation Biophysics). Our goal is to develop a set of radiation laboratories, which will strengthen the curriculum of physics, chemistry, geology, biology, and environmental science at WKU. The teaching and research activities are integrated into real-world projects and hands-on activities to engage students. The proposed experiments and their relevance to the modern status of physical science are discussed.

  6. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey began a program to map the State geologically at a scale of 1:24,000 and to publish the maps as 707 U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Maps. Fieldwork was completed by the spring of 1977, and all maps were published by December 1978. Geologic mapping of the State was proposed by the Kentucky Society of Professional Engineers in 1959. Wallace W. Hagan, Director and State Geologist of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and Preston McGrain, Assistant State Geologist, promoted support for the proposal among organizations such as Chambers of Commerce, industrial associations, professional societies, and among members of the State government. It was also arranged for the U.S. Geological Survey to supply mapping personnel and to publish the maps; the cost would be shared equally by the two organizations. Members of the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to the program were organized as the Branch of Kentucky Geology. Branch headquarters, including an editorial staff, was at Lexington, Ky., but actual mapping was conducted from 18 field offices distributed throughout the State. The Publications Division of the U.S. Geological Survey established a cartographic office at Lexington to prepare the maps for publication. About 260 people, including more than 200 professionals, were assigned to the Branch of Kentucky Geology by the U.S. Geological Survey at one time or another. The most geologists assigned any one year was 61. To complete the mapping and ancillary studies, 661 professional man-years were required, compared with an original estimate of 600 man-years. A wide variety of field methods were used, but most geologists relied on the surveying altimeter to obtain elevations. Surface data were supplemented by drill-hole records, and several dozen shallow diamond-drill holes were drilled to aid the mapping. Geologists generally scribed their own maps, with a consequent saving of publication costs

  7. ONE YEAR'S EXPERIENCE IN REGULATING BYPRODUCT, SOURCE, AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL IN THE COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C L

    1963-06-15

    On March 26, 1962, Kentucky assumed regulatory control for the licensing of subcritical nuclear materials within its boundaries. The administration of the state radiological health program is described, and the manpower, fiscal, and equipment requirements are outlined. The licensing activity of the state is also described. Results are reported of preliminary studies of state-owned land for low-level radioactive waste disposal. The procedures for inspection of licensees are described. Proposed changes in the Radiological Health regulations of Kentucky in order to bring about compatibility with AEC's code of Federal Regulations are outlined. (D.L.C.)

  8. Rare Mineralogy in Alkaline Ultramafic Rocks, Western Kentucky Fluorspar District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.

    2017-12-01

    The alkaline ultramafic intrusive dike complex in the Western Kentucky Fluorspar District contains unusual mineralogy that was derived from mantle magma sources. Lamprophyre and peridotite petrologic types occur in the district where altered fractionated peridotites are enriched in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and some lamprophyre facies are depleted in incompatible elements. Unusual minerals in dikes, determined by petrography and X-ray diffraction, include schorlomite and andradite titanium garnets, astrophyllite, spodumene, niobium rutile, wüstite, fluoro-tetraferriphlogopite, villiaumite, molybdenite, and fluocerite, a REE-bearing fluoride fluorescent mineral. Mixing of MVT sphalerite ore fluids accompanies a mid-stage igneous alteration and intrusion event consistent with paragenetic studies. The presence of lithium in the spodumene and fluoro-tetraferriphlogopite suggests a lithium phase in the mineral fluids, and the presence of enriched REE in dikes and fluorite mineralization suggest a metasomatic event. Several of these rare minerals have never been described in the fluorspar district, and their occurrence suggests deep mantle metasomatism. Several REE-bearing fluoride minerals occur in the dikes and in other worldwide occurrences, they are usually associated with nepheline syenite and carbonatite differentiates. There is an early and late stage fluoride mineralization, which accompanied dike intrusion and was also analyzed for REE content. One fluorite group is enriched in LREE and another in MREE, which suggests a bimodal or periodic fluorite emplacement. Whole-rock elemental analysis was chondrite normalized and indicates that some of the dikes are slightly enriched in light REE and show a classic fractionation enrichment. Variations in major-element content; high titanium, niobium, and zirconium values; and high La/Yb, Zr/Y, Zr/Hf, and Nb/Ta ratios suggest metasomatized lithospheric-asthenospheric mantle-sourced intrusions. The high La/Yb ratios in some

  9. An investigation into the potential use and sustainability of surfactant coated turfgrass seed for the green industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidanza, Michael; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stan; Madsen, Matthew D.

    2014-05-01

    Turfgrass seed germination and emergence is influenced mostly by water and oxygen availability, temperature, nutrition and biological activity in the rootzone. In many areas globally, seed germination and subsequent turfgrass establishment is greatly diminished due to inadequate irrigation water amount and quality, and the problem is further compound due to water repellent soils. Successful turfgrass seed germination is critical when attempting to establish a more sustainable turfgrass species in place of an existing, high-input required turf stand. Greenhouse research investigations were conducted in 2013 in Pennsylvania (USA), to evaluate surfactant coated perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) seed for germination and emergence, seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality. Both turfgrasses tested are cool-season or C3 grasses, and perennial ryegrass has a bunch-type growth habit while Kentucky bluegrass is rhizomatous. Perennial ryegrass is used world-wide as a principal component in sports turf mixes and in overseeding programs, and typically germinates rapidly in 3 to 10 days after seeding. Kentucky bluegrass also is used world-wide for sports turf as well as lawns and landscapes, and germinates slowly in 7 to 28 days. Research results indicate that surfactant coated seed of both species germinated one to three days faster compared to uncoated seed, and that seedling vigor and overall turfgrass quality was better with surfactant coated seed compared to uncoated seed. In a study with only perennial ryegrass, surfactant-coated seed without fertilizer (i.e., N and Ca) applied at time of sowing resulted in seedling vigor and quality considered to be similar or better than uncoated seed with fertilizer applied at time of sowing. Therefore, the potential benefits with seed germination and emergence, and seedling vigor and turfgrass quality also may be attributed to the surfactant coating and not only a fertilizer response. The

  10. Development of a Clinical Pharmacology Graduate Program at the University of Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Robert A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The structure, components, and anticipated outcomes of a University of Kentucky doctoral program in pharmacology are described. The program is designed to develop pharmacy-trained specialists who are interested in rigorous, intensive clinical experience, state-of-the-art coursework, and integrated laboratory-based and clinical dissertation…

  11. Dealing with Misbehavior at Schools in Kentucky: Theoretical and Contextual Predictors of Use of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Timothy E.; May, David C.

    2008-01-01

    To test and compare theoretical explanations of the use of corporal punishment in school, the authors examine how well county-level measures of culture, socioeconomic strain, and social capital predict the prevalence and incidence of corporal punishment in Kentucky schools. Although several variables are significantly correlated with corporal…

  12. 78 FR 23563 - LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9805-2; CERCLA-04-2013-3751] LWD, Inc. Superfund Site... costs concerning the LWD, Inc., Superfund Site located in Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky. The... V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name LWD, Inc., Superfund Site by one of the following...

  13. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order of Suspension of Trading May 23, 2013. It appears... concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  14. Restoring the rare Kentucky lady's slipper orchid to the Kisatchie National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; Kevin Allen; David Moore

    2012-01-01

    The Kentucky lady’s slipper (Cypripedium kentuckiense C.F. Reed [Orchidaceae]) is a spectacular orchid native to the southeastern US. Although its range includes much of the Southeast, it is rare due to loss of appropriate edaphic and climatic habitats. Efforts to restore this species to the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana were initiated by a high school student...

  15. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  16. Variations in productivity and performance in grade lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1987-01-01

    Sawmill effectiveness is crucial to the growth and development of wood industries among locales, states, regions, and countries. Productivity ratios, structural factors, and other indicators of economic performance were used to measure the relative productive efficiency of the grade hardwood lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Despite...

  17. Personal Reflections of Funeral Rituals and Spirituality in a Kentucky African American Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Wanda Lott; Doolittle, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the authors' experiences and observations as grief/bereavement counselors participating in urban and rural funerals. A vignette illustrates the use of rituals and spirituality of one African American family, living in a rural area of Kentucky, and their efforts to cope with their own grief and loss of a loved one. The…

  18. The Impact of Agriculture on Other Business Activity: A Nationwide Analysis Applied to Fayette County, Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Leigh J.; Dunaway, Tarrah; Garkovich, Lorraine; Davis, Alison F.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the county-level impact of equine sales and horse racing on business activity in six other industries. In Fayette County, Kentucky, the results suggested that equine activities substantially increase the number of establishments, payroll, and sales in the hospitality, recreation, finance, professional services, real estate, and retail industries.

  19. 78 FR 58884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Stage II Requirements for Enterprise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 to 4:30 excluding Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER..., gasoline dispensing facilities with a monthly throughput of 25,000 gallons or more located in a Kentucky... the CAA, the Administrator is required to approve a SIP submission that complies with the provisions...

  20. Long-Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Air Temperature for Kentucky, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsubhra Chattopadhyay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation in quantities such as precipitation and temperature is often assessed by detecting and characterizing trends in available meteorological data. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term trends in annual precipitation and mean annual air temperature for the state of Kentucky. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied to homogenized and (as needed pre-whitened annual series of precipitation and mean air temperature during 1950–2010. Significant trends in annual precipitation were detected (both positive, averaging 4.1 mm/year for only two of the 60 precipitation-homogenous weather stations (Calloway and Carlisle counties in rural western Kentucky. Only three of the 42 temperature-homogenous stations demonstrated trends (all positive, averaging 0.01 °C/year in mean annual temperature: Calloway County, Allen County in southern-central Kentucky, and urbanized Jefferson County in northern-central Kentucky. In view of the locations of the stations demonstrating positive trends, similar work in adjacent states will be required to better understand the processes responsible for those trends and to properly place them in their larger context, if any.

  1. Preliminary seismic evaluation and ranking of bridges on and over the parkways in Western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Five parkways in Western Kentucky are located in the region that is greatly influenced by the New Madrid and Wabash Valley Seismic Zones. This report executes a preliminary screening process, known also as the Seismic Rating System, for bridges on an...

  2. Project B.E.S.T.: Language Development Handbook. Kentucky's Individualized Kindergartens (KIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Bureau of Education for Exceptional Children.

    Project BEST (Building Educational and Social Skills Through Training) seeks to develop social skills in students. As a first step, high-risk kindergarten students attending school in Spencer County, Kentucky, were identified through systematic screening and assessment procedures and a curriculum was developed to meet the individual needs of the…

  3. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Kentucky's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  4. Occupational and Educational Goals of Low Income Children in Kentucky, 1969 and 1975. RS-49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee

    Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…

  5. Public Schools Energy Conservation Measures, Report Number 4: Hindman Elementary School, Hindman, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Presented is a study identifying and evaluating opportunities for decreasing energy use at Hindman Elementary School, Hindman, Kentucky. Methods used in this engineering investigation include building surveys, computer simulations and cost estimates. Findings revealed that modifications to the school's boiler, temperature controls, electrical…

  6. Urban and community forests of the South Central East region: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  7. Effect of Strip Mining on Water Quality in Small Streams in Eastern Kentucky, 1967-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Dyer; Willie R. Curtis

    1977-01-01

    Eight years of streamflow data are analyzed to show the effects of strip mining on chemical quality of water in six first-order streams in Breathitt County, Kentucky. All these watersheds were unmined in August, 1967, but five have since been strip mined. The accumulated data from this case history study indicate that strip mining causes large increases in the...

  8. A New NPGS Special Collection: Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Clover Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Norman L. Taylor was a world renowned Professor and clover breeder in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky for 48 years. Following retirement in 2001, he continued working on clovers up until his death in 2010. Dr. Taylor’s entire career was devoted to enhancin...

  9. Personality Trait and Professional Choice among Preservice Teachers in Eastern Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel; Stockburger, Muriel

    A preliminary study was conducted to examine indicators which tend to reflect relationships between personality traits and professional choice among elementary education students enrolled in the teacher education program in Eastern Kentucky University. Education students in elementary education (N=122) completed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator.…

  10. Economic effects of smoke-free laws on rural and urban counties in Kentucky and Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined the influence of smoke-free legislation on economic activity, with most finding a null effect. The influence could possibly differ in rural areas relative to urban areas due to differing rates of smoking prevalence and access to prevention and treatment programs. Furthermore, the discussion of the effectiveness of smoke-free laws has been extended to consider local ordinances relative to statewide laws. This study examines these issues using 21 local laws in Kentucky and the Ohio statewide smoke-free law. The number of employees, total wages paid, and number of reporting establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services in Kentucky and Ohio counties were documented, beginning the first quarter 2001 and ending the last quarter of 2009. A generalized estimating equation time-series design is used to estimate the impact of local and state smoke-free laws in Kentucky and Ohio rural and urban counties. There is no evidence that the economies in Kentucky counties were affected in any way from the implementation of local smoke-free laws. There was also no evidence that total employment or the number of establishments was influenced by the statewide law in Ohio, but wages increased following the implementation of the law. Furthermore, there is no evidence that either rural or urban counties experienced a loss of economic activity following smoke-free legislation. The study finds no evidence that local or state smoke-free legislation negatively influences local economies in either rural or urban communities.

  11. 77 FR 56208 - Filing Dates for the Kentucky Special Election in the 4th Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... 4th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Kentucky has scheduled a general election on November 6, 2012, to fill the U.S... required to file reports in connection with the Special General Election on November 6, 2012, shall file a...

  12. 76 FR 20853 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Approval of Section 110...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... include contingency measures. On December 22, 2006, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of... Commenters' view that Kentucky's Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program does not require new... CAA section 110(a)(1). The Courts have agreed with EPA's longstanding view that a maintenance...

  13. 75 FR 24572 - Foreign-Trade Zone 29 - Louisville, Kentucky, Application for Subzone, Louisville Bedding Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... - Louisville, Kentucky, Application for Subzone, Louisville Bedding Company (Household Bedding Products...-purpose subzone status for the bedding products manufacturing facilities of Louisville Bedding Company... facilities are used to manufacture household bedding products, including mattress pads and pillows (up to 10...

  14. International Spread of an Epidemic Population of Salmonella enterica Serotype Kentucky ST198 Resistant to Ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hello, Simon; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Doublet, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    National Salmonella surveillance systems from France, England and Wales, Denmark, and the United States identified the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. A total of 489 human cases were ident...

  15. Shifts in relative stocking of common tree species in Kentucky from 1975 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Jeffrey A. Stringer; Jeffery A. Turner

    2008-01-01

    Changes in species-specific relative stocking indicate the extent to which a species is either increasing or decreasing in a particular system. Changes in relative stocking values of common tree species in Kentucky from 1988 to 2004 were compared to values calculated for 1975 to 1988. Mean annual increase in relative stocking between 1988 and 2004 was greatest for...

  16. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  17. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  18. State heating oil and propane program (SHOPP). Final report, 1995/96 - Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Kentucky's second year of participation in SHOPP was successful. The survey started with a sample group of fifty (50), with forty-nine (49) actually participating. Survey participants were contacted by telephone each reporting period from October to March. Some companies reported supply problems, due to allocation, resulting in having to go greater distances to obtain the propane they needed and some reported only being supplied a portion of what they wanted. Most companies did not experience allocation or supply problems. The winter was colder and longer than usual. Wholesale prices did increase. However, most suppliers tried to keep prices down. There were a few reports of problems delivering to customers due to an abnormal amount of snow in eastern Kentucky

  19. For two regional health foundations, returns from the Kentucky Health Issues Poll are worth the investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah E; Myers, Gail; Chubinski, Jennifer; Zepeda, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    With finite resources to advance their missions, regional health foundations should critically evaluate the investments they make. This article reviews the costs and associated benefits of large-scale public opinion polling--specifically, the annual Kentucky Health Issues Poll, which is sponsored by the Foundation for a Healthy Kentucky and Interact for Health, formerly the Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati. In addition to the information generated by the poll, the sponsoring foundations have benefited from increased name recognition and credibility with key stakeholders, including state policy makers and the media. Furthermore, jointly funding the poll has strengthened the relationship between the sponsoring foundations and has fostered other key collaborations. We find that the benefits from this poll more than justify its modest costs ($120,000 per year) and hope that this assessment may prove informative for other funders considering similar investments. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Winter swarming behavior by the exotic cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 in a Kentucky (USA) reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John R.; Renicker, Thomas R.; Tausz, Claudia E.; Young, Jade L.; Thomason, Jennifer C.; Wolf, Zachary L.; Russell, Amber L.; Cherry, Mac A.; Scotese, Kyle C.; Koenig, Dawn T.

    2018-01-01

    We describe swarming behavior in the invasive cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi Sars, 1885 in a Kentucky, USA, reservoir during winter 2017. The taxon is a highly successful tropical invader and has spread throughout the lower latitude systems in the USA since its discovery in 1991. Other than a few isolated reports, the abundance of D. lumholtzi is often 10,000 organisms L-1) of sexually reproducing females of this exotic cladoceran at water column temperatures <10°C.

  1. The global establishment of a highly-fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eLe Hello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife and in environment is suspected in other countries of different continents. Here, we report results of an in-depth molecular epidemiological study on a global human and non-human collection of S. Kentucky (n=70.We performed XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions, detected β-lactam resistance mechanisms, and screened the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1. In this study, we highlight the rapid and extensive worldwide dissemination of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198-X1-SGI1 strain since the mid-2000s in an increasingly large number of contaminated sources, including the environment. This strain has accumulated an increasing number of chromosomal and plasmid resistance determinants and has been identified in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Europe since 2010. The second substitution at position 87 in GyrA (replacing the amino acid Asp appeared helpful for epidemiological studies to track the origin of contamination.This global study provides evidence leading to the conclusion that high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. Kentucky is a simple microbiological trait that facilitates the identification of the epidemic clone of interest, ST198-X1-SGI1. Taking this into account is essential in order to detect and monitor it easily and to take rapid measures in livestock to ensure control of this infection.

  2. Pharmacists' role in opioid overdose: Kentucky pharmacists' willingness to participate in naloxone dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Patricia R; Goodin, Amie; Troske, SuZanne; Strahl, Audra; Fallin, Amanda; Green, Traci C

    To assess pharmacists' willingness to initiate the dispensing of naloxone. As of 2015, Kentucky law permits certified pharmacists to dispense naloxone under a physician-approved protocol. Electronic survey (e-mail) gauging perception of pharmacists' role in opioid overdose and attitudes toward, and barriers to, naloxone dispensing. All Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses in 2015. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of pharmacist characteristics and attitudes on willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, where the dependent variable was operationalized as a Likert-type question on a scale of 1 (not at all willing) to 6 (very willing). Of 4699 practicing Kentucky pharmacists, 1282 responded, of which 834 were community practitioners (response rate 27.3%). Pharmacists reported varying willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, with 37.3% very willing (score 5 or 6) and 27.9% not willing (score 1 or 2). However, a majority of pharmacists reported willingness to dispense naloxone with a valid prescription (54.0%, score 5 or 6). Women pharmacists were 1.3 times more likely than men to be willing to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.6). Those who reported confidence in identifying individuals at risk for overdose were 1.2 times more likely to initiate dispensing, and those who reported confidence in ability to educate patients about overdose were 1.6 times more likely to express willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% CIs, respectively, 1.0-1.3 and 1.4-1.8). Community pharmacists reported barriers to naloxone access at higher rates than pharmacists from other practice settings. Kentucky pharmacists are divided in their willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing; however, those who are confident in their ability to identify overdose risks are more willing. Increasing pharmacist confidence through appropriately designed education programs could facilitate pharmacist participation in naloxone

  3. Landscape Influences on Potential Soil Respiration Rates in a Forested Watershed of Southeastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda C. Abnee; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka; Elisa M. D' Angelo; Mark S. Coyne

    2004-01-01

    Soil respiration measurements conducted in the laboratory have been shown to be related to temperature and moisture, with maximum rates at soil temperatures between 25 and 40°C and soil moisture between -0.01 and -0.10 MPa. A preliminary study using forest soils from eastern Kentucky supported the previous research with soil respiration rates greater at 25°C than at 15...

  4. Syndromic surveillance: hospital emergency department participation during the Kentucky Derby Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth; Goss, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Electronic syndromic surveillance may have value in detecting emerging pathogens or a biological weapons release. Hospitals that have an agile process to evaluate chief complaints of patients seeking emergency care may be able to more quickly identify subtle changes in the community's health. An easily adaptable prototype system was developed to monitor emergency department patient visits during the Kentucky Derby Festival in Louisville, Kentucky, from April 16-May 14, 2002. Use of the system was continued during the same festival periods in 2003 and 2004. Twelve area hospitals in Louisville, Kentucky, participated in a prospective analysis of the chief symptoms of patients who sought care in the emergency department during the Kentucky Derby Festival during 2002. Six hospitals were classified as computer record groups (CRG) and used their existing computerized record capabilities. The other 6 hospitals used a personal digital assistant (PDA) with customized software (PDA group). Data were evaluated by the health department epidemiologist using SaTScan, a modified version of a cancer cluster detection program, to look for clusters of cases above baseline over time and by Zip code. All 12 hospitals were able to collect and provide data elements during the study period. The 6 CRG hospitals were able to perform daily data transmission; however, 3 CRG hospitals were unable to interpret their data because it was transmitted in pure text format. In contrast, data from all 6 PDA group hospitals were interpretable. Real-time data analysis was compared with post-event data, and it was found that the real-time evaluation correctly identified no unusual disease activity during the study period. The 12 hospitals participating in this study demonstrated that community-wide surveillance using computerized data was possible and that the 6 study hospitals using a PDA could quickly interpret emergency department patients' chief complaints. The emergency department chief complaints

  5. Achieving 80% BSN by 2020: Lessons Learned From Kentucky's Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Brandford, Arica; Barnum, Nancy; Westneat, Susan

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the educational status and plans of Kentucky's RN workforce in advancing nursing educational levels. The Institute of Medicine called for 80% of nurses to hold a minimum of a BSN by 2020. Nurse leaders from practice, academe, and the community need evidence to guide the development of effective strategies. An electronic survey was administered to Kentucky's RNs. This descriptive analysis was based on 1363 usable responses. Only 40% of Kentucky's RNs held at least a BSN. Another 17% were enrolled in a nursing degree program; half of those enrolled were pursuing a BSN. Of those not enrolled in a degree program, 61.5% reported no plans to return to school. The top barriers were lack of perceived benefit, financial concerns, family obligations, and planned retirement. The top motivating factor was career advancement. The gap between the current reality and the goal is wide. Nurse leaders will need to develop creative strategies that strengthen motivating factors and reduce barriers to accelerate movement toward increasing BSN rates.

  6. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  7. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  8. State Approved Programs of Teacher Preparation Offered by Kentucky Colleges and Universities (as of July 1, 1981). Teacher Education Circular #352.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Teacher Education and Certification.

    Characteristics of 23 Kentucky teacher education programs, at institutions which qualify for consideration under the Interstate Certification Contract for classroom teachers, are provided in this report. The process that culminates in institutional accreditation and teacher certification in Kentucky is outlined and is followed by a listing of the…

  9. Status of Women in Kentucky State Agencies. Sixth Report. An Analysis of Employment Job Levels and Salaries as of November, 1982. Staff Report 83-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Kyle D.

    According to this report by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, women in the Kentucky State government continued to suffer from serious inequities as of November 1982. The salary gap between men and women widened to an annual difference of $4,114, the largest gap of an eight-year trend. The salary gap between black women and white women grew…

  10. The Genome sequences of four non-human/non-clinical Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 isolates recovered between 1972 and 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Kentucky is a polyphyletic member of S. enterica subclade A1 with multiple sequence types that often colonize the same hosts but in different frequencies on different continents. To evaluate the genomic features involved in S. Kentucky host specificity we sequenced the genomes of four iso...

  11. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  13. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the

  14. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eCloeckaert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30, covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.

  15. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  17. Peer mentoring of telescope operations and data reduction at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Carini, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Peer mentoring plays an important role in the astronomy program at Western Kentucky University. I will describe how undergraduates teach and mentor other undergraduates the basics of operating our 0.6m telescope and data reduction (IRAF) techniques. This peer to peer mentoring creates a community of undergraduate astronomy scholars at WKU. These scholars bond and help each other with research, coursework, social, and personal issues. This community atmosphere helps to draw in and retain other students interested in astronomy and other STEM careers.

  18. School Audits and School Improvement: Exploring the Variance Point Concept in Kentucky's... Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lyons

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a diagnostic intervention (Bowles, Churchill, Effrat, & McDermott, 2002 for schools failing to meet school improvement goals, Ken-tucky used a scholastic audit process based on nine standards and 88 associated indicators called the Standards and Indicators for School Improvement (SISI. Schools are rated on a scale of 1–4 on each indicator, with a score of 3 considered as fully functional (Kentucky De-partment of Education [KDE], 2002. As part of enacting the legislation, KDE was required to also audit a random sample of schools that did meet school improvement goals; thereby identifying practices present in improving schools that are not present in those failing to improve. These practices were referred to as variance points, and were reported to school leaders annually. Variance points have differed from year to year, and the methodology used by KDE was unclear. Moreover, variance points were reported for all schools without differentiating based upon the level of school (elementary, middle, or high. In this study, we established a transparent methodology for variance point determination that differentiates between elementary, middle, and high schools.

  19. A Case Study of the Impediments to the Commercialization of Research at the University of Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Nathan L; Marcinkowski, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The commercialization of university-based research occurs to varying degrees between academic institutions. Previous studies have found that multiple barriers can impede the effectiveness and efficiency by which academic research is commercialized. This case study was designed to analyze the status of the commercialization activity at the University of Kentucky via a survey and interview with a successful academic entrepreneur in order to determine the impediments the individual perceived during the commercialization process. The study also garnered insight from the individual as to how the commercialization process could be improved. Issues with infrastructure were highlighted as the most significant barrier faced by the individual. The research subject also suggested that commercialization activity may generally increase if a number of factors were mitigated. Such insight can be communicated to the administrative leadership of the commercialization process at the University of Kentucky. Long term, improving university-based research commercialization will allow academic researchers to be more active and successful entrepreneurs such that intellectual property will progress more freely to the marketplace for the benefit of inventors, universities, and society.

  20. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Comiford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. METHODS: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues of intimate partner problem-related suicides. RESULTS: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems.

  1. Threshold responses of Blackside Dace (Chrosomus cumberlandensis) and Kentucky Arrow Darter (Etheostoma spilotum) to stream conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Floyd, Michael; Compton, Michael; McDonald, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Chrosomus cumberlandensis (Blackside Dace [BSD]) and Etheostoma spilotum (Kentucky Arrow Darter [KAD]) are fish species of conservation concern due to their fragmented distributions, their low population sizes, and threats from anthropogenic stressors in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the relationship between fish abundance and stream conductivity, an index of environmental quality and potential physiological stressor. We modeled occurrence and abundance of KAD in the upper Kentucky River basin (208 samples) and BSD in the upper Cumberland River basin (294 samples) for sites sampled between 2003 and 2013. Segmented regression indicated a conductivity change-point for BSD abundance at 343 μS/cm (95% CI: 123–563 μS/cm) and for KAD abundance at 261 μS/cm (95% CI: 151–370 μS/cm). In both cases, abundances were negligible above estimated conductivity change-points. Post-hoc randomizations accounted for variance in estimated change points due to unequal sample sizes across the conductivity gradients. Boosted regression-tree analysis indicated stronger effects of conductivity than other natural and anthropogenic factors known to influence stream fishes. Boosted regression trees further indicated threshold responses of BSD and KAD occurrence to conductivity gradients in support of segmented regression results. We suggest that the observed conductivity relationship may indicate energetic limitations for insectivorous fishes due to changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community composition.

  2. Derivation of site-specific selenium criteria for a Kentucky stream receiving fly ash effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reash, R.J.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Blaine Creek, a fifth-order tributary to the Big Sandy River in eastern Kentucky, receives fly ash effluent from Kentucky Power Company's Big Sandy Plant fly ash pond near the creek's mouth. Long-term biosurvey/physicochemical data and speciation studies were used to derive proposed site-specific selenium water quality criteria. Biosurvey results from 1982--1990 were consistent in showing no adverse effects of fly ash discharge, even during low flow conditions when the effluent comprised 75% of creek flow. Five macroinvertebrate parameters (taxa richness, total abundance, EPT taxa, number caddisflies and chironomids) were significantly correlated with % effluent, indicating enhanced communities at high instream waste concentrations. Several fish metrics similarly showed greater enhancement at high % effluent conditions. Selenium speciation studies indicated that selenite (Se 4+ ) represented 100% of total selenium in the effluent. Total selenium concentrations were low at fully mixed downstream reaches. US EPA's Recalculation Procedure was used to calculate site-specific selenium criteria based on Se 4+ toxicity data for resident species. These criteria are higher than statewide criteria which are based on selenium, effects at waterbodies having low turnover rates

  3. Subsurface geology of the upper Devonian-lower Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippi black-shale sequence is an important source of natural gas in eastern Kentucky and with technological advances may be an important source of synthetic oil and uranium on the flanks of the Cincinnati arch. To enhance the understanding and development of these resources in the black-shale sequence, eight isopach maps, eight structure-contour maps and nine isopach maps of highly radioactive black shale were constructed. Structural features including the Rome trough, Rockcastle River uplift, Pine Mountain thrust fault, Kentucky River and Paint Creek fault zones and unnamed basinal areas in Greenup, Pike, and Knott counties were identified on the maps. Faults bounding the Rome trough and other structures were active intermittently throughout Late Devonian time. Other structures show only post-Devonian activity, whereas some show both Devonian and post-Devonian activity. Comparison of structure-contour and isopach maps allow the differentiation of syn- and post-sedimentray structural activity relative to the black-shale sequence. A north-south trending hinge line separates a broad platform area from an area of rapid eastward thickening into the Appalachian basin. Units 7 through 1 progressively onlap the Cincinnati arch; units 4 through 1 cover the arch

  4. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  5. rpoS-Regulated core genes involved in the competitive fitness of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky in the intestines of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Pedroso, Adriana Ayres; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Lee, Margie D; Kwan, Tiffany; Zamperini, Katherine; Soni, Vivek; Sellers, Holly S; Russell, Scott M; Maurer, John J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky has become the most frequently isolated serovar from poultry in the United States over the past decade. Despite its prevalence in poultry, it causes few human illnesses in the United States. The dominance of S. Kentucky in poultry does not appear to be due to single introduction of a clonal strain, and its reduced virulence appears to correlate with the absence of virulence genes grvA, sseI, sopE, and sodC1. S. Kentucky's prevalence in poultry is possibly attributable to its metabolic adaptation to the chicken cecum. While there were no difference in the growth rate of S. Kentucky and S. Typhimurium grown microaerophilically in cecal contents, S. Kentucky persisted longer when chickens were coinfected with S. Typhimurium. The in vivo advantage that S. Kentucky has over S. Typhimurium appears to be due to differential regulation of core Salmonella genes via the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS. Microarray analysis of Salmonella grown in cecal contents in vitro identified several metabolic genes and motility and adherence genes that are differentially activated in S. Kentucky. The contributions of four of these operons (mgl, prp, nar, and csg) to Salmonella colonization in chickens were assessed. Deletion of mgl and csg reduced S. Kentucky persistence in competition studies in chickens infected with wild-type or mutant strains. Subtle mutations affecting differential regulation of core Salmonella genes appear to be important in Salmonella's adaptation to its animal host and especially for S. Kentucky's emergence as the dominant serovar in poultry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. The global establishment of a highly-fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Hello, Simon; Bekhit, Amany; Granier, Sophie A.

    2013-01-01

    While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife) and in environment is suspected in other countrie...

  7. Increasing populations of Kentucky lady’s slipper orchid on the Kisatchie National Forest: seedling production and outplanting trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Shannan Sharp; Kevin Allen; Andy Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Kentucky lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium kentuckiense C.F. Reed) is a tall, stately perennial plant with the largest flowers of any Cypripedium known. Its range includes much of the Southeastern United States, though it is rare throughout its range due to specific edaphic and climatic habitat requirements. In Louisiana, a...

  8. The potential for using a P loss model to improve the accuracy of the Kentucky phosphorus index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phosphorus (P) Index is an assessment tool developed to identify fields which are most vulnerable to P loss by accounting for the major source and transport factors controlling P movement in the environment. The Kentucky P Index was developed over 10 years ago and since its inception; a signific...

  9. Adequacy Post-"Rose v. Council for Better Education" in Kentucky Public School Facilities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Caroline Ford

    2013-01-01

    The decision in the 1989 landmark Kentucky case, "Rose v. Council for Better Education," initiated many reforms to ensure that children have access to an adequate education, including funding new construction and renovations for school facilities. The purpose of this instrumental, qualitative case study is to describe how the additional…

  10. Predicting the spatial distribution of Lonicera japonica, based on species occurrence data from two watersheds in Western Kentucky and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongjiao Liu; Hao Jiang; Robin Zhang; Kate S. He

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of most invasive plants is poorly documented and studied. This project examined and compared the spatial distribution of a successful invasive plant, Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in two similar-sized but ecologically distinct watersheds in western Kentucky (Ledbetter Creek) and western Tennessee (Panther Creek)....

  11. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  12. The Potential for Increasing Net Incomes on Limited-Resource Farms in Eastern Kentucky. Research Report 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fred J.; And Others

    The study identified possibilities for improving farm incomes on limited-resource farms in eastern Kentucky. Objectives were to describe farm operations of full-time Appalachian farmers who had gross sales of less than $5,000 in 1972, estimate potential increases in net farm incomes from given resources, and identify nonresource constraints on…

  13. Report of a Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer in Kentucky (Frankfort, September 11-12, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randall, Ed.

    This summary of the deliberations of the Planning Conference for Solar Technology Information Transfer includes an outline of a functioning solar energy technology network for the State of Kentucky and a set of recommendations for future action. Four main types of information agents were identified: (1) the State Library System; (2) the State…

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Comparision of Two Types of Occupational Home Economics Programs in the State of Kentucky. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Lydia Carol Moore

    A study compared the cost effectiveness of secondary child care and commercial foods occupational home economics programs in Kentucky. Identified as dependent variables in the study were program effectiveness, cost efficiency, and cost effectiveness ratio. Program expenditures, community size, and program age were considered as independent…

  15. 75 FR 75205 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines, LLC-Trackage Rights Exemption-CSX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35442] R.J. Corman... agreed to grant limited overhead trackage rights to R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Central Kentucky Lines... RJCC actually obtained these trackage rights in 2005.\\3\\ In the original notices, R.J. Corman Railroad...

  16. 75 FR 11918 - General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,011] General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From the Patty Tipton Company, Aetna Building Maintenance, and Concentra, Lexington, KY; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordanc...

  17. State Merit-Based Aid and Enrolling in Graduate Study: Evidence from the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the effect of a state merit-based aid program for undergraduate students on subsequent enrollment in graduate school. It uses student unit record data to analyze the impact of the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship (KEES). Price theory is used as a framework for understanding the incentives provided by KEES. Using a…

  18. 7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... trichoglume Robyns Pea, field—Pisum sativum L. Peanut—Arachis hypogaea L. Poa trivialis—(see Bluegrass, rough... intybus L. Chives—Allium schoenoprasum L. Citron—Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai var...—Lepidium sativum L. Cress, upland—Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch. Cress, water—Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L...

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  5. Environmental and agronomic aspects of municipal-solid-waste heavy fraction used for turfgrass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    In a field plot experiment using Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), measurements of sod strength taken 8.5 and 9.5 months after seeding were greater for sod grown in topsoil amended with heavy fraction than for turf grown in topsoil only. In a container study, physical properties of a loam topsoil were altered 16 months after addition of heavy fraction. Bulk density and particle density were reduced and organic matter content increased by soil incorporation of this by-product. Total porosity and air porosity of the topsoil increased whereas water porosity decreased with increasing amount of applied heavy fraction. Soil fertility was enhanced and soil pH raised by addition of heavy fraction. Concentrations of extractable NH[sub 4]-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn in soil were increased by the application of heavy fraction, as were concentrations of K, Ca, S, Mg, and Mn in leachate collected in lysimeter studies. Improved fertility resulted in greater aesthetic quality, clipping yields, and tissue N content for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Lysimeter studies indicted that the greatest environmental concern associated with the use of heavy fraction for turfgrass production appears to be the potential for leaching of NO[sub 3]-N during turf establishment.

  6. Polymer Coated Urea in Turfgrass Maintains Vigor and Mitigates Nitrogen's Environmental Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J LeMonte

    Full Text Available Polymer coated urea (PCU is a N fertilizer which, when added to moist soil, uses temperature-controlled diffusion to regulate N release in matching plant demand and mitigate environmental losses. Uncoated urea and PCU were compared for their effects on gaseous (N2O and NH3 and aqueous (NO3(- N environmental losses in cool season turfgrass over the entire PCU N-release period. Field studies were conducted on established turfgrass sites with mixtures of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in sand and loam soils. Each study compared 0 kg N ha(-1 (control to 200 kg N ha(-1 applied as either urea or PCU (Duration 45CR®. Application of urea resulted in 127-476% more evolution of measured N2O into the atmosphere, whereas PCU was similar to background emission levels from the control. Compared to urea, PCU reduced NH3 emissions by 41-49% and N2O emissions by 45-73%, while improving growth and verdure compared to the control. Differences in leachate NO3(- among urea, PCU and control were inconclusive. This improvement in N management to ameliorate atmospheric losses of N using PCU will contribute to conserving natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts of N fertilization in turfgrass.

  7. Brassicaceae tissues as inhibitors of nitrification in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul D; Morra, Matthew J

    2009-09-09

    Brassicaceae crops often produce an unexplained increase in plant-available soil N possibly related to bioactive compounds produced from glucosinolates present in the tissues. Our objective was to determine if glucosinolate-containing tissues inhibit nitrification, thereby potentially explaining this observation. Ammonium, NO(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) N were measured in soils amended with Brassicaceae ( Isatis tinctoria L., Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L., and Sinapis alba L.) tissues containing different glucosinolate types and concentrations or Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.) residues with equivalent C/N ratios as the Brassicaceae samples. There was greater accumulation of NH(4)(+) N in soils amended with tissues containing high glucosinolate concentrations as compared to soils amended with tissues containing no or low glucosinolate concentrations. Nitrite N was detected only in soils amended with Brassicaceae tissues having the highest glucosinolate concentrations. The positive correlation of both NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-) N accumulation with the glucosinolate concentration indicates the participation of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in nitrification inhibition.

  8. Quality-Assurance Plan for the Analysis of Fluvial Sediment by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shreve, Elizabeth A; Downs, Aimee C

    2005-01-01

    This report describes laboratory procedures used by the U. S. Geological Survey Kentucky Water Science Center Sediment Laboratory for the processing and analysis of fluvial sediment samples for concentration of sand and finer material...

  9. Hubungan Antara Gaya Hidup Dan Pemilihan Merek Lokal Atau Merek Luar Negeri (Survei Pada Ayam Bakar Wong Solo Vs Kentucky Fried Chicken)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Budhi; Febrianto, Awang

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of lifesyle on probability in buying intention toward domestic brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo) or foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken). Convenience sampling method was employed to acquire 250 samples with the criteria of: (1) the respondents had the intention to buy Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or has intention to buy Kentucky Fried Chicken, (2) respondents had the freedom to take or to refuse to paticipate in the survey. (3) Survey was conducted in the form of direct...

  10. Prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris and Parascaris equorum in Kentucky thoroughbreds at necropsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W; Tolliver, S C

    1981-10-15

    At necropsy of 49 Thoroughbreds from farms with generally good parasite control programs in central Kentucky, examination was specifically made for presence of Strongylus vulgaris in all of the horses and of Parascaris equorum in 21 of them. None of the deaths of the horses was caused by infections of internal parasites. Visceral arteries were examined for specimens of S vulgaris and lesions related to migrating stages of this parasite. Contents of the small intestines were examined for P equorum. Specimens of S vulgaris were recovered from 19 (39%) horses, and arterial lesions were observed in 24 (49%) of them. Parascaris equorum was found in 9 (43%) horses. Both parasites were found to persist in generally low numbers on farms in spite of their parasite control programs applied in recent years.

  11. Paleontology and paleoecology of guano deposits in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona

    2015-05-01

    Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.

  12. Technical assistance report no. TA-80-105-757 at Lexington Herald-Leader, Lexington, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.E.; Conover, D.L.; Flesch, J.P.

    1980-10-01

    Exposure to radiation was investigated at the Lexington Herald-Leader newspaper company (SIC-2711) in Lexington, Kentucky, on August 12 and 13, 1980. The evaluation was requested by company management. Thirty-five of 60 to 80 video display terminals (VDT) used by the newspaper were randomly selected and the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation emissions were measured. All VDT radiation measurements were below OSHA standards and, often, below detectable levels. The OSHA ionizing and non-ionizing standards are 2.5 millirems per hour averaged on a daily basis and 1.0 milliwatt per square centimeter averaged over 6 months, respectively. The authors conclude that no radiation hazard exists at the Lexington Herald-Leader

  13. Differential cross-section measurements at the University of Kentucky - Adventures in analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoy, J.R.; Garza, E.A.; Steves, J.L.; Hicks, S.F.; Henderson, S.L.; Sidwell, L.C.; Champine, B.R.; Crider, B.P.; Liu, S.H.; Peters, E.E.; Prados-Estevez, F.M.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Ross, T.J.; Yates, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections are determined at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) 1 using time-of-flight techniques at incident energies in the fast neutron region. Measurements have been completed for scattering from 23 Na and for the 23 Na(n,n'γ) reaction; similar measurements are in progress for 54 Fe. Commencing in the summer of 2014, measurements will address 56 Fe. An overview of the facilities and instrumentation at UKAL is given, and our measurement and analysis procedures are outlined. Of particular concern are portions of the analysis which limit the accuracy and precision of the measurements. We briefly examine detector efficiencies derived from the 3 H(p,n) cross-sections, attenuation and multiple scattering corrections, and neutron and γ-ray cross-sections standardizations. (authors)

  14. Factors affecting condom usage among college students in South Central Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    The absence of consistent and correct usage of condoms increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS. However, most studies done to date across the nation indicate a low usage of condoms among college students. This study identifies protective and risk factors associated with condom use among college students. The National College Health Assessment was administered to a random sample of students at a state comprehensive university in south central Kentucky. Findings revealed that among the sexually active students, approximately half never used condoms during vaginal intercourse. Further, among students engaging in oral sex, an alarmingly high proportion (95%) reported never using a condom during this act. These findings, along with differences noted in various subgroups (gender, housing, class standing), and other risk behaviors (alcohol, illicit drug use) are discussed.

  15. Ebony and Ivory?:Interracial Dating Intentions and Behaviors of Disadvantaged African American Women in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. PMID:26188458

  16. Ebony and Ivory? Interracial dating intentions and behaviors of disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, David J; Oser, Carrie B

    2015-09-01

    Using data from 595 predominantly disadvantaged African American women in Kentucky, this study examines perceptions about racial/ethnic partner availability, cultural mistrust, and racism as correlates of interracial dating intentions and behaviors with both white and Hispanic men. Participants reported levels of dating intentions and behaviors were significantly higher with whites than Hispanics. The multivariate models indicate less cultural mistrust and believing it is easier to find a man of that racial/ethnic category were associated with higher interracial dating intentions. Women were more likely to have dated a white man if they believed it was easier to find a white man and had interracial dating intentions; however, interracial dating intentions was the only significant correlate of having dated a Hispanic man. Findings suggest a shrinking social distance between racial groups, broadening the MMPI for African American women; yet, the low levels of interracial relationships are likely driven by preferences of men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  18. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Huntington quadrangle: Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Huntington quadrangle of Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia covers 7250 square miles of the easternmost Midwestern Physiographic Province. Paleozoic exposures dominate the surface. These Paleozoics deepen toward the east from approximately 500 feet to a maximum depth of 8000 feet. Precambrian basement is thought to underlie the entire area. No known uranium deposits exist in the area. One hundred anomalies were found using the standard statistical analysis. Some high uranium concentration anomalies that may overlie the stratigraphic equivalent of the Devonian-Mississippian New Albany or Chattanooga Shales may represent significant levels of naturally occurring uranium. Future studies should concentrate on this unit. Magnetic data are largely in concurrence with existing structural interpretations but suggest some complexities in the underlying Precambrian

  19. Fluvial sediment study of Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes drainage basins, Kentucky - Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, William F.; Flint, Russell F.; George, Frederick H.; Santos, John F.

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen drainage basins above Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes in the Levisa Fork and Johns Creek drainage basins of eastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia were studied to determine sedimentation rates and origin of sediment entering the two lakes. The basins ranged in size from 1.68 to 297 square miles. Sediment yields ranged from 2,890 to 21,000 tons per square mile where surface-mining techniques predominated, and from 732 to 3 ,470 tons per square mile where underground mining methods predominated. Yields, in terms of tons per acre-foot of runoff, ranged from 2.2 to 15 for surface-mined areas, and from 0.5 to 2.7 for underground-mined areas. Water and sediment discharges from direct runoff during storms were compared for selected surface-mined and underground-mined areas. Data points of two extensively surface-mined areas, one from the current project and one from a previous project in Beaver Creek basin, McCreary County, Kentucky, grouped similarly in magnitude and by season. Disturbed areas from mining activities determined from aerial photographs reached 17 percent in one study area where extensive surface mining was being practiced. For most areas where underground mining was practiced, percentage disturbed area was almost negligible. Trap efficiency of Fishtrap Lake was 89 percent, and was 62 percent for Dewey Lake. Average annual deposition rates were 464 and 146 acre-feet for Fishtrap and Dewey Lakes, respectively. The chemical quality of water in the Levisa Fork basin has been altered by man 's activities. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Horizontal gene transfer of a ColV plasmid has resulted in a dominant avian clonal type of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Johnson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%, Typhimurium (15.0% and Heidelberg (1.7%. We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard.

  1. Enhancing the Safe and Effective Management of Chronic Pain in Accountable Care Organization Primary Care Practices in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubu, Selam; Hall, Laura Lee; Straub, Paula; Bair, Matthew J; Marsteller, Jill A; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Schneider, Doron; Hood, Gregory A

    Chronic pain is a prevalent chronic condition with significant burden and economic impact in the United States. Chronic pain is particularly abundant in primary care, with an estimated 52% of chronic pain patients obtaining care from primary care physicians (PCPs). However, PCPs often lack adequate training and have limited time and resources to effectively manage chronic pain. Chronic pain management is complex in nature because of high co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and other medical comorbidities in patients. This article describes a quality improvement initiative conducted by the American College of Physicians (ACP), in collaboration with the Kentucky ACP Chapter, and the Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, to enhance chronic pain management in 8 primary care practices participating in Accountable Care Organizations in Kentucky, with a goal of enhancing the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with chronic pain.

  2. Flood Protection, Section 4, Ohio River, Southwest Jefferson County, Kentucky. Local Flood Protection Project. Supplement Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Contractors, Inc. 208 Dishman Lane Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 k. Stone and Asphalt - Murray Company, Inc. P.O. Box 23410 Anchorage, Kentucky 40223...LAm on~i Fa FLAT BOTTOM flof a a $1N orma Wm IN waasam.m amma mll - sme - tamm. ius as MliS mu "e.a.wIMI. mINI Me em Inicilla am emma atNI L.we -0 uma6L...is 8 17 1? 3 10 14.5- 21.0 43 Z2.0- It is P ILL PATIRIAL CINDERS SOW MVE1. - r WOW BRICK , .. IM-T LONE 1417 a 430 425 12 24 EL7 424.00+ 16.3- 13.4 II

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  6. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  7. Synthetic fuels development in Kentucky: Four scenarios for an energy future as constructed from lessons of the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musulin, Mike, II

    The continued failure of synthetic fuels development in the United States to achieve commercialization has been documented through the sporadic periods of mounting corporate and government enthusiasm and high levels of research and development efforts. Four periods of enthusiasm at the national level were followed by waning intervals of shrinking financial support and sagging R&D work. The continuing cycle of mobilization and stagnation has had a corresponding history in Kentucky. To better understand the potential and the pitfalls of this type of technological development the history of synthetic fuels development in the United States is presented as background, with a more detailed analysis of synfuels development in Kentucky. The first two periods of interest in synthetic fuels immediately after the Second World War and in the 1950s did not result in any proposed plants for Kentucky, but the third and fourth periods of interest created a great deal of activity. A theoretically grounded case study is utilized in this research project to create four different scenarios for the future of synthetic fuels development. The Kentucky experience is utilized in this case study because a fifth incarnation of synthetic fuels development has been proposed for the state in the form of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) to utilize coal and refuse derived fuel (RDF). The project has been awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology program. From an examination and analysis of these periods of interest and the subsequent dwindling of interest and participation, four alternative scenarios are constructed. A synfuels breakthrough scenario is described whereby IGCC becomes a viable part of the country's energy future. A multiplex scenario describes how IGCC becomes a particular niche in energy production. The status quo scenario describes how the old patterns of project failure repeat themselves. The fourth scenario describes

  8. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  9. Program in Functional Genomics of Autoimmunity and Immunology of yhe University of Kentucky and the University of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan M Kaplan

    2012-10-12

    This grant will be used to augment the equipment infrastructure and core support at the University of Kentucky and the University of Alabama particularly in the areas of genomics/informatics, molecular analysis and cell separation. In addition, we will promote collaborative research interactions through scientific workshops and exchange of scientists, as well as joint exploration of the role of immune receptors as targets in autoimmunity and host defense, innate and adaptive immune responses, and mucosal immunity in host defense.

  10. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  11. Opioid analgesics and heroin: Examining drug misuse trends among a sample of drug treatment clients in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Grant A; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to mitigate Kentucky's prescription drug misuse, legislative intervention efforts were introduced in 2012 and 2013 to better regulate pain clinics, prescribed use of opioid analgesics, and to expand the monitoring of opioid prescriptions. The focus of this paper is primarily on opioid analgesics and heroin and the relationship of use/misuse patterns of these drugs to state drug policy initiatives. A secondary data analysis of drug treatment clients (N=52,360) was conducted to project illicit drug use trends in Kentucky. This study describes temporal and geographic trends of self-reported illicit drug use among individuals in state-funded treatment in Kentucky between fiscal year 2010 and fiscal year 2013. Significant reductions in the prevalence of illicit opioid use, declined from fiscal year 2010 to fiscal year 2013 (p<.01, CI=-.298 to -.215). However, heroin use rates significantly increased over the years studied, suggesting there may be a transition from prescription opioids to heroin (p<.01, CI=.143 to .178). The analysis suggests these trends may continue. Findings suggest Kentucky's legislative efforts were effective in reducing illicit prescription opioid use, but heroin use has increased. One possible explanation for this relationship is that as prescription opioids became more difficult to obtain, users turned to heroin as a substitute. The finding of rising heroin use suggests a need for further policy initiatives to reduce heroin use, but the potential effectiveness of this policy remains unclear. Understanding trends may help to guide future policy efforts and pain management treatment strategies to where they might have their greatest impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Geologic characterization and carbon storage resource estimates for the knox group, Illinois Basin, Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, David; Ellett, Kevin; Rupp, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Research documented in this report includes (1) refinement and standardization of regional stratigraphy across the 3-state study area in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, (2) detailed core description and sedimentological interpretion of Knox cores from five wells in western Kentucky, and (3) a detailed calculation of carbon storage volumetrics for the Knox using three different methodologies. Seven regional cross sections document Knox formation distribution and thickness. Uniform stratigraphic nomenclature for all three states helps to resolve state-to-state differences that previously made it difficult to evaluate the Knox on a basin-wide scale. Correlations have also refined the interpretation of an important sandstone reservoir interval in southern Indiana and western Kentucky. This sandstone, a CO2 injection zone in the KGS 1 Blan well, is correlated with the New Richmond Sandstone of Illinois. This sandstone is over 350 ft (107 m) thick in parts of southern Indiana. It has excellent porosity and permeability at sufficient depths, and provides an additional sequestration target in the Knox. The New Richmond sandstone interval has higher predictability than vuggy and fractured carbonates, and will be easier to model and monitor CO2 movement after injection.

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi in small mammal reservoirs in Kentucky, a traditionally non-endemic state for Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Matthew J; Davis, Cheryl; Rowland, Naomi S; Dick, Carl W

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky. Small mammals were captured using live traps from November 2014 to October 2015. Ticks were removed and blood and tissue collected from small mammals were screened for B. burgdorferi DNA by PCR with primers specific to the OspA gene. Prevalence of B. burgdorferi (21.8%) in Kentucky small mammals was comparable to the lowest recorded prevalence in regions where Lyme disease is endemic. Moreover, infestation of small mammals by Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, was rare, while Dermacentor variabilis comprised the majority of ticks collected. These findings provide ecological insight into the relative paucity of Lyme disease in Kentucky.

  14. Evaluation of an Initiative to Reduce Youth Alcohol Abuse in the “Bourbon Country” of Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Stone

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the program evaluation results of the “STARS for Families” alcohol abuse prevention program implemented in the three school districts of Nelson County, Kentucky, an area known as the location for bourbon whiskey production in Kentucky and in the United States. All 9th grade students in these three school districts were invited to participate in the program. The baseline survey included questions related to their alcohol use, to the alcohol use in their family, and that of their peers. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 6-month, 18-month and respectively 30-month from the pretest. The survey data is compared to the county figures available from a statewide annual survey conducted by the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Project (KIP. “STARS for Families” program uses a validated curriculum and was applied by many school districts across the United States. Overall, its implementation in Nelson County was successful, even though there were significant differences across the three school districts. The rate of increase in the number of students who used or planned to use alcohol in the near future was significantly reduced between pretest and the last follow-up. Our findings confirm that alcohol use behavior occurs in stages, and that the alcohol use habits of family and friends are strong correlates with alcohol drinking in youth.

  15. Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been

  16. Digital mapping techniques '00, workshop proceedings - May 17-20, 2000, Lexington, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The Digital Mapping Techniques '00 (DMT'00) workshop was attended by 99 technical experts from 42 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 28 state geological surveys (see Appendix A). This workshop was similar in nature to the first three meetings, held in June, 1997, in Lawrence, Kansas (Soller, 1997), in May, 1998, in Champaign, Illinois (Soller, 1998a), and in May, 1999, in Madison, Wisconsin (Soller, 1999). This year's meeting was hosted by the Kentucky Geological Survey, from May 17 to 20, 2000, on the University of Kentucky campus in Lexington. As in the previous meetings, the objective was to foster informal discussion and exchange of technical information. When, based on discussions at the workshop, an attendee adopts or modifies a newly learned technique, the workshop clearly has met that objective. Evidence of learning and cooperation among participating agencies continued to be a highlight of the DMT workshops (see example in Soller, 1998b, and various papers in this volume). The meeting's general goal was to help move the state geological surveys and the USGS toward development of more cost-effective, flexible, and useful systems for digital mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis. Through oral and poster presentations and special discussion sessions, emphasis was given to: 1) methods for creating and publishing map products (here, 'publishing' includes Web-based release); 2) continued development of the National Geologic Map Database; 3) progress toward building a standard geologic map data model; 4) field data-collection systems; and 5) map citation and authorship guidelines. Four representatives of the GIS hardware and software vendor community were invited to participate. The four annual DMT workshops were coordinated by the AASG/USGS Data Capture Working Group, which was formed in August, 1996, to support the Association of American State Geologists and the USGS in their effort

  17. Effectiveness of a primary care practice intervention for increasing colorectal cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. The hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of the Star Fire site, eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunsch, D.R.; Dinger, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Kentucky Geological Survey is directing an applied research program to determine the potential water supply for future property development at the Star Fire site. It is anticipated that an aquifer constructed in mine spoil could provide base flow to streams that could feed water-supply reservoirs. Dye tracing, water-level measurements, and chemical analyses of water samples indicate that ground water moves slowly in the spoil's interior, where it must flow into surrounding hollow fills before discharging out of the spoil. Two water tables have been established: one in the spoil's interior, and the second in the hollow fills below the main spoil body. Based on an average saturated thickness of 6.4 m, the saturated spoil stores an estimated 5.2 x 10 6 m 3 (1.37 billion gal.) of water. Hydraulic conductivity (K) values derived from slug tests range from 7.0 x E - 5 to > 9.0 x E - 4 cm/sec. All of the waters are a calcium-magnesium-sulfate type, differing mainly in the total concentration of these constituents. Saturation indices calculated using the geochemical model PHREEQE indicate that most of the ground water at the site is near equilibrium with gypsum. Nearly all of the samples had pH measurements in a favorable range between 6.0 and 7.0, indicating that the spoil at the site does not produce highly acidic water

  20. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  1. Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the, ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ±15%

  3. Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree in protective shelters during establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelgren, R.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and water relations of Kentucky coffee tree [Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch] whips in translucent tubelike shelters were investigated. In a container study, 1.2-m-high shelters were placed over whips following transplanting, then diurnal microclimate, water relations, and water use were measured. Shelter air temperature and vapor pressure were substantially higher, and solar radiation was 70% lower, than ambient conditions. Sheltered trees responded with nearly three-times higher stomatal conductance than nonsheltered trees. However, due to substantially lower boundary layer conductance created by the shelter, normalized water use was 40% lower. In a second experiment, same-sized shelters were placed on whips following spring transplanting in the field. Predawn and midday leaf water potentials and midday stomatal conductance (g(s)) were monitored periodically through the season, and growth was measured in late summer. Midday g(s) was also much higher in field-grown trees with shelters than in those without. Sheltered trees in the field had four times greater terminal shoot elongation but 40% less stem diameter growth. Attenuated radiation in the shelters and lower-specific leaf area of sheltered trees indicated shade acclimation. Shelters can improve height and reduce water loss during establishment in a field nursery, but they do not allow for sufficient trunk growth

  4. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  5. Quaternary chronostratigraphy and stable isotope paleoecology of Big Bone Lick, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Kenneth Barnett; Murari, Madhav Krishna; Crowley, Brooke E.; Owen, Lewis A.; Storrs, Glenn W.; Mortensen, Litsa

    2015-05-01

    Big Bone Lick (BBL) in northern Kentucky, USA has been a critical geologic site in the historical development of North American Quaternary vertebrate paleontology since the 1700s. Sedimentology, geoarcheology, paleontology, accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were undertaken to develop a chronostratigraphy and history of erosion and deposition for the site to provide a foundation for understanding taphonomy, and species extinction and adaptation to periods of climatic and environmental change. Three geomorphic surfaces are recognized at BBL representing significant periods of floodplain aggradation since the last glacial maximum (26.5-19 ka) dating to the Oldest Dryas (Tazewell, 25-19 ka), the Older Dryas (Cary, 14-12 ka), and late Holocene (5 ka to the present). Unconformities suggest significant periods of degradation during the transitions from cold and dry to warm and moist climates from the Oldest Dryas (Tazewell) to Bølling Oscillation, from the Older Dryas (Cary) to the Allerød, and from the Younger Dryas (Valders) to the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Increased anthropogenic activities since 5 ka may have increased soil upland erosion and floodplain aggradation. Stable isotopes demonstrate that the landscape has been dominated by C3 vegetation since the last glacial maximum.

  6. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Kentucky. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths

  8. Selenium poisoning of fish by coal ash wastewater in Herrington Lake, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Selenium pollution from the E.W. Brown Electric Generating Station was investigated in Herrington Lake, KY. Coal ash wastewater is discharged as surface water overflow from ash disposal ponds into the lake via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the Kentucky Division of Water, but the permit does not restrict or limit the amount of selenium released. Unpermitted discharges occur from seeps and drainage through leaks in ash pond dams. Together, these discharges have resulted in selenium concentrations in water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish that are 2-9 times the level that is toxic for fish reproduction and survival. A large proportion (12.2%, or 25 times background) of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, the only species examined) exhibited spinal and/or craniofacial malformations that are consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated a 3.05% population-level impact on the bass fishery, with total selenium-induced mortality (including pre-swimup mortality) estimated to be in excess of 25% per year. These findings confirm that coal ash discharges into Herrington Lake are contributing selenium to the Lake that is poisoning fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Palynologic and petrographic intervals in the upper Pennsylvanian McLeansboro Group, Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Helfrich, C.T.; Williams, D.A. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1994-07-01

    The McLeansboro Group in the Western Kentucky coal field spans the upper Desmoinesian (Westphalian D) and the Missourian and Virgilian series (Stephanian). Significant features of the McLeansboro Group are the marine zones over most of the coals and paleochannels, which are the only disruptions to the continuity of other lithologies. Patoka Formation (lower Missourian) coals are dominated by tree fern spores with lesser amounts of sphenopsids, ferns and cordaites spores. Only the No. 15 coal bed exceeds 80% vitrinite: the vitrinite content of the No. 16 coal bed is less than 72%. The Bond formation (upper Missourian) represents a distinct floristic interval, with a greater diversity of plant groups than in the Patoka Formation. The coals generally exceed 80% vitrinite. The Mattoon Formation (Virgillian) coals have a variety of palynomorph assemblages. The low-sulfur Geiger Lake coal bed is dominated by tree fern spores, with important contributions from other ferns and sphenopsids. Similar to the underlying tree fern interval vitrinite contents are less than 80%. The uppermost Mattoon coals are dominated by tree ferns and are notable in being the only coals more than 1 m thick in Stephanian portion of the section, with the top coal being 4.3 m thick. The uppermost coals generally contain more than 80% vitrinite. The palynologic/petrographic intervals appear to represent fluctuating dry (low vitrinite) and wet intervals within the Stephanian, which was itself drier than the Westphalian D. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Arsenic and mercury partitioning in fly ash at a Kentucky power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaporn Sakulpitakphon; James C. Hower; Alan S. Trimble; William H. Schram; Gerald A. Thomas [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2003-08-01

    Coal and fly ash samples were collected from a 500-MW unit at a Kentucky power plant, with the objective of studying the distribution of arsenic, mercury, and other trace elements in fly ash. The coal feed was low-sulfur, high volatile A bituminous central West Virginia coal. The plant produced a relatively low-carbon fly ash. In contrast to power plants with high-mercury feed coal, the fly ashes from the lower-mercury feed coal had low mercury values, generally not exceeding 0.01 ppm Hg. Mercury capture by fly ash varies with both the amount and type of carbon and the collection temperature; mercury capture is more efficient at lower temperatures. Arsenic in the feed coal and in the flue gas is of concern to the utility, because of the potential for catalyst poisoning in the selective catalytic reduction system (in the planning stage at the time of the sampling). Arsenic is captured in the fly ash, increasing in concentration in the more-distant (from the boiler) reaches of the electrostatic precipitator system. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah

  12. Paradise (and Herrin) lost: Marginal depositional settings of the Herrin and Paradise coals, Western Kentucky coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.M.K.; Shultz, M.G.; Rimmer, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Popp, J.T. [Alliance Coal, Lexington, KY 40503 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    This is the fourth installment in a series of papers on the Asturian (Westphalian D) disrupted mire margins, termed the ''ragged edge'' in previous papers, and limestone distributions in the Herrin-Baker coal interval in the Western Kentucky extension of the Illinois Basin. New data, indicating in-situ peat development and marine influence, collected from the first in-mine exposure of this interval are presented. Borehole data from the region are examined in the context of ''ragged edge'' exposures and a carbonate platform depositional model for this portion of the Illinois Basin is presented. This shows that deposition of the sequence was influenced both by the underlying sediments and by a marine transgression. The former influence is seen in variations in coal and limestone thickness over sandstone-filled channels versus over shale bayfill deposits. The latter is marked by the progressive upwards loss of coal benches (i.e., the bottom bench of both coals is the most extensive and the Herrin coal is more extensive than the overlying Paradise coal) and by marine partings in both coals. Further, the brecciated margins seen in both coal seams are similar to brecciated peats encountered along the Everglades margins of Southwest Florida. Overall coal distributions are similar to both those along the Everglades margins and those along a transect from the Belize coast to Ambergis Caye. (author)

  13. The Changing “Face” of Endocarditis in Kentucky: A Rise in Tricuspid Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seratnahaei, Arash; Leung, Steve W.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Cummings, Matthew S.; Sorrell, Vincent L.; Smith, Mikel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advancements in medical technology and increased life expectancy have been described as contributing to the evolution of endocarditis. We sought to determine whether there has been a change in the incidence, demographics, microbiology, complications, and outcomes of infective endocarditis over a ten-year time span. Methods We screened 28,420 transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram reports performed at our center for the following indications: fever, masses, emboli (including stroke), sepsis, bacteremia, and endocarditis in two time periods: 1999 through 2000 and 2009 through 2010. Data were collected from diagnosed endocarditis cases. Results Overall, 143 cases of infective endocarditis were analyzed (48 in 1999-2000 and 95 in 2009-2010). The endocarditis incidence per number of admissions remained nearly constant at 0.113% for 1999-2000 and 0.148% for 2009-2010 (p = 0.153). However, tricuspid valve involvement increased markedly from 6% to 36% (p endocarditis at our center has not changed and mortality remains high, but the “face of endocarditis” in Kentucky has evolved with an increased incidence of tricuspid valve involvement, valvular complications, and embolic events. PMID:24769025

  14. Pranked by Audubon: Constantine S. Rafinesque's description of John James Audubon's imaginary Kentucky mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The North American naturalist Constantine S. Rafinesque spent much of the year 1818 engaged in a solo journey down the Ohio River Valley to explore parts of what was then the western United States. Along the way, he visited a number of fellow naturalists, and he spent more than a week at the Henderson, Kentucky, home of artist and ornithologist John James Audubon. During the succeeding two years, Rafinesque published descriptions of new species that resulted from his expedition, including eleven species of fishes that eventually proved to have been invented by Audubon as a prank on the credulous naturalist. Less well known are a number of “wild rats” described by Rafinesque that include one recognized species (Musculus leucopus) and ten other, imaginary “species” fabricated by Audubon (Gerbillus leonurus, G. megalops, Spalax trivittata, Cricetus fasciatus, Sorex cerulescens, S. melanotis, Musculus nigricans, Lemmus albovittatus, L. talpoides, Sciurus ruber). Rafinesque's unpublished sketches of these animals provide important insight regarding the supposed nature of the animals invented by Audubon and ultimately published by Rafinesque.

  15. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows

  16. Development of a Screening Tool to Improve Management of the Welfare Caseload in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Donovan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the evaluation of the welfare program in Kentucky, descriptive and multivariate techniques were used to develop and test a brief screening tool. The purpose of this tool is to identify clients at risk of using 80% or more of the lifetime limit for cash assistance provided through the Kentucky’s Transitional Assistance Program (KTAP. The variables for the screening tool were identified through discriminant analysis and logistic regression using data from the KTAP administrative records and from two surveys: a panel study conducted with a representative group of KTAP recipients, and a point-in-time survey conducted with a representative sample of clients who reached their lifetime limit of cash assistance in 2001. Descriptive analyses using panel data show the stability of measures over time and their ability to set apart the segment of population at risk for high utilization of their available time on KTAP. The predictive value of the screening tool was tested with regression models using the KTAP utilization information available from the administrative records.

  17. Review of earthquake hazard assessments of plant sites at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Members of the US Geological Survey staff in Golden, Colorado, have reviewed the submissions of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff and of Risk Engineering, Inc. (REI) (Golden, Colorado) for seismic hazard estimates for Department of Energy facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. We reviewed the historical seismicity and seismotectonics near the two sites, and general features of the LLNL and EPRI/SOG methodologies used by LLNL and Risk Engineering respectively, and also the separate Risk Engineering methodology used at Paducah. We discussed generic issues that affect the modeling of both sites, and performed alternative calculations to determine sensitivities of seismic hazard results to various assumptions and models in an attempt to assign reasonable bounding values of the hazard. In our studies we find that peak acceleration values of 0.08 g for Portsmouth and 0.32 g for Paducah represent central values of the, ground motions obtained at 1000-year return periods. Peak accelerations obtained in the LLNL and Risk Engineering studies have medians near these values (results obtained using the EPRI/SOG methodology appear low at both sites), and we believe that these medians are appropriate values for use in the evaluation of systems, structures, and components for seismic structural integrity and for the seismic design of new and improved systems, structures, and components at Portsmouth and Paducah

  18. Cross-cultural understandings of festival food-related activities for older women in Chiang Mai, Thailand, Eastern Kentucky, USA and Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Pierce, Doris; Bunrayong, Wannipa; Rattakorn, Phuanjai; Vittayakorn, Soisuda; Shordike, Anne; Hocking, Clare

    2013-06-01

    This cross-country, cross-cultural study explored the meaning of older women's food-related activities for the annual festivals of Songkran (Thai New Year) in Chiang Mai, Thailand; and Christmas in Richmond, Kentucky, USA; and Auckland, New Zealand. A derived etic method was used. The community-dwelling participants were 33 Thai women, aged 60 and older, and 16 New Zealand and 23 eastern Kentucky women, aged 65 and older. This article focuses on the final cross-cultural analysis of the data. Emic, or within-country, findings are presented, followed by the derived etic, or cross-cultural, interpretations for two themes of meaning; older women's 'protecting what matters' and 'leading the way'. Applying derived etic methods helped reveal how, despite the highly different food-related practices, preparing and sharing celebratory foods at Songkran or Christmas held related meanings for older women in Thailand, Kentucky USA, and New Zealand.

  19. Environmental investigations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, McCracken County, Kentucky. Volume 1 - Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report details the results of four studies into environmental and cultural resources on and near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) located in Western Kentucky in McCracken County, approximately 10 miles west of Paducah, KY. The area investigated includes the PGDP facility proper, additional area owned by DOE under use permit to the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), area owned by the Commonwealth of Kentucky that is administered by the WKWMA, area owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Metropolis Lake State Nature preserve and some privately held land. DOE requested the assistance and support of the US Army Engineer District, Nashville (CEORN) in conducting various environmental investigations of the area. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) provided technical support to the CEORN for environmental investigations of (1) wetland resources, (2) threatened or endangered species and habitats, and (3) cultural resources. A floodplain investigation was conducted by CEORN

  20. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky strains recovered from chicken carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Tasmin

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the US. S. Kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. This study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two Salmonella enterica strains Typhimurium (ST221_31B and Kentucky (SK222_32B recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of two Salmonella genomes. Phylogenetic analysis employing homologous alignment of a 1,185 non-duplicated protein-coding gene in the Salmonella core genome demonstrated fully resolved bifurcating patterns with varying levels of diversity that separated ST221_31B and SK222_32B genomes into distinct monophyletic serovar clades. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis identified 2,432 (ST19 SNPs within 13 Typhimurium genomes including ST221_31B representing Sequence Type ST19 and 650 (ST152 SNPs were detected within 13 Kentucky genomes including SK222_32B representing Sequence Type ST152. In addition to serovar-specific conserved coding sequences, the genomes of ST221_31B and SK222_32B harbor several genomic regions with significant genetic differences. These included phage and phage-like elements, carbon utilization or transport operons, fimbriae operons, putative membrane associated protein-encoding genes, antibiotic resistance genes, siderophore operons, and numerous hypothetical protein-encoding genes. Phenotype microarray results demonstrated that ST221_31B is capable of utilizing certain carbon compounds more efficiently as compared to SK222_3B; namely, 1,2-propanediol, M-inositol, L-threonine, α-D-lactose, D-tagatose, adonitol, formic acid, acetoacetic acid, and L-tartaric acid. ST221_31B survived for 48 h in macrophages, while SK222_32B was mostly eliminated. Further, a 3-fold growth of ST221_31B was

  1. Desenvolvimento e estudo de um sistema para tratamento de fenol e poluentes orgânicos emergentes (POE) por processos oxidativos avançados (POA) utilizando ozônio, peróxido de hidrogênio e radiação ultravioleta

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Rufine Nolasco

    2014-01-01

    O estudo avaliou a efetividade de um sistema para tratamento de soluções aquosas contendo poluentes orgânicos emergentes (POE), denominados interferentes endócrinos (IE). Baseado nos processos oxidativos avançados (POA), empregando ozônio, radiação UV, peróxido de hidrogênio e variação de pH, o estudo possibilitou determinar a relação ideal oxidante/poluentes e o custo/benefício dos tratamentos com melhores desempenhos, de degradação do padrão contendo hormônios 17?-estradiol (E2) e 17?-etini...

  2. Relative risk site evaluation for buildings 7740 and 7741 Fort Campbell, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Gilmore, T.J.; Bronson, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    Buildings 7740 and 7741 are a part of a former nuclear weapon`s storage and maintenance facility located in the southeastern portion of Fort Campbell, Kentucky. This underground tunnel complex was originally used as a classified storage area beginning in 1949 and continuing until 1969. Staff from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently completed a detailed Relative Risk Site Evaluation of the facility. This evaluation included (1) obtaining engineering drawings of the facility and associated structures, (2) conducting detailed radiological surveys, (3) air sampling, (4) sampling drainage systems, and (5) sampling the underground wastewater storage tank. Ten samples were submitted for laboratory analysis of radionuclides and priority pollutant metals, and two samples submitted for analysis of volatile organic compounds. No volatile organic contaminants were detected using field instruments or laboratory analyses. However, several radionuclides and metals were detected in water and/or soil/sediment samples collected from this facility. Of the radionuclides detected, only {sup 226}Ra may have come from facility operations; however, its concentration is at least one order of magnitude below the relative-risk comparison value. Several metals (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and antimony) were found to exceed the relative-risk comparison values for water, while only arsenic, cadmium, and lead were found to exceed the relative risk comparison values for soil. Of these constituents, it is believed that only arsenic, beryllium, mercury, and lead may have come from facility operations. Other significant hazards posed by the tunnel complex include radon exposure and potentially low oxygen concentrations (<19.5% in atmosphere) if the tunnel complex is not allowed to vent to the outside air. Asbestos-wrapped pipes, lead-based paint, rat poison, and possibly a selenium rectifier are also present within the tunnel complex.

  3. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  4. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in canned sardines commercially available in eastern Kentucky, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiber, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Total As, Cd, Pb and Hg in canned sardines within ranges of other studies. → As highest in samples from Norway (1.87 μg/g) and Thailand (1.63 μg/g). → Cd highest in Moroccan (0.07 μg/g), Pb in Canadian (0.27 μg/g); Hg not detected. → Lack of established limits for As and Cd in fish restricts interpretation of results. → Rise of small pelagics in human diet warrants more scrutiny on their metal content. - Abstract: Seventeen samples of canned sardines, originating from six countries and sold in eastern Kentucky, USA, were analyzed in composites of 3-4 fish each for total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and for mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition amalgamation and AAS. Results in μg/g wet: As 0.49-1.87 (mean: 1.06), Cd < 0.01-0.07 (0.03), Pb < 0.06-0.27 (0.11), Hg ND < 0.09. Values fall generally within readings reported by others, but no internationally agreed upon guidelines have yet been set for As or Cd in canned or fresh fish. The incidence of cancers and cardiovascular diseases associated with As ingestion is extraordinarily high here. With the role of food-borne As in human illness presently under scrutiny and its maximum allowable limits in fish being reviewed, more studies of this nature are recommended, especially considering the potential importance of small pelagic fishes as future seafood of choice.

  5. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  6. Occupational eye injury and risk reduction: Kentucky workers' compensation claim analysis 1994-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, B P; Horwitz, I B; Taylor, O A

    2009-06-01

    Occupational eye injuries are a significant source of injury in the workplace. Little population-based research in the area has been conducted, and is necessary for developing and prioritizing effective interventions. Workers' compensation data from the state of Kentucky for the years 1994-2003 were analysed by demographics, injury nature and cause, cost, and occupational and industrial characteristics. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey was utilised to compute injury rates for demographic and occupational groups. There were 10,545 claims of ocular injury, representing 6.29 claims per 10,000 workers on average annually. A substantial drop in the claim rate was found after the state passed monetary penalties for injuries caused by employer negligence or OSHA violations. Claims by men were over three times more likely than those by women to have associated claim costs (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.85; p = 0.009). The highest eye injury rates per 10,000 of 13.46 (95% CI 12.86 to 14.07) were found for the helpers/labourers occupation, and of 19.95 (95% CI 18.73 to 21.17) for the construction industry. The total cost of claim payments over the period was over $3,480,000, and average cost per claim approximated $331. Eye injuries remain a significant risk to worker health, especially among men in jobs requiring intensive manual labour. Evidence showed that increased legislative regulation led to a decline in eye injuries, which was consistent with other recent findings in the area. Additionally, targeting groups most at risk, increasing worker training, providing effective eye protection equipment, and developing workplace safety cultures may together reduce occupational eye injuries.

  7. Site Specific Metal Criteria Developed Using Kentucky Division of Water Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Phipps, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Alternative limits for Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were developed for treated wastewater from four outfalls at a Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Guidance from the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW) was used to (1) estimate the toxicity of the effluents using water fleas (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae; (2) determine total recoverable and dissolved concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn ; (3) calculate ratios of dissolved metal (DM) to total recoverable metal (TRM); and (4) assess chemical characteristics of the effluents. Three effluent samples from each outfall were collected during each of six test periods; thus, a total of 18 samples from each outfall were evaluated for toxicity, DM and TRM. Subsamples were analyzed for alkalinity, hardness, pH, conductivity, and total suspended solids. Short-term (6 or 7 d), static renewal toxicity tests were conducted according to EPA methodology. Ceriodaphnia reproduction was reduced in one test of effluent from Outfall A , and effluent from Outfall B was acutely toxic to both test species during one test. However, the toxicity was not related to the metals present in the effluents. Of the 18 samples from each outfall, more than 65% of the metal concentrations were estimated quantities. With the exception of two total recoverable Cu values in Outfall C, all metal concentrations were below the permit limits and the federal water quality criteria. Ranges of TR for all outfalls were: Cd, ,0.1-0.4 microg/L; Cr,1.07-3.93 microg/L; Cu, 1.59-7.24 microg/L; Pb, 39%. Thus, the alternative, calculated total recoverable metal concentration provides the discharger with a ''cushion'' for meeting permit limits

  8. SKyTeach: Addressing the need for Science and Math Teachers in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Scott

    2008-10-01

    The shortage of good science and math teachers is a chronic problem that threatens to undermine the future of our profession and economy. While our world is becoming increasingly dependent on technology, many high schools do not even offer physics, in part due to of the unavailability of a qualified teacher. The entire state of Kentucky typically produces 0-2 new physics teachers per year, compared to 200+ elementary teachers per year from WKU alone. The picture is not much better in math and other sciences. SKyTeach is a new program at WKU to address this great need and is part of a national effort to replicate the successful UTeach program. The University of Texas UTeach program graduates 70-90 new math and science teachers a year, in the process providing them with a strong preparation based on current research on how people learn science and math, experience teaching in real classrooms from the start, and strong mentoring and support. UTeach graduates stay in the classroom at rates above the national average, and some fairly quickly move into leadership positions within their schools. A key element is good collaboration between the college of science, that of education, local P-12 schools, and others. Last year thirteen universities across the nation were selected as part of an effort to replicate the UTeach program nation-wide. This effort is supported by the National Science and Math Initiative in a partnership with the UTeach Institute. Our first cohort of students has started this fall, and we have had many successes and challenges as we move forward.

  9. Investigation of Sediment Pathways and Concealed Sedimentological Features in Hidden River Cave, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, S.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Reinhardt, E. G.; McNeill-Jewer, C.; Eyles, C.

    2016-12-01

    Hidden River Cave is part of a cave system hydrogeologically related to Mammoth Cave in Kentucky and is a multi-level active cave system with 25km of mapped passages. Upper levels experience flow during flood events and lower levels have continuously flowing water. Improper industrial and domestic waste disposal and poor understanding of local hydrogeology lead to contamination of Hidden River Cave in the early 1940s. Previously used for hydroelectric power generation and as a source of potable water the cave was closed to the public for almost 50 years. A new sewage treatment plant and remediation efforts since 1989 have improved the cave system's health. This project focuses on sedimentological studies in the Hidden River Cave system. Water and sediment transport in the cave are being investigated using sediment cores, surface sediment samples and water level data. An Itrax core scanner is used to analyze sediment cores for elemental concentrations, magnetic susceptibility, radiography, and high resolution photography. Horizons of metal concentrations in the core allow correlation of sedimentation events in the cave system. Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) microfossils identified in surface samples allow for further constraint of sediment sources, sedimentation rates, and paleoclimatic analysis. Dive recorders monitor water levels, providing data to further understand the movement of sediment through the cave system. A general time constraint on the sediment's age is based on the presence of microplastic in the surface samples and sediment cores, and data from radiocarbon and lead-210 dating. The integration of various sedimentological data allows for better understanding of sedimentation processes and their record of paleoenvironmental change in the cave system. Sediment studies and methodologies from this project can be applied to other karst systems, and have important applications for communities living on karst landscapes and their water management policies.

  10. Cooling tower drift studies at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.G.; Hanna, S.R.; Parr, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    The transfer and fate of chromium from cooling tower drift to terrestrial ecosystems were quantified at the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment facility at Paducah, Kentucky. Chromium concentrations in plant materials (fescue grass) decreased with increasing distance from the cooing tower, ranging from 251 +- 19 ppM at 15 meters to 0.52 +- 0.07 ppM at 1500 meters. The site of drift contamination, size characteristics, and elemental content of drift particles were determined using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis capabilities. Results indicate that elemental content in drift water (mineral residue) may not be equivalent to the content in the recirculating cooling water of the tower. This hypothesis is contrary to basic assumptions in calculating drift emissions. A laboratory study simulating throughfall from 1 to 6 inches of rain suggested that there are more exchange sites associated with litter than live foliage. Leachate from each one inch throughfall simulant removed 3% of the drift mass from litter compared to 7 to 9% from live foliage. Results suggest that differences in retention are related to chemical properties of the drift rather than physical lodging of the particle residue. To determine the potential for movement of drift-derived chromium to surface streams, soil--water samplers (wells) were placed along a distance gradient to Little Bayou Creek. Samples from two depths following rainstorms revealed the absence of vertical or horizontal movement with maximum concentrations of 0.13 ppb at 50 meters from the tower. Preliminary model estimates of drift deposition are compared to depositionmeasurements. Isopleths of the predicted deposition are useful to identify areas of maximum drift transport in the environs of the gaseous diffusion plant

  11. Data report: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The following sample types were collected in each state: Illinois - 716 stream sediment, 1046 ground water, 337 stream water; Indiana - 126 stream sediment, 443 ground water, 111 stream water; Kentucky - 4901 stream sediment, 6408 ground water, 3966 stream water; Tennessee - 3309 stream sediment, 3574 ground water, 1584 stream water; Ohio - 1214 stream sediment, 2049 ground water, 1205 stream water. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 248 sediment samples from Tennessee. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  12. Rural-Urban Differences in Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Diagnostic Prevalence in Kentucky and West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Christian, W Jay; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2016-06-01

    Older adults living in rural areas may face barriers to obtaining a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). We sought to examine rural-urban differences in prevalence of ADRD among Medicare beneficiaries in Kentucky and West Virginia, 2 contiguous, geographically similar states with large rural areas and aged populations. We used Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Public Use Files data from 2007 to 2013 to assess prevalence of ADRD at the county level among all Medicare beneficiaries in each state. Rural-Urban Continuum Codes were used to classify counties as rural or urban. We used Poisson regression to estimate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios. Primary analyses focused on 2013 data and were repeated for 2007 to 2012. This study was completely ecologic. After adjusting for state, average beneficiary age, percent of female beneficiaries, percent of beneficiaries eligible for Medicaid in each county, Central Appalachian county, percent of age-eligible residents enrolled in Medicare, and percent of residents under age 65 enrolled in Medicare in our adjusted models, we found that 2013 ADRD diagnostic prevalence was 11% lower in rural counties (95% CI: 9%-13%). Medicare beneficiaries in rural counties in Kentucky and West Virginia may be underdiagnosed with respect to ADRD. However, due to the ecologic design, and evidence of a younger, more heavily male beneficiary population in some rural areas, further studies using individual-level data are needed to confirm the results. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  13. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents.

  14. The Impact Of State Policies On ACA Applications And Enrollment Among Low-Income Adults In Arkansas, Kentucky, And Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Maylone, Bethany; Nguyen, Kevin H; Blendon, Robert J; Epstein, Arnold M

    2015-06-01

    States are taking variable approaches to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion, Marketplace design, enrollment outreach, and application assistance. We surveyed nearly 3,000 low-income adults in late 2014 to compare experiences in three states with markedly different policies: Kentucky, which expanded Medicaid, created a successful state Marketplace, and supported outreach efforts; Arkansas, which enacted the private option and a federal-state partnership Marketplace, but with legislative limitations on outreach; and Texas, which did not expand Medicaid and passed restrictions on navigators. We found that application rates, successful enrollment, and positive experiences with the ACA were highest in Kentucky, followed by Arkansas, with Texas performing worst. Limited awareness remains a critical barrier: Fewer than half of adults had heard some or a lot about the coverage expansions. Application assistance from navigators and others was the strongest predictor of enrollment, while Latino applicants were less likely than others to successfully enroll. Twice as many respondents felt that the ACA had helped them as hurt them (although the majority reported no direct impact), and advertising was strongly associated with perceptions of the law. State policy choices appeared to have had major impacts on enrollment experiences among low-income adults and their perceptions of the ACA. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  16. CenteringPregnancy Smiles: A Community Engagement to Develop and Implement a New Oral Health and Prenatal Care Model in Rural Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Robert E.; Skelton, Judith; Mullins, M. Raynor; Langston, LeAnn; Womack, Sara; Morris, Jack; Martin, Dan; Brooks, Robert; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    CenteringPregnancy Smiles[TM] (CPS) is a partnership between the University of Kentucky, Trover Health System, and Hopkins County Health Department. The purpose of the partnership is to: (1) establish an infrastructure to address health problems requiring research-based solutions, (2) develop a model for community partnership formation, and (3)…

  17. Earlier School Start Times as a Risk Factor for Poor School Performance: An Examination of Public Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S.; Smith, Olivia A.; Gilbert, Lauren R.; Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate sleep is essential for child learning. However, school systems may inadvertently be promoting sleep deprivation through early school start times. The current study examines the potential implications of early school start times for standardized test scores in public elementary schools in Kentucky. Associations between early school start…

  18. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and closure of the solid waste landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the proposed construction, operation, and closure of a Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) that would be designed in accordance with Commonwealth of Kentucky landfill regulations (401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations Chapters 47 and 48 and Kentucky Revised Statutes 224.855). PGDP produces approximately 7,200 cubic yards per year of non-hazardous, non-radioactive solid waste currently being disposed of in a transitional contained (residential) landfill cell (Cell No. 3). New Kentucky landfill regulations mandate that all existing landfills be upgraded to meet the requirements of the new regulations or stop receiving wastes by June 30, 1995. Cell No. 3 must stop receiving wastes at that time and be closed and capped within 180 days after final receipt of wastes. The proposed SWL would occupy 25 acres of a 60-acre site immediately north of the existing PGDP landfill (Cell No. 3). The EA evaluated the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action and reasonable alternative actions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action which will significantly affect the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, it is determined that an environmental impact statement will not be prepared, and DOE is issuing this FONSI

  19. School-Work and Mother-Work: The Interplay of Maternalism and Cultural Politics in the Educational Narratives of Kentucky Settlement Workers, 1910-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Karen W.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1900s, college-educated women who came to Appalachia as reformers and teachers developed contradictory relationships with Appalachian mothers. Writings of Lucy Furman and Ethel deLong, who worked in eastern Kentucky settlement schools, reveal intimate cooperative relationships with mothers, even as teachers aimed to replace…

  20. Comparison of an empirical forest growth and yield simulator and a forest gap simulator using actual 30-year growth from two even-aged forests in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy

    2000-01-01

    Two individual-tree growth simulators are used to predict the growth and mortality on a 30-year-old forest site and an 80-year-old forest site in eastern Kentucky. The empirical growth and yield model (NE-TWIGS) was developed to simulate short-term (

  1. Kentucky Preschool Evaluation Project: Differential Effects, Program Characteristics and Child Outcomes, and Longitudinal and Cumulative Findings. Reports 1-4, 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Townley, Kim; Wilson, Stephen; Epstein, Ann; Hines, Huyi

    This document is comprised of four reports related to the evaluation of the Kentucky Preschool Program (KPP), serving 4-year-olds who qualify for the free lunch program and 3- and 4-year-olds with disabilities. Report 1 focuses on the differential effects of the preschool program related to race and to gender. Three key findings are reported: (1)…

  2. Assessment of Mindfulness with the French Version of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills in Community and Borderline Personality Disorder Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Rosetta; Jermann, Francoise; Bondolfi, Guido; McQuillan, Annabel

    2010-01-01

    This article explores mindfulness skills in community and borderline personality disorder (BPD) samples. Study 1 includes 173 community volunteers and explores the psychometric properties of the French version of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). Study 2 explores the KIMS factor structure in 130 BPD patients and compares KIMS…

  3. Quality Teaching in Addressing Student Achievement: A Comparative Study between National Board Certified Teachers and Other Teachers on the Kentucky Core Content Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker, Harrie Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the link between quality teaching and its potential impact on student achievement. National Board Certification is used to represent quality teaching and student achievement is measured by the Kentucky Core Content Test. Data were gathered on the reading and mathematics scores of students of National Board Teachers who…

  4. Identifying the Value of the ACT Score as a Predictor of Student Success in Respiratory Care, Radiography, and Nursing at Southeast Kentucky Community and Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott-Robbins, Rebecca Jon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate--by utilizing data obtained from the Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) PeopleSoft database-- whether the American College Testing (ACT) assessment was a predictor of student success for students who had graduated from respiratory, radiography, and nursing programs at Southeast…

  5. Fluorine concentrations of ore fluids in the Illinois-Kentucky district: Evidence from SEM-EDS analysis of fluid inclusion decrepitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderes, Stuart M.; Appold, Martin S.

    2017-08-01

    The Illinois-Kentucky district is an atypical occurrence of Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mineralization that consists predominantly of fluorite rather than metal sulfide minerals. A long-standing assumption for the predominance of fluorite in the Illinois-Kentucky district is that the ore fluids there were anomalously rich in dissolved fluorine compared to typical sedimentary brines and other MVT ore fluids. This hypothesis is based on the unusual close temporal and spatial association of fluorine-rich ultramafic igneous rocks to MVT mineralization in the district, high K and Sr concentrations in the igneous rocks and in MVT ore-hosted fluid inclusions, a significant mantle 3He/4He component in ore-hosted fluid inclusions, and reaction path models that show titration of a HF-rich fluid into sedimentary brine is capable of producing a fluorite-dominated MVT ore mineral assemblage. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis more directly by determining the fluorine concentration of the Illinois-Kentucky ore fluid through SEM-EDS analysis of evaporative solute mounds resulting from thermal decrepitation of fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite. All 26 evaporative solute mounds from Illinois-Kentucky sphalerite samples analyzed contained detectable concentrations of fluorine of 1-4 weight percent. Based on calibration to standard solutions and previously published fluid inclusion major element concentrations, these solute mound fluorine concentrations correspond to fluid inclusion fluorine concentrations of about 680-4300 ppm, indicating that the Illinois-Kentucky ore fluids were quite rich in fluorine compared to typical sedimentary brines, which have fluorine concentrations mainly on the order of 1's to 10's of ppm. In contrast, solute mounds from sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from the Tri-State district did not contain fluorine in excess of the detection limit. The detection limit equates to an aqueous fluorine concentration between 87 and

  6. Variation in stable isotopes of freshwater mussel shells in a Kentucky river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, A. M.; Haag, W.; Price, S.; Weisrock, D.

    2017-12-01

    Isotopic signatures in freshwater mussel shells can reflect environmental differences among streams and human impacts on river systems. In the southeastern United States, mussels exhibit extraordinary biodiversity, serve an important role as filter feeders, and are sensitive to environmental change. Additionally, their long life-span (up to 50 years) and seasonal shell deposition can permit high-resolution environmental reconstructions. We examined variation in shell stable isotope values among mussel species and locations throughout the Licking River system in Kentucky. We sampled 8 species at 11 locations. These species represented a range of life-history traits, and locations were distributed among tributaries and the main stem of the Licking River. Samples of the outer organic periostracum layer were analysed for organic δ13C and δ15N, while organic δ15N and inorganic δ13C and δ18O were measured in the inner carbonate portion of the shell. At the same location, preliminary results show variations 2‰ in δ13C and 1‰ in δ15N between different species. We suspect these relationships are due to variations in diet and/or body size. Some, though not all, specimens show variation along the growth axis. For the same species at different locations, preliminary results showed a range of 4‰ in δ13C and 10‰ in δ15N values. Isotope ratios of specimens from the main stem were distinct from those of specimens from the river's largest tributary. Overall, δ13C shows distinct values for each tributary, while δ15N shows a general decline downstream. These variations are likely the result of environmental factors such as the degree of karstification and the ratio of forest to pasture within the catchment. We hope to use this study to identify if any isotopically distinct sources, such as fertilizers or animal manure, contribute to the high nutrient load in these systems. These results represent an exploratory effort to describe watershed-scale and mussel

  7. Adaptations of indigenous bacteria to fuel contamination in karst aquifers in south-central Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, Thomas D.; Metge, David W.; Agymang, Daniel T.; Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg; Harvey, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The karst aquifer systems in southern Kentucky can be dynamic and quick to change. Microorganisms that live in these unpredictable aquifers are constantly faced with environmental changes. Their survival depends upon adaptations to changes in water chemistry, taking advantage of positive stimuli and avoiding negative environmental conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in 2001 to determine the capability of bacteria to adapt in two distinct regions of water quality in a karst aquifer, an area of clean, oxygenated groundwater and an area where the groundwater was oxygen depleted and contaminated by jet fuel. Water samples containing bacteria were collected from one clean well and two jet fuel contaminated wells in a conduit-dominated karst aquifer. Bacterial concentrations, enumerated through direct count, ranged from 500,000 to 2.7 million bacteria per mL in the clean portion of the aquifer, and 200,000 to 3.2 million bacteria per mL in the contaminated portion of the aquifer over a twelve month period. Bacteria from the clean well ranged in size from 0.2 to 2.5 mm, whereas bacteria from one fuel-contaminated well were generally larger, ranging in size from 0.2 to 3.9 mm. Also, bacteria collected from the clean well had a higher density and, consequently, were more inclined to sink than bacteria collected from contaminated wells. Bacteria collected from the clean portion of the karst aquifer were predominantly (,95%) Gram-negative and more likely to have flagella present than bacteria collected from the contaminated wells, which included a substantial fraction (,30%) of Gram-positive varieties. The ability of the bacteria from the clean portion of the karst aquifer to biodegrade benzene and toluene was studied under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in laboratory microcosms. The rate of fuel biodegradation in laboratory studies was approximately 50 times faster under aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic, sulfur-reducing conditions. The

  8. Petrology, Palynology, and Geochemistry of Gray Hawk Coal (Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian in Eastern Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Hower

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents recently collected data examining the organic petrology, palynology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Gray Hawk coal bed. From the Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian substage, Gray Hawk coal has been mined near the western edge of the eastern Kentucky portion of the Central Appalachian coalfield. While the coal is thin, rarely more than 0.5-m thick, it has a low-ash yield and a low-S content, making it an important local resource. The Gray Hawk coal palynology is dominated by Lycospora spp., and contains a diverse spectrum of small lycopods, tree ferns, small ferns, calamites, and gymnosperms. The maceral assemblages show an abundance of collotelinite, telinite, vitrodetrinite, fusinite, and semifusinite. Fecal pellet-derived macrinite, albeit with more compaction than is typically seen in younger coals, was observed in the Gray Hawk coal. The minerals in the coal are dominated by clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite, illite, and to a lesser extent, pyrite, quartz, and iron III hydroxyl-sulfate, along with traces of chlorite, and in some cases, jarosite, szomolnokite, anatase, and calcite. The clay minerals are of authigenic and detrital origins. The occurrence of anatase as cell-fillings also indicates an authigenic origin. With the exception of Ge and As, which are slightly enriched in the coals, the concentrations of other trace elements are either close to or much lower than the averages for world hard coals. Arsenic and Hg are also enriched in the top bench of the coal and probably occur in pyrite. The elemental associations (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, Cr/Th-Sc/Th indicate a sediment-source region with intermediate and felsic compositions. Rare metals, including Ga, rare earth elements and Ge, are highly enriched in the coal ashes, and the Gray Hawk coals have a great potential for industrial use of these metals. The rare earth elements in the samples are weakly fractionated or are characterized by heavy

  9. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are strongly correlated with clay abundance and considered to be in the structure of illitic clay. Illite

  10. Characteristics of Kentucky local health departments that influence public health communication during times of crisis: information dissemination associated with H1N1 novel influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alex F; Bush, Heather M; Shapiro, Robert M; Dearinger, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of selected characteristics of local health departments (LHDs) in Kentucky with the receipt of information by external stakeholders, specifically physicians and pharmacists, during the initial H1N1 outbreak of 2009. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey to gather characteristic information from local health departments. In addition, cross sectional surveys of physicians and pharmacists were used to determine information receipt. All 54 LHDs in Kentucky were surveyed; however, only those physicians belonging to the Kentucky Family Physician Association or the Kentucky Ambulatory Network were surveyed. Also, pharmacists included in this survey were members of the Kentucky Pharmacist Association. Descriptive data analyses, including chi-square test of independence, were conducted, and generalized estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios to depict associations related to information exchange in this study. Response rates for the study were as follows: LHDs 65% (35/54), physicians 18.5% (96/518), and pharmacists 21.1% (211/1000). Of the 35 participating LHDs the most common characteristic identified was the presence of a public information officer (PIO) and a pandemic influenza plan, 76% and 64%, respectively. Despite these factors, 72% of external stakeholders did not receive any information regarding H1N1 from the LHD. Generalized estimating equations also indicated that stakeholders in jurisdictions lacking a PIO had 6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-26.95) greater odds of not receiving information from the LHD. External stakeholders in jurisdictions without a pandemic influenza plan had 3.38 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.17) increased odds of not receiving information but this association was not statistically significant. Observations from this study indicate a need to improve information exchange between LHDs and their external stakeholders, specifically physicians and pharmacists

  11. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...

  12. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... dated July 18, 2002, the International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0081] International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for Herbicide...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Owensboro-Henderson (Ky.) 77 Louisville (Ky.) 78 Metropolitan Chicago (Ill.) 67 Metropolitan Cincinnati (Ky... Kansas 99 Southwest Kansas 100 Kentucky: Appalachian 101 Bluegrass 102 Evansville-Owensboro-Henderson...-Southwestern Virginia (Va.) 207 Metropolitan Memphis (Ark., Miss.) 18 Middle Tennessee 208 Tennessee River...

  14. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Background Information Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    common and include Kentucky bluegrass, little bluestem, slender wheatgrass, porcupine grass, mat muhly, fescue sedge, and meadow sedge. Common and...protected herds as relics of the past. Prairie chickens exist as threatened species in protected areas (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1973 "Redbook

  15. Flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hopkinsville Community Development Services. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky (station no. 03437495). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03437495). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the South Fork Little River reach by using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2012) stage-discharge relation at the South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, streamgage and measurements collected during recent flood events. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 13 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, most at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bank full to the estimated elevation of the 1.0-percent annual exceedance

  16. The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, S.

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential (urban) whereas that of Woolper Creek is agricultural and residential (rural). Two testing sites were selected along the Banklick Creek; one site was upstream the confluence with an overflow stream from an adjacent lake; the second site was downstream the confluence. Most of the drainage into the lake is over a near-by industrial park and the urban residential areas of the cities of Elsmere and Erlanger, Kentucky. Four sampling locations were selected within the Woolper Creek watershed to evaluate the effect of channelization and subsequent sedimentation on the health of the creek. Water quality parameters tested for include dissolved oxygen, phosphates, chlorophyll, total suspended sediments (TSS), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), nitrates, and electrical conductivity. Sampling and testing were conducted weekly and also immediately after storm events that occurred before the regular sampling dates. Sampling and testing proceeded over a period of 29 weeks. Biological impact was determined, only in Woolper Creek watershed, by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates once every four weeks. The results showed significant differences in the water quality between the two sites within the Banklick Creek. The water quality may be affected by the stream overflow from the dammed lake. Also, channelization in the Woolper Creek seemed to have adverse effects on the water quality. A retention pond, constructed to prevent sediments from flowing into the Woolper Creek, did not seem to be effective. This is because the water quality downstream of the retention pond was significantly worse than that of the

  17. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  18. Transmission of endoparasites in horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky (1996-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S; Drudge, J H

    2001-05-22

    Research carried out during the last 4 years (1996-1999) of an 11-year study of the prevalence of internal parasites naturally transmitted to horse foals born on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky is presented here. Horses in this herd were not treated with any antiparasitic compound for over 20 years except for a replacement stallion in 1994. A total of 22 species, including 12 species of small strongyles, were recovered in the 4-year period. Transmission patterns of all species (n=35) of endoparasites recovered are compared for the 11-year study. Some of the changes were an increase in number of Thelazia lacrymalis and Anoplocephala perfoliata and a decrease in Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum, and Strongylus vulgaris. Clinical problems associated with parasitism were not observed in any of the 92 foals in the long-term investigation.

  19. Chlorophenol and alkylphenol concentrations in sediment and mussel tissues collected from selected locations in Kentucky Lake, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, B.; Brown, B.; Owen, D. [Murray State Univ., Murray, KY (United States); Sajwan, K. [Savannah State Univ., Savannah, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Kentucky (KY) Lake is one the major human-constructed lakes in the US. It serves as an ultimate repository of substances entering this watershed from portions of seven southeastern states, which include a sizeable fraction of the U.S. chemical processing, agricultural chemical products and electronics manufacturing industries. Although a few studies have examined the levels of chlorinated organics in the KY Lake and the lowermost Tennessee River, there have been no reports on the distribution on the levels of chlorophenols and alkylphenols in sediment and/or biological tissues from this region. In this study, sediment, and freshwater mussels were collected from selected locations in KY Lake and Lake Barkley and analyzed for CPs and APs. Furthermore, wood samples from abandoned docks, navigational towers and wood found in the lake bottom were also analyzed to examine the sources of CPs to the lakes.

  20. The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Conditions of Trust Among Leaders at the Kentucky Department for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Redmond Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited leadership research on emotional intelligence and trust in governmental public health settings. The purpose of this study was to identify and seek to understand the relationship between trust and elements of emotional intelligence, including stress management, at the Kentucky Department for Public Health. The Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH serves as Kentucky’s state governmental health department. KDPH is led by a Commissioner and composed of seven primary divisions and 25 branches within those divisions. The study was a non-randomized cross-sectional study utilizing electronic surveys that evaluated conditions of trust among staff members and emotional intelligence among supervisors. Pearson correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values are presented to provide the association between emotional intelligence scales and the conditions of trust. Significant positive correlations were observed between supervisors' stress management and the staff members' trust or perception of supervisors' loyalty(r=0.6, p=0.01, integrity(r=0.5, p=0.03, receptivity(r=0.6, p=0.02, promise fulfillment(r=0.6, p=0.02 and availability (r=0.5, p=0.07. This research lays the foundation for emotional intelligence and trust research and leadership training in other governmental public health settings, such as local, other state, national or international organizations. This original research provides metrics to assess the public health workforce with attention to organizational management and leadership constructs. The survey tools could be used in other governmental public health settings in order to develop tailored training opportunities related to emotional intelligence and trust organizations.

  1. Ground-water levels and precipitation data at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, October 1988-September 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettwoch, Douglas D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet--Department for Environmental Protection--Division of Waste Management, has an ongoing program to monitor water levels at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky. Ground-water-level and precipitation data were collected from 112 wells and 1 rain gage at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site during October 1988-September 2000. Data were collected on a semi-annual basis from 62 wells, continuously from 6 wells, and monthly or bimonthly from 44 wells (13 of which had continuous recorders installed for the period October 1998-September 2000). One tipping-bucket rain gage was used to collect data at the Maxey Flats site for the period October 1988-September 2000.

  2. An emerging crisis across northern prairie refuges: Prevalence of invasive plants and a plan for adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T.A.; Flanders-Wanner, B.; Shaffer, T.L.; Murphy, R.K.; Knutsen, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the northern Great Plains, native prairies managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) can be pivotal in conservation of North America's biological diversity. From 2002 to 2006, we surveyed 7,338 belt transects to assess the general composition of mixed-grass and tallgrass prairie vegetation across five "complexes" (i.e., administrative groupings) of national wildlife refuges managed by the Service in North Dakota and South Dakota. Native grasses and forbs were common (mean frequency of occurrence 47%-54%) on two complexes but uncommon (4%-13%) on two others. Conversely, an introduced species of grass, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), accounted for 45% to 49% of vegetation on two complexes and another species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) accounted for 27% to 36% of the vegetation on three of the complexes. Our data confirm prior suspicions of widespread invasion by introduced species of plants on Service-owned tracts of native prairie, changes that likely stem in part from a common management history of little or no disturbance (e.g., defoliation by grazing or fire). However, variability in the degree and type of invasion among prairie tracts suggests that knowledge of underlying causes (e.g., edaphic or climatic factors, management histories) could help managers more effectively restore prairies. We describe an adaptive management approach to acquire such knowledge while progressing with restoration. More specifically, we propose to use data from inventories of plant communities on Service-owned prairies to design and implement, as experiments, optimal restoration strategies. We will then monitor these experiments and use the results to refine future strategies. This comprehensive, process-oriented approach should yield reliable and robust recommendations for restoration and maintenance of native prairies in the northern Great Plains. 2009 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.

  3. Induced mutations in highly heterozygous vegetatively propagated grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with mutation induction of turf and forage grasses indicates that much progress can be achieved by this method. More than 300 mutations have been produced in our laboratory in the cultivars Tifgreen and Tifdwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). In the Tifway and Tifcote bermudagrasses we have demonstrated similar mutation responses. The first three clones are triploids and Tifcote is a probable tetraploid. No seeds are set on these clones. Two clones of bermudagrass, Coastal and Coastcross-1, occupy millions of hectares in the USA. Both are mutable and are known to be hybrids with 36 chromosomes. Biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) exist with 40 and 50 chromosomes and reproduce as sexual and obligate apomictic forms. Gamma-ray and thermal-neutron treatment of seed of these biotypes produced mutants that maintained the maternal characteristics in subsequent generations. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) also has sexual and apomictic biotypes. Some success was indicated for increased seed set by mutagen treatment. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomict with varying numbers of chromosomes in different cultivars. Gamma-ray mutagen treatment of rhizomes produced numerous mutations for plant type and disease reaction. Most mutations perpetuate themselves through the seed. The characteristic in common with all these grasses is their heterozygosity, which is maintained by the vegetative propagation or apomictic mode of reproduction. The experience in using ionizing radiation to induce heritable changes in these vegetatively propagated grasses is one of considerable success. Mutation rates in some of these irradiated grasses exceeded 65% and aberrant plants with characteristics previously never observed were found. Numerous hemizygous and heterozygous loci seem to be a sensitive target for mutagens. (author)

  4. Ground cover and tree growth on calcareous minesoils: Greater influence of soil surface than nitrogen rate or seed mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Growth of ground cover and trees was evaluated for five growing seasons on calcareous coal minesoil surfaces (standard graded topsoil, graded and ripped topsoil, graded gray cast overburden) in southeastern Ohio. Soil surface plots were seeded in September 1987 with either a standard herbaceous seed mix [orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), Ranger alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), Empire birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)], or a modified mix using no alfalfa and half the rate of orchardgrass. Nitrogen (45, 90, or 135 kg ha/N) was applied as ammonium nitrate in September 1987 and April 1989. White ash (Fraxinus americana L.), silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were planted in spring 1989 into 0.8 m-wide strips sprayed with glyphosate herbicide at 2.24 kg/ha in October 1988. Total cover and total biomass were highest in July 1989, following the last application of nitrogen fertilizer in April 1989. Total cover ranged from 44% to 56%, and total biomass ranged from 102 to 162 g/0.5 m 2 from 1990 to 1993. Total cover and total biomass were lower at the lowest nitrogen rate in 1989 only. Type of herbaceous seed mix did not affect growth of ground cover or trees. Overall tree survival was 82.0% the first year but declined to 40.6% after 5 yr. Survival varied significantly among all tree species (3.5% for pine, 22.2% for oak, 38.5% for maple, 98.1% for ash)

  5. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L; Limb, Ryan F; Daigh, Aaron L; Volk, Jay M; Wick, Abbey F

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  6. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  7. High-level fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 epidemic clone with IncA/C conjugative plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-25) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabela; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Zając, Magdalena; Hoszowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-30

    Multidrug resistant Salmonella Kentucky strains have been isolated from turkeys in Poland since 2009. Multiple mutations within chromosomal genes gyrA and parC were responsible for high-level ciprofloxacin resistance. One of the isolates was extended spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL) positive: the strain 1643/2010 carried a conjugative 167,779 bps plasmid of IncA/C family. The sequence analysis revealed that it carried a blaCTX-M-25 gene and an integron with another β-lactamase encoding gene-blaOXA-21. This is the first known report of a CTX-M-25 encoding gene both in Poland and in Salmonella Kentucky world-wide, as well as in the IncA/C plasmid. Analysis of the integron showed a novel arrangement of gene cassettes-aacA4, aacC-A1 and blaOXA-21 where the latter might result from an intergeneric gene transfer. The study confirmed Salmonella Kentucky population isolated in Poland belongs to global epidemics of high level fluoroquinolone resistant clone ST198 that can carry rare β-lactamase genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah site in northwestern Kentucky (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF 6 stored at Paducah to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the ''Federal Register'' (FR) on September 18, 2001 (''Federal Register'', Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF 6 conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (''United States Code'', Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (''Code of Federal Regulations'', Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF 6 conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a ''Federal Register'' Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (DandD) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products

  9. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  10. Boundary separating the seismically active reelfoot rift from the sparsely seismic Rough Creek graben, Kentucky and Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is the most active of six Iapetan rifts and grabens in central and eastern North America. In contrast, the Rough Creek graben is one of the least active, being seismically indistinguishable from the central craton of North America. Yet the rift and graben adjoin. Hazard assessment in the rift and graben would be aided by identification of a boundary between them. Changes in the strikes of single large faults, the location of a Cambrian transfer zone, and the geographic extent of alkaline igneous rocks provide three independent estimates of the location of a structural boundary between the rift and the graben. The boundary trends north-northwest through the northeastern part of the Fluorspar Area Fault Complex of Kentucky and Illinois, and has no obvious surface expression. The boundary involves the largest faults, which are the most likely to penetrate to hypocentral depths, and the boundary coincides with the geographic change from abundant seismicity in the rift to sparse seismicity in the graben. Because the structural boundary was defined by geologic variables that are expected to be causally associated with seismicity, it may continue to bound the Reelfoot rift seismicity in the future.

  11. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-07

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytophthora cinnamomi Colonized Reclaimed Surface Mined Sites in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for the Restoration of Susceptible Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenton L. Sena

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Appalachian forests are threatened by a number of factors, especially introduced pests and pathogens. Among these is Phytophthora cinnamomi, a soil-borne oomycete pathogen known to cause root rot in American chestnut, shortleaf pine, and other native tree species. This study was initiated to characterize the incidence of P. cinnamomi on surface mined lands in eastern Kentucky, USA, representing a range of time since reclamation (10, 12, 15, and 20 years since reclamation. Incidence of P. cinnamomi was correlated to soil properties including overall soil development, as indicated by a variety of measured soil physical and chemical parameters, especially the accumulation of soil organic carbon. P. cinnamomi was detected in only two of the four sites studied, aged 15 and 20 years since reclamation. These sites were generally characterized by higher organic matter accumulation than the younger sites in which P. cinnamomi was not detected. These results demonstrate that P. cinnamomi is capable of colonizing reclaimed mine sites in Appalachia; additional research is necessary to determine the impact of P. cinnamomi on susceptible tree species at these sites.

  13. A Community-Based Marketing Campaign at Farmers Markets to Encourage Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in Rural Counties With High Rates of Obesity, Kentucky, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Emily; McGladrey, Margaret; Liu, Emily; Peritore, Nicole; Webber, Kelly; Butterworth, Brooke; Vail, Ann; Gustafson, Alison

    2017-08-31

    Availability of farmers markets may increase fruit and vegetable consumption among rural residents of the United States. We conducted a community-based marketing campaign, Plate it Up Kentucky Proud (PIUKP), in 6 rural communities over 2 years to determine the association between exposure to the campaign and fruit and vegetable purchases, adjusted for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipient status. Logistic regression was used to examine the odds of the PIUKP campaign influencing purchases. Awareness of the PIUKP marketing campaign was significantly associated with a willingness to prepare fruits and vegetables at home. Using marketing strategies at farmers markets may be an effective way to improve fruit and vegetable purchases in rural communities.

  14. HUBUNGAN ANTARA GAYA HIDUP DAN PEMILIHAN MEREK LOKAL ATAU MEREK LUAR NEGERI (SURVEI PADA AYAM BAKAR WONG SOLO VS KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Haryanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study examines the influence of lifesyle on probability in buying intention toward domestic brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken. Convenience sampling method was employed to acquire 250 samples with the criteria of: (1 the respondents had the intention to buy Ayam Bakar Wong Solo or has intention to buy Kentucky Fried Chicken, (2 respondents had the freedom to take or to refuse to paticipate in the survey. (3 Survey was conducted in the form of direct structured intervew. These conditions were intended to get data acuracy. Logit regression was utilized to predict the influence of independent variable on depen¬dent variables. The analysis indicated that consumer who had fashion conscious life style preferred to buy foreign brand (Kentucky Fried Chicken, the health conscious life style preferred on local brand (Ayam Bakar Wong Solo, leadership life style preferred on foreign brand, caring life style preferred on local brand, and extrovertion life style preferred on foreign brand. In this study, implications of the results were also discussed.Key words: life style, local brand, foreign brand, caring life style, leadership life style, extrovertion life style.AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh gaya hidup pada kemungkinannya dalam membeli merek domestic (ayam Bakar Wong Solo atau merek luar negeri (Kentucky Fried Chicken. Metode sampling konveniens dipilih untuk mengambil 250 responden, yang diikuti dengan kriteria (1 responden berniat membeli Ayam Bakar Wong Solo dan KFC, (2 responden mempunyai kebebasan untuk menerima atau menolak sebagai responden, (3 survei dilakukan melalui wawancara langsung secara terstruktur. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan keakurasian data penelitian. Regresi Logistik dilakukan untuk memprediksi hubungan antar dua variabel seperti yang dihipotresiskan. Hasilnya mengindikasi bahwa konsumen yang mempunyai gaya hidup pemerhati mode cenderung membeli merek

  15. Cooling tower drift studies at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. [Transport of drift-derived chromium in terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, F.G.; Hanna, S.R.; Parr, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    The transfer and fate of chromium from cooling tower drift to terrestrial ecosystems were quantified at the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment facility at Paducah, Kentucky. Chromium concentrations in plant materials (fescue grass) decreased with increasing distance from the cooing tower, ranging from 251 +- 19 ppM at 15 meters to 0.52 +- 0.07 ppM at 1500 meters. The site of drift contamination, size characteristics, and elemental content of drift particles were determined using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis capabilities. Results indicate that elemental content in drift water (mineral residue) may not be equivalent to the content in the recirculating cooling water of the tower. This hypothesis is contrary to basic assumptions in calculating drift emissions. A laboratory study simulating throughfall from 1 to 6 inches of rain suggested that there are more exchange sites associated with litter than live foliage. Leachate from each one inch throughfall simulant removed 3% of the drift mass from litter compared to 7 to 9% from live foliage. Results suggest that differences in retention are related to chemical properties of the drift rather than physical lodging of the particle residue. To determine the potential for movement of drift-derived chromium to surface streams, soil--water samplers (wells) were placed along a distance gradient to Little Bayou Creek. Samples from two depths following rainstorms revealed the absence of vertical or horizontal movement with maximum concentrations of 0.13 ppb at 50 meters from the tower. Preliminary model estimates of drift deposition are compared to depositionmeasurements. Isopleths of the predicted deposition are useful to identify areas of maximum drift transport in the environs of the gaseous diffusion plant.

  16. Multilocus Phylogeography and Species Delimitation in the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki: Incongruence among Data Sets and Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn R Kuchta

    Full Text Available Species are a fundamental unit of biodiversity, yet can be challenging to delimit objectively. This is particularly true of species complexes characterized by high levels of population genetic structure, hybridization between genetic groups, isolation by distance, and limited phenotypic variation. Previous work on the Cumberland Plateau Salamander, Plethodon kentucki, suggested that it might constitute a species complex despite occupying a relatively small geographic range. To examine this hypothesis, we sampled 135 individuals from 43 populations, and used four mitochondrial loci and five nuclear loci (5693 base pairs to quantify phylogeographic structure and probe for cryptic species diversity. Rates of evolution for each locus were inferred using the multidistribute package, and time calibrated gene trees and species trees were inferred using BEAST 2 and *BEAST 2, respectively. Because the parameter space relevant for species delimitation is large and complex, and all methods make simplifying assumptions that may lead them to fail, we conducted an array of analyses. Our assumption was that strongly supported species would be congruent across methods. Putative species were first delimited using a Bayesian implementation of the GMYC model (bGMYC, Geneland, and Brownie. We then validated these species using the genealogical sorting index and BPP. We found substantial phylogeographic diversity using mtDNA, including four divergent clades and an inferred common ancestor at 14.9 myr (95% HPD: 10.8-19.7 myr. By contrast, this diversity was not corroborated by nuclear sequence data, which exhibited low levels of variation and weak phylogeographic structure. Species trees estimated a far younger root than did the mtDNA data, closer to 1.0 myr old. Mutually exclusive putative species were identified by the different approaches. Possible causes of data set discordance, and the problem of species delimitation in complexes with high levels of population

  17. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 12. Fluor project status. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document and summarize activities associated with Fluor's efforts on the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The proposed facility was to be coal-to-transport fuels facility located in Henderson, Kentucky. Tri-State Synfuels Company was participating in the project as a partner of the US Department of Energy per terms of a Cooperative Agreement resulting from DOE's synfuel's program solicitation. Fluor's initial work plan called for preliminary engineering and procurement services to the point of commitment for construction for a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch plant. Work proceeded as planned until October 1981 when results of alternative coal-to-methanol studies revealed the economic disadvantage of the Synthol design for US markets. A number of alternative process studies followed to determine the best process configuration. In January 1982 Tri-State officially announced a change from Synthol to a Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) design basis. Further evaluation and cost estimates for the MTG facility eventually led to the conclusion that, given the depressed economic outlook for alternative fuels development, the project should be terminated. Official announcement of cancellation was made on April 13, 1982. At the time of project cancellation, Fluor had completed significant portions of the preliminary engineering effort. Included in this report are descriptions and summaries of Fluor's work during this project. In addition location of key project data and materials is identified and status reports for each operation are presented.

  18. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C

  19. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc. 's, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. (Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  20. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc.`s, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  1. The alternative oxidase in roots of Poa species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millenaar, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    The main function of respiration is the production of energy-rich molecules (ATP). A major part (up to 60%) of the respiration in plants can occur via the nonphosphorylating alternative pathway, even under conditions when the sugar concentration is low. This suggests that the energetically

  2. Multiple-source tracking: Investigating sources of pathogens, nutrients, and sediment in the Upper Little River Basin, Kentucky, water years 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Cherry, Mac A.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2017-09-20

    The South Fork Little River (SFLR) and the North Fork Little River (NFLR) are two major headwater tributaries that flow into the Little River just south of Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Both tributaries are included in those water bodies in Kentucky and across the Nation that have been reported with declining water quality. Each tributary has been listed by the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet—Kentucky Division of Water in the 303(d) List of Waters for Kentucky Report to Congress as impaired by nutrients, pathogens, and sediment for contact recreation from point and nonpoint sources since 2002. In 2009, the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet—Kentucky Division of Water developed a pathogen total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the Little River Basin including the SFLR and NFLR Basins. Future nutrient and suspended-sediment TMDLs are planned once nutrient criteria and suspended-sediment protocols have been developed for Kentucky. In this study, different approaches were used to identify potential sources of fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), nitrate, and suspended sediment; to inform the TMDL process; and to aid in the implementation of effective watershed-management activities. The main focus of source identification was in the SFLR Basin.To begin understanding the potential sources of fecal contamination, samples were collected at 19 sites for densities of FIB (E. coli) in water and fluvial sediment and at 11 sites for Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, human HF183, ruminant BoBac, canid BacCan, and waterfowl GFD) during the recreational season (May through October) in 2013 and 2014. Results indicated 34 percent of all E. coli water samples (n=227 samples) did not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2012 recommended national criteria for primary recreational waters. No criterion currently exists for E. coli in fluvial sediment. By use of the Spearman’s rank correlation test, densities of FIB in fluvial sediments were observed to have a

  3. Self-Contained versus Departmentalized School Organization and the Impact on Fourth and Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics as Determined by the Kentucky Core Content Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kimberly Penn

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between self-contained and departmentalized classroom organization on the Kentucky Core Content Test (KCCT) in reading and mathematics for students in fourth and fifth grade. A secondary purpose of this study was to consider how these organizational structures affect the…

  4. Real-time PCR evaluation of Strongylus vulgaris in horses on farms in Denmark and Central Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Olsen, S N; Lyons, E T; Monrad, J; Thamsborg, S M

    2012-12-21

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses, and the large strongyle Strongylus vulgaris is considered the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses. Recent investigations have suggested an association between occurrence of this parasite and usage of selective therapy based on regular fecal egg counts. The established diagnostic method for S. vulgaris involves larval culture and subsequent morphological identification of third stage larvae under the microscope. Recently, a real-time PCR assay was developed and validated for the detection and semi-quantification of S. vulgaris eggs in equine fecal samples. The purposes of the present study were (a) to determine the presence of S. vulgaris by real-time PCR in Danish and American horses on farms using vastly different anthelmintic treatment regimens and (b) to evaluate the association between larval culture results and the PCR. A total of 991 horses representing 53 different horse farms in Denmark and Central Kentucky were studied. Fresh fecal samples were collected from all horses, and strongyle eggs retrieved for DNA extraction and subsequent real-time PCR analysis. Individual larval cultures were performed on the Danish part of the data set (663 horses on 42 farms). On the Danish farms, the S. vulgaris PCR prevalence was found to be 9.2% on farms not basing parasite control on fecal egg counts, and 14.1% on farms using selective therapy. No horses were PCR positive in the American part of the study (328 horses on 11 farms). Kappa-values indicated a moderate agreement between PCR and larval culture results, while McNemar tests revealed no statistical difference between the paired proportions. Significant associations were found between PCR cycle of threshold (Ct) value groups and larval culture counts. Results indicate that both diagnostic methods can be useful for determining the occurrence of S. vulgaris on horse farms, but that they both are affected by potential sources of error. The PCR results

  5. Validation of food store environment secondary data source and the role of neighborhood deprivation in Appalachia, Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Alison A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the need for better measurement of the retail food environment in rural settings and to examine how deprivation may be unique in rural settings, the aims of this study were: 1 to validate one commercially available data source with direct field observations of food retailers; and 2 to examine the association between modified neighborhood deprivation and the modified retail food environment score (mRFEI. Methods Secondary data were obtained from a commercial database, InfoUSA in 2011, on all retail food outlets for each census tract. In 2011, direct observation identifying all listed food retailers was conducted in 14 counties in Kentucky. Sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV were compared. Neighborhood deprivation index was derived from American Community Survey data. Multinomial regression was used to examine associations between neighborhood deprivation and the mRFEI score (indicator of retailers selling healthy foods such as low-fat foods and fruits and vegetables relative to retailers selling more energy dense foods. Results The sensitivity of the commercial database was high for traditional food retailers (grocery stores, supermarkets, convenience stores, with a range of 0.96-1.00, but lower for non-traditional food retailers; dollar stores (0.20 and Farmer’s Markets (0.50. For traditional food outlets, the PPV for smaller non-chain grocery stores was 38%, and large chain supermarkets was 87%. Compared to those with no stores in their neighborhoods, those with a supercenter [OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.27. 0.97] or convenience store [OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.51, 0.89] in their neighborhood have lower odds of living in a low deprivation neighborhood relative to a high deprivation neighborhood. Conclusion The secondary commercial database used in this study was insufficient to characterize the rural retail food environment. Our findings suggest that neighborhoods with high neighborhood deprivation are associated with

  6. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  7. The uses of ERTS-1 imagery in the analysis of landscape change. [agriculture, strip mining forests, urban-suburban growth, and flooding in Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The analysis of strip mining from ERTS-1 data has resulted in the mapping of landscape changes for the Cumberland Plateau Test Site. Several mapping experiments utilizing ERTS-1 data have been established for the mapping of state-wide land use regions. The first incorporates 12 frames of ERTS-1 imagery for the generalized thematic mapping of forest cover for the state of Tennessee. In another mapping effort, 14 ERTS-1 images have been analyzed for plowed ground signatures to produce a map of agricultural regions for Tennessee, Kentucky, and the northern portions of Mississippi and Alabama. Generalized urban land use categories and transportation networks have been determined from ERTS-1 imagery for the Knoxville Test Site. Finally, through the analysis of ERTS-1 imagery, short-lived phenomena such as the 1973 spring floods on the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, have been detected, monitored, and mapped.

  8. Transmission of some species of internal parasites in horse foals born in 2013 in the same pasture on a farm in Central Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolliver S. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research is a continuation of studies conducted periodically over 40 years on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in the same horse herd on pasture (Field 10 on a farm in Central Kentucky. It included 12 mixed light horse foals born in 2013 and euthanatized between July, 2013 and April, 2014 for collection of internal parasites. Parasites found: Gasterophilus intestinalis, Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, small strongyles (cyathostomes, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and Thelazia lacrymalis. Prevalence generally was related to age of the foals. Overall prevalence and number of specimens were lower than in earlier studies except for P. equorum. There were 15 species (much fewer than previously of small strongyles found and recorded by location in the large intestines. All stages of small strongyles encysted in the mucosa of the large intestine were recovered by artificial digestion and in significantly lower numbers in older foals

  9. A feasibility analysis of the employment of satellite imagery to monitor and inspect surface mining operations in western Kentucky, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, B. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Surface mining violation estimates were scaled by scores assigned by ten inspectors from western Kentucky to each violation. A sensitivity analysis was made by varying the violation costs; costs were varied by using three different average durations. These durations were: (1) best estimated duration; (2) longest possible duration as restricted by the one year permit renewal and bond release regulations, and (3) shortest possible duration when inspections were made. If a social cost cannot be reduced, then the value of the social cost is irrelevant. Indications from the increased inspection rate of 1975 were that the total amount of fines collected per year remains constant independent of the increased detection rate.

  10. Assessment of the influences of groundwater colloids on the migration of technetium-99 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site in Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.; McDonald, J.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Clausen, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This short report summarizes the influences of groundwater colloids on the migration/transport of 99 Tc at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site in Paducah, Kentucky. Limited data suggest that inorganic colloidal materials (e.g., aluminosilicate clay minerals) may not play a significant role in the retention and transport of Tc. Studies by size fractionation reveal that both Tc and natural organic matter (NOM) are largely present in the -8 mol/L or parts per billion), regardless of the redox conditions, Tc will stay in solution phase as TC(IV) or Tc(VII). The mechanisms of adsorption/association vs precipitation must be understood under reduced and low Tc conditions so that strategic plans for remediation of Tc contaminated soils and groundwaters can be developed

  11. A comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Vol. III. Environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.; Gray, D.D.; Hyndman, J.R.; Sisman, O.; Suffern, J.S.; Tyrrell, P.A.; West, D.C.

    1976-02-01

    The thermal, ecological, and social impacts of a 40-reactor NEC are compared to impacts from four 10-reactor NECs and ten 4-reactor power plants. The comparison was made for surrogate sites in western Tennessee. The surrogate site for the 40-reactor NEC is located on Kentucky Lake. A layout is postulated for ten clusters of four reactors each with 2.5-mile spacing between clusters. The plants use natural-draft cooling towers. A transmission system is proposed for delivering the power (48,000 MW) to five load centers. Comparable transmission systems are proposed for the 10-reactor NECs and the 4-reactor dispersed sites delivering power to the same load centers.

  12. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  13. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  14. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  15. FLOODPLAIN, Kenton COUNTY, Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, CAMPBELL COUNTY, Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  17. FLOODPLAIN, Pendleton COUNTY, Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, franklin COUNTY, Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  19. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  20. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A. J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Maldonado, D. G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  1. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  2. Definite Project Report for Section 205 Flood Control, Illinois River, Liverpool, Illinois, with Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    woodlands Wolf’s bluegrass (Poa wolfii) Meadows and woodlands pink milkwort (Polygala incarnata) Sand and gravel prairies and dry open sites spearwort...with deposits ranging up to 50 feet thick in uneroded locations. In some places, the Peoria Loess may be underlain by a brown to pink silt known as...suildirp - P.O. Box! ?004 Pock 1s’lare, T1linols 612014-1004 SintcecrelIy, Scd BY J. T. SCHNEME* Du~ley M. Hanson, P.F. rewp, Fisrn’ehed: Rovrormble Floy

  3. Dual wall reverse circulation drilling with multi-level groundwater sampling for groundwater contaminant plume delineation at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.; Morti, E.E.; Zutman, J.L.; Pickering, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Dual wall reverse circulation (DWRC) drilling was used to drill 48 borings during a groundwater contaminant investigation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. This method was selected as an alternative to conventional hollow stem auger drilling for a number of reasons, including the expectation of minimizing waste, increasing the drilling rate, and reducing the potential for cross contamination of aquifers. Groundwater samples were collected from several water-bearing zones during drilling of each borehole. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds using a field gas chromatograph. This approach allowed the investigation to be directed using near-real-time data. Use of downhole geophysical logging, in conjunction with lithologic descriptions of borehole cuttings, resulted in excellent correlation of the geology in the vicinity of the contaminant plume. The total volume of cuttings generated using the DWRC drilling method was less than half of what would have been produced by hollow stem augering; however, the cuttings were recovered in slurry form and had to be dewatered prior to disposal. The drilling rate was very rapid, often approaching 10 ft/min; however, frequent breaks to perform groundwater sampling resulted in an average drilling rate of < 1 ft/min. The time required for groundwater sampling could be shortened by changing the sampling methodology. Analytical results indicated that the drilling method successfully isolated the various water bearing zones and no cross contamination resulted from the investigation

  4. Task 16 -- Sampling and analysis at the Vortec vitrification facility in Paducah, Kentucky. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudal, D.L.; Lilemoen, C.M.; Hurley, J.P.; Ness, S.R.; Stepan, D.J.; Thompson, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    The Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS reg-sign) facility, to be located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, is designed to treat soil contaminated with low levels of heavy metals and radioactive elements, as well as organic waste. To assure that costs of sampling and analysis are contained, Vortec and the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) have decided that initially the primary focus of the sampling activities will be on meeting permitting requirements of the state of Kentucky. Therefore, sampling will be limited to the feedstock entering the system, and the glass, flue gas, and water leaving the system. The authors provide suggestions for optional sampling points and procedures in case there is later interest in operations or mass balance data. The permits do not require speciation of the materials in the effluents, only opacity, total radioactivity, total particulate, and total HCl emissions for the gaseous emissions and total radioactivity in the water and solid products. In case future testing to support operations or mass balances is required, the authors include in this document additional information on the analyses of some species of interest. They include heavy metals (RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] and Cu and Ni), radionuclides (Th 230 , U 235 , Tc 99 , Cs 137 , and Pu 239 ), and dioxins/furans

  5. Floodplain/wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation ofa depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky,site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This floodplain/wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11988 (''Floodplain Management''), Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and DOE regulations for implementing these Executive Orders as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [''Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements'']), to evaluate potential impacts to floodplains and wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site. Reconstruction of the bridge crossing Bayou Creek would occur within the Bayou Creek 100-year

  6. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Volume II. Transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reister, D.B.; Zelby, L.W.

    1976-05-01

    A comparison is made among power transmission systems required to serve a single set of load center demands from four modes of siting the generating facilities: a single generation site with an ultimate generation capacity of 48,000 MW; four generation sites each with a generation capacity of 12,000 MW; 10 generation sites each with a generation capacity of 4,800 MW; and a system that resulted when the existing utility plan for future generation was logically expanded. The time period for the study is from the year 1985 to the year 2020, when the full 48,000 MW of new capacity from the single large nuclear energy center is on-line. The load centers served are Huntsville, Alabama; Evansville, Indiana; Paducah, Kentucky; and Chattanooga, Nashville, and Memphis, Tennessee. Generation sites are real locations but are hypothetical in terms of miles of transmission lines, the product of the amount of power transmitted and the distance transmitted (GW-miles), and cost

  7. Examining Key Stakeholder and Community Residents' Understanding of Environmental Influences to Inform Place-Based Interventions to Reduce Obesity in Rural Communities, Kentucky 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; McGladrey, Margaret; Liu, Emily; Peritore, Nicole; Webber, Kelly; Butterworth, Brooke; Vail, Ann

    2017-07-07

    Rural residents report high rates of obesity, physical inactivity, and poor eating habits. The objectives of this study were to (1) use the collective impact model to guide efforts to elicit community members' perceptions of county-specific factors influencing high obesity rates; (2) determine the association between utilization of food retail venues and concern about obesity and healthy eating; and (3) determine community members' utilization of physical activity infrastructure and concern about physical inactivity. The study was conducted in 6 rural counties in Kentucky with adult obesity prevalence rates >40%. Community stakeholders met to assess counties' needs and assets in implementing interventions to reduce obesity in their communities. A random-digit dial survey (n = 756) also was conducted to examine awareness and availability of community resources for healthy eating and physical activity. Stakeholders identified lack of access to fruits and vegetables and poor physical activity infrastructure as contributors to obesity. Reporting moderate and serious concern about obesity and healthy eating was associated with higher odds of shopping at a supercenter compared with those expressing little concern. Reported access to information about physical activity opportunities was associated with higher odds of reporting the availability of safe places for physical activity, sidewalks, and trails compared with those who reported that information was difficult to obtain. This study elicits community-identified barriers to healthy behaviors and provides foundational data to inform future place-based obesity reduction interventions. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  9. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, James C.; Henke, Kevin R.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M.K.; Engle, Mark A.; Blake, Donald R.; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 μg/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 μg/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns.

  10. Sleep deprivation and injuries in part-time Kentucky farmers: impact of self reported sleep habits and sleep problems on injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Susan E; Browning, Steven R; Reed, Deborah B

    2004-09-01

    Part-time farmers who hold off-farm jobs may be at risk for injuries because of impaired performance resulting from inadequate sleep. For this study, 1004 part-time male Kentucky farmers completed a telephone interview for the 1994 to 1995 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-funded Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project. Questions were included about demographics, sleep habits, and injury occurrence. Twelve percent of the farmers reported an injury requiring medical intervention in the previous year. Farmers reported sleeping an average of 7.6 hours daily. Approximately 6.7% of the sample had three symptoms of sleep apnea. Although hours of sleep were not related to injury incidence, sleep medication use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 4.40) and presence of three sleep apnea symptoms (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.13 to 5.41) were related to injury incidence. These data support the need for further research to examine sleep habits and promote strategies that reduce the risk for injuries caused by lack of sleep.

  11. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 6, July--September 1977. [Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-04-01

    A survey of the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level radioactive waste disposal site was conducted to obtain an overview of the radioactivity in the trench waters for the purpose of selecting specific trenches for comprehensive study. Water samples collected from trenches and wells were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma radioactivities. The results indicate that there are large differences in the composition of trench waters at the site. Several trenches, that represent extreme and average values of the major parameters measured, have been tentatively selected for further study. 10 fig, 6 tables.

  12. Stratigraphy of the Silurian outcrop belt on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky, with revisions in the nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Silurian rocks form a narrow arcuate outcrop belt about 100 mi long on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky. They range from as much as 300 ft thick in the north to a pinchout edge in the south. The nomenclature of this sequence is revised to reflect mappability and lithologic uniformity on the basis of detailed mapping at a scale of 1:24,000 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kentucky Geological Survey. The Silurian rocks are divided into two parts: the Crab Orchard Group, raised in rank from Crab Orchard Formation and redefined, in the lower part of the Silurian section, and Bisher Dolomite in the upper part of the section. The Crab Orchard Group is subdivided into the Drowning Creek Formation (new name) at the base of the Silurian, overlain by the Alger Shale (adopted herein) south of Fleming County and by the Estill Shale (elevated to formational rank) north of Bath County. The Brassfield Member (reduced in rank from Brassfield Dolomite or Formation) and the Plum Creek Shale and Oldham Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are included as members of the Drowning Creek; the Lulbegrud Shale, Waco, and Estill Shale Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are now included in the Alger. The Drowning Creek Formation, 20 to 50 ft thick, is composed mainly of gray fine to coarse-grained dolomite with shale interbeds. The dolomite beds average several inches thick, with bedding surfaces that are locally smooth but generally irregular and are fossiliferous in many places; fossils include brachiopods, crinoid columnals, horn corals, colonial corals, trilobites, pelecypods, and bryozoans. The shale interbeds average several inches thick, except for its Plum Creek Shale Member which is entirely shale and as much as 12 ft thick, and are most abundant in the upper half of the formation. The members of the Drowning Creek intergrade and are indistinguishable in the northern part of the area. The Alger Shale, as much as 170 feet thick

  13. Evaluation of Healthy2Go: A country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushakoff, Joshua A; Zoughbie, Daniel E; Bui, Nancy; DeVito, Katerina; Makarechi, Leila; Kubo, Hitomi

    2017-09-01

    Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Kentucky's Cumberland Valley region are among the highest in the United States and limited access to healthy food contributes to these epidemics. The aim of Healthy2Go (H2G), a country store transformation project launched by Spread the Health Appalachia (STHA), was to improve awareness and availability of healthy options in small, rural stores. Ten country stores participated in H2G and received training and technical assistance to increase availability and awareness of healthy foods. Stores made inventory changes; installed point-of-purchase educational and in-store marketing materials directing shoppers to healthier options; provided nutrition education such as healthy recipes; and altered the display and location of healthy items. To measure changes within stores and the potential impact on resident eating and purchasing habits, STHA used four instruments: a modified version of the Nutrition Environs Measures Survey - Corner Stores at baseline and follow-up, a bimonthly store inventory assessment, a final store owner survey, and a Community Nutrition Survey at baseline (n = 287) and follow-up (n = 281). The stores in the H2G program (n = 10) had a 40% increase in stocking fresh produce, a 20% increase in produce variety, and trends towards increasing healthy inventory. During the same period, surveyed residents reported a statistically significant increase in the frequency of healthy food consumption. Small store transformation programs can improve availability of and access to healthy food in rural settings and influence local purchasing patterns.

  14. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C.; Henke, Kevin [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Engle, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Blake, Donald R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California - Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Stracher, Glenn B. [East Georgia College, Swainsboro, GA 30401 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO{sub 2} peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO{sub 2} and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg{sup 0}, in excess of 500 and 2100 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. (author)

  15. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton E. Brett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  16. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  17. Evaluation of Healthy2Go: A country store transformation project to improve the food environment and consumer choices in Appalachian Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Rushakoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in Kentucky's Cumberland Valley region are among the highest in the United States and limited access to healthy food contributes to these epidemics. The aim of Healthy2Go (H2G, a country store transformation project launched by Spread the Health Appalachia (STHA, was to improve awareness and availability of healthy options in small, rural stores. Ten country stores participated in H2G and received training and technical assistance to increase availability and awareness of healthy foods. Stores made inventory changes; installed point-of-purchase educational and in-store marketing materials directing shoppers to healthier options; provided nutrition education such as healthy recipes; and altered the display and location of healthy items. To measure changes within stores and the potential impact on resident eating and purchasing habits, STHA used four instruments: a modified version of the Nutrition Environs Measures Survey – Corner Stores at baseline and follow-up, a bimonthly store inventory assessment, a final store owner survey, and a Community Nutrition Survey at baseline (n = 287 and follow-up (n = 281. The stores in the H2G program (n = 10 had a 40% increase in stocking fresh produce, a 20% increase in produce variety, and trends towards increasing healthy inventory. During the same period, surveyed residents reported a statistically significant increase in the frequency of healthy food consumption. Small store transformation programs can improve availability of and access to healthy food in rural settings and influence local purchasing patterns.

  18. Defining the role of University of Kentucky HealthCare in its medical market--how strategic planning creates the intersection of good public policy and good business practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Michael; Lofgren, Richard; Bricker, Timothy; Claypool, Joseph O; Zembrodt, Jim; Perman, Jay; Higdon, Courtney M

    2009-02-01

    In response both to national pressures to reduce costs and improve health care access and outcomes and to local pressures to become a top-20 public research university, the University of Kentucky moved toward an integrated clinical enterprise, UK HealthCare, to create a common vision, shared goals, and an effective decision-making process. The leadership formed the vision and then embarked on a comprehensive and coordinated planning process that addressed financial, clinical, academic, and operational issues. The authors describe in depth the strategic planning process and specifically the definition of UK HealthCare's role in its medical marketplace. They began a rigorous process to assess and develop goals for the clinical programs and followed the progress of these programs through meetings driven by data and attended by the organization's senior leadership. They describe their approach to working with rural and community hospitals throughout central, eastern, and southern Kentucky to support the health care infrastructure of the state. They review the early successes of their strategic approach and describe the lessons they learned. The clinical successes have led to academic gains. The experience of UK HealthCare suggests that good business practices and good public policy are synergistic.

  19. A Case Study of the Impediments to the Commercialization of Research at the University of Kentucky [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Vanderford

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The commercialization of university-based research occurs to varying degrees between academic institutions. Previous studies have found that multiple barriers can impede the effectiveness and efficiency by which academic research is commercialized. This case study was designed to better understand the impediments to research commercialization at the University of Kentucky via a survey and interview with three successful academic entrepreneurs. The study also garnered insight from the individuals as to how the commercialization process could be improved. Issues with commercialization infrastructure; a lack of emphasis, at the university level, on the importance of research commercialization; a void in an entrepreneurial culture on campus; inhibitory commercialization policies; and a lack of business and commercialization knowledge among faculty were highlighted as the most significant barriers. The research subjects also suggested that commercialization activity may generally increase if a number of factors were mitigated. Such insight can be communicated to the administrative leadership of the commercialization process at the University of Kentucky. Long term, improving university-based research commercialization will allow academic researchers to be more active and successful entrepreneurs such that intellectual property will progress more freely to the marketplace for the benefit of inventors, universities and society.

  20. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  1. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie

    2013-01-29

    The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at

  2. Prediction of ore fluid metal concentrations from solid solution concentrations in ore-stage calcite: Application to the Illinois-Kentucky and Central Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Schmitz, Sarah E.; Appold, Martin S.

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge of the concentrations of Zn and Pb in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore fluids is fundamental to understanding MVT deposit origin. Most previous attempts to quantify the concentrations of Zn and Pb in MVT ore fluids have focused on the analysis of fluid inclusions. However, these attempts have yielded ambiguous results due to possible contamination from secondary fluid inclusions, interferences from Zn and Pb in the host mineral matrix, and uncertainties about whether the measured Zn and Pb signals represent aqueous solute or accidental solid inclusions entrained within the fluid inclusions. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to try to determine Zn and Pb concentrations in MVT ore fluids using an alternate method that avoids these ambiguities by calculating Zn and Pb concentrations in MVT ore fluids theoretically based on their solid solution concentrations in calcite. This method was applied to the Illinois-Kentucky and Central Tennessee districts, which both contain ore-stage calcite. Experimental partition coefficient (D) values from Rimstidt et al. (1998) and Tsusue and Holland (1966), and theoretical thermodynamic distribution coefficient (KD) values were employed in the present study. Ore fluid concentrations of Zn were likely most accurately predicted by Rimstidt et al. (1998) D values, based on their success in predicting known fluid inclusion concentrations of Mg and Mn, and likely also most accurately predicted ore fluid concentrations of Fe. All four of these elements have a divalent ionic radius smaller than that of Ca2+ and form carbonate minerals with the calcite structure. For both the Illinois-Kentucky and the Central Tennessee district, predicted ore fluid Zn and Fe concentrations were on the order of up to 10's of ppm. Ore fluid concentrations of Pb could only be predicted using Rimstidt et al. (1998) D values. However, these concentrations are unlikely to be reliable, as predicted ore fluid concentrations of Sr and Ba

  3. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Survey of Fertility Program Responses of Kentucky Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Yield and Quality for Cigars Manufacture in the Benevento Province (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifola Maria Isabella

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilization of Kentucky dark fire-cured tobacco can be used to increase weight of high quality cured leaves for cigar manufacture. We conducted field experiments at 11 different locations in the province of Benevento (Southern Italy where the following four N treatments were compared: 1 unfertilized control (N0; 2 a site-specific N rate, calculated by a N fertilization plan (NFP based on physical and chemical soil characteristics, which ranged between 113 and 145 kg N ha−1; 3 200 kg N ha−1 (rate commonly used by farmers, N200; 4 100 kg N ha−1 (half of the rate commonly used by farmers, N100. Yields of the following five commercial quality categories of cured leaves were measured: i wrappers, ii heavy filler (Fh, iii light filler (Fl, iv heavy shredded (Sh and v light shredded (Sl. Fh cured products of B1, B4, B6 and B10 locations were analyzed for: total alkaloids, reducing sugars, chlorides, total N (Kjeldahl, ammonium-N (NH4-N, nitrate-N (NO3-N, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA. Color parameters: Lightness (L, Chroma (C and Hue (H were determined on five cured leaves / plot of both Fh and Fl types at B1, B2, B3, B6, B8 and B10. A blind evaluation of cured leaves collected across locations was conducted by a panel test who considered the main basic characteristics of cured leaves (stalk position, leaf structure, texture, etc.. The total yield of cured products increased with fertilization across locations, up to NFP treatment, without any statistically significant increase at N200 treatment. Fertilization increased yield of wrappers at B1 up to NFP treatment (113.5 kg N ha−1, without any significant increase at N200 treatment. Yield of light filler product was positively influenced by fertilization up to the maximum dose only in 5 out of 11 locations. Total alkaloids significantly increased with increasing fertilization up to 100 kg N ha−1 without any significant changes at higher N rate. Fertilization hardly

  5. TERRAIN, HENRY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, BARREN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, LOGAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, JESSAMINE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, Nelson COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. HYDRAULICS, TAYLOR COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, MARTIN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. FLOODPLAIN, JOHNSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. 2015 State Geodatabase for Kentucky

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    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  15. HYDROLOGY, LAUREL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, PULASKI COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. HYDRAULICS, PIKE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. FLOODPLAIN, Bath COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. TERRAIN, WOODFORD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, POWELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  4. HYDROLOGY, Bourbon COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. HYDROLOGY, WHITLEY COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. HYDRAULICS, KENTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  7. TERRAIN, WASHINGTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. HYDRAULICS, Butler COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  9. HYDRAULICS, HANCOCK COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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  10. HYDRAULICS, CARLISLE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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  11. HYDRAULICS, GRAYSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  12. HYDRAULICS, Cumberland COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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  13. HYDRAULICS, UNION COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  14. HYDRAULICS, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. HYDRAULICS, Washington COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. HYDRAULICS, Trigg COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  17. HYDRAULICS, HARRISON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  18. HYDRAULICS, Henry COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. HYDRAULICS, Russell COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  20. HYDRAULICS, ROWAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  1. HYDRAULICS, Caldwell COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

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    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. TERRAIN, WAYNE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. TERRAIN, MCLEAN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  5. TERRAIN, ESTILL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. TERRAIN, CLINTON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, GRAYSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, GARRARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. TERRAIN, CARLISLE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  10. TERRAIN, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  11. TERRAIN, GRAVES COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  12. TERRAIN, ALLEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  13. TERRAIN, HART COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  14. Level IV Ecoregions of Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  15. Level III Ecoregions of Kentucky

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  16. TERRAIN, JESSAMINE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  17. FLOODPLAIN, SPENCER COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  18. HYDRAULICS, Ballard COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. FLOODPLAIN, Ballard COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. HYDROLOGY, BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. TERRAIN, BALLARD COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. BASEMAP, Ballard COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  3. TERRAIN, NELSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. County business patterns, 1996 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1997 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. TERRAIN, MENIFEE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  7. TERRAIN, SCOTT COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  8. TERRAIN, FAYETTE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  9. BASEMAP, MONROE COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  10. BASEMAP, Carlisle COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  11. BASEMAP, CLARK COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  12. BASEMAP, Ohio COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  13. BASEMAP, Bourbon COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  14. BASEMAP, Rowan COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  15. HYDROLOGY, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. BASEMAP, SIMPSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  18. HYDRAULICS, Simpson COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  19. TERRAIN, MUHLENBERG COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. TERRAIN, CAMPBELL COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  1. TERRAIN, CARTER COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, HENDERSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. HYDRAULICS, GREEN COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. HYDRAULICS, Jessamine COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. Contemporary and Future Characteristics of  Precipitation Indices in the Kentucky River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsubhra Chattopadhyay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variability can lead to large‐scale alterations in the hydrologic cycle, some of  which  can  be  characterized  in  terms  of  indices  involving  precipitation  depth,  duration  and  frequency. This study evaluated the spatiotemporal behavior of precipitation indices over the  Kentucky River watershed for both the baseline period of 1986–2015 and late‐century time frame of  2070–2099. Historical precipitation data were collected from 16 weather stations in the watershed,  while  future  rainfall  time‐series  were  obtained  from  an  ensemble  of  10  Coupled  Model  Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 global circulation models under two future emission  pathways: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5. Annual trends in seven  precipitation indices were analyzed: total precipitation on wet days (PRCPTOT, maximum length  (in days of dry and wet periods (CDD and CWD, respectively, number of days with precipitation  depth ≥20  mm  (R20mm,  maximum  five‐day  precipitation  depth  (RX5day,  simple  daily  precipitation index (SDII and standardized precipitation index (SPI, a measure of drought severity.  Non‐parametric Mann–Kendall test results indicated significant trends for only ≈11% of the stationindex combinations, corresponding to generally increasing trends in PRCPTOT, CWD, R20mm and  RX5day and negative trends for the others. Projected magnitudes for PRCPTOT, CDD, CWD,  RX5day  and  SPI,  indices  associated  with  the  macroweather  regime,  demonstrated  general  consistency with trends previously identified and indicated modest increases in PRCPTOT and  CWD, slight decrease in CDD, mixed results for RX5day, and increased non‐drought years in the  late century

  6. Phase II modification of the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) for Kentucky: The sinkhole-drainage process, point-and-click basin delineation, and results of karst test-basin simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles J.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Ulery, Randy L.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Cinotto, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes Phase II modifications made to the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER), which applies the process-based TOPMODEL approach to simulate or predict stream discharge in surface basins in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The previous (Phase I) version of WATER did not provide a means of identifying sinkhole catchments or accounting for the effects of karst (internal) drainage in a TOPMODEL-simulated basin. In the Phase II version of WATER, sinkhole catchments are automatically identified and delineated as internally drained subbasins, and a modified TOPMODEL approach (called the sinkhole drainage process, or SDP-TOPMODEL) is applied that calculates mean daily discharges for the basin based on summed area-weighted contributions from sinkhole drain-age (SD) areas and non-karstic topographically drained (TD) areas. Results obtained using the SDP-TOPMODEL approach were evaluated for 12 karst test basins located in each of the major karst terrains in Kentucky. Visual comparison of simulated hydrographs and flow-duration curves, along with statistical measures applied to the simulated discharge data (bias, correlation, root mean square error, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients), indicate that the SDPOPMODEL approach provides acceptably accurate estimates of discharge for most flow conditions and typically provides more accurate simulation of stream discharge in karstic basins compared to the standard TOPMODEL approach. Additional programming modifications made to the Phase II version of WATER included implementation of a point-and-click graphical user interface (GUI), which fully automates the delineation of simulation-basin boundaries and improves the speed of input-data processing. The Phase II version of WATER enables the user to select a pour point anywhere on a stream reach of interest, and the program will automatically delineate all upstream areas that contribute drainage to that point. This capability enables

  7. Membrane separation using nano-pores; Nano poa wo riyoshita makubunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, S. [Fukuoka Women`s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The membrane constituted by nano-pore only (NF membrane) is sold on the market recently as the membranes used for the matter separations in addition to the reverse osmosis membrane for changing seawater into fresh water, dialysis membrane used for artificial kidney, ultrafiltration membrane used for the separation and condensation of protein and the micro-filter used for removing microbe. It is possible for the membrane constituted by nano-pore to remove the virus with the size being from 20 to 300 nm. In this paper, the pore structure of NF membrane is explained, and then its application as the membrane for removing virus is described. Especially, it is possible for NF membrane to remove the virus with smallest size (parvovirus, etc.), prion albumen (bovine serum pathogen, etc.) and the special gene such as cancer, and it is further applied to the condensation and refining of virus and genes. The broader application of nano-pore to the control of the transportation of micro-particles in the future is expected. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Storage of low-level radioactive wastes in the ground hydrogeologic and hydrochemical factors (with an appendix on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, radioactive waste storage site: current knowledge and data needs for a quantitative hydrogeologic evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopulos, S.S.; Winograd, I.J.

    1974-01-01

    Hydrogeologic criteria presented by Cherry and others (1973) are adopted as a guideline to define the hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data needs for the evaluation of the suitability of proposed or existing low-level radioactive waste burial sites. Evaluation of the suitability of a site requires the prediction of flow patterns and of rates of nuclide transport in the regional hydrogeologic system. Such predictions can be made through mathematical simulation of flow and solute transport in porous media. The status of mathematical simulation techniques, as they apply to radioactive waste burial sites, is briefly reviewed, and hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data needs are listed in order of increasing difficulty and cost of acquisition. Predictive modeling, monitoring, and management of radionuclides dissolved and transported by ground water can best be done for sites in relatively simple hydrogeologic settings; namely, in unfaulted relatively flat-lying strata of intermediate permeability such as silt, siltstone and silty sandstone. In contrast, dense fractured or soluble media and poorly permeable porous media (aquitards) are not suitable for use as burial sites, first, because of media heterogeneity and difficulties of sampling, and consequently of predictive modeling, and, second, because in humid zones burial trenches in aquitards may overflow. A buffer zone several thousands of feet to perhaps several miles around existing or proposed sites is a mandatory consequence of the site selection criteria. As a specific example, the Maxey Flats, Kentucky low-level waste disposal site is examined. (U.S.)

  9. Further evaluation in field tests of the activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate) against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Tolliver, Sharon C; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Collins, Sandra S

    2011-10-01

    The activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole-FBZ; oxibendazole-OBZ; and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) was ascertained against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010) in field tests. A total of 316 foals were treated, and 168 (53.2%) were passing ascarid eggs on the day of treatment. Evaluation of drug efficacy was determined qualitatively by comparing the number of foals passing ascarid eggs in their feces before and after treatment. The main purpose was to obtain data on current activity of these compounds against ascarids. Additionally, the objective was to compare these findings with those from earlier data on the efficacy of these three compounds on nematodes in foals in this geographical area. Efficacies (average) for the foals ranged for FBZ (10 mg/kg) from 50% to 100% (80%), for OBZ (10 mg/kg) from 75% to 100% (97%), and for PRT at 1× (6.6 mg base/kg) from 0% to 71% (2%) and at 2× (13.2 mg base/kg) 0% to 0% (0%). Although the efficacy varied among the drugs, combined data for all farms indicated a significant reduction of ascarid infections for FBZ (p < 0.0001) and OBZ (p < 0.0001) but not for PRT (p = 0.0953).

  10. Use of different surface covering materials to enhance removal of radiocaesium in plants and upper soil from orchards in Fukushima prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mamoru; Akai, Hiroko; Saito, Yuichi; Takase, Tsugiko; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2017-04-04

    The effectiveness of a decontamination methodology whereby herbaceous plants were grown through different materials covering the soil surface followed by subsequent removal of the material, associated plant tissues and attached soil on 137 Cs removal from soil was evaluated. Revegetation netting sown with Kentucky bluegrass and white clover had a high effectiveness in 137 Cs removal when rolling up the plants, roots, and rhizosphere soil approximately 6 months after sowing. The removal rate was lower when there was higher 137 Cs vertical migration down the soil profile. The maximum removal effectiveness of 93.1% was observed by rolling up fertilized Kentucky bluegrass with a well-developed root mat without netting, indicating that applying nutrients to encourage the development of roots or root mats in the 3 cm topsoil rhizosphere is an efficient technology to increase the decontamination effect of plant removal in orchards. Netting and weeding were able to remove up to 80% of 137 Cs in the soil without the use of heavy machinery. There was a significant relationship between the removal ratio and the removed soil weight per area. Using the relationship on the site below the canopy, removal of 14.3 kg m -2 DW soil would achieve a removal ratio of 80%. The effectiveness of the technique will decrease with time as radiocaesium migrates down the soil profile but this would be expected to occur slowly in many soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; McDonald, Jordan; Ford, Hannah; Connelly, Paige; Gillespie, Rachel; Liu, Emily; Bush, Heather; Brancato, Candace; Babatande, Toyin; Mullins, Janet

    2017-10-21

    Background : Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods : A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina). Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica) and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results : Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.99, 3.82)]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44)] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [-0.001 (95% CI -0.001, 0.0001)] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions : There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results informed the

  12. Storm pulse chemographs of saturation index and carbon dioxide pressure: implications for shifting recharge sources during storm events in the karst aquifer at Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; White, William B.

    Continuous records of discharge, specific conductance, and temperature were collected through a series of storm pulses on two limestone springs at Fort Campbell, western Kentucky/Tennessee, USA. Water samples, collected at short time intervals across the same storm pulses, were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, total organic carbon, and pH. Chemographs of calcium, calcite saturation index, and carbon dioxide partial pressure were superimposed on the storm hydrographs. Calcium concentration and specific conductance track together and dip to a minimum either coincident with the peak of the hydrograph or lag slightly behind it. The CO2 pressure continues to rise on the recession limb of the hydrograph and, as a result, the saturation index decreases on the recession limb of the hydrograph. These results are interpreted as being due to dispersed infiltration through CO2-rich soils lagging the arrival of quickflow from sinkhole recharge in the transport of storm flow to the springs. Karst spring hydrographs reflect not only the changing mix of base flow and storm flow but also a shift in source of recharge water over the course of the storm. L'enregistrement en continu du débit, de la conductivité et de la température de l'eau a été réalisé au cours d'une série de crues à deux sources émergeant de calcaires, à Fort Campbell (Kentucky occidental, Tennessee, États-Unis). Des échantillons d'eau, prélevés à de courts pas de temps lors de ces crues, ont été analysés pour le calcium, le magnésium, les bicarbonates, le carbone organique total et le pH. Les chimiogrammes de calcium, d'indice de saturation de la calcite et de la pression partielle en CO2 ont été superposés aux hydrogrammes de crue. La concentration en calcium et la conductivité de l'eau se suivent bien et passent par un minimum correspondant au pic de l'hydrogramme ou légèrement retardé. La pression partielle en CO2 continue de croître au cours de la récession de l

  13. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  14. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  15. Plants as Indicators of Past and Present Zones of Upwelling Soil CO2 at the ZERT Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Sharma, B.; Zhou, X.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Cunnningham, A.; Spangler, L.; ZERT Team

    2011-12-01

    By their very nature, photosynthetic plants are sensitive and responsive to CO2, which they fix during the Calvin-Benson cycle. Responses of plants to CO2 are valuable tools in the surface detection of upwelling and leaking CO2 from carbon sequestration fields. Plants exposed to upwelling CO2 rapidly exhibit signs of stress such as changes in stomatal conductance, hyperspectral signatures, pigmentation, and viability (Lakkaraju et al. 2010; Male et al. 2010). The Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental facility for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010, and 7/18 - 8/15/2011) from a 100m horizontal injection well, (HIW), 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, (VIW), (6/3-6/24/2010). Soil CO2 concentrations reached 16%. Plants at ZERT include Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis, (Kentucky Bluegrass), Phleum pratense (Timothy), Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome), Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and Cirsium arvense (Canadian Thistle). Dandelion leaves above the zones of upwelling CO2 at the HIW and the VIW changed color from green to reddish-purple (indicative of an increase in anthocyanins) to brown as they senesced within two weeks of CO2 injection. Their increased stomatal conductance along with their extensive surface area combined to make water loss occur quickly following injection of CO2. Xeromorphic grass leaves were not as profoundly affected, although they did exhibit changes in stomatal conductance, accelerated loss of chlorophyll beyond what would normally occur with seasonal senescence, and altered hyperspectral signatures. Within two weeks of CO2 injection at the HIW and the VIW, hot spots formed, which are circular zones of visible leaf senescence that appear at zones of upwelling CO2. The hot spots became more pronounced as the CO2 injection continued, and were detectable

  16. Vegetation pattern and heavy metal accumulation at a mine tailing at Gyöngyösoroszi, hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Kovács, Alza

    2005-01-01

    Vegetation at an abandoned heavy metal bearing mine tailing may have multifunctional roles such as modification of water balance, erosion control and landscape rehabilitation. Research on the vegetation of mine tailings can provide useful information on tolerance, accumulation and translocation properties of species potentially applicable at moderately contaminated sites. Analyses of the relationship between heavy metal content (Pb, Zn and Cu) and vegetation in a mine tailing were carried out. These analyses included: (1) spatial analysis of relationship among heavy metal distribution, pH and vegetation patterns, and (2) analysis of heavy metal accumulation and translocation in some plant species. Presence of vegetation was found to be significantly dependent on pH value, which confirms that phytotoxicity is a function of element concentration in solution, which is primarily controlled by pH value in mine tailings. Among the most abundant plant species, dewberry (Rubus caesius), vipersbugloss (Echium vulgare), scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis) and narrowleaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata) accumulate significant amounts of Pb, Cu and Zn, while in the case of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) only Pb can be measured in elevated contents. Considering the translocation features, scarlet pimpernel, narrowleaf plantain, and dewberry accumulate heavy metals primarily in their roots, while heavy metal concentration in vipersbugloss and annual bluegrass is higher in the shoots.

  17. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gustafson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina. Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results: Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.99, 3.82]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [−0.001 (95% CI −0.001, 0.0001] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions: There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results

  18. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  19. Evaluation of parasiticidal activity of fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate in horse foals with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum) in field studies on five farms in Central Kentucky in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Ionita, M; Collins, S S

    2008-07-01

    Horse foals on five farms in Central Kentucky were used in field studies in 2007 evaluating activity of paste formulations of four compounds (fenbendazole-FBZ, ivermectin-IVM, oxibendazole-OBZ, and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) against internal parasites with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum). It has been well established the last few years that there is widespread resistance of P. equorum to ivermectin. The main purpose of the present research was to obtain current data on ascaridicidal activity of FBZ, OBZ, and PRT; also, to acquire further information on ascarid resistance to ivermectin. Additionally, data were documented on drug activity on small strongyles. Detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in feces of foals was by a qualitative method (presence or absence) or a quantitative method (eggs per gram of feces). Strongyle eggs all were assumed to be from small strongyles. This is based on fecal cultures from horses on one farm and historic records from horses in this area on excellent deworming programs. A girth tape was used to estimate the body weight of each foal so that the appropriate dose rate of each drug could be given. Many of the foals were used in more than one cycle of treatments. Efficacy of the drugs, administered intraorally, was determined by calculating the average percentage reduction (% red.) of the number of foals passing eggs after vs. before treatment: (1) FBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on four farms; 76 foals were examined, 50 with ascarid eggs (84% red.) and 62 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (2) IVM at 200 microg/kg was tested on three farms; 58 foals were examined, 18 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 48 with strongyle eggs (100% red.); (3) OBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on three farms; 181 foals were examined, 78 with ascarid eggs (94% red.) and 79 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (4) PRT was tested on two farms, one farm at 1x (6.6 mg base/kg); 42 were foals examined, 16 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 33 with strongyle eggs (12% red.) and one

  20. Deer-Auto Collisions in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Believe it or not, when it comes to our worst enemy in the animal kingdom, sharks, alligators, snakes and other commonly feared animals need not apply. In fact, none of the "terrifying" animals portrayed as " killers" in our culture are responsible f...