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Sample records for kefir

  1. Kefir

    Koçak, Celalettin; Gürsel, Asuman

    1981-01-01

    Kefir çok eski bir fermente süt mamülü olup, hammaddesi keçi, koyun ve inek sütüdür. %0.6-0.8 alkol içermesi nedeniyle fermente süt içkisi olarak tanınır. Günümüzde kefirin birçok hastalıklar üzerindeki iyileştirici etkisinden dolayı önemi artmıştır. Kefir üretiminde fermantasyonu sağlamak üzere kefir tanelerinden yararlanılır. Kefir taneleri sarımtırak renkte olup takriben bezelye büyüklüğündedir. Bu taneler kazein ve birbirleri ile ortaklaşa yaşayan mikroorganizmaların meydana getirdiği j...

  2. Kefir

    Celalettin Koçak; Asuman Gürsel

    2015-01-01

    Kefir çok eski bir fermente süt mamülü olup, hammaddesi keçi, koyun ve inek sütüdür. %0.6-0.8 alkol içermesi nedeniyle fermente süt içkisi olarak tanınır. Günümüzde kefirin birçok hastalıklar üzerindeki iyileştirici etkisinden dolayı önemi artmıştır. Kefir üretiminde fermantasyonu sağlamak üzere kefir tanelerinden yararlanılır. Kefir taneleri sarımtırak renkte olup takriben bezelye büyüklüğündedir. Bu taneler kazein ve birbirleri ile ortaklaşa yaşayan mikroorganizmaların meydana getirdiği j...

  3. Kefir

    Koçak, Celalettin; Gürsel, Asuman

    2014-01-01

    Kefir çok eski bir fermente süt mamülü olup, hammaddesi keçi, koyun ve inek sütüdür. %0.6-0.8 alkol içermesi nedeniyle fermente süt içkisi olarak tanınır. Günümüzde kefirin birçok hastalıklar üzerindeki iyileştirici etkisinden dolayı önemi artmıştır. Kefir üretiminde fermantasyonu sağlamak üzere kefir tanelerinden yararlanılır. Kefir taneleri sarımtırak renkte olup takriben bezelye büyüklüğündedir. Bu taneler kazein ve birbirleri ile ortaklaşa yaşayan mikroorganizmaların meydana getirdiği j...

  4. Kefir

    Celalettin Koçak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kefir çok eski bir fermente süt mamülü olup, hammaddesi keçi, koyun ve inek sütüdür. %0.6-0.8 alkol içermesi nedeniyle fermente süt içkisi olarak tanınır. Günümüzde kefirin birçok hastalıklar üzerindeki iyileştirici etkisinden dolayı önemi artmıştır. Kefir üretiminde fermantasyonu sağlamak üzere kefir tanelerinden yararlanılır. Kefir taneleri sarımtırak renkte olup takriben bezelye büyüklüğündedir. Bu taneler kazein ve birbirleri ile ortaklaşa yaşayan mikroorganizmaların meydana getirdiği jelatinimsi kolonilerden oluşmuştur. Bu kolonilerin florasına bakteri ve mayalar hakimdir. Kefir üretiminde kullanılacak sütler homojenize ve ısıtma işlemlerine tabi tutulduktan sonra, kefir taneleri kullanılarak hazırlanan bulk starter ilave edilerek inkübasyona alınır. Bu evrede, laktik asit, alkol CO2 oluşmakta, kefir özel maya tat ve aroması kazanmaktadır. İnkübasyondan sonra olgunlaştırılarak paketlenen kefir tüketime sunulmaya hazır hale gelir.

  5. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  6. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Šinko; Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija

    2013-01-01

    Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities f...

  7. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR

    Muneer Alsayadi M.S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%. And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57% increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

  9. Kefir: a powerful probiotics with anticancer properties.

    Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Moridnia, Abbas; Mortazavi, Deniz; Salehi, Mahsa; Bagheri, Marzieh; Sheikhi, Abdolkarim

    2017-09-27

    Probiotics and fermented milk products have attracted the attention of scientists from various fields, such as health care, industry and pharmacy. In recent years, reports have shown that dietary probiotics such as kefir have a great potential for cancer prevention and treatment. Kefir is fermented milk with Caucasian and Tibet origin, made from the incubation of kefir grains with raw milk or water. Kefir grains are a mixture of yeast and bacteria, living in a symbiotic association. Antibacterial, antifungal, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects are some of the health beneficial properties of kefir grains. Furthermore, it is suggested that some of the bioactive compounds of kefir such as polysaccharides and peptides have great potential for inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Many studies revealed that kefir acts on different cancers such as colorectal cancer, malignant T lymphocytes, breast cancer and lung carcinoma. In this review, we have focused on anticancer properties of kefir.

  10. Comparison of chemical, rheological and sensory properties of kefir produced by kefir grains and commercial kefir starter

    Irena Barukčić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of kefir produced by using kefir grains and kefir starter. The intent was also to investigate whether it is plausible to use a combined inoculum (kefir grains and starter in order to obtain a kefir with improved characteristics in terms of sensory and rheological characteristics. Kefir samples were produced at 25 °C and 35 °C by using starter culture XPL-1, kefir grains and their combinations. All of the produced kefir samples were analysed for acidity, total dry matter, ethanol content, syneresis, viscosity and were sensory evaluated by a specially trained panel. There were no significant differences considering the total dry matter, syneresis, ethanol content and acidity. Excess viscosity was observed in samples produced by starter culture at 35 °C, which was described as untypical, yoghurt like and unsatisfactory by a sensory panel. The sample produced at 25 °C by equal amounts of kefir grains and starter culture received the highest scores at sensory evaluation and showed the best potential for optimizing the further use. Further investigations need to focus on examining kefir properties during the storage period, especially regarding microbiological and sensory properties, ethanol content and texture profile.

  11. Physiochemical and Organoleptic Features of Goat Milk Kefir Made of Different Kefir Grain Concentration on Controlled Fermentation

    Setyawardani, Triana; Rahardjo, Agustinus HD; Sulistyowati, Mardiati; Wasito, Samsu

    2014-01-01

    . Kefir mengandung bakteri dan ragi kompleks dalam protein dan matrik polisakarida yang terbentuk selama pertumbuhan anaerobic. Fermentasi kefir menggunakan biji kefir sebagai starter. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji komposisi fisiokimiawi dan organoleptik kefir susu kambing yang terbuat dari biji kefir dengan konsentrasi berbeda pada fermentasi kontrol. Materi yang digunakan dua puluh tujuh liter susu kambing Peranakan Ettawah (PE) dan biji kefir. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Leng...

  12. Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity of Cow Milk Kefir and Goat Milk Kefir Against Bacteria Bacillus Cereus

    Suhartanti, Dwi; Septian, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Kefir is fermented milk and comes from the Caucasus. Kefir is made by inoculating cow milk, goat or sheep with kefir grain. Kefir contains 0.5–1.0% alcohol and 0.9 to 1.1% lactic acid. This product is very popular in the Soviet Union, where the consumption of kefir reach 4.5 kg per capita per year. Kefir made from pasteurized milk and fermented with kefir grain, kefir grain is white seeds from bacteria colony, such as Streptococcus sp., Lactobacilli and some types of yeast/yeast a...

  13. Properties and benefits of kefir -A review

    Stephen Moses John

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is becoming increasingly popular as a result of new research into its health benefits. It is a fermented milk drink which has its origin in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia. Kefir is prepared by inoculating milk with kefir grains which are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a symbiotic matrix. The common microorganisms present are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeasts. Kefir has a long history of health benefits in Eastern European countries. It is believed that kefir has therapeutic effects, thus it is important to study the various properties contained in, and exhibited by it. This review includes a critical revision of the antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, probiotic and prebiotic properties of kefir. Other health benefits, like reducing cholesterol and improving lactose tolerance are also discussed.

  14. POTENSI KEFIR SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI Propionibacterium acnes

    ., Michael

    2015-01-01

    Jerawat merupakan suatu keadaan dimana pori-pori kulit tersumbat oleh kotoran dan adanya bakteri Propionibacterium acnes yang berkembang biak di daerah sumbatan tersebut. Di Indonesia, masyarakat mulai melirik suatu produk minuman yang dipercaya secara empiris dapat mengatasi masalah jerawat, yaitu produk minuman fermentasi kefir. Kefir merupakan produk fermentasi yang memiliki cita rasa asam dan sedikit beralkohol. Kefir dapat difermentasi dengan air maupun dengan susu. Kan...

  15. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits.

    Rosa, Damiana D; Dias, Manoela M S; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Reis, Sandra A; Conceição, Lisiane L; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

  16. Rapid detection of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in kefir grain and kefir milk using newly developed real-time PCR.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is an indicator microorganism for kefir and a key factor in kefir grain formation and kefiran production. We designed a novel real-time PCR primer and probe set, LKF_KU504, for the rapid detection of L. kefiranofaciens. In inclusivity and exclusivity tests, only 14 L. kefiranofaciens strains were positive among 61 microorganisms, indicating 100 % sensitivity and specificity. The LKF_KU504 set also differentiated kefir milk from 30 commercial nonkefir yogurts. The levels of L. kefiranofaciens in kefir grain and kefir milk were significantly different, indicating L. kefiranofaciens was more concentrated in kefir grain than in kefir milk.

  17. Kefir and health: a contemporary perspective.

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Wang, Yanping; Ahmad, Asif; Khan, Salman Tariq; Nisa, Mehrun; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Kefir and its related products are renowned nutraceutical dairy products produced through fermentation of yeasts and bacteria naturally present in grains of kefir. The nutritional attributes of this self-carbonated beverage are due to presence of vital nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and some nutraceutical components. Antimicrobial activity, better gut health, anticarcinogenic activity, control on serum glucose and cholesterol, control on lactose intolerance and better immune system can be achieved through its regular consumption. Moreover, on the one side kefir is good dietetic beverage, and of particular interest of athletes, and on the other side the whole kefir is good for feeding small babies and pre-schoolers for good tolerance against disease and quick weight gain. Lots of works have been done on kefir from a health point of view. This study summarizes all the data that have been compiled to date. The purpose of this review is to gather information about microbiological, chemical, nutritional, and therapeutic aspects of kefir and kefir-like products to provide justification for its consumption. This review leads us to conclude that kefir begins a new dawn of food for the mankind.

  18. Kajian konsentrasi kefir grain dan lama simpan dalam refrigerator terhadap kualitas kimiawi kefir rendah lemak

    Manik Eirry Sawitri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : 1, 2percent (G2dan 3 percent (G3of milk volume and the second factor was storage time in refrigerator which were 0day(L0,7days(L7,14days(L14, 21 days(L21 and 28 days(L28 Keywords: kefir grains, storage time, refrigerator, low fat kefir . The variables measured were fat, protein, and alcohol content of kefir. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and continued with Duncan. The results of research showed that concentration of kefir grains and storage time in refrigerator had highly significant effect (P0,05 on fat content of kefir. Interaction between both treatments had highly significant effect (P<0,01 on alcohol content of kefir. The conclusion of this research was apply 1 percent of kefir grains and maximum storage time in refrigerator for 21 days to produce kefir which appropriate with standard of fermentation milk. The objective of this research was to find out the influence of low fat milk in kefir processing with examined concentration on kefir grains and storage time in refrigerator to the fat, protein and alcohol content. This research was also to determined the concentration of kefir grains which appropriate to the standard of fermentation milk and as an information for practician and industry related to the research product. The materials used kefir that made from low fat milk (1% fat content, the research method was using Factorial Randomized Block Design (3X5. The first factor was concentration of kefir grains which were 1 percent(G

  19. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Kefir: a New Role as Nutraceuticals

    Setyowati, Hanny; setyani, Wahyuning

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutical is the fusion of “nutrition” and pharmaceutical”. This products, in broad, are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and or treatment of a disease. Kefir is renowned nutraceutical dairy products produced through fermentation of bacteria and yeasts and naturally present in grains of kefir. The nutritional attributes are due to presence of vital nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, minerals, phosphorus, vitamin, c...

  1. Microbiological and chemical properties of kefir manufactured by entrapped microorganisms isolated from kefir grains.

    Chen, T-H; Wang, S-Y; Chen, K-N; Liu, J-R; Chen, M-J

    2009-07-01

    In this study, various yeasts (Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces turicensis, Pichia fermentans) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were entrapped in 2 different microspheres using an entrapment ratio for the strains that was based on the distribution ratio of these organisms in kefir grains. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique to produce kefir using immobilized starter cultures isolated from kefir grains. An increase in cell counts with fermentation cycles was observed for both the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, whereas the cell counts of kefir grains were very stable during cultivation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the short-chain lactobacilli and lactococci occupied the surface of the LAB microspheres, whereas the long-chain lactobacilli were inside the microspheres. When the yeasts were analyzed, cells at a high density were entrapped in cracks on the surface and within the microspheres, where they were surrounded by the short-chain lactobacilli. The distribution of the LAB and yeast species in kefir produced from grains and microspheres showed that there was no significant difference between the kefirs produced by the 2 methods; moreover, Leu. mesenteroides and K. marxianus were the predominating microflora in both types of kefir. There was no significant difference in the ethanol and exopolysaccharide contents between the 2 kefirs, although the acidity was different.

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR KEFIR WITH NEW QUALITIES

    A. N. Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern kefir production is based on the milk acidification process with the use of kefir grains by alcohol and lactic acid fermentation. Casein large molecules are fermented by sourdough’ microorganisms, and as a result they are digested much more effectively by the body. Thanks to a special composition of the sourdough’ microbiota, which composed of yeast, lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria, kefir is especially useful for a person of any age, helps to restore energy balance of human body, beneficial effects on the nervous system and metabolic processes. On the basis of the traditional technology of kefir production, which includes processes of normalization, homogenization, pasteurization, cooling to a temperature of fermentation, injection of sourdough, has been developed kefir production technology with the introduction of the ferment transglyutaminase that provides the generation of its own lactoferrin by the composition of microorganisms in kefir grains. Lactoferrin content ranges from 500 to 1100 mg/l, which is considerably higher than in the control group (300 mg/l. Lactoferrin is natural antioxidant that prevents the effect of early aging of the organism, contributes to the preservation of a healthy gastrointestinal tract. In many ways lactoferrin contributes to the preservation of health and fully supports the active longevity.

  3. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  4. Atividade anti-escherichia coli em kefir e soro de kefir tradicionais.

    Simone Weschenfelder

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Através de Testes de Diluição em Sistema de Tubos Múltiplos determinou-se, in vitro, a Intensidade de Atividade de Inibição Bacteriana (IINIB/bacteriostasia e a Intensidade de Atividade de Inativação Bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia de kefir e soro de kefir tradicionais, não submetidos a tratamento térmico, padronizados em relação ao tipo de leite e ao binômio tempo/temperatura de incubação e maturação, frente a inóculo padronizado de Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 microrganismo indicador de interesse em alimentos. Kefir é um leite fermentado produzido pela adição de grãos de kefir ao leite, constituindo uma associação simbiótica entre bactérias ácido láticas, bactérias ácido acéticas e leveduras envoltas por uma matriz de polissacarídeos, o kefiran, enquanto o soro é o produto obtido da filtração do kefir. Tanto o kefir, quanto o soro de kefir apresentaram capacidade de inibição e inativação máximas sobre o inóculo bacteriano em concentrações < 108 UFC/mL.

  5. Production and quality of kefir cultured butter

    Yaşar Karaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream is the main raw material for the butter production and reflects its properties into butter quality. Maturation of cream with appropriate starter culture is important for butter quality, sensory properties and shelf life of the end product. Kefir grains contain important probiotics for healthy nutrition including lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts in high numbers. The aim of this research was to determine the properties of butter produced using natural kefir culture during a 21-day cold storage. Determination of microbial, chemical and sensory properties of butter samples was carried out. Control sample (KOTE had 6.64 log CFU g-1 Lactococcus spp. while kefir cultured butter samples had 8.58 log CFU g-1. Kefir cultured butter contained 5.24 log CFU g-1 L. acidophilus at Day 1, while control samples did not have L. acidophilus. Acetaldehyde content of kefir cultured butter was significantly higher from the uncultured butter. According to sensory evaluation performed by 12 panelists, KKTE samples had better sensory properties than those observed in the KOTE samples.

  6. Effects of kefir fractions on innate immunity.

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Perdigon, Gabriela; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Innate immunity that protects against pathogens in the tissues and circulation is the first line of defense in the immune reaction, where macrophages have a critical role in directing the fate of the infection. We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial mucosa and the phagocytic activity of peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages. The aim of this study was to further characterize the immunomodulating capacity of the two fractions of kefir (F1: solids including bacteria and F2: liquid supernatant), by studying the cytokines produced by cells from the innate immune system: peritoneal macrophages and the adherent cells from Peyer's patches. BALB/c mice were fed either kefir solid fraction (F1) or kefir supernatant (F2) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. The number of cytokine (IL-1alpha, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-6 and IL-10) producing cells was determined on peritoneal macrophages and adherent cells from Peyer's patches. Both kefir fractions (F1 and F2) induced similar cytokine profiles on peritoneal macrophages (only TNFalpha and IL-6 were up-regulated). All cytokines studied on adherent cells from Peyer's patches were enhanced after F1 and F2 feeding, except for IFNgamma after F2 administration. Moreover, the percentage of IL-10+cells induced by fraction F2 on adherent cells from Peyer's patches was significantly higher than the one induced by fraction F1. Different components of kefir have an in vivo role as oral biotherapeutic substances capable of stimulating immune cells of the innate immune system, to down-regulate the Th2 immune phenotype or to promote cell-mediated immune responses against tumours and also against intracellular pathogenic infections.

  7. Structural characterization of the exopolysaccharides from water kefir.

    Fels, Lea; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F; Wefers, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Water kefir is a beverage which is produced by initiating fermentation of a fruit extract/sucrose solution with insoluble kefir grains. Exopolysaccharides that are formed from sucrose play a major role in the kefir grain formation, but the exopolysaccharides in the kefir beverage and the detailed structural composition of the whole kefir grains have not been studied yet. Therefore, kefir grains and the corresponding kefir beverage were analyzed for exopolysaccharides by multiple chromatographic approaches and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, different fractionation techniques were applied to obtain further information about the exopolysaccharides. The exopolysaccharide-fraction of the investigated kefir beverage was predominantly composed of O3- and O2-branched dextrans as well as lower amounts of levans. The insoluble dextrans from the kefir grains were mostly O3-branched and contained an elevated portion of 1,3-linked glucose units compared to the soluble dextrans. The structurally different exopolysaccharides in water kefir suggest the involvement of multiple bacteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acquisition of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus from unpasteurised milk by a kefir grain enhances kefir quality.

    Gethins, Loughlin; Rea, Mary C; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Crotty, Suzanne; Morrissey, John P

    2016-08-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage consumed for nutritional and health tonic benefits in many parts of the world. It is produced by the fermentation of milk with a consortium of bacteria and yeast embedded within a polysaccharide matrix. This consortium is not well defined and can vary substantially between kefir grains. There are little data on the microbial stability of kefir grains, nor on interactions between microbes in the grain and in the milk. To study this, a grain was split, with one half of each stored at -20°C and the other half passaged repeatedly in whole unpasteurised milk. Grains passaged in the unpasteurised milk recovered vigour and acquired the yeast Kluyveromyces marxainus from the milk which was confirmed to be the same strain by molecular typing. Furthermore, these passaged grains produced kefir that was distinguished chemically and organoleptically from the stored grains. Some changes in ultrastructure were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. The study showed that kefir grains can acquire yeast from their environment and the final product can be influenced by these newly acquired yeasts. Kluyveromyces marxianus is considered to be responsible for some of the most important characteristics of kefir so the finding that this yeast is part of the less stable microbiota is significant. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The evaluation of kefir pure culture starter: Liquid-core capsule entrapping microorganisms isolated from kefir grains.

    Wang, Liang; Zhong, Hao; Liu, Keying; Guo, Aizhen; Qi, Xianghui; Cai, Meihong

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a pure culture starter for producing kefir. In order to accomplish starter recycling, yeasts (Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, Pichia kudriavzevii clone), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus kefiri strain F4Aa, Lactobacillus kefiri strain NM131-7, Lactobacillus kefiri strain NM132-3, Lactobacillus kefiri strain NM180-3, respectively), and acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter lovaniensis strain) were entrapped in liquid core capsules based on the distribution ratio in kefir grains. The microbiological, antimicrobial, and chemical properties of kefir made with capsules (M) and kefir grains (K) were measured and compared. According to the results of plate counts in different selective medium, the number of yeasts and bacteria in the liquid core capsules gradually increased and stabilized after eight fermentation cycles. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that almost all the aroma components existed in the two type of kefir, except the ethyl lactate. There was no significant difference in alcohol content, protein content, and fat content, except the acidity and sugar content. Water holding capacity of kefir K was higher than kefir M. There were 14 same free amino acids in kefir M and kefir K, and the content of most free amino acids was similar. In antimicrobial test, there was no significant difference in both kefirs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Milk kefir: composition, microbial cultures, biological activities, and related products.

    Prado, Maria R; Blandón, Lina Marcela; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Rodrigues, Cristine; Castro, Guillermo R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir's exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir's microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  11. The antiallergic effect of kefir Lactobacilli.

    Hong, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2010-10-01

    This study demonstrated that oral feeding of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus (L b.) kefiranofaciens M1 from kefir grains effectively inhibited immunoglobulin (Ig) E production in response to ovalbumin (OVA) in vivo. The pattern of cytokine production by splenocyte cells revealed that the levels of cytokines produced by T helper (Th) 1 cells increased, and those of cytokines produced by Th2 cells decreased in the heat-inactivated M1 feeding group. These findings indicated that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in the kefir played an important role in antiallergic activities. By additional analysis using flow cytometry and microarray, the mechanism of suppression of IgE production by oral feeding of the heat-inactivated M1 probably occurs because of upregulation of the expression of Cd2, Stat4, and Ifnr leading to skewing the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th1 dominance, elevation of the CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) percentage, and reduction of activated CD19(+) B cells. Downregulation of complement system and components was also involved in suppression of IgE production. Practical Application: Kefir has long been considered good for health. Its health benefits include immunoregulatory effects. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the immunoregulatory effects induced by kefir lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our data clearly demonstrated the antiallergic activity of kefir LAB, Lactobacillus (L b.) kefiranofaciens M1. By additional analysis using flow cytometry and microarray, the possible mechanism of suppression of IgE production by oral feeding of the heat-inactivated M1 was also elucidated. Our findings indicated that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 may have a great potential for utilization in functional food products.

  12. Microbes of fermented kefir-like using combination of kefir grains and Bifidobacterium longum

    Sri Usmiati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of research were to find out physico-chemical characters and to detect flavor volatile compound of kefir-like. Material used was skim milk TS 9.5% which was heated at 85oC for 30 minutes and cooled at 22oC before innoculation of the starter. Microorganisms used were (a Lactobacillus acidophilus P155110, (b Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus NCIMB 11778, (c Lactococcus lactis P155610, (d Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum NCIMB 3350, (e Acetobacter aceti P154810, (f Bifidobacterium longum BF1, and (g Saccharomyces cerevisiae P156252. The treatments consist of P1 = without (b; P2 = without (a; and P3= used (a until (g. The physico-chemical characters identified were lactic acid and lactose percentages, pH, viscosity, organoleptic test for intensity of kefir-like sensory attributes. Results indicated that B. longum was potential bacterium use for starter combination on kefir-like making. The use starter P1 combination has high acidity and viscosity, low pH and lactose percentage, and high intensity on attribute creamy-white color, soft and curdle consistency, and kefir specific aroma on kefir-like. Volatile compound acid group were dominate by high acidity character on kefir-like resulted from starter P1 combination. Compound of 3-hydroxi-2-butanone (acetoin was affecting butter-like of P3 character. This compound resulted from which is a character of fermented milk flavor was not detected on P1 kefir-like.

  13. Antimicrobial and healing activity of kefir and kefiran extract.

    Rodrigues, Kamila Leite; Caputo, Lucélia Rita Gaudino; Carvalho, Jose Carlos Tavares; Evangelista, João; Schneedorf, Jose Maurício

    2005-05-01

    Kefir and its insoluble polysaccharide, kefiran, were both tested for antimicrobial and cicatrizing activities against several bacterial species and Candida albicans using an agar diffusion method. Comparator antimicrobials were also tested. Cicatrizing experiments were carried out on Wistar rats with induced skin lesions and Staphylococcus aureus inoculation, using a topical application of a 70% kefir gel. Both kefir and kefiran showed some activity against all organisms tested; the highest activity was against Streptococcus pyogenes. Cicatrizing experiments using 70% kefir gel had a protective effect on skin connective tissue and 7 days treatment enhanced wound healing compared with 5 mg/kg of neomycin-clostebol emulsion.

  14. Effect of using kefir in the formulation of traditional Tarhana

    Ahmet Sukru DEMIRCI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tarhana is known as a fermented cereal product made traditionally from wheat flour and yoghurt. As a novelty, kefir was used as substitute for yoghurt in tarhana production partially and completely to investigate the effects on fermentation activity, nutritional, sensory and rheological properties of tarhana. Addition of kefir increased the fermentation activity as raise in acidity values was observed compared to tarhana samples prepared with yoghurt. Regarding dry tarhana samples, the highest acidity degree, protein, ash and phenolic contents were detected in samples prepared with 100% kefir. Counts of LAB groups (M17 and MRS agar of tarhana enriched with 100% kefir was higher than that of other tarhana samples during the fermentation period. Moreover, kefir affected the scores of sensory properties of tarhana soups. Tarhana soups prepared with kefir gave the highest scores for mouth feel, odour and consistency attributes. Tarhana soup prepared with 50% yoghurt and kefir showed the lowest viscosity probably due to synergistic effect on starch hydrolysis by bacterial population from both ingredients. These results suggest that replacement of yogurt with kefir in the formulation of Tarhana may enhance some properties of the soup.

  15. Exploring the influence of culture conditions on kefir's anticancer properties.

    Hatmal, Ma'mon M; Nuirat, Abeer; Zihlif, Malek A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Conventional anticancer treatments are painful, expensive, and unsafe. Therefore, demand is increasing for cancer treatments preferentially in the form of functional foods or nutritional supplements. Kefir, a traditional fermented milk dairy product, has significant antimutagenic and antitumor properties. This research addresses the hypothesis that kefir's anticancer properties are affected by fermentation conditions. Initially, kefir extracts prepared under standard conditions were screened against 7 cancer cell lines using the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Colon cancer and chronic myelogenous leukemia cells were found to be most susceptible to kefir extracts. Subsequently, a factorial design was implemented to assess the effects of 3 fermentation times (24, 48, and 72 h), 3 kefir-to-milk ratios (2, 5, and 10% wt/vol), and 3 fermentation temperatures (4, 25, and 40°C) on kefir's anticancer properties. Remarkably, exploration of the fermentation conditions allowed the anticancer properties of kefir to be enhanced by 5- to 8-fold against susceptible cell lines. Overall, these results demonstrate the possibility of optimizing the anticancer properties of kefir as a functional food in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. KAJIAN PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK SUSU KEDELAI TERHADAP KUALITAS KEFIR SUSU KAMBING

    M. E Sawitri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian untuk mengkaji kualitas kefir susu kambing yang telah diberi perlakuan penggunaan ekstrak susu kedelai ditinjau dari nilai pH, viskositas, kadar protein,kadar lemak dan kadar isoflavon. Hasil penelitian diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi bagi praktisi dan industri tentang kualitas kefir susu kambing sebagai bahan pangan yang dapat menunjang kesehatan. Materi penelitian adalah kefir susu kambing  yang diberi perlakuan penambahan ekstrak susu kedelai sebesar 10% (K1,20%(K2 dan 30%(K3 dari volume kefir susu kambing. Metode penelitian menggunakan metode percobaan dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang dikaji adalah nilai pH, viskositas, kadar protein,kadar lemak dan kadar isoflavon kefir susu kambing. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa  penambahan ekstrak susu kedelai tidak memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P>0,05  terhadap nilai pH, memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang sangat nyata (P0,05 on pH and that each treatments were given highly significant effect (P<0,01 on protein,fat and isoflavon content of goat milk kefir. The conclusion of this research was addition of soymilk extract had increase quality of goat milk kefir.   Keywords : goat milk kefir, soymilk extract

  17. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Busra Goncu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and yeast counts of kefirs were determined at 1st, 10th and 20th days of storage. The addition of apple and lemon fiber enhanced rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of kefirs (p<0.01. Apple and lemon fiber could be used for kefir production at a rate of 0.25 or 0.5 %.

  18. STUDY OF GUSTATORY AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF KEFIR PRODUCT

    MILENA H. MOMCHILOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is the improvement of Kefir culture. For this investigation it was used Kefir culture and two series of experiments were carried out. Yeasts from probiotic strain Saccharomyces boulardii were added in the first series and the lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Streptococcus thermophilus strain, with a polysaccharide activity were added to Kefir culture in the second series. The fermentation conditions were 30°C, duration 16 hours and cooling 4 hours up to 4°C. The characteristics of Kefir were analyzed by determination of: pH, acidity, qualitative reaction for existence of diacetyl, cell number of LAB and yeasts. The structural properties of Kefir were evaluated by microscopic study.

  19. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  20. Manufacture and characterization of kefir made from cow and buffalo milk, using kefir grain and starter culture.

    Gul, O; Mortas, M; Atalar, I; Dervisoglu, M; Kahyaoglu, T

    2015-03-01

    The microbiological and chemical characteristics as well as organic and amino acid profiles of kefir samples made from cow and buffalo milks fermented by kefir grains and starter culture were investigated during storage for 21 d at 4°C. After incubation, lactic, acetic, and citric acid concentrations showed a difference among the samples due to milk type and production methods. Storage time had little effect on the organic acid values of kefir samples. As compared with cow milk kefir, buffalo milk kefir had higher numbers of microorganisms, except lactobacilli, at the end of storage. Whereas pH and titratable acidity exhibited similar changes during storage in all kefir samples, ethanol levels were significantly increased in buffalo milk kefir samples. Glutamic acid was the major amino acid at all sampling times for all samples. Tyrosine, serine, histidine, alanine, methionine, and lysine concentrations were determined to be different in all samples depending on milk type. In general, due to the higher microbial population (especially yeast), kefir made from buffalo milk may be preferred. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kefir ve Kefir Kullanılarak Yapılan Bazı Ürünler

    ESMEK, Emel; GÜZELER, Nuray

    2018-01-01

    Kefir, bakteri ve mayaların etkileriyle kefir daneleri içinde simbiyotik birleşmesi ile oluşan fermente bir süt ürünüdür. Kefir, ağızda hissedilen köpürücü etkisi, tipik maya tadı ve kendisine has belirli aromaları ile bilinir. Kefir fermentasyonun ana ürünleri içeceğin vizkozitesini, asitliğini ve düşük alkol içeriğini gösteren laktik asit, etanol ve karbondioksittir. İkincil bileşenler ise aroma kompozisyonuna katkıda bulunan, diasetil, asetaldehit, etil alkol ve aminoasittir. Kefir, vücudu...

  2. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Proximate and Protein Profile of Kefir from Fermented Goat and Cow Milk

    Erwin Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of proximate and protein profile in kefir from fermented goat milk and cow milk with different concentration of kefir grains. The research design was true experimental with Completely Randomized Design (CRD of 3 repetitions. The research procedures consisted of kefir production, proximate analysis and protein profile characterization. Proximate assay result was analyzed by using LSD, whereas the protein profile was analyzed by descriptive qualitative method. Based on the analysis of kefir proximate levels, the kefir grain (5% showed the highest proximate level of both kefirs from goat milk and cow milk. The analysis of protein profile of cow milk kefir showed 75 kDa of protein ribbon, while the goat milk kefir showed 48 kDa, 60 kDa and 75 kDa. Therefore it can be concluded that the proximate level of goat and cow milk kefir with different concentration of kefir grains showed significant differences in the nutrition content as well as its protein profiles.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik proksimat dan profil protein pada kefir hasil fermentasi susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi biji kefir yang berbeda-beda. Penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni, dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 3 kali ulangan. Prosedur penelitian meliputi pembuatan kefir, analisis proksimat dan profil protein. Data hasil proksimat dianalisi uji BNT, sedangkan profil protein dianalisis deskriptif kualitatif. Berdasarkan analisis kadar proksimat kefir, kefir grains 5% menunjukan kadar proksimat paling tinggi baik pada kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi. Sedangkan analisis profil protein kefir susu sapi menunjukan pita protein 75 kDa, pada kefir susu kambing yaitu 48 kDa, 60 kDa dan 75 kDa. Simpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa kadar proksimat kefir susu kambing dan susu sapi dengan konsentrasi kefir grains yang berbeda menunjukan perbedaan kandungan yang berbeda secara signifikan dengan

  4. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  5. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  6. Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats.

    Fahmy, Hanan A; Ismail, Amel F M

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the protective effect of kefir milk on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in γ-irradiated rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment with γ-irradiation and/or ethanol showed a significant increase in ulcers number, total acidity, peptic, H(+)K(+)ATPase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and MDA level, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the mucus content, the stomach GSH level, the GSH-Px activity and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with kefir milk exert significant improvement in all the tested parameters. Kefir milk exerts comparable effect to that of the antiulcer drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the present study revealed that oral administration of kefir milk prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in γ-irradiated rats that could attribute to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and radio-protective activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of different fermentation parameters on quality characteristics of kefir.

    Kök-Taş, Tuğba; Seydim, Atif C; Ozer, Barbaros; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine the effects of different fermentation parameters on kefir quality. Kefir samples were produced using kefir grains or natural kefir starter culture, and fermentation was carried out under normal or modified atmosphere (10% CO(2)) conditions. The microbiological (lactobacilli, lactococci, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp., and yeasts), chemical (pH, lactic acid, total solids, protein, ethanol, exopolysaccharide contents), rheological, and sensory properties of kefir samples were investigated during a 21-d storage period. The use of different fermentation parameters or the choice of grain versus natural kefir starter culture did not significantly affect the content of microorganisms. Lactobacilli, lactococci, and yeast contents of kefir samples varied between 9.21 and 9.28, 9.23 and 9.29, and 4.71 and 5.53 log cfu/mL, respectively, on d 1 of storage. Contents of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. were between 5.78 and 6.43 and between 3.19 and 6.14 log cfu/mL, respectively, during 21 d of storage. During the storage period, pH, lactic acid (%), total solids (%), protein (%), acetaldehyde, and ethanol contents of kefir samples ranged from 4.29 to 4.53, from 0.81 to 0.95%, from 7.81 to 8.21%, from 3.09 to 3.48%, from 3.8 to 23.6 mg/L, and from 76.5 to 5,147 mg/L, respectively. The exopolysaccharide contents of the samples decreased during 21 d of cold storage; the samples fermented under modified atmosphere had relatively higher exopolysaccharide contents, indicating higher potential therapeutic properties. The kefir samples exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic flow behavior according to the power law model. According to the sensory results, kefir produced from natural kefir starter culture under CO(2) atmosphere had the highest overall evaluation score at d 1. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kefir protective effects against nicotine cessation-induced anxiety and cognition impairments in rats

    Negin Noori

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that Kefir had a potential effect on the treatment of nicotine cessation-induced depression, anxiety and cognition impairment in the animal model. Kefir may be useful for adjunct therapy for nicotine abandonment treatment protocols.

  9. Effect of using kefir in the formulation of traditional Tarhana

    DEMIRCI, Ahmet Sukru; PALABIYIK, Ibrahim; OZALP, Seymanur; TIRPANCI SIVRI, Goksel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Tarhana is known as a fermented cereal product made traditionally from wheat flour and yoghurt. As a novelty, kefir was used as substitute for yoghurt in tarhana production partially and completely to investigate the effects on fermentation activity, nutritional, sensory and rheological properties of tarhana. Addition of kefir increased the fermentation activity as raise in acidity values was observed compared to tarhana samples prepared with yoghurt. Regarding dry tarhana samples, ...

  10. Comparison of antioxidant capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs.

    Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye; Ozcan, Tulay; Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Sahin, Saliha

    2018-05-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of using either grain or commercial starter culture on the antioxidative capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs. The antioxidant capacity of kefir samples during fermentation and 21 d of storage was assessed by using 3 assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging activity assay; and Fe +3 -reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, FRAP). Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were also quantified. All kefir samples exhibited varying values for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays depending on the starter culture and milk type. Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were similar in all kefir samples during storage. The results of this study suggest that milk type (cow or ewe) and culture type (kefir grains or commercial starter) were the significant parameters for the antioxidative activity of kefir. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of kefir on ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Yener, A U; Sehitoglu, M H; Ozkan, M T A; Bekler, A; Ekin, A; Cokkalender, O; Deniz, M; Sacar, M; Karaca, T; Ozcan, S; Kurt, T

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of kefir on Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) injury on rats. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats between 250-350 g were selected. Rats were divided into three groups, and there were eight rats in each group. Rats were fed for 60 days. All of the rats were fed with the same diet for the first 30 days. In the second thirty days, kefir [10 cc/kg/day body weight (2 x 109 cfu/kg/day)] was added to the diet of the study group by gavage method. In all groups, lung and kidney tissues were removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed in the lung and kidney within the samples. Serum urea, creatinine and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were determined. Kefir + I/R groups was compared with I/R groups, a significant decrease (p Kefir + I/R groups of renal tissues were significantly (p Kefir reduced the levels of serum urea, creatinine and TNF-α significantly.   This would be useful in this model against ischemia/reperfusion, and shows the protective effect of kefir in tissue and serum functions.

  12. Determination of lactic microflora of kefir grains and kefir beverage by using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Kesmen, Zülal; Kacmaz, Nazife

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages collected from different regions of Turkey by using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. In the culture-independent detection, 10 different species of bacteria were detected in total by using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Among these species, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the most dominant one in the kefir grains, while Lactococcus lactis was found to be significantly prevalent in the kefir beverages. In the culture-dependent detection, the primary differentiation and grouping of the isolates from kefir beverages and kefir grains were performed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting, and the results were validated by 16S rDNA full-length sequencing. According to the results of culture-dependent methods, the most frequently isolated species were L. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus kefiri, respectively. Only 3 species, which are L. lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus, were detected with both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This study showed that the combination of both methods is necessary for a detailed and reliable investigation of microbial communities in kefir grains and kefir beverages. Due to their artisan- and region-dependent microflora, kefir products can be a source of interesting lactic acid bacteria, either new taxa or strains with specific functional properties, which might be used for the development of new starter cultures and innovative food products. Therefore, an increasing demand exists for new strains that show desirable effects on the product characteristics Artisan dairy products are a candidate source of such microorganisms. For this reason, in this study, the bacterial compositions of kefir grains and kefir beverages obtained from

  13. Effects of kefir as a probiotic source on the performance of goat kids ...

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance of goat kids during the pre- (45 days) and post-weaning (45 days) periods. Forty eight kids were randomly allocated to four treatment groups: Control, Kefir, Auto-Kefir (autoclaved) and Probiotic (a commercial probiotic). The kids were ...

  14. Antifungal effect of kefir fermented milk and shelf life improvement of corn arepas.

    Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; Caro, Carlos Andrés; Martínez, Olga Lucía; Moretti, Ana Florencia; Giannuzzi, Leda; De Antoni, Graciela Liliana; León Peláez, Angela

    2016-10-17

    Fungal contamination negatively affects the production of cereal foods such as arepa loaf, an ancient corn bread consumed daily in several countries of Latin-America. Chemical preservatives such as potassium sorbate are applied in order to improve the arepa's shelf life and to reduce the health risks. The use of natural preservatives such as natural fermented products in food commodities is a common demand among the consumers. Kefir is a milk fermented beverage obtained by fermentation of kefir grains. Its antibacterial and probiotic activity has been exhaustively demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the antifungal effect of kefir fermented milk on Aspergillus flavus AFUNL5 in vitro and to study if the addition of kefir fermented milk to arepas could produce shelf life improvement. We determined the antifungal effect on solid medium of kefir cell-free supernatants (CFS) obtained under different fermentation conditions. Additionally, we compared the antifungal effect of kefir CFS with that obtained with unfermented milk artificially acidified with lactic plus acetic acids (lactic and acetic acids at the same concentration determined in kefir CFS) or with hydrochloric acid. Finally, kefir was added to the corn products either in the loaf recipe (kefir-baked arepas) or sprayed onto the baked-loaf surface (kefir-sprayed arepas). The loaves' resistance to natural and artificial fungal contamination and their organoleptic profiles were studied. The highest fungal inhibition on solid medium was achieved with kefir CFS produced by kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 at 100 g/L, incubated at 30 °C and fermented until pH 3.3. Other CFS obtained from different fermentation conditions achieved less antifungal activity than that mentioned above. However, CFS of milk fermented with kefir grains, until pH 4.5 caused an increase of growth rates. Additionally, CFS produced by kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 at 100 g/L, incubated at 30 °C and fermented until pH 3.3 achieved higher

  15. Karakteristik Kimiawi dan Mikrobiologi Kefir Susu Sapi dengan Penambahan Susu Kedelai

    Julianto, Budi; Rossi, Evy; ', Yusmarini

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to observe chemical and microbiology characteristic of three kind of kefir, made from cow milk with addition of soymilk. Observed kefirs were kefir whey (KW), kefir optima (KO), and kefir prima (KP). A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used in this research with six treatments and three replications treatment consists of KW1 (100% cow milk), KW2 (50% cow milk: soymilk 50%), KO1 (100% cow milk), KO2 (50% cow milk: 50% soymilk), KP1 (100% cow milk), and KP2...

  16. Characterization of lactococci isolated from homemade kefir

    Kojić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five bacteriocin-producing lactococci isolates from traditionally prepared kefir were determined as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The analyzed isolates showed different plasmid profiles and no cross inhibition between them was detected. Moreover, natural isolate BGKF26 was resistant to the antimicrobial activity of nisin producing strain NP45. Plasmid curing experiments revealed that the genes encoding bacteriocin and proteinase production are located on separate genetic elements, except in BGKF26. Production of the tested bacteriocins depends on the concentration of casitone or triptone in the medium. Higher concentrations of casitone or triptone induce bacteriocin activity. Our DNA-DNA hybridization analyses suggest that the analyzed antimicrobial compounds probably are lactococcin-like bacteriocins.

  17. Peptide profiling of bovine kefir reveals 236 unique peptides released from caseins during its production by starter culture or kefir grains.

    Ebner, Jennifer; Aşçı Arslan, Ayşe; Fedorova, Maria; Hoffmann, Ralf; Küçükçetin, Ahmet; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2015-03-18

    Kefir has a long tradition in human nutrition due to its presupposed health promoting effects. To investigate the potential contribution of bioactive peptides to the physiological effects of kefir, comprehensive analysis of the peptide profile was performed by nano-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap MS coupled to nano-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, 257 peptides were identified, mainly released from β-casein, followed by αS1-, κ-, and αS2-casein. Most (236) peptides were uniquely detected in kefir, but not in raw milk indicating that the fermentation step does not only increase the proteolytic activity 1.7- to 2.4-fold compared to unfermented milk, but also alters the composition of the peptide fraction. The influence of the microflora was determined by analyzing kefir produced from traditional kefir grains or commercial starter culture. Kefir from starter culture featured 230 peptide sequences and showed a significantly, 1.4-fold higher proteolytic activity than kefir from kefir grains with 127 peptides. A match of 97 peptides in both varieties indicates the presence of a typical kefir peptide profile that is not influenced by the individual composition of the microflora. Sixteen of the newly identified peptides were previously described as bioactive, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, antimicrobial, immunomodulating, opioid, mineral binding, antioxidant, and antithrombotic effects. The present study describes a comprehensive peptide profile of kefir comprising 257 sequences. The peptide list was used to identify 16 bioactive peptides with ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, mineral binding, antimicrobial, immunomodulating and opioid activity in kefir. Furthermore, it was shown that a majority of the kefir peptides were not endogenously present in the raw material milk, but were released from milk caseins by proteases of the microbiota and are therefore specific for the product. Consequently, the proteolytic activity and the

  18. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin. PMID:24294220

  19. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  20. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats.

    Diniz Rosa, Damiana; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Pérez Bueno, Tania; Vega Cañizares, Ernesto; Sánchez Miranda, Lilian; Mancebo Dorbignyi, Betty; Chong Dubí, Dainé; Espinosa Castaño, Ivette; Marcin Grzes Kowiak, Lukasz; Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lucia de Luces

    2014-06-01

    Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose), and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose). Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage.

    de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19(th) century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21(th) century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  2. Russian Kefir Grains Microbial Composition and Its Changes during Production Process.

    Kotova, I B; Cherdyntseva, T A; Netrusov, A I

    2016-01-01

    By combining DGGE-PCR method, classical microbiological analysis and light- and electron microscopic observations, it was found that the composition of microbial communities of central Russia regions kefir grains, starter and kefir drink include bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Lactococcus, and yeast anamorphs of the genera Saccharomyces, Kazachstania and Gibellulopsis. Fifteen prokaryotic and four eukaryotic pure cultures of microorganisms were isolated and identified from kefir grains. It has been shown that members of the genus Lactobacillus prevailed in kefir grains, whereas strains Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis dominated in the final product - kefir drink. Yeasts contained in kefir grains in small amounts have reached a significant number of cells in the process of development of this dairy product. The possibility of reverse cell aggregation has been attempted in a mixed cultivation of all isolated pure cultures, but full formation kefir grains is not yet observed after 1.5 years of observation and reinoculations.

  3. Kefir and Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literatures.

    Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids.

  4. Pengaruh pati ganyong (Cannaedulis, Ker modifikasi terhadap kualitas kefir

    Imam Thohari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of using various concentration of modification starch on pH, water content, viscosity and fat content. The research material were kefir made from cow's milk with kefir grains derived from animal product technology laboratory of Animal Husbandry Brawijaya University. The research method was an experimental research with randomized block design. The treatments were the addition of canna starch modification 0% (G0, 0.2% (G1, 0.4% (G2, 0.6% (G3, 0.8% (G4 and 1.0% (G5 of the milk volume. Each treatment was replicated 3 times. The result showed that the addition of modified canna starch provided highly significant effect (p<0.01 on pH, water content, viscosity and fat content. The study concluded that addition of canna starch modification could improve the quality of kefir in terms of pH, water content, and viscosity, protein and lactic acid bacteria. The addition of 1% of canna starch modification had the best kefir quality. Keywords: Kefir, canna starch modification, STTP

  5. Some properties of kefir enriched with apple and lemon fiber

    Busra Goncu; Asli Celikel; Mutlu B. Guler-Akin; M. Serdar Akin

    2017-01-01

    The effects of apple and lemon fiber addition on some properties of kefir were investigated. Five different kefirs were produced (A is control, B, C, D, E, F and G: contain 0.25 % apple fiber, 0.5 % apple fiber, 1 % apple fiber, 0.25 % lemon fiber, 0.5 % lemon fiber and 1 % lemon fiber, respectively) and stored for 20 days at 4±1 °C. pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, water activity, water holding capacity, viscosity, L, a and b values, sensorial analysis, total lactic bacteria, Lactococcus ...

  6. Microbial Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of Water Kefir Fermentation

    Laureys, David

    2014-01-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product. PMID:24532061

  7. Kefir induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in human acute erythroleukemia.

    Jalali, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Salehi, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran. We investigated the effect of kefir on acute erythroleukemia cell line (KG-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The cell line and PBMCs were treated with different doses of kefir and milk and incubated for three different times. We used Polymixin B to block the lipopolysaccharide and NaOH (1 mol/l) to neutralize the acidic media. Viability was detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were assessed by annexin-propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that kefir induced apoptosis and necrosis in KG-1 cell line. It was revealed that kefir decreased proliferation in erythroleukemia cell line. We did not observe a remarkable effect of kefir on PBMCs. Our study suggested that kefir may have potential to be an effective treatment for erythroleukemia.

  8. Microbial species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of water kefir fermentation.

    Laureys, David; De Vuyst, Luc

    2014-04-01

    Water kefir is a sour, alcoholic, and fruity fermented beverage of which the fermentation is started with water kefir grains. These water kefir grains consist of polysaccharide and contain the microorganisms responsible for the water kefir fermentation. In this work, a water kefir fermentation process was followed as a function of time during 192 h to unravel the community dynamics, the species diversity, and the kinetics of substrate consumption and metabolite production. The majority of the water kefir ecosystem was found to be present on the water kefir grains. The most important microbial species present were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus harbinensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum/crudilactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Dekkera bruxellensis. The microbial species diversities in the water kefir liquor and on the water kefir grains were similar and remained stable during the whole fermentation process. The major substrate, sucrose, was completely converted after 24 h of fermentation, which coincided with the production of the major part of the water kefir grain polysaccharide. The main metabolites of the fermentation were ethanol and lactic acid. Glycerol, acetic acid, and mannitol were produced in low concentrations. The major part of these metabolites was produced during the first 72 h of fermentation, during which the pH decreased from 4.26 to 3.45. The most prevalent volatile aroma compounds were ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate, which might be of significance with respect to the aroma of the end product.

  9. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment

  10. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins

    Dallas, David C.; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L. M.; Kalanetra, Karen M.; Frese, Steven A.; Robinson, Randall C.; Mills, David A.; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Scope The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Methods and results Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1,500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. Conclusion The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. PMID:26616950

  11. Peptidomic analysis reveals proteolytic activity of kefir microorganisms on bovine milk proteins.

    Dallas, David C; Citerne, Florine; Tian, Tian; Silva, Vitor L M; Kalanetra, Karen M; Frese, Steven A; Robinson, Randall C; Mills, David A; Barile, Daniela

    2016-04-15

    The microorganisms that make up kefir grains are well known for lactose fermentation, but the extent to which they hydrolyze and consume milk proteins remains poorly understood. Peptidomics technologies were used to examine the proteolytic activity of kefir grains on bovine milk proteins. Gel electrophoresis revealed substantial digestion of milk proteins by kefir grains, with mass spectrometric analysis showing the release of 609 protein fragments and alteration of the abundance of >1500 peptides that derived from 27 milk proteins. Kefir contained 25 peptides identified from the literature as having biological activity, including those with antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, opioid and anti-oxidative functions. 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing identified the principle taxa in the culture as Lactobacillus species. The model kefir sample contained thousands of protein fragments released in part by kefir microorganisms and in part by native milk proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, Isolated from Kefir.

    Blasche, Sonja; Kim, Yongkyu; Patil, Kiran R

    2017-09-14

    The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive species with a high G+C content. We report here a novel species, Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. Its draft genome sequence was remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identity, 76.54%) to those of other Corynebacterium spp., confirming that this is a unique novel species. Copyright © 2017 Blasche et al.

  13. An innovative approach: cow/oat milk based kefir

    Nayil Dinkçi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of kefir production using cow-oat milk mixture. Therefore kefir samples with 20, 40 and 60 % of oat milk were produced. The effect of oat-milk ratio on physicochemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the kefir samples was studied during 21 days storage at refrigerated conditions. Increasing oat milk concentration affected the whey-off and apparent viscosity by higher whey off and lower viscosity results. Also the proteolytic activity of the samples was decreased by raising the oat milk concentrations. Increase of the oat milk concentration leaded to a decrease of pH of the samples. Statistical analysis showed that the lactococci and lactobacilli viable cell counts differed among the samples while the highest count was detected in sample with the highest amount of oat milk. The control sample (without oat milk had higher yeast count during the storage period. The final product with 20 % of oat-milk and without addition of flavour was found to be the most acceptable by the sensory panellists. The results indicate the possibility for a new cow/oat milk based kefir.

  14. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Kefir Starter

    Siavash Kamyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycotoxins naturally occur in foods. Aflatoxins can cause serious health problems in consumers. Nowadays, biological detoxification method is considered to decrease the aflatoxins level in foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kefir starter microorganisms to decrease the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in milk. Methods: The study was carried out at Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University in 2016. AFM1 at three levels 150, 200 and 250 ng/L was added to milk samples. Then a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and full kefir starter culture was added to milk samples. After cool storage of samples in 4 °C for 7 d, all samples were collected and the level of AFM1 determined by HPLC method. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Results: The highest reduction percentage of AFM1 was observed in yeast (65.33%-68.89% and LAB pool (65%. Samples with full kefir starter showed the reduction percent range of 11.67-34.66% that was lower in compare with other treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings support the ability of LAB and yeasts to bind to aflatoxins in foods. Kefir drink in countries with high contamination by AFM1 in milk can be a safe dairy product choice for consumers.

  15. Administration of probiotic kefir to mice with Clostridium difficile infection exacerbates disease.

    Spinler, Jennifer K; Brown, Aaron; Ross, Caná L; Boonma, Prapaporn; Conner, Margaret E; Savidge, Tor C

    2016-08-01

    Lifeway(®) kefir, a fermented milk product containing 12 probiotic organisms, is reported to show promise as an alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We employed a murine CDI model to study the probiotic protective mechanisms and unexpectedly determined that kefir drastically increased disease severity. Our results emphasize the need for further independent clinical testing of kefir as alternative therapy in recurrent CDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Antimetastatic and Antiangiogenesis Effects of Kefir Water on Murine Breast Cancer Cells.

    Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Abu, Nadiah; Mohamed, Nurul Elyani; Nordin, Noraini; Keong, Yeap Swee; Beh, Boon Kee; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Nik Abdul Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2016-12-01

    Kefir is a unique cultured product that contains beneficial probiotics. Kefir culture from other parts of the world exhibits numerous beneficial qualities such as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and anticancer effects. Nevertheless, kefir cultures from different parts of the world exert different effects because of variation in culture conditions and media. Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women, and metastasis is the major cause of death associated with breast cancer. The antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects of kefir water made from kefir grains cultured in Malaysia were studied in 4T1 breast cancer cells. 4T1 cancer cells were treated with kefir water in vitro to assess its antimigration and anti-invasion effects. BALB/c mice were injected with 4T1 cancer cells and treated orally with kefir water for 28 days. Kefir water was cytotoxic toward 4T1 cells at IC 50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of 12.5 and 8.33 mg/mL for 48 and 72 hours, respectively. A significant reduction in tumor size and weight (0.9132 ± 0.219 g) and a substantial increase in helper T cells (5-fold) and cytotoxic T cells (7-fold) were observed in the kefir water-treated group. Proinflammatory and proangiogenic markers were significantly reduced in the kefir water-treated group. Kefir water inhibited tumor proliferation in vitro and in vivo mainly through cancer cell apoptosis, immunomodulation by stimulating T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells, and anti-inflammatory, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis effects. This study brought out the potential of the probiotic beverage kefir water in cancer treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Investigation of microorganisms involved in biosynthesis of the kefir grain.

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lo, Yung-Ming; Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Liu, Je-Ruei; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the significance of each microorganism in grain formation by evaluating their microbial aggregation and cell surface properties during co-aggregation of LAB and yeasts together with an investigation of biofilm formation. Non-grain forming strains from viili were also evaluated as a comparison. Results indicated that the kefir grain strains, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Saccharomyces turicensis possess strong auto-aggregation ability and that Lactobacillus kefiri shows significant biofilm formation properties. Significant co-aggregation was noted when S. turicensis and kefir LAB strains (Lb. kefiranofaciens and Lb. kefiri) were co-cultured. Most of the tested LAB strains are hydrophilic and had a negative charge on their cell surface. Only the kefir LAB strains, Lb. kefiranofaciens HL1 and Lb. kefiri HL2, possessed very high hydrophobicity and had a positive cell surface charge at pH 4.2. In contrast, the LAB and yeasts in viili did not show any significant self-aggregation or biofilm formation. Based on the above results, we propose that grain formation begins with the self-aggregation of Lb. kefiranofaciens and S. turicensis to form small granules. At this point, the biofilm producer, Lb. kefiri, then begins to attach to the surface of granules and co-aggregates with other organisms and components in the milk to form the grains. On sub-culturing, more organisms attach to the grains resulting in grain growth. When investigated by scanning electron microscopy, it was found that short-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiri occupy the surface, while long-chain lactobacilli such as Lb. kefiranofaciens have aggregated towards the center of the kefir grains. These findings agree with the above hypothesis on the formation of grains. Taken together, this study demonstrates the importance of cell surface properties together with fermentation conditions to the formation of grains in kefir. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis

    Roberta Oliveira Viana

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid. Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

  19. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL -1 , reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Kefir against Various Food Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hyunsook; Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a unique fermented dairy product produced by a mixture of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeast. Here, we compared the antimicrobial spectra of four types of kefirs (A, L, M, and S) fermented for 24, 36, 48, or 72 h against eight food-borne pathogens. Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus , Listeria monocytogenes , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Enteritidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Cronobacter sakazakii were used as test strains, and antibacterial activity was investigated by the spot on lawn method. The spectra, potencies, and onsets of activity varied according to the type of kefir and the fermentation time. The broadest and strongest antimicrobial spectrum was obtained after at least 36-48 h of fermentation for all kefirs, although the traditional fermentation method of kefir is for 18-24 h at 25℃. For kefir A, B. cereus , E. coli , S . Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa , and C. sakazakii were inhibited, while B. cereus , S. aureus , E. coli , S . Enteritidis, P. aeruginosa , and C. sakazakii were inhibited to different extents by kefirs L, M, and S. Remarkably, S. aureus , S . Enteritidis, and C. sakazakii were only inhibited by kefirs L, M, and S, and L. monocytogenes by kefir M after fermentation for specific times, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity is attributable not only to a low pH but also to antimicrobial substances secreted during the fermentation.

  1. Effect of kefir on Fusobacterium nucleatum in potentially preventing intestinal cancer

    Zeynep Banu Guzel-Seydim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fusobacterium spp. are known to be part of mouth and intestinal microbiota. Fusobacterium nucleatum is an obligate anaerobe, Gram negative, non-spore forming pleomorphic bacillus that can cause diseases not only in the mouth and teeth but also in the brain, pleura, lungs and liver. It was noted that F. nucleatum induces fetal death (fetal demise in pregnant women. Recent studies indicate that F. nucleatum could lead to colon cancer by binding to the epithelial tissue. Kefir is produced from kefir grains that are a source of probiotics. Fermented dairy products and especially kefir and yogurt are significant for functional nutrition. In kefir grains, lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria and yeasts are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix, called kefiran. When kefir grains are added to milk and incubated for approximately 22 h at 25°C, microorganisms in the grains continue to proliferate in milk with the production of functional metabolic compounds. While yogurt has mainly two bacteria, authentic kefir has its characteristic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefir and Lactobacillus kefirgranum, in addition to many other types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Previous studies have indicated that fermented dairy products can cause probiotic effects such as improvement in digestive system health, reduction in serum cholesterol, improvement in lactose tolerance, improvement in immune function, control of irritable bowel symptoms, and anticarcinogenic properties. Objective: The aim of this research was to report the effects of fermented dairy products in vitro on the growth of F. nucleatum. Milk, kefir made from natural kefir grains, commercial kefir produced from kefir starter culture, yogurt produced from natural yogurt starter culture and commercial yogurt produced from yogurt starter culture were used against F. nucleatum. Methods: F. nucleatum (ATCC 25586 was grown in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium at 37°C for 3 days under

  2. Determination of Some Quality Criteria of the Kefir Produced with Molasses and Plum

    Tuğba Kök Taş

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the quality characteristics of kefir by developing different flavours in order to increase its consumption. Plum (10% and molasses (7.5% which are rich in phenolic contents are used to produce kefir in different flavours. Chemical analysis (pH, titratable acidity, dry matter and colour, microbial analysis (total microorganism, Lactobacillus spp, Lactococcus spp. and yeast counts, total antioxidant activity (by ORAC method, total amount of phenolic contents and sensorial properties of all kefir samples were carried out at the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. Consequently, the results of pH, titratable acidity and dry matter in the kefir samples were determined to change between the values 4.11-4.39; 0.22-0.30 and 11.9-17.02% respectively, during the storage. In the colour analysis, the redness colour parameter of the kefir sample produced using molasses was determined to be higher compared to the other kefir samples. At the first day of storage, the total antioxidant contents of the control group kefir, plum- added kefir and molasses-added kefir samples were determined as 13.30; 16.80 and 17.35 µmol ml-1; and the total phenolic contents as 945.70; 2535.8 and 2357.6 mg ml-1, respectively. Content of total microorganism in kefir samples varied between 8.91-9.80 log kob ml-1during the storage period. Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. contents of kefir produced using molasses were determined to have the highest values with 9.11 and 9.91 log kob ml-1, respectively, at the first day. Yeast content of the plum kefir and the molasses kefir samples including sugar was detected to be higher than that of the controlled kefir sample. According to the results of the sensory analysis, the kefir produced with plum was approved the most by the panelists. As a result of this study, two alternative products with quite high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were developed for consumers.

  3. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  4. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  5. Comparative study of microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of kefirs produced in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Anton, Dea; Raudsepp, Piret; Roasto, Mati; Meremäe, Kadrin; Kuusik, Sirje; Toomik, Peeter; Elias, Priit; Laikoja, Katrin; Kaart, Tanel; Lepiku, Martin; Püssa, Tõnu

    2016-02-01

    In the current study the microbiological, sensory and chemical properties of 24 kefirs (12 producers) from Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian retail market were determined using gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF and LC-ion trap MS/MS), spectrophotometry and other methods. Antihypertensive, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting, antioxidant and antibacterial peptides were found in the kefir samples. According to the results of principal component analysis of 200 most abundant compounds obtained with HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF analysis, Estonian kefirs differed from the rest. Kefirs of Latvian and Lithuanian origin showed similarities in several characteristics, probably related to the starter cultures and technological processes. The fatty acids composition of all Baltic kefirs was uniform. The antioxidant capacity of the kefirs varied slightly, whereas intermediate positive correlation (r = 0.32, P kefirs. Only one third of analysed kefirs met the requirements of the minimum sum of viable microorganisms, indicated in the Codex Standard for Fermented Milks.

  6. Biological activity of the non-microbial fraction of kefir: antagonism against intestinal pathogens.

    Iraporda, Carolina; Abatemarco Júnior, Mário; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Nicoli, Jacques R; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2017-08-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk obtained by the activity of kefir grains which are composed of lactic and acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts. Many beneficial health effects have been associated with kefir consumption such as stimulation of the immune system and inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The biological activity of kefir may be attributed to the presence of a complex microbiota as well as the microbial metabolites that are released during fermentation. The aim of this work was to characterise the non-microbial fraction of kefir and to study its antagonism against Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Bacillus cereus. During milk fermentation there was a production of organic acids, mainly lactic and acetic acid, with a consequent decrease in pH and lactose content. The non-microbial fraction of kefir added to nutrient broth at concentrations above 75% v/v induced a complete inhibition of pathogenic growth that could be ascribed to the presence of un-dissociated lactic acid. In vitro assays using an intestinal epithelial cell model indicated that pre-incubation of cells with the non-microbial fraction of kefir did not modify the association/invasion of Salmonella whereas pre-incubation of Salmonella with this fraction under conditions that did not affect their viability significantly decreased the pathogen's ability to invade epithelial cells. Lactate exerted a protective effect against Salmonella in a mouse model, demonstrating the relevance of metabolites present in the non-microbial fraction of kefir produced during milk fermentation.

  7. Identification of some kefir microorganisms and optimization of their production in sugarcane juice

    Blanca Cecilia Salazar Alzate

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains are a consortium of bacteria and yeasts grouped in a polysaccharide called kefirano. They ferment sugar substrates to produce organic acids, CO2, vitamins and ethanol. They also have positive effects on health. This research project aimed to optimize the fermentation process of sugarcane concentrate using kefir grains. The microorganisms were first identified morphologically and biochemically, then isolated and purified in selective media. Optimization was conducted using the response surface methodology with a composite central design. The independent variables were: temperature, time and percentage of kefir grains added. As for dependent variables, we considered the following: increase in kefir grains (also measured as a percentage, acidity and microbial growth. Additionally, our study identified populations of Lactobacillus curvatus and the following yeasts: Candida famata, Can. magnoliae, Can. krusei/incospicua and Can. sphaerica in the kefir grains. The optimal conditions were 33.5 °C, 30 h and 6% w/w of added kefir grains. The increase in kefir grains reached was of 193 ± 12%. The lactobacilli, lactococci and yeast counts were 1.57x108, 8.63x107 and 2.05x107 CFU mL-1 respectively. Experimental optimization was an effective tool for the fermentation of kefir grains in sugarcane concentrate.

  8. Growth Inhibition of Cronobacter sakazakii in Experimentally Contaminated Powdered Infant Formula by Kefir Supernatant.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Kefir is a type of fermented milk containing lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). In a spot-on-lawn test, the growth of 20 C. sakazakii strains, including 10 clinical and 10 food isolates, was completely inhibited in the presence of kefir supernatant. Significant differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed upon treatment with kefir compared with the results for Lactobacillus kefiri and Candida kefyr culture supernatants or solutions of lactic and acetic acid and ethyl alcohol in the agar well diffusion test (P < 0.05). The addition of 100 μl of kefir supernatant to 1 ml of nutrient broth completely inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii, as evaluated by spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant in experimentally contaminated PIF was also tested; we found no viable C. sakazakii cells remaining in PIF rehydrated with 30% kefir supernatant solution for 1 h, demonstrating that the antimicrobial activity of kefir supernatant against C. sakazakii could be applied in real food samples.

  9. Kefir milk enhances intestinal immunity in young but not old rats.

    Thoreux, K; Schmucker, D L

    2001-03-01

    The adjuvant effect of kefir fermented milk on the mucosal and systemic immune systems was examined in young (6 mo old) and old (26 mo old) rats. Kefir-fed rats consisted of young or old rats consuming kefir-fermented milk ad libitum on a daily basis in addition to the standard diet, for 28 d. Control rats consumed only the standard diet. The rats were immunized intraduodenally with cholera toxin (CT) on d 7 and 21 and killed on d 28. The nonspecific serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A titers in kefir-fed and control rats did not differ in either age group. The serum anti-CT IgA antibody concentrations were significantly higher in the kefir-fed young rats compared with their age-matched controls (+86%, P: 120%, P: kefir-fed rats compared with their respective controls. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate that a kefir-supplemented diet affects the intestinal mucosal and systemic immune responses to intraduodenal CT differently in young and old rats. Most importantly, our data suggest that orally administered kefir enhances the specific intestinal mucosal immune response against CT in young adult, but not in senescent rats.

  10. Analog kefir production with a low phenylalanine for Phenylketonuria

    Amir Yari; Yousef Ramezan

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most prevalent types of hereditary metabolic disorders which is caused due to an absence or reduction of the activity of the Phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme in the liver which in turn, inhibits the transformation of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine. In clinical terms, this disorder is displayed with severe, permanent and irreversible mental retardation. This research was aimed at development of a highly nutrient and acceptable suitable analogue Kefir drink ...

  11. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir

    Bourrie, Benjamin C. T.; Willing, Benjamin P.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product. PMID:27199969

  12. Kefir prevented excess fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice.

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye Won; Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2017-05-01

    Excessive body fat accumulation can result in obesity, which is a serious health concern. Kefir, a probiotic, has recently shown possible health benefits in fighting obesity. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of 0.1 and 0.2% kefir powder on fat accumulation in adipose and liver tissues of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Kefir reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight and decreased adipocyte diameters in HFD-induced obese mice. This was supported by decreased expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis as well as reduced proinflammatory marker levels in epididymal fat. Along with reduced hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations and serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities, genes related to lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in liver tissue. Kefir also decreased serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Overall, kefir has the potential to prevent obesity.

  13. The Microbiota and health promoting characteristics of the fermented beverage Kefir.

    Benjamin C.T. Bourrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.

  14. The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir.

    Bourrie, Benjamin C T; Willing, Benjamin P; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a complex fermented dairy product created through the symbiotic fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts contained within an exopolysaccharide and protein complex called a kefir grain. As with other fermented dairy products, kefir has been associated with a range of health benefits such as cholesterol metabolism and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, antimicrobial activity, tumor suppression, increased speed of wound healing, and modulation of the immune system including the alleviation of allergy and asthma. These reports have led to increased interest in kefir as a focus of research and as a potential probiotic-containing product. Here, we review those studies with a particular emphasis on the microbial composition and the health benefits of the product, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as an important probiotic product.

  15. Antidiabetic Potential of Kefir Combination from Goat Milk and Soy Milk in Rats Induced with Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide

    Harmayani, Eni; Sunarti

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of kefir combination from goat milk and soy milk on lipid profile, plasma glucose, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the improvement of pancreatic β-cell in diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into five treatments: normal control, diabetic control, goat milk kefir, combination of goat milk-soy milk kefir and soy milk kefir. All rats were induced by streptooztocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA), except for normal control. After 35 d experiment, the rats were sampled for blood, sacrificed and sampled for pancreatic tissues. Results showed that diabetic rats fed kefir combination had higher (p<0.05) triglyceride than the rats fed goat milk or soy milk kefir. Decreasing of plasma glucose in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was higher (p<0.05) than rats fed goat millk kefir. The activity of GPx in diabetic rats fed three kinds of kefir were higher (p<0.01) than untreated diabetic rats. The average number of Langerhans and β-cells in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was the same as the normal control, but it was higher than diabetic control. It was concluded that kefir combination can be used as antidiabetic through maintaining in serum triglyceride, decreasing in plasma glucose, increasing in GPx activity and improving in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26877646

  16. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  17. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  18. [Immune regulation activity and mechanism of Tibetan Kefir exopolysaccharide fractions].

    Meng, Li; Zhang, Lanwei

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanism on immune regulation activity in mice of two Tibetan Kefir exoploysaccharides (EPS) with different molecular weight of 0.1 x 10(5) - 3 x 10(5) (fraction 1) and 1.8 x 10(3) (fraction 2). The immune regulation activity experiment was carried out in vitro based on the Functional Assessment Procedure and Test Methods of Health Food, which was issued by Ministry of Health of China. First, we treated mice subjects with EPS at doses of 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg through ig. Then we detected the index of immune organs, the ability of antibody production (tested by HC50), activity of NK cell, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and phagocytosis of macrophage in mice. Finally, we examined the expression of Erk protein in Macrophages by Western Blot assay. Fraction 1 could promote HC50, activity of NK cell and DTH in mice which low dose showed better. Fraction 2 could promote DTH, phagocytosis of macrophage which high dose showed better. The expression of Erk and COX-2 had the same trend with Phagocytic index. We verified the two fractions of Tibetan Kefir EPS could enhance immune functions in mice. Fraction 1 regulated immune function through NK cell and B cell while fraction 2 through macrophage cell and T cell. The effects to macrophage of Tibetan Kefir EPS in mice may realize through extra cellular signal-regulated kinase Erk pathway.

  19. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes

    Katia Maalouf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Katia Maalouf1, Elias Baydoun2, Sandra Rizk11Department of Natural Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer.Purpose: The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes.Methods: Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α, transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA and flow cytometry.Results: The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 µg/µL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF- β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was

  20. Effect of addition of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) on the quality of kefirs from sheep's milk.

    Znamirowska, Agata; Szajnar, Katarzyna; Rożek, Przemysław; Kalicka, Dorota; Kuźniar, Piotr; Hanus, Paweł; Kotula, Krzysztof; Obirek, Marcin; Kluz, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Sheep’s milk has a high content of total solids, which qualifies it as a very good raw material for the production of fermented milk drinks. Currently, there are commercially produced kefirs and yogurts from sheep’s milk in the countries of the Mediterranean region. The growing interest in the consumption of these products is justified not only by their taste merits, but also because of their health-promoting proper- ties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of 1% of lyophilized wild garlic powder on the properties of kefirs from sheep’s milk. Sheep’s milk was pasteurized (85°C, 30 min), cooled down, enriched with 1% of freeze-dried wild garlic powder, inoculated with a Commercial VITAL kefir culture and fermented for 16 hours (26°C). The influence of wild garlic on acidity (pH, °SH), syneresis (%), texture (TPA test), colour (L*a*b*) and the sensory profile of kefirs was conducted. Wild garlic could be used as a taste and flavour modifier in the production of kefir from sheep’s milk. The addition of 1% of freeze-dried wild garlic slowed down the fermentation of kefir, changed colour and reduced syneresis. Wild garlic could be used as a valuable supplement and a modifier of taste and flavour in kefir from sheep’s milk.

  1. Kefir: composition and evaluation of in situ antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Simone Weschenfelder

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate whether produced kefir meets the identity and quality standards for fermented milks, to check the possibility of assigning a nutrition declaration, and to evaluate the antagonistic activity of the fermented milk against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Two different formulations of kefir (Kefir 1 and Kefir 2 were prepared to determine the percentage composition, minerals, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, and antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results of the physicochemical evaluation indicated a statistically significant difference between the formulations, except for the percentage of lipids, Ca, K, Mg and Na. The formulations met the parameters of identity and quality in the fermented milks under evaluation. Possible nutrition declarations for Kefir 1 are 'source of proteins' and 'reduced calorie', and for Kefir 2, 'high protein content' and 'high zinc content'. The fermented milks showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested microorganisms (> 24 h, with no activity seen after this period. Further studies involving kefir are suggested, exploring its potential as a probiotic food, and its inclusion in the diet of the population.

  2. Microbiological, biochemical, and functional aspects of sugary kefir fermentation - A review.

    Fiorda, Fernanda Assumpção; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinicius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar; Pagnoncelli, Maria Giovana Binder; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Sugary kefir beverage is produce by fermenting raw sugar solution with kefir grains, the latter consisting of polysaccharide and microorganisms. This beverage, with great consumption in countries such as USA, Japan, France, and Brazil, represents a promising market to functional cultured drinks. This paper reviews the microbial diversity and interaction, kinetics, safety, and bioactivities of sugary kefir fermentation. The literature reviewed here demonstrates that sugary kefir possesses a similar microbial association relative to traditional milk kefir fermentation, especially among lactic acid bacteria and yeast species, such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, and Saccharomyces. However, a selective pressure at species level is generally observed, as, for example, the stimulation of Saccharomyces species metabolism, leading to a high content of alcohol in the final product. This also seems to stimulate the growth of acetic acid bacteria that benefit of increased ethanol production to acetic acid metabolism. Existing reports have suggested important bioactivities associated with sugary kefir beverage consumption, such as antimicrobial, antiedematogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cicatrizing, and healing activities. Other alternative non-dairy substrates, such as fruits, vegetables, and molasses, have also been tested for adaptation of kefir grains and production of functional beverages with distinct sensory characteristics. This diversification is of crucial importance for the production of new probiotic products to provide people with special needs (lactose intolerance) and vegan consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic administration of the soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir attenuates lipid deposition in LDLr-/- mice.

    Santanna, Adriélly F; Filete, Placielle F; Lima, Ewelyne M; Porto, Marcella L; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Endringer, Denise C; Lenz, Dominik; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Pereira, Thiago M C; Andrade, Tadeu U

    2017-03-01

    Kefir is obtained by the action of acidic bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. Recently, this fermented milk drink has been recommended for the treatment of several clinical conditions, such as inflammatory, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular-related diseases, or a combination of these diseases. However, its effects on atherosclerosis are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to prove that chronic treatment with a soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir could reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. LDLr -/- mice were divided into four groups as follows: RESULTS: The soluble, nonbacterial fraction of kefir reduced lipid deposition (P < 0.05) independent of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, kefir was capable of diminishing the circulating proinflammatory intereukin (IL)-6 level and the ratio of tumor necrosis factor-α to IL-10 (50% and 42%, P < 0.05, respectively) and augmenting the antiinflammatory IL-10 level by approximately 74% (P < 0.05). Chronic treatment with a soluble nonbacterial fraction of kefir was able to decrease the lipid deposition in LDLr -/- hypercholesteremic mice, at least in part through modifying the circulating cytokine profile. The beneficial effects of kefir provide new perspectives for its use as an adjuvant in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative in vitro efficacy of kefir produced from camel, goat, ewe and cow milk on Haemonchus contortus.

    Alimi, D; Rekik, M; Akkari, H

    2018-04-18

    One of the great challenges of veterinary parasitology is the search for alternative methods for controlling gastrointestinal parasites in small ruminants. Milk kefir is a traditional source of probiotic, with great therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthelmintic effects of kefir on the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep. The study used camel, goat, ewe and cow milk as a starting material, to produce camel, goat, cow and ewe milk kefir. All kefirs showed a significant concentration-dependent effect on H. contortus egg hatching at all tested concentrations. The highest inhibition (100%) of eggs was observed with camel milk kefir at a concentration 0.125 mg/ml. In relation to the effect of kefirs on the survival of adult parasites, all kefirs induced concentration-dependent mortality in adults, with variable results. The complete mortality (100%) of adults of H. contortus occurred at concentrations in the range 0.25-2 mg/ml. The highest inhibition of motility (100%) of worms was observed after 8 h post exposure with camel milk kefir at 0.25 mg/ml. These findings indicate that kefir can be considered a potential tool to control haemonchosis in sheep. Further investigations are needed to assess the active molecules in kefir responsible for its anthelmintic properties and to investigate similar in vivo effects.

  5. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes

    Maalouf, Katia; Baydoun, Elias; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. Purpose: The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Methods: Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Results: The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 μg/μL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines. Conclusion: In conclusion, kefir is

  6. Stability Emulsion and Sensory Characteristics Low Fat Mayonnaise Using Kefir as Emulsifier Replacer

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mayonnaise is a kind of semi solid oil in water (o/w emulsion which containing pasteurized egg yolk as an emulsifier. The consumers have demanded that the use of egg yolk be reduced. Kefir was used to develop a low fat mayonnaise as emulsifier replacer to egg yolk. The objective of this research was to observe the emulsion stability, sensory characteristics of low fat mayonnaise prepare during kefir as emulsifier replacer. The research method was using experimental design. The result showed that formulation of low fat mayonnaise by using Rice bran oil 40%, kefir 20% produces the optimal low fat mayonnaise in emulsion stability and accepted by the panelist.

  7. Kefir induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in HTLV-1-negative malignant T-lymphocytes

    Maalouf, Katia; Baydoun, Elias; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Adult lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy that occurs in white blood cells. The overall cure rate in children is 85%, whereas it is only 40% in adults. Kefir is an important probiotic that contains many bioactive ingredients, which give it unique health benefits. It has been shown to control several cellular types of cancer. The present study investigates the effect of a cell-free fraction of kefir on CEM and Jurkat cells, which are human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-negative malignant T-lymphocytes. Cells were incubated with different kefir concentrations. The cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated by determining the percentage viability of cells. The effect of all the noncytotoxic concentrations of kefir on the proliferation of CEM and Jurkat cells was then assessed. The levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), transforming growth factor- beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 mRNA upon kefir treatment were then analyzed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Finally, the growth inhibitory effects of kefir on cell-cycle progression/apoptosis were assessed by Cell Death Detection (ELISA) and flow cytometry. The maximum cytotoxicity recorded after 48-hours treatment with 80 μg/μL kefir was only 42% and 39% in CEM and Jurkat cells, respectively. The percent reduction in proliferation was very significant, and was dose-, and time-dependent. In both cell lines, kefir exhibited its antiproliferative effect by downregulating TGF-α and upregulating TGF-β1 mRNA expression. Upon kefir treatment, a marked increase in cell-cycle distribution was noted in the preG 1 phase of CEM and Jurkat cells, indicating the proapoptotic effect of kefir, which was further confirmed by Cell Death Detection ELISA. However, kefir did not affect the mRNA expression of metalloproteinases needed for the invasion of leukemic cell lines. In conclusion, kefir is effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing

  8. Kefir improves bone mass and microarchitecture in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Chuang, C-H; Tu, M-Y; Tsai, T-C; Chang, S-Y; Chen, C-M

    2015-02-01

    Kefir treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats could significantly decrease the levels of bone turnover markers and prevent OVX-induced bone loss, deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, and biomechanical dysfunction that may be due to increase intracellular calcium uptake through the TRPV6 calcium channel. Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to an increased fracture risk. The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women due to estrogen deficiency, as the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts towards increased levels of bone resorption. Among various methods of prevention and treatment for osteoporosis, an increase in calcium intake is the most commonly recommended preventive measure. Kefir is a fermented milk product made with kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including immunomodulating-, antithrombotic-, antimicrobial-, and calcium-absorption-enhancing bioactivities. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kefir on osteoporosis prophylaxis in an ovariectomized rat model. A total of 56 16-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 7 experimental groups: sham (normal), OVX/Mock, OVX/1X kefir (164 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/2X kefir (328 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/4X kefir (656 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/ALN (2.5 mg/kg BW/day), and OVX/REBONE (800 mg/kg BW/day). After 12-week treatment with kefir, the bone physiology in the OVX rat model was investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible transport mechanism involved in calcium absorption using the Caco-2 human cell line. A 12-week treatment with kefir on the OVX-induced osteoporosis model reduced the levels of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx), bone turnover markers, and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.). Additionally, treatment with kefir increased

  9. Rheological, texture and sensory properties of kefir from mare’s milk and its mixtures with goat and sheep milk

    Dorota Cais-Sokolińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct lactic acid-alcoholic fermentation using mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB for mare’s milk and its mixture with goat and sheep milk, followed by instrumental and sensory characteristic of the texture profile in the produced kefirs. It was shown that kefirs made from a mixture of goat and sheep milk are firmer, have greater values of consistency and the viscosity index than those produced from mare’s milk alone. Kefir storage for 3 weeks causes changes in their mechanical properties. Exceptions are found for firmness of kefirs made from both mixtures and the viscosity index of kefir made from sheep milk, which remained stable. The most divergent texture profile of the tested kefirs was reflected in the sensory examined descriptors of prickling, dense and mouth-coating sensation.

  10. Short communication: The effects of frozen storage on the survival of probiotic microorganisms found in traditionally and commercially manufactured kefir.

    O'Brien, K V; Aryana, K J; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Ordonez, K M Carabante; Boeneke, C A

    2016-09-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk traditionally made from a unique starter culture, which consists of numerous bacteria and yeast species bound together in an exopolysaccharide matrix produced by certain lactic acid bacteria. Many health benefits are associated with traditionally produced kefir; however, bulging and leaking packaging, caused by secondary yeast fermentation during storage, has limited large-scale manufacture. Commercial kefir products have been designed to reduce these effects by using a pure starter culture consisting of a mixture of bacteria and yeast species that give a flavor similar to traditional kefir, but some health benefits may be lost in commercial production due to reduced microbial diversity and lack of beneficial exopolysaccharides. In this study, traditional and commercial kefir was frozen to study the effects of frozen storage on the viability of probiotic bacteria over time. Traditional kefir was prepared by inoculating 1L of pasteurized whole goat milk with approximately 30g of kefir grains. Commercial kefir was prepared by inoculating 1L of full-fat, pasteurized goat milk with a commercial kefir starter. The milk was allowed to ferment at room temperature (24-28°C) until pH 4.6 was reached. Samples were frozen (-8 to -14°C) immediately following the completion of fermentation and were thawed and plated for lactobacilli, lactococci, and yeasts on d 0, 7, 14, and 30 of frozen storage. Lactobacilli, lactococci, and yeasts were significantly reduced in number during frozen storage; however, the traditionally produced kefir was shown to have significantly higher counts of bacteria and yeast at each sampling. We concluded that frozen storage and the development of frozen kefir products could eliminate most packaging concerns associated with the large-scale manufacture of traditionally produced kefir, resulting in increased production and marketability of this healthful product. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  11. Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells.

    Yamane, Takuya; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Nakagaki, Takenori; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2018-03-27

    The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis , Lactococcus . lactis subsp. Cremoris , Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis , Lactobacillus plantarum , Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei . In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and colorectal tumor HCT116 cells. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression and secretion of IFN-γ (interferon gamma) increased in KHYG-1 cells that had been treated with the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir. The results suggest that the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir has strong effects on natural immunity and tumor cell cytotoxicity.

  12. Pengaruh Jenis Susu dan Persentase Starter yang Berbeda terhadap Kualitas Kefir

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different milk and starter percentage on kefir quality ABSTRACT. The objective of this study is to study the quality of kefir with different amount of starter added and different kind of milk. The quality of kefir was evaluated by measuring lactic acid level, syneresis, crude protein, crude fat and amount of active microorganism. The result showed that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has a high significant on syneresis and Lactic Acid level (P < 0,01. The best interaction was resulted from the combination of 10% starter and UHT milk. The result also indicated that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has no effect on crude protein, crude fat and the amount of active microorganism. The combination of 10% Starter and UHT milk, produces the best quality of kefir

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells

    Takuya Yamane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and colorectal tumor HCT116 cells. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression and secretion of IFN-γ (interferon gamma increased in KHYG-1 cells that had been treated with the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir. The results suggest that the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir has strong effects on natural immunity and tumor cell cytotoxicity.

  14. Effects of Kefir on the Cardiac Autonomic Tones and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Klippel, Brunella F.; Duemke, Licia B.; Leal, Marcos A.; Friques, Andreia G. F.; Dantas, Eduardo M.; Dalvi, Rodolfo F.; Gava, Agata L.; Pereira, Thiago M. C.; Andrade, Tadeu U.; Meyrelles, Silvana S.; Campagnaro, Bianca P.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: It has been previously shown that the probiotic kefir (a symbiotic matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts) attenuated the hypertension and the endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the effect of chronic administration of kefir on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in SHR was evaluated. Methods: SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cardiac autonomic vagal (VT) and sympathetic (ST) tones were estimated through the blockade of the cardiac muscarinic receptors (methylatropine) and the blockade of β1−adrenoceptor (atenolol). The BRS was evaluated by the tachycardia and bradycardia responses to vasoactive drug-induced decreases and increases in arterial blood pressure (BP), respectively. Additionally, spontaneous BRS was estimated by autoregressive spectral analysis. Results: Kefir-treated SHR exhibited significant attenuation of basal BP, HR, and cardiac hypertrophy compared to non-treated SHR (12, 13, and 21%, respectively). Cardiac VT and ST were significantly altered in the SHR (~40 and ~90 bpm) compared with Wistar rats (~120 and ~30 bpm) and were partially recovered in SHR-kefir (~90 and ~25 bpm). SHR exhibited an impaired bradycardic BRS (~50%) compared with Wistar rats, which was reduced to ~40% in the kefir-treated SHR and abolished by methylatropine in all groups. SHR also exhibited a significant impairment of the tachycardic BRS (~23%) compared with Wistar rats and this difference was reduced to 8% in the SHR-kefir. Under the action of atenolol the residual reflex tachycardia was smaller in SHR than in Wistar rats and kefir attenuated this abnormality. Spectral analysis revealed increased low frequency components of BP (~3.5-fold) and pulse interval (~2-fold) compared with Wistar rats and these differences were reduced by kefir-treatment to ~1

  15. Effects of Kefir on the Cardiac Autonomic Tones and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Klippel, Brunella F; Duemke, Licia B; Leal, Marcos A; Friques, Andreia G F; Dantas, Eduardo M; Dalvi, Rodolfo F; Gava, Agata L; Pereira, Thiago M C; Andrade, Tadeu U; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Vasquez, Elisardo C

    2016-01-01

    It has been previously shown that the probiotic kefir (a symbiotic matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts) attenuated the hypertension and the endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, the effect of chronic administration of kefir on the cardiac autonomic control of heart rate (HR) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in SHR was evaluated. SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cardiac autonomic vagal (VT) and sympathetic (ST) tones were estimated through the blockade of the cardiac muscarinic receptors (methylatropine) and the blockade of β1-adrenoceptor (atenolol). The BRS was evaluated by the tachycardia and bradycardia responses to vasoactive drug-induced decreases and increases in arterial blood pressure (BP), respectively. Additionally, spontaneous BRS was estimated by autoregressive spectral analysis. Kefir-treated SHR exhibited significant attenuation of basal BP, HR, and cardiac hypertrophy compared to non-treated SHR (12, 13, and 21%, respectively). Cardiac VT and ST were significantly altered in the SHR (~40 and ~90 bpm) compared with Wistar rats (~120 and ~30 bpm) and were partially recovered in SHR-kefir (~90 and ~25 bpm). SHR exhibited an impaired bradycardic BRS (~50%) compared with Wistar rats, which was reduced to ~40% in the kefir-treated SHR and abolished by methylatropine in all groups. SHR also exhibited a significant impairment of the tachycardic BRS (~23%) compared with Wistar rats and this difference was reduced to 8% in the SHR-kefir. Under the action of atenolol the residual reflex tachycardia was smaller in SHR than in Wistar rats and kefir attenuated this abnormality. Spectral analysis revealed increased low frequency components of BP (~3.5-fold) and pulse interval (~2-fold) compared with Wistar rats and these differences were reduced by kefir-treatment to ~1.6- and ~1.5-fold, respectively

  16. Chronic administration of the probiotic kefir improves the endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Friques, Andreia G F; Arpini, Clarisse M; Kalil, Ieda C; Gava, Agata L; Leal, Marcos A; Porto, Marcella L; Nogueira, Breno V; Dias, Ananda T; Andrade, Tadeu U; Pereira, Thiago Melo C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Vasquez, Elisardo C

    2015-12-30

    The beverage obtained by fermentation of milk with kefir grains, a complex matrix containing acid bacteria and yeasts, has been shown to have beneficial effects in various diseases. However, its effects on hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are not yet clear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of kefir on endothelial cells and vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR were treated with kefir (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) for 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and compared with non-treated SHR and with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Vascular endothelial function was evaluated in aortic rings through the relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). The balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) synthase was evaluated through specific blockers in the ACh-induced responses and through flow cytometry in vascular tissue. Significant effects of kefir were observed only after treatment for 60 days. The high blood pressure and tachycardia exhibited by the SHR were attenuated by approximately 15 % in the SHR-kefir group. The impaired ACh-induced relaxation of the aortic rings observed in the SHR (37 ± 4 %, compared to the Wistar rats: 74 ± 5 %), was significantly attenuated in the SHR group chronically treated with kefir (52 ± 4 %). The difference in the area under the curve between before and after the NADPH oxidase blockade or NO synthase blockade of aortic rings from SHR were of approximately +90 and -60 %, respectively, when compared with Wistar rats. In the aortic rings from the SHR-kefir group, these values were reduced to +50 and -40 %, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis of aortic endothelial cells revealed increased ROS production and decreased NO bioavailability in the SHR, which were significantly attenuated by the treatment with kefir. Scanning electronic microscopy showed vascular endothelial surface injury in SHR, which was partially protected following administration of kefir for 60 days. In addition, the

  17. Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Chen, Hsi-Chia; Wang, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2008-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in different original kefir grains were first assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) by a culture-dependent way, and were further confirmed by DNA sequencing techniques. Results indicated that a combined method of cultivation with PCR-DGGE and subsequent DNA sequencing could successfully identify four LAB strains from three kefir grains from Taiwan (named Hsinchu, Mongolia and Ilan). Lactobacillus kefiri accounted, in the three kefir grains, for at least half of the isolated colonies while Lb. kefiranofaciens was the second most frequently isolated species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was less frequently found but still in the three kefir grains conversely to Lactococcus lactis which based on culture-dependent isolation was only found in two of the kefir grains. It was interesting to find that all three kefir grains contain similar LAB species. Furthermore, the DGGE as a culture-independent method was also applied to detect the LAB strains. Results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens was found in all three kefir grains, whereas Lb. kefiri was only observed in Hsinchu kefir grain and Lc. lactis was found in both Mongolia and Ilan samples. Two additional strains, Pseudomonas spp. and E. coli, were also detected in kefir grains.

  18. Milk kefir: ultrastructure, antimicrobial activity and efficacy on aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Ghaly, Mohamed F; El-Naggar, Ayman K

    2011-05-01

    The association of kefir microbiota was observed by electron microscopic examination. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that kefir grain surface is very rough and the inner portions had scattered irregular holes on its surface. The interior of the grain comprised fibrillar materials which were interpreted as protein, lipid and a soluble polysaccharide, the kefiran complex that surrounds yeast and bacteria in the grain. Yeast was observed more clearly than bacteria on the outer portion of the grain. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations of kefir revealed that the grain comprised a mixed culture of yeast and bacteria growing in close association with each other. Microbiota is dominated by budded and long-flattened yeast cells growing together with lactobacilli and lactococci bacteria. Bacterial cells with rounded ends were also observed in this mixed culture. Kefir grains, kefir suspensions, and kefiran were tested for antimicrobial activities against several bacterial and fungal species. The highest activity was obtained against Streptococcus faecalis KR6 and Fusarium graminearum CZ1. Growth of Aspergillus flavus AH3 producing for aflatoxin B1 for 10 days in broth medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kefir filtrate (%, v/v) showed that sporulation was completely inhibited at the higher concentrations of kefir filtrate (7-10%, v/v). The average values of both mycelial dry weights and aflatoxin B1 were completely inhibited at 10% (v/v). This is the first in vitro study about the antifungal characteristics of kefir against filamentous fungi which was manifested by applying its inhibitory effect on the productivity of aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus AH3.

  19. Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells

    Takuya Yamane; Tatsuji Sakamoto; Takenori Nakagaki; Yoshihisa Nakano

    2018-01-01

    The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell...

  20. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Campos, Cássia Roberta; Dragone, Giuliano; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5%) were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6%) and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%). Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates), Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates), Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates), Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates), Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates), Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates) and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates) were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long) cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml. PMID:24031681

  1. Brazilian kefir: structure, microbial communities and chemical composition

    Karina Teixeira Magalhães

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial ecology and chemical composition of Brazilian kefir beverage was performed. The microorganisms associated with Brazilian kefir were investigated using a combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods. A total of 359 microbial isolates were identified. Lactic acid bacteria (60.5% were the major isolated group identified, followed by yeasts (30.6% and acetic acid bacteria (8.9%. Lactobacillus paracasei (89 isolates, Lactobacillus parabuchneri (41 isolates, Lactobacillus casei (32 isolates, Lactobacillus kefiri (31 isolates, Lactococcus lactis (24 isolates, Acetobacter lovaniensis (32 isolates, Kluyveromyces lactis (31 isolates, Kazachstania aerobia (23 isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (41 isolates and Lachancea meyersii (15 isolates were the microbial species isolated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the microbiota was dominated by bacilli (short and curved long cells growing in close association with lemon-shaped yeasts cells. During the 24 h of fermentation, the protein content increased, while lactose and fat content decreased. The concentration of lactic acid ranged from 1.4 to 17.4 mg/ml, and that of acetic acid increased from 2.1 to 2.73 mg/ml. The production of ethanol was limited, reaching a final mean value of 0.5 mg/ml.

  2. Analog kefir production with a low phenylalanine for Phenylketonuria

    Amir Yari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is one of the most prevalent types of hereditary metabolic disorders which is caused due to an absence or reduction of the activity of the Phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme in the liver which in turn, inhibits the transformation of phenylalanine (Phe to tyrosine. In clinical terms, this disorder is displayed with severe, permanent and irreversible mental retardation. This research was aimed at development of a highly nutrient and acceptable suitable analogue Kefir drink for these patients. The mentioned drink is based on milk permeate, cream powder and includes glycomacropeptide (GMP as a source of protein, starter as a fermentation source, the trance glutamines (TG enzyme, dough stabilizer and modified corn starch as tissue maker, salt and water. The GMP used in this analogue drink is intended for enrichment of the product and therefore it was added by 3% to one formula. The aforementioned sample had a lower calculated amount of pH and alcohol percentage in comparison with the 16 samples which did not have GMP. The results of this study showed that the analog kefir has a low level of phenylalanine (30.40 mg/100g and in that regard, it can be considered to be useful for patients with PKU.

  3. Investigation of the Protective Effect of Kefir against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Mert, Handan; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Irak, Kıvanç; Yıldırım, Serkan; Mert, Nihat

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate the protective effects of kefir against myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group consisting of 8 rats. The control group, the kefir group (5 mL/kg/d kefir administered to rats as intra-gastric gavage for 60 d), the ISO group (100 mg/kg ISO was administered to rats, s.c. on 61. and 62. d), and kefir+ISO group (5 mL/kg/d kefir was administered to rats intra gastric gavage for 60 days prior to ISO, 100 mg/kg in two doses on day 61 and 62). 12 h after the last ISO dose, all rats were decapitated and their blood samples were collected. Cardiac tissue was reserved for histopathological examination. creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, total cholesterol,very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and glucose were measured by autoanalyzer, whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. It was determined that in the group of kefir+ISO, the levels of AST (pkefir in myocardial infarction induced by ISO can protect the heart with its antioxidant characteristic and minimize the toxic damage created by ISO. PMID:29805276

  4. Characterization of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2015-06-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel probiotic beverage by kefir grains. Different fermentation conditions were used as viz: two fermentation temperature (19 ºC and 25 ºC) and two levels of kefir grains inoculum (5 % and 8%w/v). pH, acidity, lactose consumption as well as organic acids formation were determined during 32 hours of fermentation. Results showed that kefir grains were able to utilize lactose and decrease pH, increase acidity, produce lactic acid and acetic acid, while the level of citric acid decreased. It was observed these change depended on temperature and level of kefir grains with the highest changes at the temperature of 25 ºC and kefir grains inoculum of 8%w/v. Pomegranate juice and whey mixture therefore may serve as a suitable substrate for the production of novel probiotic dairy-fruit juice beverage by kefir grains and the sensory characteristics of this beverage were shown desirable results.

  5. Kefir protective effects against nicotine cessation-induced anxiety and cognition impairments in rats.

    Noori, Negin; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Majid; Hosseini, Pantea; Noudoost, Behshad

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine as one of the potent psychostimulant drugs is characterized by its parasympathomimetic activity. Upon the abrupt discontinuation of nicotine intake, a number of symptoms such as anxiety, depression and cognition impairment develop. Kefir as a food supplement is rich in tryptophan. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of Kefir on nicotine cessation-induced anxiety, depression and cognition impairment. Forty adult male rats were divided into four groups. All the groups received 6 mg/kg/day of nicotine for 17 days and then the negative control groups got 5 mg/kg/day of normal saline. The positive control groups were given 40 mg/kg/day of Sertraline HCl for 7 days. The group treated with Cow Milk Kefir (CMK) and Soy Milk Kefir (SMK) received 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days. On the 25(th) day, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Open Field Test (OFT) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to investigate anxiety and depression. In addition, Moris Water Maze was applied to evaluate learning and memory in the animals between the 20(th) and 25(th) days. The results showed that administration of CMK, SMK and Sertraline had higher anti-depression and anxiolytic effects on nicotine withdrawal-induced depression and anxiety in rats (P Kefir had a potential effect on the treatment of nicotine cessation-induced depression, anxiety and cognition impairment in the animal model. Kefir may be useful for adjunct therapy for nicotine abandonment treatment protocols.

  6. Sequence-based analysis of the microbial composition of water kefir from multiple sources.

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-11-01

    Water kefir is a water-sucrose-based beverage, fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast to produce a final product that is lightly carbonated, acidic and that has a low alcohol percentage. The microorganisms present in water kefir are introduced via water kefir grains, which consist of a polysaccharide matrix in which the microorganisms are embedded. We aimed to provide a comprehensive sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial population of water kefir beverages and grains, while providing an initial insight into the corresponding fungal population. To facilitate this objective, four water kefirs were sourced from the UK, Canada and the United States. Culture-independent, high-throughput, sequencing-based analyses revealed that the bacterial fraction of each water kefir and grain was dominated by Zymomonas, an ethanol-producing bacterium, which has not previously been detected at such a scale. The other genera detected were representatives of the lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. Our analysis of the fungal component established that it was comprised of the genera Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora and Lachancea. This information will assist in the ultimate identification of the microorganisms responsible for the potentially health-promoting attributes of these beverages. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter

  8. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK, KIMIA, MIKROBIOLOGI WHEY KEFIR DAN AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP PENGHAMBATAN ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE [Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Whey Kefir and Its Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity

    Andi Febrisiantosa*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of whey-based kefir products and their activity to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. Kefir was produced by using many types of whey, namely SK: skim milk based kefir (control; WK: gouda cheese whey based kefir; and WKB: commercial whey powder based kefir. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each treatment was conducted in triplicates. Kefirs were evaluated for physical and chemical properties (pH, total titratable acidity, viscosity, protein, fat, lactose, and alcohol, microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and yeast population, peptide concentration, ACE inhibition, IC50 and Inhibition Efficiency Ratio (IER. The results showed that the types of whey used for kefir productions significantly affected the physical and chemical characteristics of the products (p0.05. The peptide concentration and ACE inhibitory activity of WK, 1.54±0.02 mg/mL and 73.07±0.91%, was significantly higher (p0.05 from the control (47.19±0.09% per mg/mL but was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of WKB (45.75±0.18% per mg/mL. This research indicated that whey kefir is a potential source of bioactive peptide for antihypertention agent.

  9. Investigation of the Protective Effect of Kefir against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    Mert, Handan; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Irak, Kıvanç; Yıldırım, Serkan; Mert, Nihat

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effects of kefir against myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group consisting of 8 rats. The control group, the kefir group (5 mL/kg/d kefir administered to rats as intra-gastric gavage for 60 d), the ISO group (100 mg/kg ISO was administered to rats, s.c. on 61. and 62. d), and kefir+ISO group (5 mL/kg/d kefir was administered to rats intra gastric gavage for 60 days prior to ISO, 100 mg/kg in two doses on day 61 and 62). 12 h after the last ISO dose, all rats were decapitated and their blood samples were collected. Cardiac tissue was reserved for histopathological examination. creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, total cholesterol,very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and glucose were measured by autoanalyzer, whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. It was determined that in the group of kefir+ISO, the levels of AST ( p <0.001), CK ( p <0.001), LDH ( p <0.001), MDA ( p <0.001) and AOPP ( p <0.001) were decreased, while the GSH ( p <0.05) increased, compared to ISO group. There were no significant changes in lipid profile and glucose levels between these two groups. In conclusion, by examining cardiac enzymes and histopathological changes in cardiac tissue, it can be concluded that the administration of kefir in myocardial infarction induced by ISO can protect the heart with its antioxidant characteristic and minimize the toxic damage created by ISO.

  10. Antidiabetic Potential of Kefir Combination from Goat Milk and Soy Milk in Rats Induced with Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide.

    Nurliyani; Harmayani, Eni; Sunarti

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of kefir combination from goat milk and soy milk on lipid profile, plasma glucose, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the improvement of pancreatic β-cell in diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into five treatments: normal control, diabetic control, goat milk kefir, combination of goat milk-soy milk kefir and soy milk kefir. All rats were induced by streptooztocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA), except for normal control. After 35 d experiment, the rats were sampled for blood, sacrificed and sampled for pancreatic tissues. Results showed that diabetic rats fed kefir combination had higher (pkefir. Decreasing of plasma glucose in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was higher (pkefir. The activity of GPx in diabetic rats fed three kinds of kefir were higher (pkefir combination was the same as the normal control, but it was higher than diabetic control. It was concluded that kefir combination can be used as antidiabetic through maintaining in serum triglyceride, decreasing in plasma glucose, increasing in GPx activity and improving in pancreatic β-cells.

  11. Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov., isolated from water kefir.

    Laureys, David; Cnockaert, Margo; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A novel Bifidobacterium , strain LMG 28769 T , was isolated from a household water kefir fermentation process. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative and facultatively anaerobic short rods. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (97.4 and 97.1 % similarity towards the respective type strain sequences) as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Its assignment to the genus Bifidobacterium was confirmed by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence revealed very low similarity with nucleotide sequences in the NCBI nucleotide database. The genotypic and phenotypic analyses allowed the differentiation of strain LMG 28769 T from all recognized Bifidobacterium species. Strain LMG 28769 T ( = CCUG 67145 T  = R 54638 T ) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov. is proposed.

  12. Perbandingan Susu Kambing dan Susu Kedelai dalam Pembuatan Kefir

    E. Rossi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan rasio terbaik susu kambing dengan susu kedelai untuk menghasilkan kualitas kefir tertinggi. Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL digunakan dalam penelitian ini dengan lima perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Perlakuannya adalah MS1 (susu kambing 100: susu kedelai 0, MS2 (susu kambing 75: susu kedelai 25, MS3 (susu kambing 50: susu kedelai 50, MS4 (susu kambing 25: susu kedelai 75, dan MS5 (susu kambing 0: susu kedelai 100. Parameter yang diamati adalah tingkat keasaman (pH, total bakteri asam laktat, padatan total dan kadar alkohol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio susu kambing dan susu kedelai berpengaruh nyata (P <0,05 terhadap pH, jumlah bakteri asam laktat, padatan total dan kadar alkohol. Perlakuan terbaik dalam penelitian ini adalah MS2.

  13. Kefir ve Sağlık

    DAYISOYLU, Kenan Sinan; KÖROĞLU, Özge; BAKIR, Esra; ULUDAĞ, Günsel; KÖROĞLU, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Özet: Son yıllarda toplumlar beslenme konusunda giderek daha bilinçli hale gelmektedir. Beslenme konusunda temel talep olan sağlıklı ve güvenli gıdalar tüketebilme isteğinin yanında; insan sağlığına ek faydalar sağlayan, hastalıklardan koruma potansiyeli olan ve fonksiyonel gıda olarak adlandırılan ürünlere ulaşma isteği de giderek artmaktadır. Kefir, fonksiyonel gıdalardan probiyotikler alt kolunun önemli bir üyesi olup, içeriğinde birçok faydalı maya ve bakteri bulunduran, son yıllarda popü...

  14. Kandungan beta karoten, polifenol total dan aktifitas ”merantas” radikal bebas kefir susu kacang hijau (Vigna radiata oleh pengaruh jumlah starter (Lactobacillus bulgaricus dan Candida kefir dan konsentrasi glukosa

    Teguh Supriyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kefir is a well known fermented dairy milk product which is functional for gut health. However kefir can also be made from vegetable milk such as soy or mungbean milk. Objective: To study the chemical  and functional property of Mungbean milk (MBM Kefir Methods:Mungbean milk was fermented into MBM Kefir using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Candida kefir. Three levels of cultures and glucose concentration were tested and a complete randomized design experiment was employed. The resulting MBM Kefir were tested for β-carotene level, total polyphenol content, and free radical scavenging activity. Beta carotene level, total polyphenols and free radicals scavenging activity were determined by spectrophotometry, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and when the result of ANOVA was significant, Tukey’s multiple comparison was conducted. Results: Culture concentration increased  β-carotene level (p = 0.049, total polyphenol (p = 0.015 and free radical scavenging activity (p = 0,000 of MBM kefir. Glucose concentration increased total polyphenol (p = 0.002, but had no effect on free radical scavenging activity and β-carotene level. However, there were no interaction among treatments at 0.05 significance level. Total acid level ranged from 1.57 to 2.54%, with the highest and level at 15% cultures concentration and 15% glucose concentration. Alcohol level ranged from 0.26 to 0.90% which was in accordance with the maximum standard for kefir (1%. Conclusion: An optimal product of mungbean milk kefir with highest free radical scavenging activity can be obtained using 15% cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Candida kefir and 10% glucose concentration.

  15. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN KEFIR BENING TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH PADA TIKUS WISTAR HIPERGLIKEMIA YANG DIINDUKSI STREPTOZOTOCIN (STZ

    Judiono Judiono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Hyperglycemia in diabetes caused by excessive free-radicals, which in turn increases reactive oxygen species, reduced immune function and antioxidant, the beta cell damage. Objective: To validate the effects of plain kefir probiotic on blood glucose level in streptozotocin (STZ induced hyperglycemia Wistar rats. Methods: The experiment using randomized pretest-posttest control group design was carried-out on 48 male hyperglycemia Wistar rats induced by 40 mg/kg body-weight of STZ. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: (1 negative control fed ad libitum standard diet, (2 positive control induced by STZ, (3 insulin treated 0.76 UI/200 g body weight, and (4 plain kefir 3.6 cc per day. Kefir is prepared by the use of pasteurized skim milk fermented by kefir commercial inoculums. Blood glucose was measured with Super Glucocard II meter (Arkray, Kyoto, Japan. Results Kefir supplementation 3.6 cc per day had significantly effect on blood glucose reduction after… days. Results showed that blood glucose levels before and after the treatment in each group as follows: in negative control group, before and after the treatment were 92.7 ± 6.6 mgdL and 89.4 ± 5.3 mgdL, respectively; in positive control group, before and after treatment were 263.9 ± 61.7 mgdL and 290.9 ± 99.8 mgdL; in insulin group, before and after the treatment were 286.9 ± 73.2 mgdL and 168.3 ± 53.3 mgdL; and in kefir group, before and after the treatment were 234.0 ± 61.1 mgdL and 147.8 ± 52.6 mgdL. Conclusion: Kefir supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in vivo. Isolation and identification of probiotic involved on biomolecular and to find out the role of specific probiotic originated from kefir in diabetes mellitus are very challenging to be implemented in clinical application. [Penel Gizi Makan 2009, 32(2: 129-136] Key words: probiotic, kefir, diabetes mellitus, hyperglicemia, streptozotocin

  16. Performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk with or without kefir.

    Fouladgar, S; Shahraki, A D Foroozandeh; Ghalamkari, G R; Khani, M; Ahmadi, F; Erickson, P S

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests health-promoting effects of kefir consumption on different nonruminant species, leading to the speculation that kefir may act as a probiotic and benefit calf performance and health. Our objectives were to determine effects of feeding kefir on performance and health of calves in the first 70d of life. Thirty 3-d-old female Holstein calves (body weight=38.2±3.1kg) were blocked by initial body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (1 calf per pen; 10 pens per treatment). Kefir was added to whole milk (vol/vol) at 0:1 (control; KF0), 1:3 (KF1), or 1:1 (KF2) and fed twice per day (0800 and 1600h) from d3 through 45 and then once per day until weaning, which occurred on d50. Pre- and postweaning intake of starter, daily body weight gain, and gain-to-feed ratio exhibited no difference among treatments. Adding kefir to whole milk fed directly to calves had no effect on concentration of blood metabolites collected on d20, 40, and 70. Body length on d50 (weaning) and 70 was greater in kefir-fed calves. Kefir intake improved fecal scores and reduced days with diarrhea during the first 2wk of life. Apparent digestibility of organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber remained unaffected by treatment. Overall, it appears that directly feeding kefir to calves during the preweaning period did not improve the performance of calves under the conditions of the current study; however, its consumption marginally improved body length and fecal consistency in the first weeks of life, which is an important concern in intensive calf-rearing systems. Feeding kefir to neonatal calves may be a viable approach to improve the health of calves in commercial calf-rearing operations, although to validate its health-promoting effects additional research is needed to investigate its effects under different calf-rearing conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Methods Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future. PMID:26113960

  18. Identification and Relative Quantification of Bioactive Peptides Sequentially Released during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion of Commercial Kefir.

    Liu, Yufang; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2017-03-08

    Health-promoting effects of kefir may be partially caused by bioactive peptides. To evaluate their formation or degradation during gastrointestinal digestion, we monitored changes of the peptide profile in a model of (1) oral, (2) gastric, and (3) small intestinal digestion of kefir. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy analyses revealed clearly different profiles between digests 2/3 and kefir/digest 1. Subsequent ultraperformance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry identified 92 peptides in total (25, 25, 43, and 30, partly overlapping in kefir and digests 1, 2, and 3, respectively), including 16 peptides with ascribed bioactivity. Relative quantification in scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mode showed that many bioactive peptides were released by simulated digestion. Most prominently, the concentration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor β-casein 203-209 increased approximately 10 000-fold after combined oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion. Thus, physiological digestive processes may promote bioactive peptide formation from proteins and oligopeptides in kefir. Furthermore, bioactive peptides present in certain compartments of the gastrointestinal tract may exert local physiological effects.

  19. Efficacy of Kefir on the Release of Lysosomal Proteases After Expremintal Spinal Cord Trauma

    Emre Delen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevention of secondary injury developing as a result of spinal cord injury will reduce significantly neurological deficits which may occur after trauma. These are focused in experimental studies and many agents are being tested. In our study, we have invesitigated the effects of kefir, which is a a probiotic, associated with life prolongation, whose antioxidant and lipid peroxidation effects were revealed on despite the scientific studies were limited, on lipid peroxidation and lysosomal proteases which play important roles in spinal cord. Material and Method: In the study, female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200 to 250 g were used. The study was conducted on five groups with a total of 40 rats including the control, trauma, trauma treatment, trauma treatment kefir and trauma kefir groups. The high-dose methylprednisolone was used as the therapy. Spinal cord trauma was performed with clip compression method at the level of T10. Kefir was given to rats via orogastric ways, prior to trauma for 7 days at a dose of 2 * 1cc/100g. All rats were sacrificed 48 hours after treatment. The changes in the value of tissue cathepsins B and L, MDA and histopathological changes were examined. Results: It has been found in our study according to the review of biochemical values that; kefir did not reduce significantly cathepsin B values compared to the treatment group (p> 0.05, did reduce significantly MDA value compared to treatment group (p

  20. Development and characterization of a soymilk Kefir-based functional beverage

    Camilla Fernanda Godinho da SILVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kefir is a fermented beverage that deserves special attention, since it has probiotic activity and unique sensory, nutritional, and therapeutic properties. Given that both kefir and soymilk are beneficial to human health, this study aimed to assess the physicochemical characteristics and acceptability of soymilk Kefir-based functional beverages (SKB properly inoculated with lactobacilli strain after 16h of incubation at 37 °C. It was monitored lactobacilli cell viability, yeasts count, pH, titratable acidity, lipids, proteins, ash, total solid, carbohydrates, caloric values and acceptability of the products. Additionally was conducted a shelf-life study of SKB added of peach-flavor. The lactobacilli cell count ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 Log10 CFUmL-1 and pH values from 4.5 to 4.6. SKB samples with higher soymilk kefir percent presented higher lactobacilli cell count and lower lipid, ash, total solid, carbohydrate and caloric value. Results showed similar preferential rates for the SKB up to 30% of added soymilk kefir. The functional peach-flavored beverage presented appropriate pH value (4.3 and high viable cells count (7.0 Log10 CFUmL-1 up to the 28th day of cold storage, showed high acceptability (94.5% and positive purchase intention (83.4% among consumers.

  1. Influence of Different Growth Conditions on the Kefir Grains Production, used in the Kefiran Synthesis

    Carmen Rodica Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the kefir grains biomass production, using milk as culture media. The kefir grains were cultured at different changed conditions (temperature, time, shaker rotating speed, culture media supplemented to evaluate their effects. Results showed that optimal culture conditions were using the organic skim milk, incubated at 25°C for 24 hours with a rotation rate of 125 rpm. According to results, the growth rate was 38.9 g/L for 24 h, at 25°C using the organic milk - OSM, 36.87 g/L during 24 hours, optimal time for propagation process gave 37.93 g/L kefir grains biomass when the effect of temperature level was tested. The homogenization of medium with shaker rotating induced a greater growth rate, it was obtained 38.9 g/L for 24 h, at 25°C using rotation rate at 125 rpm. The growing medium (conventional milk supplemented with different minerals and vitamins may lead to improve the growth conditions of kefir grains biomass. The optimization of the growth environment is very important for achieving the maximum production of kefir grains biomass, substrate necessary to obtain the polysaccharide kefiran

  2. The Neuroprotective Effect of Kefir on Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarik; Yener, Ali Umit; Sehitoglu, Muserref Hilal; Yuksel, Yasemin; Cosar, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The main causes of spinal cord ischemia are a variety of vascular pathologies causing acute arterial occlusions. We investigated neuroprotective effects of kefir on spinal cord ischemia injury in rats. Rats were divided into three groups : 1) sham operated control rats; 2) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet without kefir pretreatment; and 3) spinal cord ischemia group fed on a standard diet plus kefir. Spinal cord ischemia was performed by the infrarenal aorta cross-clamping model. The spinal cord was removed after the procedure. The biochemical and histopathological changes were observed within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. The kefir group was compared with the ischemia group, a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels was observed (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group (pkefir group is compared with ischemia group, there was a significant decrease in numbers of dead and degenerated neurons (pkefir group compared with ischemia group (pkefir group were significantly higher than ischemia group at 24 h (pkefir pretreatment in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion reduced oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration as a neuroprotective agent. Ultrastructural studies are required in order for kefir to be developed as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for human spinal cord ischemia in the future.

  3. Water Kefir grain as a source of potent dextran producing lactic acid bacteria

    Davidović Slađana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water kefir is abeverage fermented by a microbial consortium captured in kefir grains. The kefir grains matrix is composed of polysaccharide, primarily dextran, whichis produced by members of the microbial consortium. In this study, we have isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB from non-commercial water kefir grains (from Belgrade, Serbia and screened for dextran production. Among twelve Lisolates threeproduced slime colonies on modified MRS (mMRS agar containing sucrose instead of glucoseand were presumed to produce dextran. Three LABwere identified based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequencing as Leuconostoc mesenteroides(strains T1 and T3 and Lactobacillus hilgardii (strain T5. The isolated strains were able to synthesize a substantial amount of dextran in mMRS broth containing 5% sucrose. Maximal yields (11.56, 18.00 and 18.46 g/l were obtained after 16h, 20h and 32h for T1, T3 and T5, respectively. Optimal temperature for dextran production was 23oC for two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains and 30oC for Lactobacillus hilgardii strain. The produced dextrans were identified based on paper chromatography while the main structure characteristics of purified dextranwere observed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our study shows that water kefir grains are a natural source of potent dextranproducing LAB. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31035

  4. Anti-inflammatory and angiogenic activity of polysaccharide extract obtained from Tibetan kefir.

    Prado, Maria Rosa Machado; Boller, Christian; Zibetti, Rosiane Guetter Mello; de Souza, Daiany; Pedroso, Luciana Lopes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The search for new bioactive molecules is a driving force for research pharmaceutical industries, especially those molecules obtained from fermentation. The molecules possessing angiogenic and anti-inflammatory attributes have attracted attention and are the focus of this study. Angiogenic activity from kefir polysaccharide extract, via chorioallantoic membrane assay, exhibited a pro-angiogenic effect compared with vascular endothelial factor (pro-angiogenic) and hydrocortisone (anti-angiogenic) activity as standards with an EC50 of 192ng/mL. In terms of anti-inflammatory activity determined via hyaluronidase enzyme assay, kefir polysaccharide extract inhibited the enzyme with a minimal activity of 2.08mg/mL and a maximum activity of 2.57mg/mL. For pharmaceutical purposes, kefir polysaccharide extract is considered to be safe because it does not inhibit VERO cells in cytotoxicity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pengaruh suhu dan lama pemeraman pada inkubator terhadap kualitas fisik kefir

    Herly Evanuarini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find out the optimum temperature and ripening duration in incubator to produce kefir which had physical quality that met the standard of fermented milk quality. The method of experiment was factorial randomized block design. The first factor was temperature that consisted of 25oC, 30oC and 35oC. The second factor was ripening duration that consisted of 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. The result showed that the temperature and duration of ripening gave a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on pH and viscosity. The combination of temperature (30oC and ripening duration (24 hours produced kefir which met the standard of Indonesian industry fermented milk such as pH (3.86 and viscosity 157.6 cps. Keywords: Temperature, ripening duration, kefir

  6. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    Erol Ergüllü; Mustafa Üçüncü

    2015-01-01

    Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayalar...

  7. Survival of spray-dried Lactobacillus kefir is affected by different protectants and storage conditions.

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Gerez, Carla L; Silva, Joana; Abraham, Analía G; De Antoni, Graciela L; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Survival of two Lactobacillus kefir strains after spray drying in reconstituted skim milk with or without the addition of 12.5 g monosodium glutamate/l, 20 g sucrose/l, or 20 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/l and during subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (0, 11 and 23%) was evaluated. After being dried, L. kefir 8321 and L. kefir 8348 had a decrease in viability of 0.29 and 0.70 log cfu/ml respectively, while the addition of different protectants improved the survival of both strains significantly. During storage, bacterial survival was significantly higher under lower conditions of RH (0-11%), and monosodium glutamate and FOS proved to be the best protectants.

  8. [The effect of kefir consumption on human immune system: a cytokine study].

    Adiloğlu, Ali Kudret; Gönülateş, Nurettin; Işler, Mehmet; Senol, Altuğ

    2013-04-01

    The systemic effects of bioactive peptides which are produced by the fermentation of milk via the microorganisms found in kefir have been the subject of interest in recent years. Bioactive peptides activate innate immunity by stimulating macrophages, increasing phagocytosis, augmenting NO and cytokine production and boosting the lumen levels of IgG and IgA+ B-lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum cytokine profiles of healthy volunteers after kefir consumption to evaluate helper T (TH) cell polarization and to bring out the effects on native and allergic immune responses. The study was designed as a prospective and self-controlled study. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (age range: 20-40 yrs, mean age: 35.5 ± 7.38 yrs) from a university hospital staff were recruited to the study, with the approval of ethical board and informed consent. The body mass indices of all participants were between normal range (20.10-25.70 kg/m2). After two weeks of a diet free from fermented products, the participants consumed 200 mL kefir daily, for six weeks. Kefir product was prepared by using kefir starter culture (Danisco Biolacta Sp - 05223B 10001, Poland) which contains Lactobacillus spp., Leuconostoc spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Streptococcus termophilus, an overnight incubation at 26°C, and consumed freshly. Fasting blood samples of subjects were collected just before kefir use (0th week), at the end of the 3rd and 6th weeks of kefir consumption, and three weeks after cessation of kefir usage (9th week). Serum TNF-a, IL-1, IL-5, IL-8 and TGF-β levels were measured by using commercial ELISA kits (BioSource, Belgium and Invitrogen, USA). Hemoglobin, serum creatinine and ALT levels of all subjects were also determined for follow-up. All volunteers completed the study period without any problem and declared no complaint. Hemoglobin, creatinine and ALT levels did not change with kefir consumption. Serum IL-8 levels were decreased at 3rd and

  9. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    Ergüllü, Erol; Üçüncü, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

      Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayal...

  10. Kefir Mikroflorası Üzerinde Araştırma

    Ergüllü, Erol; Üçüncü, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

      Çalışmada, çeşitli yörelerden sağlanmış 7 kefir örneğinin mikroflorası araştırılmış ve elde edilen bulgulara göre, kefir mikroflorasında süt asidi bakterileri (Streptokok ve Laktobasiller) ile mayaların çoğunlukta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu bakteri türlerinden her birinin kefir oluşumunda ayrı bir yeri bulunmaktadır. Süt asidi bakterileri sütü pıhtılaştırmakta ve bunlardan bazıları da ayrıca uçucu asitler oluşturarak, kefirin tat ve kokusunun meydana gelmesine katkıda bulunmaktadırlar. Mayal...

  11. Kefir reduces insulin resistance and inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    Rosa, Damiana D; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Ferreira, Célia L L F; Fonseca, Ana Carolina M; Reis, Sandra A; Dias, Mariana M; Siqueira, Nathane P; Silva, Leticia L; Neves, Clóvis A; Oliveira, Leandro L; Machado, Alessandra B F; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2016-08-10

    There is growing evidence that kefir can be a promising tool in decreasing the risk of many diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kefir supplementation in the diet of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) in which MetS was induced with monosodium glutamate (MSG), and to determine its effect on metabolic parameters, inflammatory and oxidation marker expression and glycemic index control. Thirty animals were used in this experiment. For the induction of MetS, twenty two-day-old male SHR received five consecutive intradermal injections of MSG. For the Negative Control, ten newborn male SHR received intradermal injections of saline solution (0.9% saline solution). After weaning, animals received standard diet and water ad libitum until reaching 3 months old, for the development of MetS. They were then divided into three groups (n = 10): negative control (NC, 1 mL saline solution per day), positive control (PC, 1 mL saline solution per day) and the Kefir group (1 mL kefir per day). Feeding was carried out by gavage for 10 weeks and the animals received standard food and water ad libitum. Obesity, insulin resistance, pro- and anti-inflammatory markers, and the histology of pancreatic and adipose tissues were among the main variables evaluated. Compared to the PC group, kefir supplementation reduced plasma triglycerides, liver lipids, liver triglycerides, insulin resistance, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, thoracic circumference, abdominal circumference, products of lipid oxidation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β) and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-10). The present findings indicate that kefir has the potential to benefit the management of MetS.

  12. The Effect of Heating and Postfermentation on Lactoferrin of Fresh and Kefir Goat Milk

    Erfan Kustiawan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determinated of lactoferrin profile in goat milk and kefir. The samples were collected from whey raw milk, pasteurized and kefir. Lactoferrin profile in this study consisted of concentration and molecule weight of lactoferrin. Goat lactoferrin was isolated from whey by fractionation on sephadex     G-100 column, it was eluted at 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Characterization of goat lactoferrin by electrophoretic SDS-PAGE techniques detected molecule weight of goat lactoferrin that the isolate of the fractions from fractionation on sephadex G-100 column. Result of the research  showed that pasteurization during storage after fermentation process were influenced by concentration of lactoferrin significant (P<0.05. The molecule weights of lactoferrin in goat milk and kefir were estimated at 84 kDa and 80 kDa. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin at 1.915 mg/ml (without pasteurized, 1.579 mg/ml (pasteurized at 65oC, 0.954 mg/ml (pasteurized at 73oC and 0.322 mg/ml (pasteurized at 83oC. The average concentration of goat lactoferrin in kefir during storage at 0.663 mg/ml (0 day, 0.448 mg/ml (3  day, 0.249 mg/ml (6 day, 0.142 mg/ml (9 day dan 0.048 mg/ml (12 day.  Pasteurization at temperature 65oC 30’’ can defend concentration of lactoferrin higher than temperature 73oC 15’’  and temperature 83oC 2’’. Concentration of lactoferrin in kefir were defended until 12 day storage.   Keywords : Lactoferrin, goat milks, kefir

  13. Microbial profile of a kefir sample preparations: grains in natura and lyophilized and fermented suspension

    Rafaela Strada de Oliveira Bergmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are supplementary foods developed by microbial strains that improve animal health beyond basic nutrition. Probiotics are consumed orally, regardless of being considered as normal inhabitants of the intestines, able to survive in enzimatic and biliary secretions. Kefir is a probiotic originated from the old continent, fermented by several bacteria and yeasts, encapsulated in a polyssacharide matrix, and resembles jelly grains. Kefir is also presented as its sourish product both in sugary or milky suspensions containing vitamins, aminoacids, peptides, carbohydrates, ethanol, and volatile compounds. Kefir is known to have a diverse microbial content depending on the country and fermentative substrates, which cause distinct probiotic effects. In this sense, the purpose of this work was to isolate, identify, and quantify the microbial content of a native sugary kefir sample (fermented suspension and lyophilized natural grains. Serial dilutions were plated on Rogosa agar (AR and De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS, for Lactobacillus; Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, for total bacteria; Sabouraud-Dextrose-Agar (SDA, for yeasts and filamentous fungi; Thioglycolate Agar (TA, for Streptococcus, Acetobacteria and Leuconostoc; and Coconut Water Agar (CWA, and CWA supplemented with yeast extract (CWAY, for various genera. Genera and species for all strains were identified through biochemical reactions and specific API systems. The microbial profile of kefir was different from other sources of grains despite the presence of similar microorganisms and others which have not been reported yet. The data obtained with the CWA and CWAE media suggest that both substrates are alternative and salutary media for culture of kefir strains.

  14. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  15. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir.

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides . Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DA ADIÇÃO DO KEFIR EM DIETA HOSPITALAR

    Joice de Fátima Laureano Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Os grãos de kefir são utilizados na elaboração de um produto lácteo fermentado o qual denominamos kefir. Sua introdução em dietas hospitalares promove vários benefícios aos pacientes e possui grande capacidade de estimular o sistema imunológico. Objetivou-se verificar a aceitação de diferentes formulações tendo como ingrediente o kefir. Os grãos de kefir (5 % foram cultivados por 24 horas à temperatura de 22º C. Em seguida, foram preparadas quatro formulações. Formulação 1 - 50 % de kefir cultivado em leite de vaca integral com 50 % de polpa de morango e adoçante (0,2 mL/100 mL; formulação 2 - 50 % de kefir cultivado em leite de vaca desnatado com 50 % de polpa de morango e adoçante (0,2 mL/100 mL; formulação 3 - 50 % de kefir cultivado em leite de vaca integral com 50 % de polpa de morango e 10 % de sacarose e formulação 4 - 50 % de kefir cultivado em leite de vaca desnatado com 50 % de polpa de morango e 10 % de sacarose. A análise sensorial foi realizada em um hospital do município de Viçosa-MG, tendo como provadores acompanhantes de pacientes internados e funcionários. Verificou-se a aceitação das formulações e utilizouse a escala hedônica de nove pontos. Todas as formulações apresentaram considerável aceitação enquadrando-se com maior frequência entre os escores «gostei moderadamente» a «gostei muito». Estes formulados apresentaram grande potencial para serem introduzidos em dietoterapia e poderão atuar tanto como adjunto ao tratamento de patologias gastrintestinais, como no controle glicêmico e hipercolesterolêmico.

  18. Short communication: Sensory analysis of a kefir product designed for active cancer survivors.

    O'Brien, K; Boeneke, C; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Lisano, J; Shackelford, D; Reeves, K; Christensen, M; Hayward, R; Ordonez, K Carabante; Stewart, L K

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk product that is a good source of protein and health-promoting bacteria. It has the potential to improve recovery from exercise and the health and well-being of cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to explore cancer survivor attitudes about and acceptance of a kefir recovery beverage made from cultured milk, whole fruit, natural sweeteners, and other natural ingredients. Kefir was made by inoculating and fermenting milk with kefir grains. The kefir was then mixed with a fruit base and given to cancer survivors (n = 52) following a bout of exercise. Participants evaluated the acceptability of the beverage samples (overall appearance, aroma, taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) using a 9-point hedonic scale, and they evaluated the smoothness using a 3-category just-about-right scale (not enough, just about right, and too much). They also expressed their physical and psychological feelings about the beverage using a 5-point scale (1 = not at all to 5 = extremely) and indicated their purchase intent using a binomial (yes/no) response. The health benefits of kefir were then explained, and participants sampled a second beverage (the same product), answering the same questions related to overall liking, feeling, and intent to purchase. We used a paired Student's t-test to compare beverage liking and emotion scores before and after participants learned about the health benefits of kefir. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviations. The beverage scored significantly higher for overall liking after the health benefits were explained (6.5 ± 1.8 and 7.0 ± 1.7 out of 9 before and after the explanation of health benefits, respectively). Participants showed a high intent to purchase before they learned about the health benefits (75% of participants indicated an intent to purchase, and 89% after they learned about the health benefits). The beverage received high scores overall and, except for an improvement in overall liking, we

  19. Removal of cadmium by Lactobacillus kefir as a protective tool against toxicity.

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus kefir strains to remove cadmium cations and protect eukaryotic cells from cadmium toxicity. Lb. kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 were grown in a 1/2 dilution of MRS broth supplemented with Cd(NO3)2 ranging 0 to 1 mM. Growth kinetics were followed during 76 h at 30 °C by registering optical density at 600 nm every 4-10 h. The accumulated concentration of cadmium was determined on cultures in the stationary phase by atomic absorption. The viability of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) upon exposure to (a) free cadmium and (b) cadmium previously incubated with Lb. kefir strains was evaluated by determining the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Lb. kefir strains were able to grow and tolerate concentrations of cadmium cations up to 1 mM. The addition of cadmium to the culture medium increased the lag time in all the concentrations used. However, a decrease of the total biomass (maximum Absorbance) was observed only at concentrations above 0.0012 and 0.0011 mM for strains CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818, respectively. Shorter and rounder lactobacilli were observed in both strains upon microscopic observations. Moreover, dark precipitates compatible with intracellular precipitation of cadmium were observed in the cytoplasm of both strains. The ability of Lb. kefir to protect eukaryotic cells cultures from cadmium toxicity was analysed using HepG2 cells lines. Concentrations of cadmium greater than 3×10(-3) mM strongly decreased the viability of HepG2 cells. However, when the eukaryotic cells were exposed to cadmium pre-incubated 1 h with Lb. kefir the toxicity of cadmium was considerably lower, Lb. kefir JCM 5818 being more efficient. The high tolerance and binding capacity of Lb. kefir strains to cadmium concentrations largely exceeding the tolerated weekly intake (TWI) of cadmium for food (2.5 μg per kg of body weight) and water (3 μg/l) addressed to human consumption, is an important added value when

  20. Formation of volatile compounds in kefir made of goat and sheep milk with high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Cais-Sokolińska, D; Wójtowski, J; Pikul, J; Danków, R; Majcher, M; Teichert, J; Bagnicka, E

    2015-10-01

    This article explored the formation of volatile compounds during the production of kefir from goat and sheep milks with high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) as a result of feeding animals forage supplemented with maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The increased PUFA content of the goat and sheep milks resulted in significant changes to the fermentation process. In particular, apart from an increase in the time taken to ferment sheep milk, fermentation yielded less 2,3-butanedione. The highest quantities of this compound were assayed in kefir produced from goat milk with an increased content of PUFA. An increase of PUFA significantly elevated ethanal synthesis during lactose-alcohol fermentation of sheep milk. Neither the origin of milk (sheep or goat) nor the level of PUFA had any statistical effect on the amount of ethanal assayed during the fermentation of milk and within the finished product. The proportion of l(+)-lactic acid was higher in kefirs produced using goat milk compared with sheep milk and did not depend on the content of PUFA in milk fat. The content of PUFA had a significant effect on the aroma profile of the resulting kefirs. An increase in PUFA content resulted in the loss of whey aroma in goat milk kefirs and the animal odor in sheep milk kefirs, and a creamy aroma became more prevalent in kefirs made from sheep milk. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The protective effect of fermented milk kefir on radiation-induced apoptosis in colonic crypt cells of rats

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fermented milk kefir on X-ray-induced apoptosis in the colon of rats, we examined the apoptotic index, the mean number of apoptotic cells detected by H and E staining per crypt in the colon, in control rats and kefir-pretreated rats drinking kefir for 12 days before irradiation. Apoptotic cells were confirmed by TUNEL staining, and active caspase-3 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry. The cell position of apoptotic cells and active caspase-3 positive cells were examined. The apoptotic index of kefir-treated rats was significantly (p<0.05) decreased 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation in comparison with control rats at crypt cell positions 1-3, 5-7, 13, and 15. Active caspase-3 expression in the kefir-treated rats was also significantly (p<0.05) reduced in comparison with control rats 2 h after 1 Gy irradiation at crypt cell positions 1-4, 13, and 15. This study indicated that kefir protects colonic crypt cells against radiation-induced apoptosis, which was most pronounced in the stem cell region of the crypt. The antiapoptotic effect of fermented milk kefir was due to the inhibition of caspase-3 activation. (author)

  2. Kefir Peptides Prevent Hyperlipidemia and Obesity in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats via Lipid Metabolism Modulation.

    Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Wu, Hsin-Shan; Ho, Mei-Hsuan; Chong, Kowit-Yu; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2018-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder that is linked to numerous serious health complications with high morbidity. The present study evaluated the effects of kefir peptides on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. Kefir peptides markedly improved obesity, including body weight gain, inflammatory reactions and the formation of adipose tissue fat deposits around the epididymis and kidney, and adipocyte size. Treating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats with kefir peptides significantly reduced the fatty acid synthase protein and increased the p-acetyl-CoA carboxylase protein to block lipogenesis in the livers. Kefir peptides also increased fatty acid oxidation by increasing the protein expressions of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, and hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in the livers. In addition, administration of kefir peptides significantly decreased the inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β) to modulate oxidative damage. These results demonstrate that kefir peptides treatment improves obesity via inhibition of lipogenesis, modulation of oxidative damage, and stimulation of lipid oxidation. Therefore, kefir peptides may act as an anti-obesity agent to prevent body fat accumulation and obesity-related metabolic diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sequencing-Based Analysis of the Bacterial and Fungal Composition of Kefir Grains and Milks from Multiple Sources

    Marsh, Alan J.; O’Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists. PMID:23894461

  4. Sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal composition of kefir grains and milks from multiple sources.

    Alan J Marsh

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists.

  5. Sequencing-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal composition of kefir grains and milks from multiple sources.

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk-based beverage to which a number of health-promoting properties have been attributed. The microbes responsible for the fermentation of milk to produce kefir consist of a complex association of bacteria and yeasts, bound within a polysaccharide matrix, known as the kefir grain. The consistency of this microbial population, and that present in the resultant beverage, has been the subject of a number of previous, almost exclusively culture-based, studies which have indicated differences depending on geographical location and culture conditions. However, culture-based identification studies are limited by virtue of only detecting species with the ability to grow on the specific medium used and thus culture-independent, molecular-based techniques offer the potential for a more comprehensive analysis of such communities. Here we describe a detailed investigation of the microbial population, both bacterial and fungal, of kefir, using high-throughput sequencing to analyse 25 kefir milks and associated grains sourced from 8 geographically distinct regions. This is the first occasion that this technology has been employed to investigate the fungal component of these populations or to reveal the microbial composition of such an extensive number of kefir grains or milks. As a result several genera and species not previously identified in kefir were revealed. Our analysis shows that the bacterial populations in kefir are dominated by 2 phyla, the Firmicutes and the Proteobacteria. It was also established that the fungal populations of kefir were dominated by the genera Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces and Naumovozyma, but that a variable sub-dominant population also exists.

  6. Kaybolmuş bir İçecek Kefir

    Zekâi Varnacı

    2015-01-01

    Kafkasya’da bir parça dana veya koyun şirdeni keçi tulumlarında inek sütüyle maserasyona bırakılarak hazırlanır. Süt çabuk ve spontan olarak koagüle olur. Bundan sonra tulum yeniden doldurularak yeni bir işleme geçilir. Birkaç hafta sonra tulumun iç cidarlarında yavaş yavaş süngerimsi bir kabuk tabakası oluşur. İşte bu kabuk tabakası bölünüp veya kasılıp, sonra kurutularak kefir daneleri meydana getirilir. Danelerin görünüşü sarımsı, küçük, tomurcuğumsudur. Bu daneler kefirin hazırlanmasında ...

  7. Antiobesity Effect of Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Kefir Grains.

    Lim, Juha; Kale, Madhuvanti; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hong-Seok; Chon, Jung-Whan; Seo, Kun-Ho; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Yokoyama, Wallace; Kim, Hyunsook

    2017-11-22

    Physiological properties of water-soluble exopolysaccharides (EPS) and residues after EPS removal (Res) from the probiotic kefir were determined in high-fat (HF) diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. EPS solutions showed rheological properties and lower viscosity compared to those of β-glucan (BG). EPS significantly suppressed the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Mice were fed HF diets containing 5% EPS, 5% BG, 8% Res, or 5% microcrystalline cellulose (control) for 4 weeks. Compared with the control, EPS supplementation significantly reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and plasma very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (P < 0.05). Res and BG significantly reduced body weight gain; however, reduction in adipose tissue weight was not statistically significant, suggesting that the antiobesity effect of EPS occurs due to viscosity and an additional factor. EPS supplementation significantly enhanced abundance of Akkermansia spp. in feces. These data indicate that EPS shows significant antiobesity effects possibly via intestinal microbiota alterations.

  8. Kaybolmuş bir İçecek Kefir

    Varnacı, Zekai

    1980-01-01

    Kafkasya’da bir parça dana veya koyun şirdeni keçi tulumlarında inek sütüyle maserasyona bırakılarak hazırlanır. Süt çabuk ve spontan olarak koagüle olur. Bundan sonra tulum yeniden doldurularak yeni bir işleme geçilir. Birkaç hafta sonra tulumun iç cidarlarında yavaş yavaş süngerimsi bir kabuk tabakası oluşur. İşte bu kabuk tabakası bölünüp veya kasılıp, sonra kurutularak kefir daneleri meydana getirilir. Danelerin görünüşü sarımsı, küçük, tomurcuğumsudur. Bu daneler kefirin hazırlanmasınd...

  9. Kaybolmuş bir İçecek Kefir

    Zekâi Varnacı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kafkasya’da bir parça dana veya koyun şirdeni keçi tulumlarında inek sütüyle maserasyona bırakılarak hazırlanır. Süt çabuk ve spontan olarak koagüle olur. Bundan sonra tulum yeniden doldurularak yeni bir işleme geçilir. Birkaç hafta sonra tulumun iç cidarlarında yavaş yavaş süngerimsi bir kabuk tabakası oluşur. İşte bu kabuk tabakası bölünüp veya kasılıp, sonra kurutularak kefir daneleri meydana getirilir. Danelerin görünüşü sarımsı, küçük, tomurcuğumsudur. Bu daneler kefirin hazırlanmasında maya olarak kullanılmak üzere ticarete arzedilir.

  10. Antibacterial activity of different formulations of cheese and whey produced with kefir grains

    Simone Weschenfelder

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of different products that confer health benefits on the population is a challenge for those who work with food. The aim of this study was to elaborate two formulations of kefir cheese (C1 and C2 and whey (W1, W2, and to evaluate their in situ antibacterial activity against microorganisms of interest in food. Pasteurized milk, powdered milk and kefir grains were used in preparing the products and their percentage composition was determined. C1, C2, W1 and W2 were contaminated with five different logarithmic fractions (A = 8log to E = 4log CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229, with antibacterial activity assessed over 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of exposure. The results demonstrated the antibacterial activity of kefir cheese and whey, especially after 24 hours. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive of the bacteria, with maximum antibacterial activity seen in the cheese at population densities D and E, and in the whey at densities B, C, D and E after 48 and 72 h, showing that the in situ antibacterial activity of foods produced with kefir grains tends to be lower when compared with studies in vitro. The greater the nutrient content of the food, the lower the antibacterial activity seen, probably due to the protective action that the nutrients confer on the microorganisms against bacteriocins and the metabolites from fermentation.

  11. Characterization and stability of lactobacilli and yeast microbiota in kefir grains.

    Vardjan, T; Mohar Lorbeg, P; Rogelj, I; Čanžek Majhenič, A

    2013-05-01

    Characterization and stability of lactobacilli and yeasts from kefir grains using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were investigated in this study. Culture-dependent analysis, followed by sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA for bacteria and 26S rRNA gene for yeasts, revealed 3 different species of lactobacilli and yeasts, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterial species were Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ssp. kefirgranum, Lb. parakefiri, and Lb. kefiri, whereas yeasts belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania exigua, and Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae. This study is the first to report on the presence of R. kratochvilovae in kefir grains. On the other hand, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in the culture-independent method showed that the dominant microorganisms were Lb. kefiranofaciens ssp. kefirgranum, Kl. marxianus and Ka. exigua, but did not reveal bands corresponding to Lb. parakefiri, Lb. kefiri, or R. kratochvilovae. Our results support the necessity of combining more techniques for detailed and reliable study of microbial communities in kefir grains. Another interesting finding confirmed that the detected dominant microbiota of kefir grains is very stable and did not change over experimental time. This finding is important to ensure consistent product quality. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Coffee Flower Honey (Coffea sp. Addition to Kefir Quality Based on Microbiology Characteristic

    Astri Wulandari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this research was to determine the best concentration of addition coffee flower honey to kefir based on total plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acidity, and pH value. The materials used in this research were honey kefir made from cow’s milk, kefir grains, and coffee flowers honey. The method used in this research was experimental with Completely Randomized Design by 4 treatments and 4 replications and continued by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result showed that the effect of addition coffee flowers honey was not significantly different (P>0.05 on total plate count, lactic acid bacteria, acidity, give highly significant different (P<0.01 on pH value. Addition 20% of  coffee flower honey was the best treatment with quality of total plate count 6.21 ± 0.60 log CFU/mL, total lactic acid bacteria 6.16 ± 0.14 log CFU/mL, acidity 0.76 ± 0.11 % and pH value 3.596 ± 0.021. Further study is needed to figure the storability of honey kefir.

  13. "Petit suisse" cheese from kefir: an alternative dessert with microorganisms of probiotic activity

    Thanise Sabrina Souza Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available "Petit Suisse" is a creamy cheese. Kefir is a symbiotic mixture of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with probiotic activity including immunomodulation and balance of intestinal microflora. The present study aims to develop "Petit Suisse" cheese from kefir. Kefir grains were grown in pasteurized cow milk, and after the separation of kefir the serum was discarded and the "Petit Suisse" cheese was prepared using strawberry, mangaba, herbs, and dried tomatoes. The acceptance of the different preparations was evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale followed by ANOVA. The sweet and salty products were compared by the Student's t-test. Purchase intent was evaluated by the means test and frequency distribution. All products were well accepted by the judges. The product was characterized by low yield, but it can be prepared at home at low cost. The nutritional composition analyses and the variety of flavors as well as the range of age of the judges are alternatives for further studies.

  14. Evaluation of Kefir as a New Anodic Biocatalyst Consortium for Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Silveira, Gustavo; Schneedorf, José Maurício

    2018-02-21

    Kefir, a combined consortium of bacteria and yeast encapsulated by a polymeric matrix of exopolysaccharides, was used as anodic biocatalyst in a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). Fermentation was followed during 72 h and polarization curves were obtained from linear sweep voltammetry. The effect of methylene blue as charge-transfer mediator in the kefir metabolism was evaluated. UV/Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry were applied to evaluate the redox state of the mediator and to characterize the electrochemical activity, whereas current interruption was used for internal resistance determination. Aiming to establish a relationship between the microbial development inside the anodic chamber with the generated power in the MFC, total titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, carbohydrate assimilation, and microbial counting were assayed. The kefir-based MFC demonstrated a maximum power density of 54 mW m -2 after 24 h fermentation, revealing the potential use of kefir as a biocatalyst for microbial fuel cells.

  15. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from local cow´s milk kefir

    Ismail, YS; Yulvizar, C.; Mazhitov, B.

    2018-03-01

    One of products from milk fermentation is kefir. It is made by adding kefir grains which are composed of lactic acid bacteria and yeast into milk. The lactic acid bacteria are a group of bacteria that produce antimicrobial substances and able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. In this research, the lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Aceh local cow`s milk kefir to determine the genus of the isolates. The methods used in the characterization of lactic acid bacteria are colony morphology, cell morphology, and biochemical tests which includes a catalase test; 5%, 6.5%, and 10% salt endurance tests; 37°C and 14°C temperature endurance tests, SIM test, TSIA test, MR-VP test, and O/F test. Of the four isolates found from the cow’s milk kefir, two isolates were confirmed as lactic acid bacteria (isolates SK-1 and SK-4). Both isolates are Gram positive bacteria, and have negative catalase activity. From the observations of colony morphology, cell morphology, and biochemical tests, it was found that the genus of SK-1 is Lactobacillus and the genus of SK-4 is Enterococcus.

  16. Identification and assessment of kefir yeast potential for sugar/ethanol-resistance

    Miguel, M.G.C.P.; Cardoso, P.G.; Magalhães-Guedes, K.T.; Schwan, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular analysis was used for identification of different kefir yeasts species from Brazil, Canada and the United States of America. The sugar/ethanol-resistant activity of the yeasts was evaluated. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus had the highest growth rates, suggesting biotechnological applications possible for these strains. PMID:24159292

  17. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations.

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José António; de Almeida Silva, João Batista; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2010-11-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed distribution of yeasts in macro-clusters among the grain's matrix essentially composed of polysaccharides (kefiran) and bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis displayed communities included yeast affiliated to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kazachatania unispora, bacteria affiliated to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefiranofaciens and an uncultured bacterium also related to the genus Lactobacillus. A steady structure and dominant microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, was detected in the analyzed kefir beverages and grains. This robustness is determinant for future implementation of whey-based kefir beverages.

  18. Increase of calcium and reduction of lactose concentration in milk by treatment with kefir grains and eggshell.

    Fina, Brenda L; Brun, Lucas R; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are the main source of calcium (Ca), but the loss of the consumption habit contributes to low consumption in adulthood, which leads to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Domestic use of kefir is straightforward and the eggshell is a natural discarded source of Ca. This paper proposes the development of an enriched Ca reduced lactose milk using eggshell and kefir. During the in vitro preparation, the pH, Ca and lactose contents were measured. Ca intestinal absorption of untreated milk and milk with kefir was compared. Finally, human volunteers consumed this dairy product and 24-h urine Ca was measured. Results showed that the beverage has lower lactose and higher Ca than untreated milk and milk with kefir. Intestinal Ca absorption was not different between both milks and an increase in urinary Ca excretion was observed in humans. This study provides a methodology to prepare at home a dairy product that could contribute to improve the Ca intake in adults.

  19. Therapeutic effect of lyophilized, Kefir-fermented milk on constipation among persons with mental and physical disabilities.

    Maki, Rumiko; Matsukawa, Mayumi; Matsuduka, Atsuko; Hashinaga, Masahiko; Anai, Hirofumi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hanada, Katsuhiro; Fujii, Chieko

    2017-11-06

    Constipation is a serious problem for persons with mental and physical disabilities in Japan. However, prophylaxis is extremely difficult because the major causes of constipation in these individuals are related to their mental and physical disabilities. Constipation can be successfully treated with glycerol enemas (GEs) and other aperients. As constipation is a lifetime issue for these persons, dietary regimens to prevent constipation can be important. This study evaluated the probiotic effects of kefir-fermented milk for preventing constipation in 42 persons with mental and physical disabilities. The participants were administered 2 g of lyophilized kefir with each meal for 12 weeks and their bowel movements, the administration of GE and other aperients, and stool shape were recorded. The intake of kefir significantly reduced constipation, compared with the baseline status. Some individuals showed complete relief of constipation, whereas others showed no effect. Despite individual variations, consuming kefir daily could prevent constipation. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  20. Microbiological Characteristic and Nutrition Quality of Goat Milk Kefir Based on Vitamin D3 Fortification Time

    Fauziyyah, F.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Rustanti, N.; Anjani, G.

    2018-02-01

    Goat milk kefir fortified with vitamin D3 is expected to benefit individual with insulin resistance. Different vitamin D3 fortification time allegedly effect microbiological characteristic and nutrition quality of goat milk kefir due to its microbial growth curve, thus this study aimed to analyze those parameters. This study was an experimental research. This study contains five treatments (vitamin D3 fortification at 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of fermentation) and a group of control. Total lactic acid bacteria, vitamin D3, protein level, fat contain, crude fiber, viscosity, and pH was analyzed by Total Plate Count, spectrophotometry, Bradford method, Babcock method, gravimetric analysis, Ostwald method, and pH meter respectively. Time of vitamin D3 fortification significantly effect vitamin D3 content (p=0,021), fat content (p=0,001), crude fiber (p=0,0001), viscosity (p=0,010), and total lactic acid bacteria (p=0,048). The highest vitamin D3 content was found on the group fortified at 6 hours of fermentation. All treatment groups has lower fat content and crude fiber content than control group. Total LAB in all group meet the Codex standard (≥ 107 CFU/ml). Control group and fortification group at 24 hours of fermentation have higher viscosity than other groups. There was no significant difference found in goat milk kefir protein level (p=0,262) and pH (p=0,056) despite the difference of fortification time. Vitamin D3 fortification time effect vitamin D3 content, fat content, crude fiber, viscosity, and total lactic acid bacteria of goat milk kefir, but did not effect protein content and pH of goat milk kefir.

  1. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains

    Zheng, Yongchen; Lu, Yingli; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Longfei; Pan, Chenyu; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05) increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for manufacturing

  2. Kefir fermented milk and kefiran promote growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 and modulate its gene expression.

    Serafini, Fausta; Turroni, Francesca; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Zamboni, Nicole; Bottacini, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Margolles, Abelardo; Ventura, Marco

    2014-05-16

    Bifidobacteria constitute one of the dominant groups of microorganisms colonizing the human gut of infants. Their ability to utilize various host-derived glycans as well as dietary carbohydrates has received considerable scientific attention. However, very little is known about the role of fermented foods, such as kefir, or their constituent glycans, such as kefiran, as substrates for bifidobacterial growth and for the modulation of the expression of bifidobacterial host-effector molecules. Here, we show that Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 exhibits high growth performance among the bifidobacterial strains tested when cultivated on kefir and/or kefiran polymer. Furthermore, a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach revealed that the microbiota of kefir is modified upon the addition of PRL2010 cells to the kefir matrix. Finally, our results show that kefir and kefiran are able to influence the transcriptome of B. bifidum PRL2010 causing increased transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of dietary glycans as well as genes that act as host-microbe effector molecules such as pili. Altogether, these data support the use of kefir as a valuable means for the delivery of effective microbial cells in probiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modern perspectives on the health benefits of kefir in next generation sequencing era: Improvement of the host gut microbiota.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kim, Hyunsook; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2018-01-16

    Kefir is a natural complex fermented milk product containing more than 50 species of probiotic bacteria and yeast, and has been demonstrated to have multiple properties conferring health benefits, including antiobesity, anti-hepatic steatosis, antioxidative, antiallergenic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, constipation-alleviating, and antimicrobial properties. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these benefits, we here review research on the effect of kefir (and kefir microorganisms) consumption to modulate the host gut microbiota. Owing to its excellent gastrointestinal resistance and colonization ability and wide ranges of microbial interaction, kefir has shown significant and wide-spectrum modulatory effects on the host gut microbiota. In particular, as a bacteria- and yeast-containing food, kefir can modulate both the gut microbiota and mycobiota. Since the association of this modulation with health benefit has only been addressed in a small number of recent studies thus far, further studies are needed to determine the precise mechanisms of the beneficial effects of kefir in relation to the modulation of the gut microbiota and mycobiota. Gaining this insight will surely help to take full advantage of this unique probiotic food.

  4. The protective effects of fermented kefir milk on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt formation in mice colon.

    Melo, Aline Freitas de Paula; Mendonça, Monique Culturato Padilha; Rosa-Castro, Raquel de Mendonça

    2018-06-01

    Kefir is a probiotic fermented milk product produced from grains with a complex composition of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. Anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic effects are some of the health beneficial properties of kefir grains. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether regular consumption of kefir milk would be capable of preventing the development of pre-neoplastic lesions induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Aberrant crypt foci were induced in BALB-c mice via 2 subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) and kefir was administered by daily gavage for 8 weeks (5 ml/kg). Additionally, bacterial growth was monitored in pasteurized and ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk to compare different fermentation conditions. Our results showed that UHT milk presented better growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus colonies. The aberrant crypt foci were attenuated by approximately 43% (height) and 20% (width) in the kefir group compared to AOM group, suggesting that kefir treatment may contribute to prevent and control the growth of intestinal neoplastic cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrition Quality and Microbiology of Goat Milk Kefir Fortified with Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D3 during Storage

    Dianti, EP; Anjani, G.; Afifah, DN; Rustanti, N.; Panunggal, B.

    2018-02-01

    Goat milk kefir fortified vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 can be an alternative to improve insulin resistance. Fortification of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 could affect the balance of complex ecosystems of bacteria and yeasts in goat milk kefir. We analyzed the nutritional quality and microbiology of goat milk kefir during storage. This experiment was done with completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, ie storage day 0, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 15th. Vitamin B12, vitamin D3, protein were analyzed using spectrophotometric, fat using babcock method, total lactic acid bacteria using total plate count, pH with pH meter, and viscosity using ostwald method. During 15 days in refrigerated storage, there was no significant difference (p>0,05) of vitamin B12 concentration, protein, fat, and viscosity of kefir. Storage time of the final product caused the decrease of vitamin D3 concentration between day 9 and 15 (p=0,038), pH (p=0,023), and total lactic acid of kefir (p=0,0001). Total lactic acid bacteria increased until 9 days of storage (6161 ± 1.296x107cfu / ml), but decreased to 24% on day 15 (150 ±7.78x107cfu/ml). pH kefir tends to fluctuate during storage with the highest pH value of 4,38 on day-3, and lowest 4.13 on day-9.

  6. Caracterização físico-química e sensorial de kefir tradicional e derivados

    S. Weschenfelder

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se diferentes populações de grãos de kefir tradicional e de seus derivados, o kefir, o kefir leban e o soro de kefir, quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, quando inoculados em diferentes concentrações de leite padronizado, levando-se em consideração as variáveis tempo/temperatura de incubação, maturação e filtração. A manipulação da população de grãos de kefir foi eficaz na obtenção de produtos com características físico-químicas semelhantes. O volume de leite utilizado na incubação influenciou significativamente as características dos derivados. A avaliação sensorial de antepastos elaborados a partir de kefir leban, condimentados, apresentou boa aceitabilidade.

  7. The effects of postexercise consumption of a kefir beverage on performance and recovery during intensive endurance training.

    O'Brien, K V; Stewart, L K; Forney, L A; Aryana, K J; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Boeneke, C A

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether kefir accentuates the positive health benefits assessed by measures in fitness, body composition, or both, as a measure of cardiovascular disease risk as well as the biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Sixty-seven adult males and females aged 18 to 24 yr were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: (1) endurance training + control beverage, (2) endurance training +kefir beverage,(3) active control + control beverage, or (4) active control + kefir beverage. The exercise groups completed 15 wk of structured endurancetraining while the active control groups maintained their usual exercise routine. Additionally, each group was assigned to either a kefir or a calorie/macronutrient matched placebo beverage that was consumed twice per week. No significant interactions were found among groups with respect to outcome variables with the exception of serum CRP. The endurance training was effective in improving 1.5-mile (2.41 km) times and kefir supplementation may have been a factor in attenuating the increase in CRP that was observed over the course of the intervention period. This preliminary study suggests that kefir may be involved in improving the risk profile for cardiovascular disease as defined by CRP. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks.

    Toghyani, Majid; Mosavi, Seyed Kazem; Modaresi, Mehrdad; Landy, Nasir

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1) a basal diet (C) and normal drinking water, 2) 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3) 2% molasses kefir in drinking water, and 4) the diet C supplemented with commercial probiotic. At d 42, eight birds per treatment were killed for determination of carcass traits. Broilers at 28 days of age were bled for measuring antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV), at 30 days of age for antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC), and at 42 days of age for biochemical analysis. Supplementing 2% milk kefir increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42 days of age ( P   0.05) influenced. Broilers supplemented with molasses kefir, had a significantly lower concentration of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 days of age ( P  < 0.05). In conclusion, the results indicated that inclusion of 2% milk kefir in drinking water would improve growth performance of broiler chickens.

  9. Evaluation of kefir as a potential probiotic on growth performance, serum biochemistry and immune responses in broiler chicks

    Majid Toghyani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of milk or molasses kefir as a probiotic on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens. A total of 192 one-d-old as hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, each with 4 replicate pens of 12 chicks. The following treatments were applied: 1 a basal diet (C and normal drinking water, 2 2% milk kefir in drinking water, 3 2% molasses kefir in drinking water, and 4 the diet C supplemented with commercial probiotic. At d 42, eight birds per treatment were killed for determination of carcass traits. Broilers at 28 days of age were bled for measuring antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV, at 30 days of age for antibody titers against sheep red blood cell (SRBC, and at 42 days of age for biochemical analysis. Supplementing 2% milk kefir increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42 days of age (P  0.05 influenced. Broilers supplemented with molasses kefir, had a significantly lower concentration of serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 42 days of age (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the results indicated that inclusion of 2% milk kefir in drinking water would improve growth performance of broiler chickens.

  10. Anti–odor activity of milk kefir on organosulphur polysulfide cyclic compounds in petai (parkia speciosa hassk)

    Kurniati, T.; Windayani, N.; Listiawati, M.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to assess the activity of milk kefir whey in neutralizing odor-causing cyclic polysulfide compounds in petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.). RAL designs used to determine the optimum fermentation conditions. The data obtained were processed using SPSS 20. Results showed the characteristics of the microbes in the kefir grains include lactic acid bacteria consisting of genus Lactobacillus and yeast of the genus Candida and Saccharomyces. The optimum fermentation conditions using cow’s milk kefir grain starter obtained in the fermentation time of 24 hours at a concentration of 5% kefir grain. Whey kefir which is produced have high levels of fat, protein, carbohydrates, fiber and lactic acid respectively 1.81; 4.35; 5.59; 0.26 and 0.16%, pH 4.4; a density of 1.0628 g/mL and 7.9368 cP viscosity. Kefir milk whey actively reduced the level of petai smell significantly different at the level of α = 0.05.

  11. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis

  13. Donkey milk kefir induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by decreasing iNOS in mice.

    Esener, Obb; Balkan, B M; Armutak, E I; Uvez, A; Yildiz, G; Hafizoglu, M; Yilmazer, N; Gurel-Gurevin, E

    2018-04-12

    Donkey milk and donkey milk kefir exhibit antiproliferative, antimutagenic and antibacterial effects. We investigated the effects of donkey milk and donkey milk kefir on oxidative stress, apoptosis and proliferation in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Thirty-four adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, administered 0.5 ml water; group 2, administered 0.5 ml water + EAC cells; group 3, administered 0.5 ml donkey milk + EAC cells; group 4, administered 0.5 ml donkey milk kefir + EAC cells. We introduced 2.5 x 10 6 EAC cells into each animal by subcutaneous injection. Tap water, donkey milk and donkey milk kefir were administered by gavage for 10 days. Animals were sacrificed on day 11. After measuring the short and long diameters of the tumors, tissues were processed for histology. To determine oxidative stress, cell death and proliferation iNOS and eNOS, active caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were assessed using immunohistochemistry. A TUNEL assay also was used to detect apoptosis. Tumor volume decreased in the donkey milk kefir group compared to the control and donkey milk groups. Tumor volume increased in the donkey milk group compared to the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels were higher in the donkey milk kefir group compared to the control and donkey milk groups. The number of apoptotic cells was less in the donkey milk group, compared to the control, whereas it was highest in the donkey milk kefir group. Donkey milk administration increased eNOS levels and decreased iNOS levels, compared to the control group. In the donkey milk kefir group, iNOS levels were significantly lower than those of the control and donkey milk groups, while eNOS levels were similar to the control group. Donkey milk kefir induced apoptosis, suppressed proliferation and decreased co-expression of iNOS and eNOS. Donkey milk promoted development of the tumors. Therefore, donkey milk kefir appears to

  14. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Tibetan kefir grains.

    Yongchen Zheng

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. Three Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus LA15, Lactobacillus plantarum B23 and Lactobacillus kefiri D17 that showed resistance to acid and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. The 3 selected strains expressed high in vitro adherence to Caco-2 cells. They were sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol and resistant to vancomycin with MIC values of 26 µg/ml. All 3 strains showed potential bile salt hydrolase (BSH activity, cholesterol assimilation and cholesterol co-precipitation ability. Additionally, the potential effect of these strains on plasma cholesterol levels was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Rats in 4 treatment groups were fed the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: a high-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet plus LA15, a high-cholesterol diet plus B23 or a high-cholesterol diet plus D17. The total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (P<0.05 decreased in the LAB-treated rats compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet without LAB supplementation. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in groups B23 and D17 were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those in the control and LA15 groups. Additionally, both fecal cholesterol and bile acid levels were significantly (P<0.05 increased after LAB administration. Fecal lactobacilli counts were significantly (P<0.05 higher in the LAB treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, the 3 strains were detected in the rat small intestine, colon and feces during the feeding trial. The bacteria levels remained high even after the LAB administration had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that these strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for

  15. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  16. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir. PMID:28702019

  17. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro

    Gabriel de la Fuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs, lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  18. Functional Resilience and Response to a Dietary Additive (Kefir) in Models of Foregut and Hindgut Microbial Fermentation In Vitro.

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Jones, Eleanor; Jones, Shann; Newbold, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Stability in gut ecosystems is an important area of study that impacts on the use of additives and is related with several pathologies. Kefir is a fermented milk drink made with a consortium of yeast and bacteria as a fermentation starter, of which the use as additive in companion and livestock animals has increased in the last few years. To investigate the effect of kefir milk on foregut and hindgut digestive systems, an in vitro approach was followed. Either rumen fluid or horse fecal contents were used as a microbial inoculate and the inclusion of kefir (fresh, autoclaved, or pasteurized) was tested. Gas production over 72 h of incubation was recorded and pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), lactate and ammonia concentration as well as lactic acid (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria, and yeast total numbers were also measured. Both direct and indirect (by subtracting their respective blanks) effects were analyzed and a multivariate analysis was performed to compare foregut and hindgut fermentation models. Addition of kefir boosted the fermentation by increasing molar concentration of VFAs and ammonia and shifting the Acetate to Propionate ratio in both models but heat processing techniques like pasteurization or autoclaving influenced the way the kefir is fermented and reacts with the present microbiota. In terms of comparison between both models, the foregut model seems to be less affected by the inclusion of Kefir than the hindgut model. In terms of variability in the response, the hindgut model appeared to be more variable than the foregut model in the way that it reacted indirectly to the addition of different types of kefir.

  19. Evaluation of antagonistic activity of milk fermented with kefir grains of different origins

    João Paulo Victorino Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the potential of kefir grains, obtained from three different towns/cities in the Southeast Region of Brazil to inhibit the growth of the five pathogenic microorganisms was evaluated. The samples showed the growth inhibition from 42.80-69.15 for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, 30.73-59.89 for Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, 44.99-73.05 for Salmonela typhi ATCC 6539, 41.45-54.18 for Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and 70.38-86.80 for Bacillus cereus RIBO 1222-173-S4. These results indicated that the kefir grains evaluated had antagonistic activity toward the different pathogens tested. The ability to inhibit, although differently depending on the regional microbiota, indicated a potential for their use as a functional food.

  20. Kefir exhibits anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptotic effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells with no significant effects on cell migration and invasion.

    Khoury, Nathalie; El-Hayek, Stephany; Tarras, Omayr; El-Sabban, Marwan; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Rizk, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Kefir, a fermented milk product, exhibits anti‑tumoral activity in vivo; yet its mechanism of action remains elusive. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of action of kefir on cancer cells in vitro. The current study aims at examining the effect of kefir on cell survival, proliferation, and motility of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Kefir's anti‑cancer potential was tested on CRC cell lines, Caco‑2 and HT‑29, through cytotoxicity, proliferation, and apoptotic assays. The expression of certain genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis was measured using reverse transcriptase‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) and western blotting. To assess the effect of kefir on cancer metastasis, wound‑healing and time‑lapse movies, in addition to collagen‑based invasion assay, were used. The results show that cell‑free fractions of kefir exhibit an anti‑proliferative effect on Caco‑2 and HT‑29 cells. Analysis of DNA content by flow cytometry revealed the ability of kefir to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Kefir was also found to induce apoptosis, as seen by cell death ELISA. Results from RT‑PCR showed that kefir decreases the expression of transforming growth factor α (TGF‑α); and transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) in HT‑29 cells. Western blotting results revealed an upregulation in Bax:Bcl‑2 ratio, confirming the pro‑apoptotic effect of kefir, and an increase in p53 independent‑p21 expression upon kefir treatment. MMP expression was not altered by kefir treatment. Furthermore, results from time‑lapse motility movies, wound‑healing, and invasion assays showed no effect on the motility of colorectal as well as breast (MCF‑7 and MB‑MDA‑231) cancer cells upon kefir treatment. Our data suggest that kefir is able to inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in HT‑29 and Caco‑2 CRC cells, yet it does not exhibit a significant effect on the motility and invasion of these cells in vitro.

  1. Bolo de "chocolate" produzido com pó de cupuaçu e kefir "Chocolate" pound cake with cupuassu and kefir

    Mauricio Sergio Esteller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos vem ocorrendo a valorização dos recursos e produtos naturais. Cresce em todo o mundo a preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente e a valorização dos recursos da flora e fauna. É forte a demanda por tecnologias de processo, de produto e de aplicação. Neste estudo foi utilizada formulação padronizada para bolo tipo inglês, substituindo cacau em pó por cupuaçu em pó e com adição de kefir, mantendo-se o total de sólidos. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 50 minutos e 180 ºC. Foram avaliados a porosidade do miolo, o perfil de textura, cor, umidade, volume específico e densidade da massa. Os resultados mostraram que a adição de pó de cupuaçu não altera as características do bolo padrão elaborado com cacau e que a adição de kefir modifica a textura e a porosidade do miolo.In the last years, natural resources and products have gained the attention of consumers. The concern with the conservation of the environment and the importance of the flora and fauna increases in the whole world. The demand for application, product, and process technologies is strong. In this study, a control chocolate pound cake formula was used changing cocoa powder from the original formula to cupuassu powder and adding kefir, keeping the amounts of total solids. The time and temperature were fixed in 50 minutes and 180 ºC. Crumb porosity, texture profile analysis (TPA, color, moisture, specific volume, and dough density were evaluated. The results showed that cupuassu powder can be used as a cocoa replacer in "chocolate" cake production and that kefir changed the texture and crumb porosity of the cake.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Novel Low-Abundance Species Strains Isolated from Kefir Grain.

    Kim, Yongkyu; Blasche, Sonja; Patil, Kiran R

    2017-09-28

    We report here the genome sequences of three novel bacterial species strains- Bacillus kefirresidentii Opo, Rothia kefirresidentii KRP, and Streptococcus kefirresidentii YK-isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. The draft genomes of these isolates were remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identities, 77.80%, 89.01%, and 92.10%, respectively) to those of the previously sequenced strains. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  3. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage.

    Vieira, C P; Álvares, T S; Gomes, L S; Torres, A G; Paschoalin, V M F; Conte-Junior, C A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8 g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7 g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0 g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality.

  4. Desarrollo de un alimento funcional deshidratado constituido por microorganismos aislados de Kefir

    Bolla, Patricia Araceli

    2011-01-01

    A pesar de los numerosos estudios sobre probióticos que encontramos en la actualidad, poco se conoce respecto a complejos multicepas. En este trabajo de tesis se propuso: 1- Desarrollar una mezcla microbiana constituida por microorganismos aislados de kefir. 2- Estudiar sus características tecnológicas y potencialmente probióticas. 3- Determinar la capacidad inhibitoria frente a Shigella y Clostridium difficile. 4- Estudiar la capacidad de la mezcla mic...

  5. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of Brazilian kefir during fermentation and storage processes.

    Leite, A M O; Leite, D C A; Del Aguila, E M; Alvares, T S; Peixoto, R S; Miguel, M A L; Silva, J T; Paschoalin, V M F

    2013-07-01

    The microbial community composition and chemical characteristics of a Brazilian milk kefir sample produced during its manufacturing and refrigerated storage were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods and HPLC. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris and ssp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acetobacter lovaniensis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, whereas the detected bands on denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis corresponded to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus parakefiri, and S. cerevisiae. After fermentation, lactic acid bacteria were present at levels of 10 log units, whereas acetic acid bacteria and yeast were present at levels of 7.8 and 6 log units, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts remained constant, whereas acetic acid bacteria counts decreased to 7.2 log units during storage. From fermentation to final storage, the pH, lactose content and citric acid of the kefir beverage decreased, followed by an increase in the concentrations of glucose, galactose, ethanol, and lactic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. These microbiological and chemical characteristics contribute to the unique taste and aroma of kefir. This research may serve as a basis for the future industrial production of this beverage in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mathematical model of CO2 release during milk fermentation using natural kefir grains.

    Goršek, Andreja; Ritonja, Jožef; Pečar, Darja

    2018-03-12

    Milk fermentation takes place in the presence of various micro-organisms, producing a variety of dairy products. The oldest of them is kefir, which is usually produced by the fermentation of milk with kefir grains. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), as one of the process products, also contributes to the characteristic flavor of kefir. The amount of CO 2 generated during fermentation depends on bioprocessing conditions and may change, which is not desirable at the industrial level. In this study we developed a simplified mathematical model of CO 2 release in the milk-fermentation process. An intuitive approach based on superposition and experimental analysis was used for the modeling. The chemical system studied was considered as a two-input (temperature, rotational frequency of the stirrer) one-output (CO 2 concentration) dynamic system. Based on an analysis of CO 2 release transients in the case of non-simultaneous stepwise changed input quantities, two differential equations were defined that describe the influence of the two input quantities on the output quantity. The simulation results were verified by experiments. The proposed model can be used for a comprehensive analysis of the process that is being studied and for the design and synthesis of advanced control systems, which will ensure a controlled CO 2 release at the industrial level. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Study of the Probiotic Potential of the Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Kefir Grains

    Englerová K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify beneficial bacteria with probiotic potential from kefir grains. The lactobacilli isolated from kefir grains were characterised as: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus kefiri. The strains Lb. plantarum 1Ž, Lb. paraplantarum S10, and Lb. paracasei 2Ž tolerated better the test gastric juice at pH 2 and 2.6 during 120 min of incubation in comparison with the strains Lb. kefiri. On the other hand, the strains Lb. kefiri were resistant to 0.3 % bile acid salts. The Lb. paracasei 2Ž showed the significantly highest survival (P < 0.001 at pH 2 in comparison with all other strains tested and was also able to tolerate 0.3 % concentration of the bile salts. All strains produced medium to strong biofilms on abiotic surfaces and inhibited the growth of selected potential pathogens with varying intensity. All kefir isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics tested and exhibited positive β-galactosidase activity with the exception of Lb. paracasei 2Ž which did not show any activity of undesirable enzymes, such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase. Additional testing and validation of the biological properties and safety of the strain Lb. paracasei 2Ž under in vivo conditions are needed to confirm the prospective use of this strain in practice.

  8. Adsorption of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A by microorganisms isolated from Kefir grains.

    Taheur, Fadia Ben; Fedhila, Kais; Chaieb, Kamel; Kouidhi, Bochra; Bakhrouf, Amina; Abrunhosa, Luís

    2017-06-19

    A strategy to reduce the deleterious effects of mycotoxins is to use dietary supplements that contain microorganisms that bind mycotoxins and decrease their gastrointestinal absorption. Novel strains were isolated from a Kefir culture and assessed for their mycotoxin adsorption and biotransformation ability. The most active strains were identified using DNA sequencing, and the stability of microorganism/mycotoxin complexes was evaluated using buffer solutions to simulate the pH conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results showed that the microorganism consortium of Kefir grains adsorbed 82 to 100% of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) when cultivated in milk. The main strains that were capable of mycotoxin adsorption were identified as Lactobacillus kefiri, Kazachstania servazzii and Acetobacter syzygii. The strain L. kefiri KFLM3 was the most active, adsorbing 80 to 100% of the studied mycotoxins when cultivated in milk. Nonetheless, the strain K. servazzii KFGY7 retained more mycotoxin after the desorption experiments (65, 69 and 67% for AFB1, OTA and ZEA, respectively). These findings suggest that Kefir consumption may help to reduce gastrointestinal absorption of these mycotoxins and consequently reduce their toxic effects. The isolated strains may be of interest for the development of fermented dairy products for human consumption that have a new probiotic characteristic, the adsorption of mycotoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacteria and yeast microbiota in milk kefir grains from different Italian regions.

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Aquilanti, Lucia; De Filippis, Francesca; Stellato, Giuseppina; Di Mauro, Simone; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Ercolini, Danilo; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Kefir grains are a unique symbiotic association of different microrganisms, mainly lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and occasionally acetic acid bacteria, cohabiting in a natural polysaccharide and a protein matrix. The microbial composition of kefir grains can be considered as extremely variable since it is strongly influenced by the geographical origin of the grains and by the sub-culturing method used. The aim of this study was to elucidate the bacteria and yeast species occurring in milk kefir grains collected in some Italian regions by combining the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis, viable counts on selective culture media, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing. The main bacterial species found was Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens while Dekkera anomala was the predominant yeast. The presence of sub-dominant species ascribed to Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis and Acetobacter genera was also highlighted. In addition, Lc. lactis, Enterococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Acetobacter fabarum, Acetobacter lovaniensis and Acetobacter orientalis were identified as part of the cultivable community. This work further confirms both the importance of combining culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches to study microbial diversity in food and how the combination of multiple 16S rRNA gene targets strengthens taxonomic identification using sequence-based identification approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Whey permeate fermented with kefir grains shows antifungal effect against Fusarium graminearum.

    Gamba, Raúl Ricardo; De Antoni, Graciela; Peláez, Angela León

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the work reported here was to study the antifungal capability of cell-free supernatants obtained from whey permeates after fermentation by the kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 against Fusarium graminearum growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production. The assays were performed in order to study the conidial germination inhibition -in liquid media- and the effect on fungal growth rate and the Latency phase -in solid media. We observed that fermented supernatants of pH 3·5 produced the highest percentages of inhibition of conidial germination. The dilution and, particularly, alkalinisation of them led to the gradual loss of antifungal activity. In the fungal inhibition assays on plates we found that only the highest proportion of supernatant within solid medium had significant antifungal activity, which was determined as fungicidal. There was no ZEA biosynthesis in the medium with the highest proportion of supernatant, whereas at lower concentrations, the mycotoxin production was strain-dependent. From the results obtained we concluded that kefir supernatants had antifungal activity on the F. graminearum strains investigated and inhibited mycotoxin production as well, but in a strain-dependent fashion. The present work constitutes the first report of the effect of the products obtained from the kefir-grain fermentation of whey permeates - a readily available by-product of the dairy industry - on F. graminearum germination, growth, and toxin production.

  11. Effects of Kefir as a Probiotic Source on the Performance and Health of Young Dairy Calves

    Sema Satık

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance and health status of calves. Thirty Holstein female calves with 3-day-old were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: Control (without any probiotic, probiotic (a commercial probiotic mixture-3 g/d/calf bacteria-based and 2 g/d/calf yeast-based and kefir (20 ml/d/calf. The calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The experiment was performed in 70 days. Treatment had no effect (P>0.05 on weaning and final body weight and starter intake. Although differences in weight gain were not significant (P>0.05, there were trend to increase by probiotic treatments during 0-14 days. Probiotic treatments tended to have a positive effect on the population of the fecal lactic acid bacteria at 14 days. The results of the study indicated that kefir as a natural probiotic in calf nutrition may be beneficial during the first weeks of life.

  12. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when pkefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  13. STUDI EFFEKTIVITAS KEFIR BENING DAN MENIRAN (Philanthus niruri TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH PADA HEWAN TIKUS WISTAR HIPERGLIKEMIA DIINDUKSI STREPTOZOTOCIN

    Judiono .

    2014-09-01

    were given feed refers to the AIN 93. Fasting glucose levels before and after treatment were measured by Super (Glucocard II enzimatic method. The results showed that body weight increased in all treatments, except meniran, however the increaments were not differ significantly. Changes in body weight of insulin group were 13.800 + 16.104 g, kefir treatment amounted to 13.812 + 21.294, and meniran increased about 18.394 + 16.225. Changes in blood glucose in the insulin group about -118.571+55.815 mg/dL, kefir treatment at -102.875+60.454, while meniran group -66,625+37,784. In contrast, the positive control group tended to increase glucose levels. Conclusion In vitro, plain kefir and meniran potentially lowered blood glucose levels. However, kefir showed lowered glucose level better than meniran. Futher research needs to study bio- molecular mechanisms of the decline in the future. Key words: diabetes mellitus, meniran, plain kefir, streptozotocin (STZ, hyperglycemic rat

  14. Kefir improves fatty liver syndrome by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway in leptin-deficient ob/ob knockout mice.

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Tsai, C-L; Lai, C-W; Lai, Z-L; Tsai, H-C; Lin, Y-L; Wang, C-H; Chen, C-M

    2014-09-01

    Fatty liver disease is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Severe fatty liver is sometimes accompanied by steatohepatitis and may lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, there is no effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); thus, recent investigations have focused on developing effective therapeutics to treat this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of kefir on the hepatic lipid metabolism of ob/ob mice, which are commonly used to model fatty liver disease. In this study, we used leptin receptor-deficient ob/ob mice as an animal disease model of NAFLD. Six-week-old ob/ob mice were orally administered the dairy product kefir (140 mg kg(-1) of body weight (BW) per day) for 4 weeks. The data demonstrated that kefir improved fatty liver syndrome on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities (Pkefir administration also significantly reduced the macrovesicular fat quantity in liver tissue. In addition, kefir markedly decreased the expression of the genes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Pkefir improves NAFLD on BW, energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate by inhibiting the lipogenesis pathway and that kefir may have the potential for clinical application to the prevention or treatment of NAFLD.

  15. The Effect of Combination Carrot Juice (Daucus carota L. and Hunkwee Flour in Manufacturing Kefir Ice Cream on Physical and Chemical Quality of Kefir Ice Cream

    Ilma Mahdiana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best combination of carrot juice (CJ and hunkwee flour (HF on manufacturing of kefir ice cream. The method of this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design, 4 treatments and 4 replication, the treatments were without carrot juice + HF 5% (P0, CJ 1.5% + HF 3.5% (P1, CJ 3% + HF 2% (P2, CJ 4.5% + HF 0.5% (P3, the presentage based on Ice Cream Mix (ICM. The variables measured were antioxidant activity, viscosity, total solid and organoleptic (textur, taste and aroma. The data was analized by using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA continued by Honestly Significance Difference (HSD test. The result of this research showed that the combination of carrot juice and hunkwee flour gave highly significant difference effect (P0.05 on aroma. Conclusion: the combination of carrot juice 1.5% + hunkwee flour 3.5% (P1 in kefir ice cream gave the best result.

  16. Protective effects of the fermented milk Kefir on X-ray irradiation-induced intestinal damage in B6C3F1 mice

    Teruya, Kiichiro; Nakamichi, Noboru; Shirahata, Sanetaka; Myojin-Maekawa, Yuki; Shimamoto, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Tokumaru, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Sennosuke

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal damage associated with radiation therapy is currently an inevitable outcome. The protective effect of Kefir was assessed for its usefulness against radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage. A Kefir supernatant was diluted by 2- or 10-fold and administered for 1 week prior to 8 Gray (Gy) X-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 2 Gy/min, with an additional 15d of administration post-irradiation. The survival rate of control mice with normal drinking water dropped to 70% on days 4 through 9 post-irradiation. On the other hand, 100% of mice in the 10- and 2-fold-diluted Kefir groups survived up to day 9 post-irradiation (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Examinations for crypt regeneration against 8, 10 and 12 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 4 Gy/min revealed that the crypt number was significantly increased in the mice administered both diluted Kefir solutions (p<0.01 for each). Histological and immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the diluted Kefir solutions protected the crypts from radiation, and promoted crypt regeneration. In addition, lyophilized Kefir powder was found to significantly recover the testis weights (p<0.05), but had no effects on the body and spleen weights, after 8 Gy irradiation. These findings suggest that Kefir could be a promising candidate as a radiation-protective agent. (author)

  17. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Tu, Min-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tung, Yu-Tang; Kao, Chao-Chih; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg) supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg) and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC) turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  18. Short-Term Effects of Kefir-Fermented Milk Consumption on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Metabolism in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Osteoporotic Patients.

    Min-Yu Tu

    Full Text Available Milk products are good sources of calcium that may reduce bone resorption and help prevent bone loss as well as promote bone remodeling and increase bone formation. Kefir is a product made by kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including antithrombotic, antimicrobial and calcium-absorption enhancing bioactivities. In a controlled, parallel, double-blind intervention study over 6 months, we investigated the effects of kefir-fermented milk (1,600 mg supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (CaCO3, 1,500 mg and bone metabolism in 40 osteoporosis patients, and compared them with CaCO3 alone without kefir supplements. Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone mineral density (BMD values at the spine, total hip, and hip femoral neck were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at 6 months. Among patients treated with kefir-fermented milk, the relationships between baseline turnover and 6 months changes in DXA-determined BMD were significantly improved. The serum β C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX in those with T-scores > -1 patients significantly decreased after three months treatment. The formation marker serum osteocalcin (OC turned from negative to positive after 6 months, representing the effect of kefir treatment. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH increased significantly after treatment with kefir, but decreased significantly in the control group. PTH may promote bone remodeling after treatment with kefir for 6 months. In this pilot study, we concluded that kefir-fermented milk therapy was associated with short-term changes in turnover and greater 6-month increases in hip BMD among osteoporotic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02361372.

  19. Brazilian Kefir-Fermented Sheep's Milk, a Source of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Peptides.

    de Lima, Meire Dos Santos Falcão; da Silva, Roberto Afonso; da Silva, Milena Fernandes; da Silva, Paulo Alberto Bezerra; Costa, Romero Marcos Pedrosa Brandão; Teixeira, José António Couto; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana Holanda

    2017-12-28

    Fermented milks are a source of bioactive peptides and may be considered as functional foods. Among these, sheep's milk fermented with kefir has not been widely studied and its most relevant properties need to be more thoroughly characterized. This research study is set out to investigate and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of peptides from fermented sheep's milk in Brazil when produced by using kefir. For this, the chemical and microbiological composition of the sheep's milk before and after the fermentation was evaluated. The changes in the fermented milk and the peptides extracted before the fermentation and in the fermented milk during its shelf life were verified. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the peptides from the fermented milk were evaluated and identified according to the literature. The physicochemical properties and mineral profile of the fermented milk were like those of fresh milk. The peptide extract presented antimicrobial activity and it was detected that 13 of the 46 peptides were able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. A high antioxidant activity was observed in the peptides extracted from fermented milk (3.125 mg/mL) on the 28th day of storage. Two fractions displayed efficient radical scavenging properties by DPPH and ABTS methods. At least 11 peptides distributed in the different fractions were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. This sheep's milk fermented by Brazilian kefir grains, which has antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and probiotic microorganisms, is a good candidate for further investigation as a source for bioactive peptides. The fermentation process was thus a means by which to produce potential bioactive peptides.

  20. "Petit suisse" cheese from kefir: an alternative dessert with microorganisms of probiotic activity Queijo "Petit suisse" de kefir: uma alternativa de sobremesa com microorganismos de ação probiótica

    Thanise Sabrina Souza Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available "Petit Suisse" is a creamy cheese. Kefir is a symbiotic mixture of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts with probiotic activity including immunomodulation and balance of intestinal microflora. The present study aims to develop "Petit Suisse" cheese from kefir. Kefir grains were grown in pasteurized cow milk, and after the separation of kefir the serum was discarded and the "Petit Suisse" cheese was prepared using strawberry, mangaba, herbs, and dried tomatoes. The acceptance of the different preparations was evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale followed by ANOVA. The sweet and salty products were compared by the Student's t-test. Purchase intent was evaluated by the means test and frequency distribution. All products were well accepted by the judges. The product was characterized by low yield, but it can be prepared at home at low cost. The nutritional composition analyses and the variety of flavors as well as the range of age of the judges are alternatives for further studies.Petit suisse é um queijo de consistência pastosa. O kefir é um produto resultante da simbiose entre bactérias ácido-láticas e leveduras, e apresenta ação probiótica, como imunomodulação e balanço da microbiota intestinal. O presente estudo buscou desenvolver petit suisse de kefir. Os grãos foram cultivados no leite de vaca pasteurizado e, após separação do kefir, seguiu-se para dessoragem e preparo do petit suisse nos sabores morango, mangaba, ervas e tomate seco. Com escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, avaliou-se aceitação pela ANOVA. As amostras doces e salgadas foram comparadas por meio do teste t de Student e a intenção de compra foi avaliada por meio do teste de médias e de distribuição das frequências. As amostras apresentaram boa aceitação pelos julgadores. O produto pronto apresentou baixo rendimento, mas pode ser reproduzido em nível domiciliar com baixo custo. A análise da composição nutricional e a variação dos sabores e

  1. Análise da fermentação alcoólica do kefir em biorreator

    Renata Ferreira Miranda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar é a principal matéria-prima utilizada no Brasil para fermentação alcoólica. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do kefir quanto à sua viabilidade para produção de etanol por meio da fermentação alcoólica. Os grãos de kefir se constituem de uma associação simbiótica de leveduras, bactérias ácido-láticas e bactérias ácido-acéticas tradicionalmente utilizadas para a produção de leites fermentados de baixo teor alcoólico, o que gera uma bebida associada à longevidade e considerada terapêutica. A partir de fermentação conduzida em biorreator piloto verificou-se o consumo de açúcar e produção de etanol com os grãos de kefir. O estudo realizado apresentou resultados satisfatórios para fermentação do kefir na produção de etanol.

  2. Selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from sugary and milk kefir reduce Salmonella infection of epithelial cells in vitro.

    Zavala, L; Golowczyc, M A; van Hoorde, K; Medrano, M; Huys, G; Vandamme, P; Abraham, A G

    2016-09-01

    The isolation of potentially probiotic strains and the subsequent study of their properties are very important steps to gain insight in the health benefits ascribed to sugary and milk kefir. The aim of the present study was to characterise fifteen Lactobacillus strains isolated from these beverages by determining some surface properties and their ability to antagonise enterocyte cell damage after Salmonella infection in vitro. Lactobacillus surface properties were determined by hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, and coaggregation assays with Salmonella. In addition, lactobacilli adhesion to Caco-2/TC-7 cells and the effect on Salmonella invasion were evaluated. Finally, the disassembly of F-actin cytoskeleton on intestinal epithelial cells was assayed in vitro when Salmonella infection was performed in the presence of selected Lactobacillus strains. Ten out of the 15 strains showed a high adhesion capacity to Caco-2/TC-7 cells. Most of the strains were hydrophilic and non-autoaggregating. Strains isolated from sugary kefir were non-coaggregating with Salmonella, while strains Lactobacillus paracasei CIDCA 83120, 83121, 83123, 83124, 8339, 83102 isolated from milk kefir were able to coaggregate after 1 h. L. paracasei CIDCA 8339 and Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 83102 were able to diminish Salmonella invasion to the enterocytes. An antagonistic effect on cytoskeleton disruption elicited by the pathogen was also demonstrated. Our results suggest that both strains isolated from milk kefir could be considered as appropriate probiotic candidates.

  3. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) during fermentation, but metal chelating effect showed no significant difference. The highest increases were observed when the temperature of 25 °C and kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.

  4. Evaluation of a potentially probiotic non-dairy beverage developed with honey and kefir grains: Fermentation kinetics and storage study.

    Fiorda, Fernanda A; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto V; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Rakshit, Sudip K; Soccol, Carlos R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the fermentation process of honey with kefir grains through a comprehensive understanding of its rheological properties, probiotic cell viability, instrumental color parameters and kinetic aspects in a batch bioreactor and during storage. The results showed that kefir grains were well adapted to bioreactor conditions, reaching high levels of cell viability (over 10 6 CFU mL -1 for total yeast and bacteria), phenolic compounds content (190 GAE/100 g) and acidification after 24 h of fermentation at 30 ℃. Colorimetric analysis showed that lightness (L*) and redness (a*) remained constant, while yellowness intensities (b*) decreased during fermentation time. After 35 days of storage, honey kefir beverage maintained its chemical characteristics and microbial viability as required to be classified as a probiotic product. The Ostwald-de-Waele (R 2  ≥ 0.98) and Herschel-Bulkley (R 2  ≥ 0.99) models can be used to predict the behavior of honey kefir beverage. The parameters analyzed in this study should be taken into account for industrial production of this novel non-dairy beverage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Effects of Microbial Transglutaminase on Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensorial Properties of Kefir Produced by Using Mixture Cow's and Soymilk.

    Temiz, Hasan; Dağyıldız, Kübra

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects microbial transglutaminase (m-TGs) on the physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of kefir produced by using mix cow and soymilk. Kefir batches were prepared using 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 Units m-TGs for per g of milk protein. Adding m-TGs to milk caused an increase in the pH and viscosity and caused a decrease in titratable acidity and syneresis in the kefir samples. Total bacteria, lactobacilli and streptococci counts decreased, while yeast counts increased in all the samples during storage. Alcohols and acids compounds have increased in all the samples except in the control samples, while carbonyl compounds have decreased in all the samples during storage (1-30 d). The differences in the percentage of alcohols, carbonyl compounds and acids in total volatiles on the 1st and the 30th d of storage were observed at 8.47-23.52%, 6.94-25.46% and 59.64-63.69%, respectively. The consumer evaluation of the kefir samples showed that greater levels of acceptability were found for samples which had been added 1.5 U m-TGs for per g of milk protein.

  6. Improvement of viability of probiotic bacteria, organoleptic qualities and physical characteristics in kefir using transglutaminase and xanthan.

    Sabooni, Pooria; Pourahmad, Rezvan; Adeli, Hamid Reza Mahdavi

    2018-01-01

    Using kefir as a probiotic food carrier has many benefits. At the same time, it is considered an appropriate product for the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of xanthan gum and transglutaminase enzyme on the viability of probiotics and the organoleptic qualities and physicochemical characteristics of kefir. Three levels of transglutaminase enzyme (50, 100 and 150 ppm), and xanthan gum (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%) were used. Sensory and physicochemical properties and viability of probiotic bac- teria were measured over 2 weeks of storage at 4°C. By increasing the amounts of xanthan gum and transglutaminase, the viscosity of the samples was increased and syneresis was reduced significantly (P < 0.05). The kefir sample containing 150 ppm enzyme and 0.2% gum had the highest number of probiotic bacteria. Moreover, the highest organoleptic scores were found for this sample. It can be concluded that adding 150 ppm transglutaminase and 0.2% xanthan improved the vi- ability of probiotics and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of kefir.

  7. Kualitas Mikrobiologis dan Kimiawi Kefir Susu Kambing dengan Penambahan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 dan Tepung Kulit Pisang Kepok (Musa Paradisiaca

    Dwitiya Martharini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of  plantain peel flour and Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 on the microbiological and chemical quality of goat milk kefir. Kefir was made from goat’s milk with 3 % of kefir grain (w/v and  Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 (0, 1 and 3 % (v/v and  plantain peel flour (0, 1 and 2 % (w/v. All treatments were  incubated at room temperature (± 28.5 °C for 10 hours, until the pH dropped to 4.2-4.6.The quality of Kefir was evaluated by  microbiological analysis (total of lactic acid bacteria, probiotics  viability, total yeast and chemical analysis (pH, lactose content,  alcohol content, fat content and dietary fiber. The data of total lactic acid bacteria, probiotics viability, total yeast, pH, lactose  content, alcohol content, fat content were evaluated by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test  (DMRT. Data of dietary fiber was evaluated by descriptive analysis. The research result showed that the addition of  Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 had a significant effect (p ≤  0.05 on decreasing pH, alcohol content and increasing total lactic  acid bacteria and probiotic viability. Plantain peel flour had  significantl effect (p ≤ 0.05 on increasing alcohol content and  total lactic acid bacteria. Kefir had 9.51 log cfu mL-1 of lactic acid  bacteria total; 8.65 log cfu mL-1 of probiotic viability; 6.13 log cfu  mL-1 of total yeast; 4.85 of pH; 3.14 % of lactose content; 0.096 % of alcohol content; 5.33 % of fat content; and 10.49 % of dietary fiber. This research concluded that kefir quality for all  treatments kefir were complied with Codex Standard 234-2003  while the best treatment was the kefir with the addition of 3 %  Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 and 1 % flour banana peel.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan tepung kulit pisang dan Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051  terhadap

  8. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir Anti-inflammatory activity of carbohydrate produced from aqueous fermentation of kefir

    Maria E. C. Moreira; Marcelo H. Santos; Ivan O. Pereira; Vany Ferraz; Luiz C. A. Barbosa; José M. Schneedorf

    2008-01-01

    Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest...

  9. Comparison of biotransformation of inorganic selenium by Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in lactic fermentation process of yogurt and kefir.

    Alzate, A; Fernández-Fernández, A; Pérez-Conde, M C; Gutiérrez, A M; Cámara, C

    2008-09-24

    The aim of the present study was to characterize, quantify, and compare the different selenium species that are produced when lactic fermentation with two different types of microorganisms, bacteria (Lactobacillus) and yeast (Saccharomyces), take place to produce yogurt and kefir, respectively, and to study the transformation process of these species as a function of time. These two dairy products were chosen for the study because they are highly consumed in different cultures. Moreover, the microorganisms present in the fermentation processes are different. While the bacteria Lactobacillus is the one responsible for yogurt fermentation, a partnership between bacteria and the yeast Saccharomyces causes kefir fermentation. A comparative study has been carried out by fermenting Se(IV) enriched milk in the presence of both types of microorganisms, where the concentration range studied was from 0.5 to 20 microg g (-1). Enzymatic extraction enabled selenium speciation profiles, obtained by anionic exchange and ion-pairing reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (IP-RP-HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) applied to the enriched samples showed segregated Se (0), at added concentrations higher than 5 microg g (-1). The main Se species formed depended on the type of microorganism involved in the fermentation process, SeCys 2 and MeSeCys being the main species generated in yogurt and SeMet in kefir. The results obtained are different for both kinds of samples. Lactic fermentation for yogurt produced an increment in selenocystine (SeCys 2) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), while fermentation to produce kefir also incremented the selenomethionine (SeMet) concentration. The Se species are stable for at least 10 and 15 days for kefir and yogurt, respectively. After this period, selenocystine concentration decreased, and the concentration of Se-methylselenocysteine was found to

  10. EFFECTS OF ORAL CLEAR KEFIR PROBIOTICS ON GLYCEMIC STATUS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIA WISTAR RATS

    Judiono .

    2014-09-01

    group as a positive control (ad libitum, (4 normal animals group as a negative control (ad libitum.Blood glucose was measured by enzymatic method. Lipid peroxidation measured of MDA-TBARs by spectrophotometry. SOD and GPX Antioxidants were measured by ELISA. Catalase was measured by spectrophotometry. Probiotics Clear kefir characterization was done by microbiology identification. Data were analyzed by One Way Anova, Kruskall Walis, Duncan, Mann Whitneytest with significance level p <0.05. The result showed that clear kefir supplementation 3.6 cc / day for 30 days administration, affected on blood glucose, MDA and increased antioxidant capacity. Statistical analysis showed that there were respectively decreased of glucose (p<0.001, MDA (p<0.001. SOD antioxidant capacity was increased (<0,05, in addition GPx and Cat were also inceased(p<0,001, except in control groups. Probiotics kefir was found as many as 10(6-10(9 cfu / mL and declined to 10(5 as the decrease in pH during storage, four species of probiotics were detected, such as: Lactobacillus Sp, Sp Lactococcus and Acetobacter and Saccharomyces Sp.In conclusion, kefir supplementation significantlydecreased the blood glucose level, level of MDA and increased of antioxidants capacity. The number of probiotics declined during storage.It is interesting to identify a potential clear kefir probiotics in a pathogenesis of the β cells pancreatic repair and stability product during storage for future study. Keywords: probiotic, hyperglycemia, free radicals, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant

  11. Effect of kefir and low-dose aspirin on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet.

    Kanbak, Güngör; Uzuner, Kubilay; Kuşat Ol, Kevser; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Kartkaya, Kazım; Şentürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We aim to study the effect of low-dose aspirin and kefir on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, high-salt (HS) (8.0% NaCl), HS+aspirin (10 mg/kg), HS+kefir (10.0%w/v), HS+aspirin +kefir. We measured sistolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic pressure, pulse pressure in the rats. Cathepsin B, L, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were determined from rat kidney tissues and rats clearance of creatinine calculated. Although HS diet increased significantly SBP, MAP, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure parameters compared the control values. They were not as high as accepted hypertension levels. When compared to HS groups, kefir groups significantly decrease Cathepsin B and DNA fragmentation levels. Caspase levels were elevated slightly in other groups according to control group. While, we also found that creatinine clearance was higher in HS+kefir and HS+low-dose aspirin than HS group. Thus, using low-dose aspirin had been approximately decreased of renal function damage. Kefir decreased renal function damage playing as Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. But, low-dose aspirin together with kefir worsened rat renal function damage. Cathepsin B might play role both apoptosis and prorenin-processing enzyme. But not caspase pathway may be involved in the present HS diet induced apoptosis. In conclusion, kefir and low-dose aspirin used independently protect renal function and renal damage induced by HS diet in rats.

  12. Antibacterial Effects of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Isolated from Kefir.

    Miao, Jianyin; Guo, Haoxian; Chen, Feilong; Zhao, Lichao; He, Liping; Ou, Yangwen; Huang, Manman; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Baoyan; Cao, Yong; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-04-27

    Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage used throughout the world for centuries. A cell-penetrating peptide, F3, was isolated from kefir by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, DEAE-52 ion exchange, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. F3 was determined to be a low molecular weight peptide containing one leucine and one tyrosine with two phosphate radicals. This peptide displayed antimicrobial activity across a broad spectrum of organisms including several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 μg/mL. Cellular penetration and accumulation of F3 were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The peptide was able to penetrate the cellular membrane of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Changes in cell morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that peptide F3 may be a good candidate for use as an effective biological preservative in agriculture and the food industry.

  13. Identification by PCR and evaluation of probiotic potential in yeast strains found in kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Daniela CASSANEGO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kefir is a product elaborated from the symbiotic fermentation of different microorganisms. The Kluyveromyces and Saccharomyces genera are the major representatives of the yeasts found in kefir microbiota. The only pobiotic yeast commercialized as an oral medication, is the Saccharomyces boulardii. The present work involved the microbiological quality examination of six kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria/RS, the yeasts isolation present in the samples and the identification of them by PCR (Polymerase chain reaction. Then, their probiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro technique. After that, microbiological analysis confirmed that kefir samples were suitable for consumption once the microbiological quality was established. Nineteen yeast strains were isolated from six different kefir samples; it was identified, by PCR analysis, but only three species were identified from these microorganisms in the present article: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniospora uvarum and Kazachstania unispora. Nevertheless, by simulating the passage of isolated strains through the gastrointestinal environment, it was observed that they could not be considered probiotics. The results indicate that, in an isolated way, the yeast presents in kefir samples, in the city of Santa Maria, RS, can´t be considered probiotics according to the tests performed.

  14. In vitro digestibility of goat milk and kefir with a new standardised static digestion method (INFOGEST cost action) and bioactivities of the resultant peptides.

    Nehir El, Sedef; Karakaya, Sibel; Simsek, Sebnem; Dupont, Didier; Menfaatli, Esra; Eker, Alper Tolga

    2015-07-01

    The hydrolysis degrees of goat milk and kefir during simulated gastrointestinal digestion and some bioactivities of the resulting peptides after fermentation and digestion were studied. A static in vitro digestion method by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST was used and goat milk and kefir were partially hydrolyzed during the gastric phase and had above 80% hydrolysis after duodenal digestion. There were no differences between the digestibility of goat milk and kefir (p > 0.05). Goat milk and kefir displayed about 7-fold antioxidant activity after digestion (p 0.05), however, after in vitro digestion calcium-binding capacity of the goat milk and kefir increased 2 and 5 fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Digested goat milk and kefir showed a higher dose-dependent inhibitory effect on α-amylase compared to undigested samples (p < 0.05). α-Glucosidase inhibitory activities and in vitro bile acid-binding capacities of the samples were not determined at the studied concentrations.

  15. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p < 0.05) fecal isobutyric, isovaleric and propionic acids as well as the total amount of fecal short chain fatty acids. Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  16. The influence of the dose of calcium bisglycinate on physicochemical properties, sensory analysis and texture profile of kefirs during 21 days of cold storage.

    Pawlos, Małgorzata; Znamirowska, Agata; Szajnar, Katarzyna; Kalicka, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    In the process of enrichment of dairy products a priority element is the proper selection of compounds that are a mineral carrier. Calcium bisglycinate is better absorbed by the body than inorganic forms of calcium. Moreover, the lactic acid which is produced in kefir fermentation and the presence of lactose have also a positive effect on the improvement of absorption of calcium. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the applied dose of calcium in the form of calcium bisglycinate on the physicochemical and sensory properties and texture of kefirs during 21-day period of cold storage. Processed cow milk was enriched with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg of calcium (for 100 g of milk), repasteurized (72°C, 1 min), cooled down (26°C), inoculated with Commercial VITAL kefir culture (Danisco, Poland) and fermented for 16 hours (26°C). The assessment of the influence of addition   of calcium bisglycinate on acidity, syneresis, texture and sensory characteristics (1-9 points) of kefirs was conducted at four fixed dates (after 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days of storage). During successive weeks of cold storage in all experimental groups there was observed a tendency to decrease general acidity. On the 1st and 7th days of cold storage reduced whey leakage was observed in kefirs enriched with 25 mg and 30 mg Ca/100 g of milk. With increasing doses of enrichment with calcium both the hardness, adhesiveness and gumminess of kefirs decreased. The applied doses of calcium did not cause changes in the sensory characteristics such as colour and consistency of the fermented beverages. Calcium bisglycinate may be used to enrich kefirs with calcium even with 30 mg of calcium in 100 g of milk without the modification of the product's parameters.

  17. Physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 isolated from Tibet kefir.

    Wang, Yanping; Ahmed, Zaheer; Feng, Wu; Li, Chao; Song, Shiying

    2008-10-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain, ZW3, was isolated from Tibet kefir grain and was identified as Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups, which correspond to a typical heteropolymeric polysaccharide. The GC analysis of ZW3 EPS revealed that it was glucogalactan in nature. Exopolymer showed similar flocculation stability like xanthan gum but better than guar gum with a melting point of 93.38 degrees C which is lower than xanthan gum (153.4 degrees C) and guar gum (490.11 degrees C). Compared with other commercially available hydrocolloids like xanthan gum, guar gum and locust gum ZW3 EPS showed much better emulsifying capability.

  18. Symbiosis between microorganisms from kombucha and kefir: Potential significance to the enhancement of kombucha function.

    Yang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Li, Bo; Luo, Yangchao; Yang, Li; Li, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 (G. sp. A4), which had strong ability to produce d-saccharic acid 1, 4 lactone (DSL), was the key functional bacteria isolated from the kombucha preserved. This paper investigated the interaction between G. sp. A4 and ten different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from kefir. The result suggested that the LAB promoted DSL production of G. sp. A4 to different extents, ranging from 4.86% to 86.70%. Symbiosis between G. sp. A4 and LAB was studied. LAB's metabolites, xylitol, and acetic acid, were utilized by G. sp. A4, and it promoted the growth of G. sp. A4 and yield of DSL. Therefore, in developing starter cultures for kombucha fermentation process, a mixed flora of LAB and G. sp. A4 would be the optimal combination.

  19. Fine Structure of Tibetan Kefir Grains and Their Yeast Distribution, Diversity, and Shift

    Lu, Man; Wang, Xingxing; Sun, Guowei; Qin, Bing; Xiao, Jinzhou; Yan, Shuling; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs), a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i) yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii) the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii) S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic associations between S

  20. Fine structure of Tibetan kefir grains and their yeast distribution, diversity, and shift.

    Man Lu

    Full Text Available Tibetan kefir grains (TKGs, a kind of natural starter for fermented milk in Tibet, China, host various microorganisms of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and occasionally acetic acid bacteria in a polysaccharide/protein matrix. In the present study, the fine structure of TKGs was studied to shed light on this unusual symbiosis with stereomicroscopy and thin sections. The results reveal that TKGs consist of numerous small grain units, which are characterized by a hollow globular structure with a diameter between 2.0 and 9.0 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 200 µm. A polyhedron-like net structure, formed mainly by the bacteria, was observed in the wall of the grain units, which has not been reported previously to our knowledge. Towards the inside of the grain unit, the polyhedron-like net structures became gradually larger in diameter and fewer in number. Such fine structures may play a crucial role in the stability of the grains. Subsequently, the distribution, diversity, and shift of yeasts in TKGs were investigated based on thin section, scanning electron microscopy, cloning and sequencing of D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene, real-time quantitative PCR, and in situ hybridization with specific fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes. These show that (i yeasts appear to localize on the outer surface of the grains and grow normally together to form colonies embedded in the bacterial community; (ii the diversity of yeasts is relatively low on genus level with three dominant species--Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Yarrowia lipolytica; (iii S. cerevisiae is the stable predominant yeast species, while the composition of Kluyveromyces and Yarrowia are subject to change over time. Our results indicate that TKGs are relatively stable in structure, and culture conditions to some extent shape the microbial community and interaction in kefir grains. These findings pave the way for further study of the specific symbiotic

  1. Use of JAR-Based Analysis for Improvement of Product Acceptance: A Case Study on Flavored Kefirs.

    Gere, Attila; Szabó, Zsófia; Pásztor-Huszár, Klára; Orbán, Csaba; Kókai, Zoltán; Sipos, László

    2017-05-01

    A common question of dairy product developments is the possible success of the new product. Several publications reported successful results using just-about-right (JAR) scales; although there is some debate about their advantages/disadvantages. This study highlights the limitations and opportunities of JAR scales and penalty analysis of fruit flavored kefirs. The first question is whether penalty analysis results help to improve the product and thus its overall liking (OAL)? The second question is what happens to those who rated the products "ideal" (JAR) before product development when evaluating the new products? Fruit flavored live-flora stirred-type kefir samples were formulated and evaluated by 92 consumers before and after the JAR-based product development. The OAL of two products significantly increased after product development. A new visualization tool is introduced, which shows what happens to those who rated the attribute as JAR but the attribute has been modified. A general product development scheme is also introduced for JAR-based kefir product development. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Optimization of processing conditions to improve antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Moosavi-Nasab, Marzieh

    2015-06-01

    A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate the effects of fermentation temperature (20-30 ºC) and kefir grains amount (2-8%w/v) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of apple juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed that the significant second-order polynomial regression equation with high R(2) (>0.86) was successfully fitted for all response as function of independent variable. The overall optimum region was found to be at the combined level of 7.56%w/v kefir grains and temperature of 24.82 ºC with the highest value for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. At this optimum point TPC, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, metal chelating effect, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation were 165.02 mgGA/l, 0.38 ml/1 ml, 0.757 (absorbance at 700 nm), 46.12 %, 65.33 % and 21 %, respectively. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between actual values and predicated values.

  3. Effects of Starter Culture and Storage Temperature on Functional, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Kefir during Storage

    Tayyebeh Sarlak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of starters and storage temperature (4 ºC, 25 ºC on microbiological and physicochemical properties, volatile compounds and sensory evaluation of kefir. Kefirs produced by KFA and Chr. Hansen starters were stored at 4 ºC and 25 ºC for 40 days. pH and acidity at 4 ºC did not change (p ≥ 0.05, while at 25 ºC pH and total solid decreased as well as acidity. Concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol increased (p < 0.05. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05 were observed in protein and non-protein-nitrogen for both samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that storage did not affect texture and color of samples at 4 ºC. Kefir produced by Chr. Hansen starter stored at 4 ºC had the highest acceptability until 40-day storage and was preferred by the panelists.

  4. The benefits of soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats are mediated by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity and decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity.

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Silva-Cutini, Mirian de Almeida; Moraes, Flávia de Souza Andrade; Pereira, Thiago de Melo Costa; Vasquez, Elisardo Corral; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Biancardi, Vinícia Campana; Maia, June Ferreira; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    We aimed to evaluate whether long-term treatment with the soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir affects mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac hypertrophy through the modulation of baroreflex sensitivity, ACE activity, and the inflammatory-to-anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs were treated with the soluble non-bacterial kefir fraction (SHR-kefir) or with kefir vehicle (SHR-soluble fraction of milk). Normotensive control Wistar Kyoto animals received the soluble fraction of milk. All treatments were administered by gavage (0.3 mL/100g/body weight), once daily for eight weeks. At the end, after basal MAP and Heart Rate (HT) measurement, barorreflex sensitivity was evaluated through in bolus administrations of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (AP 50 [arterial pressure 50%], the lower plateau, and HR range were measured). ACE activity and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10) were evaluated by ELISA. Cardiac hypertrophy was analysed morphometrically. Compared to SHR control, SHR-kefir exhibited a significant decrease in both MAP (SHR: 184 ± 5; SHR-Kefir: 142 ± 8 mmHg), and HR (SHR: 360 ± 10; SHR-kefir: 310 ± 14 bpm). The non-bacterial fraction of kefir also reduced cardiac hypertrophy, TNF-α-to-IL10 ratio, and ACE activity in SHRs. SHR-kefir baroreflex sensitivity, resulted in a partial but significant recovery of baroreflex gain, as demonstrated by improvements in AP 50 , the lower plateau, and HR range. In summary, our results indicate that long-term administration of the non-bacterial fraction of kefir promotes a significant decrease in both MAP and HR, by improving baroreflex, and reduces cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs, likely via ACE inhibition, and reduction of the TNF-α-to-IL10 ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  6. Níveis séricos de cortisol basal em ratos sob tratamento oral com kefir

    Bárbara de Oliveira Prado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A via de metabolismo do kefir ainda é desconhecida em muitas funções, pois há poucos estudos que a evidenciam. Assim a proposta do presente estudo é avaliar o efeito do kefir sobre os níveis séricos de cortisol basal. Um Estudo experimental em que foram utilizados 60 ratos, machos, wistar, peso de 180±30g, sendo 20 animais de experimento por 07, 14 e 21dias, divididos em Kefir 20g/200ml (GK; Dexametasona 0,125mg/kg (GD; Ranitidina 0,85mg/kg (GR; Omeprazol 0,68mg/kg (GO; Controle água ad libitum (GCO. Os resultados foram avaliados pelo Software BioEstat 5.0, e para verificação do nível de significância (α<5% usou-se a ANOVA com o teste Tukey-kramer e Bartlett’s test. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que o cortisol basal (µg/dL do sangue de 60 ratos (Rattus norvegicus submetidos ao tratamento, com D7 (P<0.05, evidenciou no GR uma média representativa sobre os demais grupos com 2.2075 μg/dl, e desvio padrão (SD de 0.4329 μg/dl. Já em D14, as alterações evidenciadas foram relativamente mínimas e pouco representativas, com D21 quando relacionado o GO e GR (P<0.01, ao que tange a relação entre o GK e o GD apresentou diferenças significativas (P< 0,001. A média no GK foi de 3,4 μg/dl com um SD de 0,3238 μg/dl sobre os demais grupos experimentais, o GD apresentou níveis muito baixos de cortisol com 0,0275μg/dl e o SD de 0,009574 μg/dl. Conclui-se que o Kefir, quando consumido em doses contínuas e diariamente, repercutiu na elevação dos níveis séricos de cortisol. Não foi possível estabelecer a via de mecanismo que tenha contribuído para tal, entretanto, esse aumento ocorreu sem que os animais sofressem qualquer tipo de dano, ou seja, os animais submetidos ao tratamento com kefir mostraram-se mais vistosos, pelagem firme e com brilho, esboçando aspecto saudável.

  7. The effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate on serum immune parameters, resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae and growth performance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Van Doan, Hien; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Tapingkae, Wanaporn; Khamtavee, Pimporn

    2017-03-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) (singular or combined) on non-specific immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish with average weight of 18.60 ± 0.04 g were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) at density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed experimental diets as follows: 0 g kg -1 LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg -1 LMWSA (Diet 2), 40 g kg -1 kefir (Diet 3), and 10 g kg -1 LMWSA + 40 g kg -1 kefir (Diet 4) for 50 days. At the end of the feeding trial, serum lysozyme (SL), phagocytosis (PI), respiratory burst (RB), and alternative complement (ACH50) activities as well as growth performance were measured. Singular and combined administration of kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LMWSA) significantly increased serum SL, PI, RB, and ACH50 activities compared control group (P < 0.05); the highest innate immune responses were observed in fish fed combinational diet (kefir + LMWSA) (P < 0.05). The results of experimental challenge revealed significantly higher resistance against Streptococcus agalactiae in fish fed supplemented diets and the highest post challenge survival rate was observed in synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). Similar results obtained in case of growth parameters. Feeding on supplemented diet significantly improved SGR and FCR and the highest growth parameters was observed in fish fed synbiotic diet (P < 0.05). These finding revealed that combined administration of dietary kefir and LMWSA can be considered for improving immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Goat Milk Kefir Supplemented with Porang Glucomannan Improves Lipid Profile and Haematological Parameter in Rat Fed High Fat and High Fructose Diet

    Nurliyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diet with a high fat and high sugar is associated with an increased incindence of the metabolic syndrome. Kefir has been known as a natural probiotic, while glucomannan from porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus tuber was demonstrated as prebiotic in vivo. Probiotics and prebiotics can be used adjuvant nutritional therapy for metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of goat milk kefir supplemented with porang glucomannan on the lipid profile and haematological parameters in rats fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHF diet.

  9. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir Anti-inflammatory activity of carbohydrate produced from aqueous fermentation of kefir

    Maria E. C. Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest that the CSQ exerted an anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Aceitação e perfil sensorial das cachaças produzidas com Kefir e Saccharomyces cerevisae Acceptance and sensory profile of cachaça produced using Kefir and Saccharomyces cerevisae

    Anita Saraiva Dornelles

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A levedura Saccharomyces cerevisae é o microrganismo mais utilizado industrialmente nas destilarias, mas outros microrganismos também são capazes de produzir etanol utilizando matérias-primas açucaradas como substrato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o perfil sensorial e a aceitação da aguardente de cana produzida através da fermentação alcoólica com grânulos de Kefir, comparando-a ao produto obtido tradicionalmente. Pelo método de ADQ, 8 provadores treinados avaliaram os seguintes descritores: aroma alcoólico e de cachaça, sabor alcoólico e de cachaça, gosto amargo e ardência. O teste de aceitação foi realizado por 57 consumidores de aguardente, utilizando-se uma escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos para avaliar a aceitação do aroma e a aceitação global. A cachaça com Kefir apresentou maior intensidade de aroma alcoólico e gosto amargo, obtendo menor aceitação global que a cachaça de levedura. Dessa forma, o produto foi considerado de grande potencial visto que apresentou satisfatório percentual de aprovação entre os consumidores.Saccharomyces cerevisae is the main industrially used yeast to produce sugar cane spirits (cachaça. However, other microorganisms are able to produce ethanol using sugar as substrate. This work aimed at determining the sensory profile of cachaça produced through the alcoholic fermentation with Kefir's granules and its acceptance. The acceptance analysis was performed by 57 consumers using a 9 point structured hedonic scale to evaluate the aroma and the general acceptance of the product. The QDA method, with 8 trained tasters, was used to evaluate the following product descriptors: alcoholic aroma, alcoholic flavor, and burning and bitter taste. The evaluated samples did not presented statistical differences (p < 0.05 among each other regarding the aroma acceptance. However, the cachaça produced using bakery yeast presented higher acceptance scores. On the other hand

  11. Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 8327: An α-glucan producing-strain isolated from kefir grains.

    Gangoiti, M V; Puertas, A I; Hamet, M F; Peruzzo, P J; Llamas, M G; Medrano, M; Prieto, A; Dueñas, M T; Abraham, A G

    2017-08-15

    Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 8327 is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producer strain isolated from kefir with promising properties for the development of functional foods. The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of the EPS synthesized by this strain grown in skim milk or semidefined medium (SDM). Additionally, genes involved in EPS synthesis were detected by PCR. L. plantarum produces an EPS with a molecular weight of 10 4 Da in both media. When grown in SDM produce an heteropolysaccharide composed mainly of glucose, glucosamine and rhamnose meanwhile the EPS produced in milk was composed exclusively of glucose indicating the influence of the sugar source. FTIR spectra of this EPS showed signals attributable to an α-glucan. Both by 1 H NMR and methylation analysis it was possible to determine that this polysaccharide is a branched α-(1→4)-d-glucan composed of 80% linear α-(1→4)-d-glucopyranosyl units and 19% (1→4)-d-glucopyranosyl units substituted at O-3 by single α-d-glucopyranosil residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FTIR spectroscopy structural analysis of the interaction between Lactobacillus kefir S-layers and metal ions

    Gerbino, E.; Mobili, P.; Tymczyszyn, E.; Fausto, R.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.

    2011-02-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to structurally characterize the interaction of S-layer proteins extracted from two strains of Lactobacillus kefir (the aggregating CIDCA 8348 and the non-aggregating JCM 5818) with metal ions (Cd +2, Zn +2, Pb +2 and Ni +2). The infrared spectra indicate that the metal/protein interaction occurs mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of Asp and Glut residues, with some contribution of the NH groups belonging to the peptide backbone. The frequency separation between the νCOO - anti-symmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the spectra of the S-layers in presence of the metal ions was found to be ca. 190 cm -1 for S-layer CIDCA 8348 and ca. 170 cm -1 for JCM 5818, denoting an unidentate coordination in both cases. Changes in the secondary structures of the S-layers induced by the interaction with the metal ions were also noticed: a general trend to increase the amount of β-sheet structures and to reduce the amount of α-helices was observed. These changes allow the proteins to adjust their structure to the presence of the metal ions at minimum energy expense, and accordingly, these adjustments were found to be more important for the bigger ions.

  13. Interaction of S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus kefir with model membranes and cells.

    Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Santos, Nuno C; Disalvo, E Anibal; Semorile, Liliana

    2018-06-01

    In previous works, it was shown that S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus kefir were able to recrystallize and stabilize liposomes, this feature reveling a great potential for developing liposomal-based carriers. Despite previous studies on this subject are important milestones, a number of questions remain unanswered. In this context, the feasibility of S-layer proteins as a biomaterial for drug delivery was evaluated in this work. First, S-layer proteins were fully characterized by electron microscopy, 2D-electrophoresis, and anionic exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Afterward, interactions of S-layer proteins with model lipid membranes were evaluated, showing that proteins adsorb to the lipid surface following a non-fickean or anomalous diffusion, when positively charged lipid were employed, suggesting that electrostatic interaction is a key factor in the recrystallization process on these proteins. Finally, the interaction of S-layer coated liposomes with Caco-2 cell line was assessed: First, cytotoxicity of formulations was tested showing no cytotoxic effects in S-layer coated vesicles. Second, by flow cytometry, it was observed an increased ability to transfer cargo molecules into Caco-2 cells from S-layer coated liposomes in comparison to control ones. All data put together, supports the idea that a combination of adhesive properties of S-layer proteins concomitant with higher stability of S-layer coated liposomes represents an exciting starting point in the development of new drug carriers.

  14. Characterization of dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3, water kefir grains isolate

    Miljković Miona G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of dextransucrase (DS by Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3, novel isolate from water kefir grain, was studied and optimized. Bacterial supernatant reached activity of 3.1 U/ml when the culture was grown at 23 C and under static culture condition using classical Tsuchiya medium for DS production. The increase of sucrose concentration to 7% led to an increase of DS activity by 52% compared to the control. Medium with 2% beef extract and 1% yeast extract resulted in 4.52 U/ml, which was 47% higher than in the control (with 2% yeast extract. Finally, the increase of K2HPO4 concentration from 2 to 3% resulted in the increased enzyme activity by 28%. Enzyme purified by polyethylene glycol 400 fractionation displayed maximum activity at 30°C and pH 5.4. Zymogram analysis confirmed the presence of DS of approximately 180 kDa. The addition of divalent cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Co2+ led to a minor increase of DS activity, while the addition of Mn2+ was the most prominent with 73% increase. These findings classify dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3 as promising candidate for production of dextran, which has numerous applications in various industries. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR 31035

  15. Honey Addition in Kefir Whey Drink in Term of Organoleptic Quality, Colour, and Turbidity

    Firman Jaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum honey addition on kefir whey drink based on organoleptic quality (colour, aroma, taste, colour test, and turbidity. The method used in this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design (CDR by used 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were P0 = without the honey added, P1=added by 20% honey, P2 = added by 30% honey and P3 = added by 40% honey (v/v. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, if there were significantly difference, the data would analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that honey addition gave highly difference significant (P<0.01 on organoleptic quality (colour, aroma, taste, turbidity and lightness (L*. Honey addition didn’t give significantly difference (P<0.05 on redness (a* and yellowness (b*. The conclusion of this research was the best treatment will the value is added by 40% honey with colour 3.25±0.78, aroma 3.50±1.14, taste 3.75±1.01, lightness (L 31.57±0.5, redness (b* 0.95±0.12, yellowness (b* 0.050±0.36, and turbidity 306.7±6.65 NTU

  16. Characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 isolated from Tibet Kefir.

    Wang, Ji; Zhao, Xiao; Tian, Zheng; Yang, Yawei; Yang, Zhennai

    2015-07-10

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain YW11 isolated from Tibet Kefir was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and the strain was shown to produce 90 mgL(-1) of EPS when grown in a semi-defined medium. The molecular mass of the EPS was 1.1 × 10(5)Da. The EPS was composed of glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2.71:1, with possible presence of N-acetylated sugar residues in the polysaccharide as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Rheological studies showed that the EPS had higher viscosity in skim milk, at lower temperature, or at acidic pH. The viscous nature of the EPS was confirmed by observation with scanning electron microscopy that demonstrated a highly branched and porous structure of the polysaccharide. The atomic force microscopy of the EPS further revealed presence of many spherical lumps, facilitating binding with water in aqueous solution. The EPS had a higher degradation temperature (287.7°C), suggesting high thermal stability of the EPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IDENTIFICAÇÃO PRESUNTIVA DE LEVEDURAS DE INTERESSE BIOTECNOLÓGICO EM GRÃOS DE KEFIR

    Fernanda Mincev ANTONIASSI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Os grãos de Kefir são constituídos por uma matriz de polissacarídeos, ricos em micro-organismos simbióticos, gerando após a fermentação de açúcares, uma bebida probiótica que recebe o mesmo nome. A vasta população microbiana presente nestes grãos, incluindo leveduras e bactérias, oferece diversas características únicas à bebida. Estudos apontam que esta possui efeitos antitumorais, anti-inflamatórios, antimicrobiano, modulatório do sistema imune, anticolesterolêmico, dentre outros, devido as moléculas secretadas pelas células microbianas presente no microambiente dos grãos de Kefir. Diante disso, o objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e identificar, presuntivamente, leveduras presentes nos grãos de Kefir, possíveis produtoras de produtos de interesse biotecnológico. Para tanto, foram utilizados grãos da região de Bauru/SP, mantidos em fermentação em água/açúcar mascavo e em leite. Em seguida, os grãos foram triturados e semeados em ágar Sabouraud com cloranfenicol. Os isolados com características macroscópicas leveduriformes foram analisados por exame direto, prova do tubo germinativo e prova da ureia. Os dados obtidos foram comparados com atlas micológicos e chaves de identificação. No total foram isoladas seis colônias diferentes com presença de leveduras como Candida sp. e Saccharomyces sp., que possuem grande relevância para os processos biotecnológicos.

  18. Effects of Microbial Transglutaminase on Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensorial Properties of Kefir Produced by Using Mixture Cow’s and Soymilk

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects microbial transglutaminase (m-TGs) on the physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of kefir produced by using mix cow and soymilk. Kefir batches were prepared using 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 Units m-TGs for per g of milk protein. Adding m-TGs to milk caused an increase in the pH and viscosity and caused a decrease in titratable acidity and syneresis in the kefir samples. Total bacteria, lactobacilli and streptococci counts decreased, while yeast counts increased in all the samples during storage. Alcohols and acids compounds have increased in all the samples except in the control samples, while carbonyl compounds have decreased in all the samples during storage (1-30 d). The differences in the percentage of alcohols, carbonyl compounds and acids in total volatiles on the 1st and the 30th d of storage were observed at 8.47-23.52%, 6.94-25.46% and 59.64-63.69%, respectively. The consumer evaluation of the kefir samples showed that greater levels of acceptability were found for samples which had been added 1.5 U m-TGs for per g of milk protein. PMID:28943774

  19. Cultivating conditions effects on kefiran production by the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria imbedded within kefir grains.

    Zajšek, Katja; Goršek, Andreja; Kolar, Mitja

    2013-08-15

    The influence of fermentation temperature, agitation rate, and additions of carbon sources, nitrogen sources, vitamins and minerals on production of kefiran by kefir grains lactic acid bacteria was studied in a series of experiments. The main aim of the work was to increase the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production where customised milk was used as fermentation medium. It was proved that the controlling of culturing conditions and the modifying of fermentation medium conditions (i.e., carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources and vitamins) can dramatically enhance the production of the EPS. The temperature and agitation rate were critical for kefiran production during the 24 h cultivation of grains; our optimised conditions being 25°C and 80 rpm, respectively. In addition, when optimising the effects of additional nutrition, it was found that 5% (w/v) lactose, 0.1% (w/v) thiamine, and 0.1% (w/v) FeCl3 led to the maximal production of EPS. The results indicate that nutrients can be utilised to improve the production of EPS and that good kefir grains growth does not appear to be a determining factor for a high production yield of EPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Brazilian kefir-fermented milk: An in vitro evaluation of probiotic properties.

    Lima, Meire Dos Santos Falcão de; Souza, Karoline Mirella Soares de; Albuquerque, Wendell Wagner Campos; Teixeira, José António Couto; Cavalcanti, Maria Taciana Holanda; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2017-09-01

    The therapeutic use of probiotics for supporting the antibiotic action against gastrointestinal disorders is a current trend and emerging applications have gained popularity because of their support for various microbiological activities in digestive processes. Microorganisms isolated from kefir with great probiotic properties, in addition to high resistance to harsh environmental conditions, have been widely researched. Administration of probiotic yeasts offers a number of advantages, when compared to bacteria, because of particular characteristics as their larger cell size. In the present study, 28 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, after in vitro digestion of kefir-fermented milk, and identified by molecular based approaches. A screening was performed to determine important quality requirements for probiotics including: antagonistic and antioxidant activities, β-galactosidase synthesis, autoaggregation, surface hydrophobicity and adhesion to epithelial cells. The results showed strains: with antagonistic activity against microbial pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis; able to produce β-galactosidase; with antioxidant activity levels higher than 90%; with hydrophobicity activity and autoaggregation ability (evaluated by adhesion test, where all the strains presented adhesion to mice ileal epithelial cells). These findings are relevant and the strains are recommended for further in vivo studies as well as for potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Chen, Yen-Po; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8) CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  2. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on germ-free mice.

    Yen-Po Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a novel probiotic strain that was isolated from kefir grains. Previously, we have demonstrated the immunoregulatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic and anti-colitis abilities of L. kefiranofaciens M1 in a number of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. However, whether the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 are elicited directly on the host or act by regulating the host's microbiota remains unknown. A number of studies have used germ-free or gnotobiotic animals to investigate the relationship between probiotics and colitis; therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on germ-free mice. Such an approach should help in determining the direct effects of L. kefiranofaciens M1 on the host itself. Four-week-old female germ-free mice were inoculated intragastrically with 2×10(8 CFU/mouse L. kefiranofaciens M1 once or at 2-day intervals for 14 days. Bacterial colonization, the Th1/Th2 cytokine profile of the mice's splenocytes and the anti-colitis effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. The strongest response in terms of splenic Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-12 production upon TLR activation was detected in the continuous treatment group when comparing to the single inoculation group and the germ-free control. In addition, continuous inoculation with L. kefiranofaciens M1 was found to ameliorate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in germ-free mice. However, L. kefiranofaciens M1 failed to colonize the host. Thus it would seem that L. kefiranofaciens M1 is likely to act directly on the host and not be involved in microbiota regulation.

  3. Probiotic Properties and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 Isolated from Tibetan Kefir Grains.

    Tang, Wei; Li, Chao; He, Zengguo; Pan, Fen; Pan, Shuo; Wang, Yanping

    2017-11-20

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from traditional Chinese Tibetan kefir grains. Its antioxidant properties had been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo previously. In the present study, the probiotic characteristics of this strain were further evaluated by investigating its acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity, and autoaggregation, respectively. In addition, the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was applied to test the antioxidant capacity of the isolate in different growth phases. Same method was also used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of its fermentation supernatant, cell-free extract, and intact cell quantitatively. The results of probiotic characteristic tests showed that MA2 could survive at pH 2.5 and 0.3% bile salt. Meanwhile, the measurements of cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation were 45.29 ± 2.15 and 6.30 ± 0.34%, respectively. The results of cellular antioxidant activity tests indicated that MA2 had high antioxidant potential. The CAA value of logarithmic phase cell-free extract of MA2 (39,450.00 ± 424.05 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g sample) was significantly higher than that in stationary phase cell-free extract (3395.98 ± 126.06 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g sample) and that of fermentation supernatant in logarithmic phase (2174.41 ± 224.47 μmol quercetin equivalents/100 g sample) (p < 0.05). The CAA method was successively applied to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of MA2 in this study, which suggests that it could be used as a useful method for lactic acid bacteria antioxidant potential evaluation.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Lactobacillus plantarum SKT109 from Tibet Kefir

    Wang Ji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum SKT109 was isolated and identified from Tibet Kefir, and the exopolysaccharride (EPS-producing properties of the strain were evaluated. Growth of strain SKT109 in a semi-defined medium at 37°C increased the viscosity of the medium, corresponding to production of an EPS (58.66 mg/L. The EPS was isolated and purified, and it was shown to consist of fructose and glucose in an approximate molar ratio of 3:1, with an average molecular weight of 2.1×106 Da. The aqueous solution of EPS at 1% (w/v exhibited shear thinning behavior. Microstructural studies of the EPS demonstrated a highly compact structure with a smooth surface, facilitating formation of film by the polymer; the EPS was composed of many different sizes of spherical lumps with tendency to form molecular aggregates. Studies on the milk fermentation characteristics of L. plantarum SKT109 showed that the strain survived well in fermented milk with counts about 8.0 log cfu/g during 21 days of storage at 4°C. The use of the EPS-producing strain improved the rheology of the fermented milk without causing post-acidification during storage. Particularly, L. plantarum SKT109 improved the fermented milk flavor by increasing the concentration of characteristic flavor compounds and eliminating those with dis gusting flavors. The results of the present study indicated that EPS-producing L. plantarum SKT109 could serve as a promising candidate for further exploitation in fermented foods.

  5. Role of S-layer proteins in the biosorption capacity of lead by Lactobacillus kefir.

    Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Araujo-Andrade, Cuauhtémoc; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The role of S-layer proteins (SLP) on the Pb(2+) sequestrant capacity by Lactobacillus kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 was investigated. Cultures in the stationary phase were treated with proteinase K. A dot blot assay was carried out to assess the removal of SLP. Strains with and without SLP were exposed to 0-0.5 mM Pb(NO3)2. The maximum binding capacity (q max ) and the affinity coefficient (b) were calculated using the Langmuir equation. The structural effect of Pb(2+) on microorganisms with and without SLP was determined using Raman spectroscopy. The bacterial interaction with Pb(2+) led to a broadening in the phosphate bands (1,300-1,200 cm(-1) region) and strong alterations on amide and carboxylate-related bands (νCOO(-) as and νCOO(-) s). Microorganisms without SLP removed higher percentages of Pb(2+) and had higher q max than those bearing SLP. Isolated SLP had much lower q max and also removed lower percentages of Pb(2+) than the corresponding whole microorganisms. The hydrofobicity of both strains dramatically dropped when removing SLP. When bearing SLP, strains do not expose a large amount of charged groups on their surfaces, thus making less efficient the Pb(2+) removal. On the contrary, the extremely low hydrofobicity of microorganisms without SLP (and consequently, their higher capacity to remove Pb(2+)) can be explained on the basis of a greater exposure of charged chemical groups for the interaction with Pb(2+). The viability of bacteria without SLP was not significantly lower than that of bacteria bearing SLP. However, microorganisms without SLP were more prone to the detrimental effect of Pb(2+), thus suggesting that SLP acts as a protective rather than as a sequestrant layer.

  6. Microbial ecology and quality assurance in food fermentation systems. The case of kefir grains application.

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation technology has become a modern method for food production the last decades as a process for enhancing product stability, safety and sensory standards. The main reason for this development is the increasing consumers' demand for safe and high quality food products. The above has led the scientific community to the thorough study for the appropriate selection of specific microorganisms with desirable properties such as bacteriocin production, and probiotic properties. The main food products produced through fermentation activity are bread, wine, beer cheese and other dairy products. The microorganisms conducting the above processes are mainly yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. The end products of carbohydrate catabolism by these microorganisms contribute not only to preservation as it was believed years ago, but also to the flavour, aroma and texture and to the increase of the nutritional quality by thereby helping determine unique product characteristics. Thus, controlling the function of specific microorganisms or the succession of microorganisms that dominate the microflora is therefore advantageous, because it can increase product quality, functionality and value. Throughout the process of the discovery of microbiological diversity in various fermented food systems, the development of starter culture technology has gained more scientific attention, and it could be used for the control of the manufacturing operation, and management of product quality. In the frame of this review the presentation of the quality enhancement of most consumed fermented food products around the world is attempted and the new trends in production of fermented food products, such as bread is discussed. The review is focused in kefir grains application in bread production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. Results: An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H2O drinking water; (2) mock: H2O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg−1)+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg−1)+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Conclusion: Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake

  8. Kefir peptides prevent high-fructose corn syrup-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a murine model by modulation of inflammation and the JAK2 signaling pathway.

    Chen, H L; Tsai, T C; Tsai, Y C; Liao, J W; Yen, C C; Chen, C M

    2016-12-12

    In recent years, people have changed their eating habits, and high-fructose-containing bubble tea has become very popular. High-fructose intake has been suggested to be a key factor that induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Kefir, a fermented milk product composed of microbial symbionts, has demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antibacterial, antioxidant and immunostimulating effects. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of kefir peptides on high-fructose-induced hepatic steatosis and the possible molecular mechanism. An animal model of 30% high-fructose-induced NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice was established. The experiment is divided into the following six groups: (1) normal: H 2 O drinking water; (2) mock: H 2 O+30% fructose; (3) KL: low-dose kefir peptides (50 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (4) KM: medium-dose kefir peptides (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; (5) KH: high-dose kefir peptides (150 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose; and (6) CFM: commercial fermented milk (100 mg kg -1 )+30% fructose. The results show that kefir peptides improve fatty liver syndrome by decreasing body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, insulin and hepatic triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids as well as the inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) that had been elevated in fructose-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, kefir peptides markedly increased phosphorylation of AMPK to downregulate its targeted enzymes, ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1), and inhibited de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, kefir peptides activated JAK2 to stimulate STAT3 phosphorylation, which can translocate to the nucleus, and upregulated several genes, including the CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Our data have demonstrated that kefir peptides can improve the symptoms of NAFLD, including body weight, energy intake, inflammatory reaction and the

  9. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Fathi, Yasamin; Faghih, Shiva; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad Javad; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2016-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether increasing dairy intake without energy restriction would lead to weight loss. We aimed to compare the potential weight-reducing effects of kefir drink (a probiotic dairy product) and milk in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. One hundred and forty-four subjects were assessed for eligibility in this single-center, multi-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-five eligible women aged 25-45 years were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as control, milk, and kefir, to receive an outpatient dietary regimen for 8 weeks. Subjects in the control group received a diet providing a maintenance level of energy intake, containing 2 servings/day of low-fat dairy products, while those in the milk and kefir groups received a weight maintenance diet, containing 2 additional servings/day (a total of 4 servings/day) of dairy products from low-fat milk or commercial kefir drink, respectively. Anthropometric outcomes including weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 2 weeks. Fifty-eight subjects completed the study. Using analysis of covariance models in the intention-to-treat population (n = 75), we found that at 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir and milk groups had significantly greater reductions in weight, BMI, and WC compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.01). However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink leads to a similar weight loss, compared with milk, in a dairy-rich non-energy-restricted diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. However, further studies are warranted.

  10. Evaluation of a functional soy product with addition of soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture

    Tahis Regina Baú

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, sensory properties and stability of a functional soy product with soy fiber and fermented with probiotic kefir culture. The product was characterized by the chemical composition, color and sensory analysis. The stability of the product was evaluated by pH, acidity, viscosity, firmness, syneresis measurements and cells counts. The functional soy product presented better chemical composition and difference in color compared to the fermented product without fiber. Sensory analysis showed that the functional soy product had good acceptance and had better firmness and reduced syneresis compared to fermented product without fiber. The lactic acid bacteria counts decreased slightly during 28 days at 4°C of the storage and the product showed good microbiological stability. The functional soy product due to high Lactococcus lactis counts could be considered as a probiotic for the entire storage period.

  11. Kefir and champagne vinegar to defeat bacterial vaginosis in woman, avoiding oral metronidazole, clindamycin and bothersome douchings

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scope ouf our study is to treat with natural remedies vaginitis in woman, when it has been detected the disease originates from bacterical assault (Gardnerella vaginalis and/or Streptococca spp. in order to avoid the administration of perilous antibiotics and elicit sexual desire and eliminate pain during urination in the woman who has suffered from this disease after 4-5 days only. We have to proceed with the preliminary phase of a simplest test (the ammin whiff test and determine the type of vaginitis and thus treat it using champagne or cider vinegar to adjust mucosal pH and kefir, a fermented beverage, that is extremely rich in mesophyllic bacteria, apt to reveal an important and suggestive function regard vaginal microbes.

  12. ANÁLISE SENSORIAL E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE KEFIR ARTESANAL PRODUZIDO A PARTIR DE LEITE DE CABRA E DE LEITE DE VACA

    Felipe Alves de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O kefir vem sendo considerado como um alimento funcional, produzido através da fermentação lática e alcoólica do leite por bactérias e leveduras, possuindo consistência semelhante à de um iogurte, mas de valor nutricional e terapêutico muito maior. É originário das montanhas dos Cáucaso e da Ásia Central tendo sido consumido por milhares de anos pela população das montanhas que relacionam seu uso diário com a longevidade e saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um kefir a base de leite de vaca e outro a base de leite de cabra e avaliar suas características microbiológicas e a aceitabilidade de cada um dos produtos.

  13. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from milk kefir grains ameliorates experimental colitis in vitro and in vivo.

    Chen, Y P; Hsiao, P J; Hong, W S; Dai, T Y; Chen, M J

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine products and intestinal epithelial barrier restoration as well as the putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. In vitro results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 could strengthen the epithelial barrier function in vitro by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and significantly upregulated the level of the chemokine CCL-20 at both the apical and basolateral sites. The in vivo effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on the regulation of intestinal physiology indicate that this strain could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis with a significant attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening. Production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased and that of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in the DSS-treated mice given Lb. kefiranofaciens M1. The putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which was involved in probiotic-induced cytokine production in vitro and in attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening in vivo. In this study, the kefir lactobacillus Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 clearly demonstrated an anticolitis effect. Based on these results, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 has the potential to be applied in fermented dairy products as an alternative therapy for intestinal disorders. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of the oral administration of the products derived from milk fermentation by kefir microflora on immune stimulation.

    Vinderola, Gabriel; Perdigón, Gabriela; Duarte, Jairo; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2006-11-01

    Nutritional status has a major impact on the immune system. Probiotic effects ascribed to fermented dairy products arise not only from whole microorganisms but also from metabolites (peptides, exopolysaccharides) produced during the fermentation. We recently demonstrated the immunomodulating capacity of kefir in a murine model. We now aimed at studying the immunomodulating capacity in vivo of the products derived from milk fermentation by kefir microflora (PMFKM) on the gut. BALB/c mice received the PMFKM for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. IgA+ and IgG+ cells were determined on histological slices of the small and large intestine. IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFNgamma and TNFalpha were determined in the gut, intestinal fluid and blood serum. IL-6 was also determined in the supernatant of a primary culture of small intestine epithelial cells challenged with PMFKM. PMFKM up-regulated IL-6 secretion, necessary for B-cell terminal differentiation to IgA secreting cells in the gut lamina propria. There was an increase in the number of IgA+ cells in the small and large intestine. The increase in the number of IgA+ cells was accompanied by an increase in the number of IL-4+, IL-10+ and IL-6+ cells in the small intestine. Effects of PMFKM in the large intestine were less widely apparent than the ones observed at the small intestine lamina propria. All cytokines that increased in the small intestine lamina propria, also did so in blood serum, reflecting here the immunostimulation achieved in the gut mucosa. We observed that the PMFKM induced a mucosal response and it was able to up and down regulate it for protective immunity, maintaining the intestinal homeostasis, enhancing the IgA production at both the small and large intestine level. The opportunity exists then to manipulate the constituents of the lumen of the intestine through dietary means, thereby enhancing the health status of the host.

  15. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ∘Bé densities as compared with higher initial ∘Bé densities.

  16. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14 C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities

  17. Evaluation of the isoflavone and total phenolic contents of kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation.

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Sanches Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Daniele; Handa, Cintia; Guelfi, Marcela; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the isoflavone and total phenolic contents in kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation (DSS). Soymilk was fermented with kefir culture (0.02UC/L) at 25°C for 15h and stored at 4°C for 4days. After the fermentation and storage, the isoflavone and total phenolic contents were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. The cell viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeast was evaluated. Fermentation promoted an increase of approximately 3log CFU/g cycles of the microorganisms and the storage process did not alter the aglycone isoflavones and total phenolic contents. The content of aglycone isoflavones increased 2-fold, and the total phenolic content increased 9-fold. Therefore, kefir-fermented soymilk is a good source of aglycone isoflavones and phenolics, since the content of these substances was increased significantly after the in vitro digestive system simulation of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kefir alleviates obesity and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulation of gut microbiota and mycobiota: targeted and untargeted community analysis with correlation of biomarkers.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Jeong, Dana; Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed. Compared to the control, mice in the kefir group exhibited a significantly lower body weight (34.18 g vs. 40.24 g; p=0.00004) and histopathological liver lesion score (1.13 vs. 3.25; p=0.002). Remarkably, the kefir-fed mice also harbored more Lactobacillus/Lactococcus (7.01 vs. 6.32 log CFU/g), total yeast (6.07 vs. 5.01 log CFU/g) and Candida (5.56 vs. 3.88 log CFU/g). Kefir administration also up-regulated genes related to fatty acid oxidation, PPARα and AOX, in both the liver and adipose tissue (PPARα, 2.95- and 2.15-fold; AOX, 1.89- and 1.9-fold, respectively). The plasma concentration of IL-6, a proinflammatory marker, was significantly reduced following kefir consumption (50.39 pg/ml vs. 111.78 pg/ml; p=0.03). Strikingly, the populations of Lactobacillus/Lactococcus, total yeast and Candida were strongly correlated with PPARα gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissue (r=0.599, 0.580 and 0.562, respectively). These data suggest that kefir consumption modulates gut microbiota and mycobiota in HFD-fed mice, which prevents obesity and NAFLD via promoting fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kefir-isolated bacteria and yeasts inhibit Shigella flexneri invasion and modulate pro-inflammatory response on intestinal epithelial cells.

    Bolla, P A; Abraham, A G; Pérez, P F; de Los Angeles Serradell, M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a kefir-isolated microbial mixture containing three bacterial and two yeast strains (MM) to protect intestinal epithelial cells against Shigella flexneri invasion, as well as to analyse the effect on pro-inflammatory response elicited by this pathogen. A significant decrease in S. flexneri strain 72 invasion was observed on both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells pre-incubated with MM. Pre-incubation with the individual strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIDCA 8112 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CIDCA 8221 also reduced the internalisation of S. flexneri into HT-29 cells although in a lesser extent than MM. Interestingly, Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114 exerted a protective effect on the invasion of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells by S. flexneri. Regarding the pro-inflammatory response on HT-29 cells, S. flexneri infection induced a significant activation of the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) encoding genes (P<0.05), whereas incubation of cells with MM did not induce the expression of any of the mediators assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation of HT-29 monolayer with MM produced an inhibition of S. flexneri-induced IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α mRNA expression. In order to gain insight on the effect of MM (or the individual strains) on this pro-inflammatory response, a series of experiments using a HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP reporter system were performed. Pre-incubation of HT-29-NF-κB-hrGFP cells with MM significantly dampened Shigella-induced activation. Our results showed that the contribution of yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus CIDCA 8154 seems to be crucial in the observed effect. In conclusion, results presented in this study demonstrate that pre-treatment with a microbial mixture containing bacteria and yeasts isolated from kefir, resulted in inhibition of S. flexneri internalisation into human intestinal epithelial cells, along with the

  1. Simulated gastrointestinal conditions increase adhesion ability of Lactobacillus paracasei strains isolated from kefir to Caco-2 cells and mucin.

    Bengoa, Ana Agustina; Zavala, Lucía; Carasi, Paula; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Bronsoms, Silvia; Serradell, María de Los Ángeles; Garrote, Graciela Liliana; Abraham, Analía Graciela

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal conditions along the digestive tract are the main stress to which probiotics administrated orally are exposed because they must survive these adverse conditions and arrive alive to the intestine. Adhesion to epithelium has been considered one of the key criteria for the characterization of probiotics because it extends their residence time in the intestine and as a consequence, can influence the health of the host by modifying the local microbiota or modulating the immune response. Nevertheless, there are very few reports on the adhesion properties to epithelium and mucus of microorganisms after passing through the gastrointestinal tract. In the present work, we evaluate the adhesion ability in vitro of L. paracasei strains isolated from kefir grains after acid and bile stress and we observed that they survive simulated gastrointestinal passage in different levels depending on the strain. L. paracasei CIDCA 8339, 83120 and 83123 were more resistant than L. paracasei CIDCA 83121 and 83124, with a higher susceptibility to simulated gastric conditions. Proteomic analysis of L. paracasei subjected to acid and bile stress revealed that most of the proteins that were positively regulated correspond to the glycolytic pathway enzymes, with an overall effect of stress on the activation of the energy source. Moreover, it is worth to remark that after gastrointestinal passage, L. paracasei strains have increased their ability to adhere to mucin and epithelial cells in vitro being this factor of relevance for maintenance of the strain in the gut environment to exert its probiotic action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some probiotic characteristics of a fermented milk product based on microbiota of "Tibetan kefir grains" cultivated in Ukrainian household.

    Kukhtyn, Mykola; Vichko, Olena; Horyuk, Yulia; Shved, Olga; Novikov, Volodymyr

    2018-01-01

    The article describes some probiotic properties of fermented product made of natural association of Tibetan kefir grains cultivated in Ukrainian household (UTKG); also, the effect of UTKG microbiota on the growth of pathogenic microbiota and sensitivity to antibiotics was studied. It was found that the test-cultures of oppurtunistic pathogens ( Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus mesentericus , and Mycobacterium luteum ) were sensitive; bacteriostatic zone of the test-culture ranged from 21 to 25 mm, and highly sensitive ( Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger ) b acteriostatic zone exceeded 25 mm to probiotic bacteria of fermented product. UTKG microbiota is also moderately sensitive to multiple antibiotics that allows defining the obtained fermented milk product as functional with therapeutic properties. During the study of the influence of different NaCl and bile concentrations on acid-activity of UTKG it was found that active acid formation occurred at the concentrations up to 4% NaCl in cultivation medium (boiled milk) and at 20% bile and 0.45% phenol. It proves microbial association to be capable of withstanding adverse gastrointestinal conditions and continue developing.

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the probiotic attributes of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens XL10 isolated from Tibetan kefir grain.

    Xing, Zhuqing; Tang, Wei; Geng, Weitao; Zheng, Yongna; Wang, Yanping

    2017-03-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens XL10, with a high yield of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), is isolated from Tibetan kefir grain and benefits the health of human beings and has been considered to exhibit probiotic potential in vitro and in vivo. The probiotic function of the strain was studied extensively, viz., acid and bile salt tolerances, cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation, the modulation of gut microbiota, and the distribution and colonization of XL10 in the mouse intestinal tract after oral administration. XL10 could survive 3-h incubation at pH 3.5 and exhibited cell surface hydrophobicity of ∼79.9% and autoaggregation of ∼27.8%. After continuous oral administration of XL10 for 2 weeks, the Bifidobacteriaceae family increased, accompanied by an observable decline in Proteobacteria phyla in the tested mice. Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio, recognized as butyric acid-producing bacteria, could also be detected at day 7 and day 14, respectively. The most abundant community in the mouse gut had formed by day 14. Additionally, we found that XL10 successfully adhered to the mucous tissue and colonized the ileum of the mice based on fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry, and qPCR. Our results suggested that XL10 has excellent probiotic properties and represents an alternative for exploitation in the development of novel functional foods.

  4. Selective induction of apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells by Lactobacillus kefiri (PFT), a novel kefir product.

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Felo, Nouran

    2015-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (PFT), a novel kefir product, on apoptosis of gastric cancer cells (AGS), breast cancer cells (4T1), and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells were cultured with PFT and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using 7-AAD dye and cytospin preparation. Mitochondrial dysfunction and expression of Bcl2 were monitored by flow cytometry. Results showed that PFT induced apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis was detected at a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml (20.8%), increased to 25.8% at 0.6 mg/ml, 37% at 1.2 mg/ml, 53.1% at 2.5 mg/ml, and peaked at 66.3% at 5.0 mg/ml. Apoptosis is associated with the decreased polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and decreased Bcl2 expression. PFT-treated AGS cells manifested membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation as identified in cytospin cytocentrifuge Giemsa stained preparations. On the other hand, flow cytometry analysis showed that PFT did not induce apoptosis in 4T1 breast cancer cells nor in PBMCs. These results suggest that PFT is safe for white blood cells and selectively induces apoptotic effects in gastric cancer cells. Hence, it may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric cancers.

  5. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

  6. Effect of milk fermentation by kefir grains and selected single strains of lactic acid bacteria on the survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG.

    Macuamule, C L S; Wiid, I J; van Helden, P D; Tanner, M; Witthuhn, R C

    2016-01-18

    Mycobacterium bovis that causes Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) can be transmitted to humans thought consumption of raw and raw fermented milk products from diseased animals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used in popular traditional milk products in Africa produce anti-microbial compounds that inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. M. bovis BCG is an attenuated non-pathogenic vaccine strain of M. bovis and the aim of the study was to determine the effect of the fermentation process on the survival of M. bovis BCG in milk. M. bovis BCG at concentrations of 6 log CFU/ml was added to products of kefir fermentation. The survival of M. bovis BCG was monitored at 12-h intervals for 72 h by enumerating viable cells on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plates enriched with 2% BD BACTEC PANTA™. M. bovis BCG was increasingly reduced in sterile kefir that was fermented for a period of 24h and longer. In the milk fermented with kefir grains, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei or Lactobacillus casei, the viability of M. bovis BCG was reduced by 0.4 logs after 24h and by 2 logs after 48 h of fermentation. No viable M. bovis BCG was detected after 60 h of fermentation. Results from this study show that long term fermentation under certain conditions may have the potential to inactivate M. bovis BCG present in the milk. However, to ensure safety of fermented milk in Africa, fermentation should be combined with other hurdle technologies such as boiling and milk pasteurisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  8. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  9. Chemical, Physiochemical, and Microstructural Properties, and Probiotic Survivability of Fermented Goat Milk Using Polymerized Whey Protein and Starter Culture Kefir Mild 01.

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Cuina; Wang, Mu; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-11-01

    A set-type fermented goat milk (FGM) using polymerized whey protein (PWP) as main thickening agent and Kefir Mild 01 as starter culture was developed. The FGM with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) had low syneresis (5.44 ± 0.92%), desirable viscosity (952.86 ± 61.52 mPa⋅s), and hardness (112.57 ± 3.23 g), which were comparable to a fermented cow milk. Sensory evaluation data showed that the FGM with PWP and pectin had higher scores of both flavor (4.41 ± 0.39) and taste (3.72 ± 0.34) than the sample without PWP. Chemical composition of both fermented goat and cow milk were analyzed. The protein content of goat and cow milk samples were 3.50% ± 0.12% and 3.28% ± 0.09% (w/w), respectively. Lactobacillus acidophilus population in both FGM samples remained above 10 6 CFU/g during the 1st 4-wk storage. There was a slight but no significant (P > 0.05) decrease in pH and TA during storage. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs displayed a compact and homogeneous protein network of the FGM with PWP and pectin. Polymerized whey protein may be a novel protein-based thickening agent for formulation of a set-type FGM with starter culture Kefir Mild 01. Fermented goat milk is an increasingly popular dairy product in the world. However, it is difficult to make set type fermented goat milk due to the smaller size and lower content of casein micelles in goat milk. A fermented goat milk with PWP (0.3%, w/v) and pectin (0.2%, w/v) was successfully developed in this study. The product fermented by Kefir Mild 01 starter culture had a similar taste with Kefir but no yeast or alcoholic exists. The new product would be a promising food in the market. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Immunohistochemical examination of effects of kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules on platelet derived growth factor-c and platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression in mouse liver and kidney.

    Bakir, B; Sari, E K; Aydin, B D; Yildiz, S E

    2015-04-01

    We investigated using immunohistochemistry the effects of kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules on the expression of platelet derived growth factor-c (PDGF-C) and platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α) in mouse liver and kidney. Mice were assigned to four groups: group 1 was given commercial probiotic capsules, group 2 was given kefir, group 3 was given koumiss and group 4 was untreated. After oral administration for 15 days, body weights were recorded and liver and kidney tissue samples were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to examine histology. PDGF-C and PDGFR-α in liver and kidney were localized using the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex method (ABC). We found that the weights of the mice in the kefir, koumiss and commercial probiotic capsules groups increased compared to the control group. No differences in liver and kidney histology were observed in any of the experimental groups. Kefir, koumiss and the commercial probiotic preparation increased PDGF-C and PDGFR-α expression.

  11. Effects of Clear Kefir on Biomolecular Aspects of Glycemic Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM Patients in Bandung, West Java [Study on Human Blood Glucose, c Peptide and Insulin

    Judiono J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM triggers an excessive reaction of free-radicals. It increases reactive oxygen species and reduces antioxidants status as well as the β cell damage. Clear kefir was used for DM therapies, however it limited biomolecular exploration of its bioactive roles. Research aimed to investigate the effects of clear kefir on the biomolecular nature of the glycemic status of T2DM in Bandung. Methods: The randomized pretest-posttest control group was conducted by 106 T2DM patients. Research was done in several hospitals in Bandung and Cimahi, West Java from 2012–2013. Samples were divided randomly into three groups: (1 T2DM with HbA1c 7 fed standard diet and supplemented 200 ml/day by clear kefir, (3 T2DM with HbA1c was fed a standard diet as a control group. Dose response was obtained from a preeliminary vivo study, and then converted to human dosage by year 2011. Intervention was effectively done for 30 days. HbA1c was measured by HPLC. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and Postprandial blood glucose levels (PBG were measured by enzymes levels. C Peptide and insulin were measured by Elisa. Data was analyzed by a statictics programme by significance p<0,05. Study was approved by ethic committee. Results : HbA1c was significantly reduced in delta level (p<0.01 and FBG (p<0.015 among kefir groups. PBG was not significantly reduced among groups. C-Peptide was significantly increased in delta level, except in control group (p<0.014. Insulin was reduced significantly, except in control group (p<0.003. Conclusions : Supplementation of clear kefir reduced blood glucose levels (HbA1c, FBG, PBG and increased c-peptide. Clear kefir’s biomolecular mechanisms and chemistry characterization is a challenge for future studies.

  12. Application of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods for the identification of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in microbial consortia present in kefir grains.

    Hamet, Maria Fernanda; Londero, Alejandra; Medrano, Micaela; Vercammen, Elisabeth; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Garrote, Graciela L; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Abraham, Analía G

    2013-12-01

    The biological and technological characteristics of kefiran as well as its importance in grain integrity led us to analyze the microbial kefir grain consortium with focus on Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The presence of L. kefiranofaciens in the nine kefir grains studied was demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. By culture dependent methods applying a methodology focused on the search of this species, 22 isolates with typical morphology were obtained and identified applying a combination of SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins, (GTG)5-PCR and sequence analysis of the housekeeping gene encoding the α-subunit of bacterial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS). This polyphasic approach allowed the reliable identification of 11 L. kefiranofaciens, 5 Lactobacillus paracasei, 4 Lactobacillus kefiri and 2 Lactobacillus parakefiri isolates. Isolated L. kefiranofaciens strains produced polysaccharide in strain-dependent concentrations and EPS produced by them also differed in the degree of polymerization. The isolation and accurate identification of L. kefiranofaciens is relevant taking into account the important role of this microorganism in the grain ecosystem as well as its potential application as starter in food fermentations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 isolated from kefir grains on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection using mouse and intestinal cell models.

    Chen, Y P; Lee, T Y; Hong, W S; Hsieh, H H; Chen, M J

    2013-01-01

    A potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, was previously isolated from kefir grains, which are used to manufacture the traditional fermented drink kefir. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, using mice and intestinal cell models. BALB/c mice were daily administrated with either phosphate buffered saline or Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 at 2×10(8) cfu/mouse per day intragastrically for 7 d. Intragastric challenges with EHEC (2×10(9) cfu/mouse) were conducted on d 0, 4, and 7 after treatment. Administration of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was able to prevent EHEC infection-induced symptoms, intestinal damage, renal damage, bacterial translocation, and Shiga toxin penetration. Furthermore, the mucosal EHEC-specific IgA responses were increased after Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 administration in the EHEC-infected mouse system. Additionally, in vitro, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was shown to have a protective effect on Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayers; the bacteria limited EHEC-induced cell death and reduced the loss of epithelial integrity. These findings support the potential of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 treatment as an approach to preventing EHEC infection and its effects. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Co-production of functional exopolysaccharides and lactic acid by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens originated from fermented milk, kefir.

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Suksawang, Suwannee; Yeesang, Jarucha; Boonsawang, Piyarat

    2018-01-01

    Kefiran is a functional exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens originated from kefir, traditional fermented milk in the Caucasian Mountains, Russia. Kefiran is attractive as thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, gelling agents and also has antimicrobial and antitumor activity. However, the production costs of kefiran are still high mainly due to high cost of carbon and nitrogen sources. This study aimed to produce kefiran and its co-product, lactic acid, from low-cost industrial byproducts. Among the sources tested, whey lactose (at 2% sugar concentration) and spent yeast cells hydrolysate (at 6 g-nitrogen/L) gave the highest kefiran of 480 ± 21 mg/L along with lactic acid of 20.1 ± 0.2 g/L. The combination of these two sources and initial pH were optimized through Response Surface Methodology. With the optimized medium, L. kefiranofaciens produced more kefiran and lactic acid up to 635 ± 7 mg/L and 32.9 ± 0.7 g/L, respectively. When the pH was controlled to alleviate the inhibition from acidic pH, L. kefiranofaciens could consume all sugars and produced kefiran and lactic acid up to 1693 ± 29 mg/L and 87.49 ± 0.23 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the fed-batch fermentation with intermittent adding of whey lactose improved kefiran and lactic acid productions up to 2514 ± 93 mg/L and 135 ± 1.75 g/L, respectively. These results indicate the promising approach to economically produce kefiran and lactic acid from low-cost nutrient sources.

  15. Technological functional properties of soy, oat and wheat fibers and soy products with added fibers and fermented with kefir culturePropriedades funcionais tecnológicas das fibras de soja, aveia e trigo e produtos de soja com adição de fibras e fermentados com cultura de kefir

    Elza Iouko Ida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the technological functional properties of soy, oats and wheat fibers and evaluate soy products with added fiber and fermented with kefir. The fibers were characterized with regard to pH, water adsorption capacity, water and oil absorption capacity and swelling volume. Soy products were developed with the addition of 3% soy fiber, oat and wheat and fermented with kefir. The fermented products were characterized for pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity and firmness, Lactococcus lactis counts and analysis of sanitary conditions. The soy fiber showed a higher content of protein and lipids, pH, water adsorption and adsorption capacity. The wheat fiber showed a higher oil absorption capacity. The addition of soy, oat and wheat fibers influence pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity and firmness of fermented soy products with kefir. The lowest syneresis and highest viscosity and firmness were obtained with the soy fermented products with soy fiber. The addition of soy fiber stimulated Lactococcus lactis growth. The fermented soy products had enough Lactococcus lactis counts to be considered probiotics. The products presented satisfactory hygienic sanitary conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas das fibras de soja, aveia e trigo e avaliar os produtos de soja com adição de fibras e fermentados com cultura de kefir. As fibras foram caracterizadas quanto a composição química, pH, capacidade de adsorção e absorção de água, capacidade de absorção de óleo e volume de intumescimento. Foram desenvolvidos produtos de soja com adição de 3% de fibra de soja, aveia e trigo e fermentados com cultura de kefir. Os produtos fermentados foram caracterizados quanto o pH, acidez, sinerese, viscosidade e firmeza, contagem de Lactococcus lactis e análise das condições higiênico-sanitárias. A fibra de soja apresentou maior teor de proteínas e lipídios, p

  16. Kefir Kültürünün Beyaz Peynir Yapımında Kullanılması Üzerine bir Araştırma

    Hasan Yaygın

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Beyaz peynir yapımında kullanılacak saf kültürde yer alması gereken mikroorganizmaları saptamak amacı ile bazı çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Araştırıcıların çoğunluğu saf kültürde S. lactis, S. cremoris ve L. casei’ nin bulunması gerektiğini belirtmişlerdir. Bu çalışmada beyaz peynir yapımında saf kültür olarak kefir kültürü kullanılmıştır. Kefir kültüründe söz konusu bakterilerle beraber bazı maya ve bakteriler de bulunmaktadır. Araştırma sonuçları kefir kültürü katılan sütten yapılan beyaz peynirde asitlik gelişiminin istenilen düzeyde olduğu; tat ve aroma ile yapının tüketiciler tarafından beğenildiğini ortaya çıkarmıştır.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Oleaginous Yeast Isolated from Kefir and Its Ability to Accumulate Intracellular Fats in Deproteinated Potato Wastewater with Different Carbon Sources

    Kieliszek, Marek; Jermacz, Karolina; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania unispora, and Zygotorulaspora florentina. We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L−1. Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid. PMID:29098157

  18. Apoptotic effect of a novel kefir product, PFT, on multidrug-resistant myeloid leukemia cells via a hole-piercing mechanism

    GHONEUM, MAMDOOH; GIMZEWSKI, JAMES

    2014-01-01

    We examined the apoptotic effect of a novel Probiotics Fermentation Technology (PFT) kefir grain product; PFT is a natural mixture composed primarily of Lactobacillus kefiri P-IF, a specific strain of L. kefiri with unique growth characteristics. The aim of this study was to examine the apoptotic effect of PFT on human multidrug-resistant (MDR) myeloid leukemia (HL60/AR) cells in vitro and explore the mechanistic approach underlying its effect. HL60/AR cells were cultured with PFT (0.6–5.0 mg/ml) for 3 days. The apoptotic effect of PFT was assessed through examination of percent apoptosis, caspase 3 activation, Bcl-2 expression levels and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). PFT induced apoptosis in HL60/AR cells in a dose-dependent manner which was maximal at 67.5% for 5 mg/ml. Induction of apoptosis was associated with activation of caspase 3, decreased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased polarization of MMP. In addition, PFT showed a unique characteristic of piercing holes in HL60/AR cells, as indicated by AFM studies. This hole induction may be responsible for the apoptotic effect on cancer cells. These results suggest that PFT may act as a potential therapy for the treatment of MDR leukemia. PMID:24430613

  19. A Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from kefir protects against intestinal infection with Yersinia enterocolitica O9 and modulates immunity in mice.

    De Montijo-Prieto, Soumi; Moreno, Encarnación; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Lasserrot, Agustín; Ruiz-López, María-Dolores; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Jiménez-Valera, María

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum C4, previously isolated from kefir and characterized as a potential probiotic strain, was tested for its protective and immunomodulatory capacity in a murine model of yersiniosis. The inoculation of BALB/c mice with a low pathogenicity serotype O9 strain of Yersinia enterocolitica results in a prolonged intestinal infection with colonization of Peyer's patches. Pretreatment with C4 was without effect on fecal excretion of yersiniae, but shortened the colonization of Peyer's patches. This protective effect was associated with pro-inflammatory status in the intestinal mucosa (TNF-α production in infected mice was increased by C4) and an increase in total IgA secretion. At a systemic level, C4 did not promote a pro-inflammatory response, although production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IFN-γ was enhanced. These findings suggest that L. plantarum C4 can increase resistance to intestinal infections through its immunomodulatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Sugary Kefir Strain Lactobacillus mali APS1 Ameliorated Hepatic Steatosis by Regulation of SIRT-1/Nrf-2 and Gut Microbiota in Rats.

    Chen, Yung-Tsung; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Jin-Seng; Yang, Ning-Sun; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2018-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease that is concomitant with obesity, resulting in increased mortality. To date, the efficiency of NAFLD treatment still needs to be improved. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus mali APS1, which was isolated from sugary kefir, on hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet, a HFD with saline, and a HFD with APS1 intervention by gavage daily for 12 weeks. The results showed that APS1 significantly reduced body weight and body weight gain in HFD-fed rats. APS1 reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by regulating SIRT-1/PGC-1α/SREBP-1 expression. Moreover, APS1 increased hepatic antioxidant activity by modulating Nrf-2/HO-1 expression. Notably, APS1 manipulated the gut microbiota, resulting in increasing proportions of the phylum Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and reducing the abundance of specific NAFLD-associated bacteria. These results suggested that APS1 ameliorated hepatic steatosis by modulating lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity via manipulating specific NAFLD-associated gut microbiota in vivo. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of whey goat milk kefir on hydrophobicity of E. coli O157:H7, S. typhi bacteria and C. albicans

    Dedi Fardiaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophobicity of bacteria. was determined using BATH (Bacteria adhesion to hydrocarbon test. All bacteria showed that 0,9 ml n-octane exposure gave a positive response and indicating that E. coli O157:H7 was categorized as moderate hydrophobic bacteria,  while S.  typhi  and C. albicans were catagorized as  highly hydrophobic bacteria. Goat Milk Kefir increased hydrophobicity of E.  coli O157:H7 by 24.40, however, decreased hydrophobicity of S. typhi by 47.56  and C. albicans by 70.14 percent, respectively. This finding showed that one of the inhibition mechanism may be caused by  an interaction  of  organic acid and peptide  compounds with cell membrane, in which hydrophobic sites of component  modified the hydrophobicity of the bacteria cell surface. The hydrophobicity modification in bacterial  cell wall might result inhibition of adhetion bacteria at cell host. Key words : Enterophatogenic bacteria, hidrophobisitas bacteria

  3. Identification and Characterization of Oleaginous Yeast Isolated from Kefir and Its Ability to Accumulate Intracellular Fats in Deproteinated Potato Wastewater with Different Carbon Sources

    Iwona Gientka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania unispora, and Zygotorulaspora florentina. We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L−1. Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Oleaginous Yeast Isolated from Kefir and Its Ability to Accumulate Intracellular Fats in Deproteinated Potato Wastewater with Different Carbon Sources.

    Gientka, Iwona; Kieliszek, Marek; Jermacz, Karolina; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua , Debaryomyces hansenii , Kluyveromyces marxianus , Kazachstania unispora , and Zygotorulaspora florentina . We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L -1 . Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid.

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet.

    Wang, Yanping; Xu, Nv; Xi, Aodeng; Ahmed, Zaheer; Zhang, Bin; Bai, Xiaojia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2, an isolate from Chinese traditional Tibet kefir, on cholesterol-lowering and microflora of rat in vivo. Rats were fed on cholesterol-enriched experimental diet, supplemented with lyophilized L. plantarum MA2 powder, with a dose of 10(11) cells/day per mice. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides level, while there was no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides was also decreased. However, fecal cholesterol and triglycerides was increased significantly (P MA2 increased the population of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the fecal, but it did not change the number of Escherichia coli as compared to control. Moreover, pH, moisture, and organic acids in the fecal were also measured. The present results indicate the probiotic potential of the L. plantarum MA2 strain in hypocholesterolemic effect and also increasing the probiotic count in the intestine.

  6. Farklı Isıl İşlem Görmüş İnek Sütlerinden Kefir Kültürü ve Tanesi ile Üretilen Kefirlerin Nitelikleri ve Dayanıklılığı Üzerine Araştırmalar

    Ergin Oktar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaynatılmış, pastörize ve sterilize inek sütlerine ayrı ayrı kefir tanesi ve kefir kültürü aşılanarak üretilen kefirlerin depolamanın 1., 6 ve 9. günlerinde fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal analizleri yapılmıştır. Kefir örneklerinin depolama süresince pH’ları düşmüş, asitlikleri yükselmiştir. Kefir üretiminde yağ, protein ve laktoz miktarlarında azalma görülmüştür. Depolamada yağ miktarı değişmezken protein ve laktoz miktarında az da olsa azalma görülmüştür. Serbest yağ asitleri gerek üretim gerekse depolama boyunca artış göstermiştir. Tane ile üretilen kefirlerde maya miktarı kültür ile üretilenlere göre daha fazladır. Alkol, asetaldehit ve aseton kefir üretimi sırasında oluşmuş, depolama sırasında artış göstermiştir. Tüm kefir örnekleri depolama süresince duyusal değerlendirmede beğeni kazanmıştır. Kefir kalitesinin; tane ve kültürü aşılama oranına, inkübasyon sıcaklığı ve süresine, katılan sütün bileşim ve uygulanan ısıl işleme bağlı olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  7. Analysis of metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeast in model kefirs made from goat’s milk and mixtures of goat’s milk with mare’s milk based on changes in electrical conductivity and impedance

    Dorota Cais-Sokolińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeast based of changes in electrical conductivity and electrical impedance during fermentation of goat milk and mixtures of goat’s milk and mare’s milk (1:1, 1:2. As a result of fermentation, conductivity increased 1.4-fold. The conductivity of kefir prepared from goat and mare milk mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (6.210 Ω-3∙cm-1 was lower than that of the 1:1 mixture or of goat milk alone (7.242 Ω-3∙cm-1. A significant dependence of electrical conductivity and pH (0.970 ≤ r ≤ 0.993 was recorded during fermentation. The addition of mare milk to goat milk significantly slowed down the growth of LAB (Δλ = 0.8 h and yeasts during kefir production.

  8. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of tert-butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate with a mutant alcohol dehydrogenase of Lactobacillus kefir.

    He, Xiu-Juan; Chen, Shao-Yun; Wu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Li-Rong; Xu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    tert-Butyl (S)-6-chloro-5-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate ((S)-CHOH) is a valuable chiral synthon, which is used for the synthesis of the cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. To date, only the alcohol dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus brevis (LbADH) and Lactobacillus kefir (LkADH) have demonstrated catalytic activity toward the asymmetric reduction of tert-butyl 6-chloro-3,5-dioxohexanoate (CDOH) to (S)-CHOH. Herein, a tetrad mutant of LkADH (LkTADH), A94T/F147L/L199H/A202L, was screened to be more efficient in this bioreduction process, exhibiting a 3.7- and 42-fold improvement in specific activity toward CDOH (1.27 U/mg) over LbADH (0.34 U/mg) and wild-type LkADH (0.03 U/mg), respectively. The molecular basis for the improved catalytic activity of LkTADH toward CDOH was investigated using homology modeling and docking analysis. Two major issues had a significant impact on the biocatalytic efficiency of this process, including (i) the poor aqueous stability of the substrate and (ii) partial substrate inhibition. A fed-batch strategy was successfully developed to address these issues and maintain a suitably low substrate concentration throughout the entire process. Several other parameters were also optimized, including the pH, temperature, NADP(+) concentration and cell loading. A final CDOH concentration of 427 mM (100 g/L) gave (S)-CHOH in 94 % yield and 99.5 % e.e. after a reaction time of 38 h with whole cells expressing LkTADH. The space-time yield and turnover number of NADP(+) in this process were 10.6 mmol/L/h and 16,060 mol/mol, respectively, which were the highest values ever reported. This new approach therefore represents a promising alternative for the efficient synthesis of (S)-CHOH.

  9. Avaliação do consumo crônico de leite e kefir sobre os níveis pressóricos, parâmetros bioquímicos e renais de ratos SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) induzidos à síndrome metabólica

    Gontijo, Luciana Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do consumo crônico de leite e kefir sobre os níveis pressóricos, parâmetros bioquímicos e renais de ratos machos SHR induzidos à SM. Metodologia: Inoculou-se 5 g de grãos de kefir em 100 mL de leite de vaca pasteurizado com diferentes teores de lipídeos (5,5 % e 3,5 %), a 4 oC. As amostras foram incubadas em estufa a temperatura controlada de 25 + 2 oC, por 24 horas. Nessas amostras foram determinadas a umidade, o teor de cinzas, proteínas, carboidratos, lipídeo...

  10. Desenvolvimento de ingrediente simbiótico por fermentação de soro de leite e do subproduto da agroindústria de suco de laranja por grãos de Kefir e cultura probiótica

    Eduardo Vinicius Baptista

    2010-01-01

    O mercado para produtos com diferenciado conteúdo de nutrientes continua a crescer. Neste contexto, este trabalho objetivou desenvolver um ingrediente simbiótico a base de subprodutos de agroindústrias. Para isto, foi utilizado soro de leite reconstituído em 7% (p/v), o qual foi fermentado com 10 e 1% (p/v) das culturas de grãos de Kefir e cultura Lyofast MT 036 LV, respectivamente, sob temperatura de 25°C por 24 horas. Após o processo fermentativo, o bagaço de laranja, previamente esteriliza...

  11. Capacidad antifúngica de sobrenadantes libres de células obtenidos de la fermentación de un sustrato de “panela” con gránulos de kefir de agua

    Carlos Andrés Caro Velez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El kefir de agua (KA es una bebida fermentada medianamente ácida elaborada con soluciones azucaradas y fermentada por un consorcio de microorganismos, principalmente bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL y levaduras (LEV, embebidas en un polisacárido llamado gránulo de KA. La presencia de hongos y sus toxinas es un problema de la producción de alimentos, como Aspergillus ochraceus y sus micotoxinas especialmente en café y vino. Entre algunas alternativas que se han evaluado para su inhibición se incluyen las bacterias ácido lácticas y productos fermentados en general. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad del KA en inhibir o retrasar el crecimiento de A. ochraceus. Se emplearon 8 sobrenadantes libres de células (SLC obtenidos de diferentes fermentaciones de panela con gránulos de KA y con diferentes concentraciones de ácidos orgánicos (láctico y acético. Se hicieron fermentaciones con gránulos de KA en solución de panela por periodos de 32,5 h, a 25, 30 y 37 °C. Se determinaron la cinética de acidificación; el incremento de biomasa y se hizo el recuento de los grupos de microorganismos que componen el gránulo. A 25 °C se determinó el mayor aumento de biomasa (92%. La temperatura de fermentación afectó el recuento de los microorganismos que conforman el gránulo, principalmente las BAL, disminuyendo su cantidad a la máxima temperatura de fermentación (37 °C (6,4x107UFC ml-1, comparado con la mínima temperatura (25 ºC (4,0x106 UFC ml-1. El fermento que presentó mayor actividad antifúngica fue el SLC5 (pH: 3,2; temperatura de fermentación: 30 °C. El poder inhibitorio se atribuyó a los ácidos orgánicos producidos durante la fermentación, aunque no se puede descartar que hayan actuado otras sustancias no cuantificadas.Se pudo comprobar que el KA puede fermentar y aumentar su biomasa en un sustrato como el agua de panela y que sus SLC tienen la capacidad de reducir el crecimiento de A

  12. Oral toxicity evaluation of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Owaga, E E; Chen, M J; Chen, W Y; Chen, C W; Hsieh, R H

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacilli kefiranofaciens M1 has shown novel immunomodulation and anti-allergy probiotic attributes in cell and animal models. An acute oral toxicity assessment of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups (12 rats/sex/group): the low dose group was orally gavaged with L. kefiranofaciens M1 at 3.0×10(8)cfu/kg bw while the medium dose and high dose groups received 9.0×10(9)cfu/kg bw and 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw, respectively, for 28days. The control group received phosphate buffer saline. The body weights were measured weekly while blood samples were collected for haematology and serum biochemistry tests. Histopathology of the organs (heart, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, spleen, ovary, testis), and urinalysis were conducted on study termination. The body weight gain of the L. kefiranofaciens M1 and control groups were comparable during the administration period. Overall, L. kefiranofaciens M1 did not induce adverse effects on haematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Gross and microscopic histopathology of the organs revealed no toxicity effect of L. kefiranofaciens M1. In conclusion, 1.8×10(10)cfu/kg bw of L. kefiranofaciens M1 was considered as the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL), which was the highest dose tested in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of kefir derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the mucosal immune response and gut microbiota.

    Carasi, P; Racedo, S M; Jacquot, C; Romanin, D E; Serradell, M A; Urdaci, M C

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the impact of probiotics on host health could help to understand how they can be used in the prevention of diseases. On the basis of our previous studies and in vitro assays on PBMC and Caco-2 ccl20:luc reporter system presented in this work, the strain Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected and administrated to healthy Swiss mice daily for 21 days. The probiotic treatment increased IgA in feces and reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators in Peyer Patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, where it also increased IL-10. In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-1β genes were downregulated. Moreover, ileum and colon explants showed the anti-inflammatory effect of L. kefiri since the LPS-induced increment of IL-6 and GM-CSF levels in control mice was significantly attenuated in L. kefiri treated mice. Regarding fecal microbiota, DGGE profiles allowed differentiation of experimental groups in two separated clusters. Quantitative PCR analysis of different bacterial groups revealed only significant changes in Lactobacillus population. In conclusion, L. kefiri is a good candidate to be used in gut inflammatory disorders.

  14. Safety characterization and antimicrobial properties of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri.

    Carasi, Paula; Díaz, Mariángeles; Racedo, Silvia M; De Antoni, Graciela; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 10(8) CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  15. Impact of Kefir Derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the Mucosal Immune Response and Gut Microbiota

    P. Carasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the impact of probiotics on host health could help to understand how they can be used in the prevention of diseases. On the basis of our previous studies and in vitro assays on PBMC and Caco-2 ccl20:luc reporter system presented in this work, the strain Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected and administrated to healthy Swiss mice daily for 21 days. The probiotic treatment increased IgA in feces and reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators in Peyer Patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, where it also increased IL-10. In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-1β genes were downregulated. Moreover, ileum and colon explants showed the anti-inflammatory effect of L. kefiri since the LPS-induced increment of IL-6 and GM-CSF levels in control mice was significantly attenuated in L. kefiri treated mice. Regarding fecal microbiota, DGGE profiles allowed differentiation of experimental groups in two separated clusters. Quantitative PCR analysis of different bacterial groups revealed only significant changes in Lactobacillus population. In conclusion, L. kefiri is a good candidate to be used in gut inflammatory disorders.

  16. Impact of Kefir Derived Lactobacillus kefiri on the Mucosal Immune Response and Gut Microbiota

    Carasi, P.; Racedo, S. M.; Jacquot, C.; Romanin, D. E.; Serradell, M. A.; Urdaci, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the impact of probiotics on host health could help to understand how they can be used in the prevention of diseases. On the basis of our previous studies and in vitro assays on PBMC and Caco-2 ccl20:luc reporter system presented in this work, the strain Lactobacillus kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected and administrated to healthy Swiss mice daily for 21 days. The probiotic treatment increased IgA in feces and reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators in Peyer Patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, where it also increased IL-10. In ileum IL-10, CXCL-1 and mucin 6 genes were upregulated; meanwhile in colon mucin 4 was induced whereas IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and IL-1β genes were downregulated. Moreover, ileum and colon explants showed the anti-inflammatory effect of L. kefiri since the LPS-induced increment of IL-6 and GM-CSF levels in control mice was significantly attenuated in L. kefiri treated mice. Regarding fecal microbiota, DGGE profiles allowed differentiation of experimental groups in two separated clusters. Quantitative PCR analysis of different bacterial groups revealed only significant changes in Lactobacillus population. In conclusion, L. kefiri is a good candidate to be used in gut inflammatory disorders. PMID:25811034

  17. Safety Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Kefir-Isolated Lactobacillus kefiri

    Paula Carasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+ and Gram(− pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 108 CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  18. Effect of Kefir as a Probiotic on Growth in Goat Kids

    Cengiz

    No significant differences in faecal consistency of kids were found among the .... Faeces were observed daily and consistency was scored by using a faecal ..... Poland using bovine, caprine and ovine milk with different starter cultures.

  19. Effect of heat-inactivated kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 on preventing an allergic airway response in mice.

    Hong, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Yen-Po; Dai, Ting-Yeu; Huang, I-Nung; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2011-08-24

    In this study, we assessed the anti-asthmatic effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 (HI-M1) and its fermented milk using different feeding procedures and at various dosage levels. The possible mechanisms whereby HI-M1 has anti-allergic asthmatic effects were also evaluated. Ovalbumin (OVA)-allergic asthma mice that have been orally administrated the HI-M1 samples showed strong inhibition of production of T helper cell (Th) 2 cytokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Th17 cytokines in splenocytes and bronchoalveolar fluid compared to control mice. An increase in regulatory T cell population in splenocytes in the allergic asthma mice after oral administration of H1-M1 was also observed. In addition, all of the features of the asthmatic phenotype, including specific IgE production, airway inflammation, and development of airway hyperresponsiveness, were depressed in a dose-dependent manner by treatment. These findings support the possibility that oral feeding of H1-M1 may be an effective way of alleviating asthmatic symptoms in humans.

  20. Impact of growth temperature on exopolysaccharide production and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus paracasei strains isolated from kefir grains.

    Bengoa, Ana A; Llamas, M Goretti; Iraporda, Carolina; Dueñas, M Teresa; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2018-02-01

    EPS-producing LAB are widely used in the dairy industry since these polymers improve the viscosity and texture of the products. Besides, EPS might be responsible for several health benefits attributed to probiotic strains. However, growth conditions (culture media, temperature, pH) could modify EPS production affecting both technological and probiotic properties. In this work, the influence of growth temperature on EPS production was evaluated, as well as the consequences of these changes in the probiotic properties of the strains. All Lactobacillus paracasei strains used in the study showed changes in EPS production caused by growth temperature, evidenced by the appearance of a high molecular weight fraction and an increment in the total amount of produced EPS at lower temperature. Nevertheless, these changes do not affect the probiotic properties of the strains; L. paracasei strains grown at 20 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C were able to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, to adhere to Caco-2 cells after that treatment and to modulate the epithelial innate immune response. The results suggest that selected L. paracasei strains are new probiotic candidates that can be used in a wide range of functional foods in which temperature could be used as a tool to improve the technological properties of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 33534 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    2010-06-14

    ... (by weight), kefir, and products intended to be meal replacements from the fluid milk product... drinkable yogurt products containing at least 20 percent yogurt (by weight), kefir, infant formulas, dietary... proposing to change the [[Page 33535

  2. 75 FR 51929 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Order Amending the Orders

    2010-08-24

    ... least 20 percent yogurt (by weight), kefir, and products intended to be meal replacements from the fluid... percent yogurt (by weight), kefir, infant formulas, dietary products (meal replacements) and other... be negligible. In fact, the amendment proposing to change the classification of kefir and drinkable...

  3. Antioxidant status and gut microbiota change in an aging mouse model as influenced by exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 isolated from Tibetan kefir.

    Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Xiao; Jiang, Yunyun; Zhao, Wen; Guo, Ting; Cao, Yongqiang; Teng, Junwei; Hao, Xiaona; Zhao, Juan; Yang, Zhennai

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 on the oxidative status and gut microbiota in an aging mouse model induced with d-galactose. The in vitro assay of the antioxidant activity of the EPS showed concentration-dependent (0.25-3.0 mg/mL) activities. At 3.0 mg/mL, the EPS reached the highest scavenging activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration values against hydroxyl radicals at 75.10% and 1.22 mg/mL, superoxide anion at 62.71% and 1.54 mg/mL, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 35.11% and 0.63 mg/mL, and the maximal chelating rate on ferrous ion and the half-maximal chelating concentration of the EPS at 41.09% and 1.07 mg/mL, respectively. High doses of EPS (50 mg/kg per day) effectively relieved the oxidative stress in the aging mice with increased levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity in mice serum by 21.55, 33.14, 61.09, and 38.18%, respectively, and decreased malondialdehyde level from 11.69 to 5.89 mmol/mL compared with those in the untreated aging mice model. The analysis of pyrosequencing sequence data from the gut microbiota revealed that the EPS could recover the microbiota diversity and phylotypes decreased or eliminated by the d-galactose treatment. The EPS could selectively decrease the abundance of Flexispira (37.5 fold), and increase the abundance of Blautia (36.5 fold) and Butyricicoccus (9.5 fold), which correspondingly decreased the content of nitrogen oxides to 9.87% and increased the content of short-chain fatty acids by 2.23 fold, thereby improving the oxidative and health conditions of the host intestinal tract. Further correlation analysis of core-microbiota variation induced by different treatments showed a strong correlation with oxidative phenotypes [catalase, goodness of prediction (Q 2 ) = 0.49; total antioxidant capacity, Q 2 = 0.45; nitrogen oxides, Q 2 = 0.67; short-chain fatty acids, Q 2 = 0.55]. The fermented milk with L. plantarum YW11 containing EPS also showed favorable antioxidant and gut microbiota regulating activities. The present finding provided new insights into the functional mechanism of probiotics bioactivity. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel kefir product (PFT) activates dendritic cells to induce CD4+T and CD8+T cell responses in vitro.

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Felo, Nouran; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Agrawal, Anshu

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacilli have been widely studied for their probiotic effects and have been reported to function as antiviral and anticancer agents. However, the underlying mechanisms via immune modulation are poorly understood. PFT is a freeze dried compound of Lactobacillus kefiri P-IF with a unique composition and functionality. In this study, we examined the potential stimulatory effects of two concentrations (50 µg and 100 µg/mL) of PFT on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Results showed that PFT upregulated the expression of DC surface co-stimulatory and maturation markers CD80, CD86, and HLADR in a concentration dependent manner. PFT at 100 µg/mL markedly increased the secretion of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-1β by DCs. This concentration of PFT also stimulated the production of antiviral cytokines, IFN-α and IFN-λ(IL29) in DCs. Additionally, PFT at 100 µg/mL activated moDCs prime CD4(+)T cells and significantly increased the levels of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α by 1.7, four, three-fold, respectively. Furthermore PFT-stimulated DCs were also effective in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of CD8(+)T cells via the induction of Granzyme-B and upregulation of CD107a, and CD103 expression, a marker of resident/regulatory CD8(+)T cells. These data suggest that PFT functions as a natural adjuvant for DC activation and thus may be used in DC-based vaccine strategies against viral infections and cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Atividade antiinflamatória de carboidrato produzido por fermentação aquosa de grãos de quefir

    Moreira,Maria E. C.; Santos,Marcelo H.; Pereira,Ivan O.; Ferraz,Vany; Barbosa,Luiz C. A.; Schneedorf,José M.

    2008-01-01

    Kefir, a symbiont microorganism suspension, presents benefic effects to health. Some kefir grains were cultivated in brown sugar, allowing to isolate a substance named CSQ. This was evaluated on a biologic essay of mouse foot edema, presenting an inhibitory activity of 30+4 % against carrageenan after the stimulus. It was observed that a cultivation mean containing sucrose, and not the milky mean, lead to the production of different sugar polymeric chains of kefir. The results in vivo suggest...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3▿

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jingrui; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bai, Xiaojia; Wang, Jinju

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 was isolated in Tibet, China, from kefir grain, a traditional dairy product that is known to provide many health benefits to humans. Here, we present the genome features of L. kefiranofaciens ZW3 and the identification of a gene cluster related to the synthesis of exopolysaccharide, an important constituent of the Tibetan kefir. PMID:21705607

  7. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3.

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Jingrui; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bai, Xiaojia; Wang, Jinju

    2011-08-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 was isolated in Tibet, China, from kefir grain, a traditional dairy product that is known to provide many health benefits to humans. Here, we present the genome features of L. kefiranofaciens ZW3 and the identification of a gene cluster related to the synthesis of exopolysaccharide, an important constituent of the Tibetan kefir.

  8. Culture as a Probiotic

    pc

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... effects of kefir were studied on human beings (Lin and. Change, 2000; Hoolihan, 2001; ... composition, reduced malformations and improved gut morphology and ..... Disinfection of Gilthead Sea Bream. (Sparus aurata), Red ...

  9. Jin et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(4):41-49 ...

    Proff.Adewunmi

    Fecal Bacteriological Examination ... commercial assay kits (Huang et al. 2013). ... means with a significance level of P < 0.05 and Pearson's correlation coefficient Test. ..... Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid.

  10. Probiotiques, aliments fonctionnels et kéfir : le point sur la situation règlementaire en Belgique et sur les avancées scientifiques en matière d'évaluation des effets santé du kéfir

    Ninane V.; Mukandayambaje R.; Berben G.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics, functional foods and kefir: a review of the Belgian regulation and the scientific progress in evaluating the beneficial health effects of kefir. In Belgium and more widely in Europe, conditions for putting probiotics on the market are defined on the basis of their application: medicinal or food use. Probiotics used as food supplements, as well as functional foods, are governed by food legislation. By the 31st of January 2010 at the latest, new restrictions will be introduced gover...

  11. [Therapeutic-prophylactic milk products with a new immunocorrector of natural origin].

    Besednova, N N; Epshteĭn, L M; Gazha, A K; Borovskaia, G A; Besednov, A L; Rozhzhov, I V; Smolina, T P

    1997-01-01

    Authors had received and investigated on experiment milk medical and prophylactic products (milk and kefir) with addition peptide, obtained from nervous tissue of squids. It has been established that addition of gangliin to the milk and kefir causes stimulation cellular and humoral factors of immunity answer at laboratory animals. Medical and prophylactic milk products with gangliin return to the normal state reduced immunity indexes of the mice with experimental immunodeficits.

  12. Probiotiques, aliments fonctionnels et kéfir : le point sur la situation règlementaire en Belgique et sur les avancées scientifiques en matière d'évaluation des effets santé du kéfir

    Ninane V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics, functional foods and kefir: a review of the Belgian regulation and the scientific progress in evaluating the beneficial health effects of kefir. In Belgium and more widely in Europe, conditions for putting probiotics on the market are defined on the basis of their application: medicinal or food use. Probiotics used as food supplements, as well as functional foods, are governed by food legislation. By the 31st of January 2010 at the latest, new restrictions will be introduced governing the publication of positive health claims that are authorized to be made about foods and the conditions for using them. For any other health claim, as well as for a medicinal application, the scientific evidence of the claimed effect must be provided. The potential of kefir to promote human health has been subject to various studies. These aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic strains isolated from kefir and the positive action of kefir, or some of its chemical components (fatty matter, polysaccharides, on specific health features predominantly related to cancerous tumour development, immunity, allergy and cholesteromia. The abilities of kefir to improve human health were evaluated on human cells and on laboratory animals but have not yet been confirmed by human trials.

  13. Kefiran suppresses antigen-induced mast cell activation.

    Furuno, Tadahide; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage produced by kefir grains in the Caucasian countries. Kefiran produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in kefir grains is an exopolysaccharide having a repeating structure with glucose and galactose residues in the chain sequence and has been suggested to exert many health-promoting effects such as immunomodulatory, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic activities. Here we investigated the effects of kefiran on mast cell activation induced by antigen. Pretreatment with kefiran significantly inhibited antigen-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, degranulation, and tumor necrosis factor-α production in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) after antigen stimulation was also suppressed by pretreatment of BMMCs with kefiran. These findings indicate that kefiran suppresses mast cell degranulation and cytokine production by inhibiting the Akt and ERKs pathways, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect for kefiran.

  14. Reclassification of Lactobacillus kefirgranum Takizawa et al. 1994 as Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. kefirgranum subsp. nov. and emended description of L. kefiranofaciens Fujisawa et al. 1988.

    Vancanneyt, M; Mengaud, J; Cleenwerck, I; Vanhonacker, K; Hoste, B; Dawyndt, P; Degivry, M C; Ringuet, D; Janssens, D; Swings, J

    2004-03-01

    Fourteen homofermentative lactic acid bacteria that were isolated from kefir grains and kefir fermented milks were assigned to either Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens or Lactobacillus kefirgranum, based on their characteristic morphotypes, phenotypic features and SDS-PAGE profiles of whole-cell proteins. Further genotypic analyses on representative strains from both taxa demonstrated that L. kefiranofaciens and L. kefirgranum share 100 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity and belong phylogenetically to the Lactobacillus acidophilus species group. DNA-DNA binding values of >79 % and analogous DNA G+C contents of 37-38 mol% showed that the strains studied belonged to one species: L. kefirgranum is a later synonym of L. kefiranofaciens. An emended description is proposed for L. kefiranofaciens. Due to the specific morphological and biochemical characteristics of these taxa in kefir grain formation, it is proposed that L. kefirgranum should be reclassified as L. kefiranofaciens subsp. kefirgranum subsp. nov.

  15. İNÜLİN VE MALTODEKSTRİN İLAVESİNİN KEFİRLERİN KONJÜGE LİNOLEİK ASİT İÇERİĞİ ÜZERİNE ETKİSİ

    ÖZBEY, Ayşe; DİNÇ, Selin Özge; ERİNÇ, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    Kefir tarihi yüzyıllar öncesine dayanan Kafkas dağları,Tibet ve Moğolistan kökenli fermente bir süt ürünüdür. Bazı bakteriler gelişimve metabolizmalarının sonucu olarak süt ürünlerinde fermantasyon boyunca farklıyağ asidi profilleri ve fonksiyonel yağ asitleri oluşturabilirler. Çalışmadakefir üretimleri inek sütüne %1, %2 ve %3 oranlarında maltodekstrin ve inülineklendikten sonra gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kontrol olarak maltodekstrin ve inülineklenmemiş sütten kefir üretilmiştir. Kefir üretiminde...

  16. Encapsulation of Platelet in Kefiran Polymer and Detection of Bioavailability of Immobilized Platelet in Probiotic Kefiran as A New Drug for Surface Bleeding

    Anahita Jenab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : Kefir contains lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Acetobacter and Streptococcus and yeasts (Kluyveromyces, Torula, Candida, Saccharomyces .Kefiran is the polysaccharide produced by lactic acid bacteria in kefir.Methods : Kefiran was prepared from milk containing 0.5% fat and 10 grams kefir grains and was separated from kefir by ethanol (0.02 gram following entrapping the platelets to this polymer. Ligand of the platelet-polysaccharide was studied by FTIR.Results : FTIR results showed that the bands of C-O and C-O-C connections were formed and the polysaccharides had been attached to the receptors of the platelet glycoproteins (GP Ib,GPIIb / IIIa. Stability and encapsulation of the platelet and kefiran were assessed by Coulter Counter. Encapsulation of the platelets by polysaccharide at the beginning caused to reduce the number of platelets following by releasing of 50% of the platelets after 3 hours.Conclusion : The platelets were encapsulated in kefiran polymer and detected for bioavailability as new drug for surface bleeding. Also, kefiran has antimicrobial and antifungal properties. On the other hand, the existence of nisin in kefiran could be useful as an antibacterial lantibiotic. 

  17. Milch, Milchprodukte, Analoge und Speiseeis

    Coors, Ursula

    Die Produktpalette Milch und Erzeugnisse aus Milch beinhaltet Konsummilch, die aus Milch oder Bestandteilen der Milch hergestellten Milcherzeugnisse wie Sauermilch-, Joghurt-, Kefir-, Buttermilch-, Sahne-, Kondensmilch-, Trockenmilch- und Molkenerzeugnisse, Milchmisch- und Molkenmischprodukte (Produkte mit beigegebenen Lebensmitteln), Milchzucker, Milcheiweißerzeugnisse, Milchfette und Käse.

  18. New generation biofuel from whey: Successive acidogenesis and alcoholic fermentation using immobilized cultures on γ-alumina

    Boura, Konstantina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kolliopoulos, Dionysios; Vasileiou, Dimitrios; Panas, Panayiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Successive continuous alcoholic fermentation and acidogenesis of whey. • UASB culture (acidogenesis) and kefir (alcoholic fermentation) fixed on γ-alumina. • Alcoholic fermentation-acidogenesis process led to 10-fold higher ethanol content. • Organic acids production was increased by 2.5-fold. • The process is promising for new generation ester-based biofuels from whey. - Abstract: Cheese whey exploitation in a biorefinery manner is proposed involving anaerobic acidogenesis by a UASB mixed anaerobic culture and alcoholic fermentation by kefir. Both cultures were immobilized on γ-alumina. The produced organic acids (OAs) and ethanol could be esterified to obtain a novel ester-based biofuel similar to biodiesel. During acidogenesis, lactic acid-type fermentation occurred leading to 12 g L"−"1 total OAs and 0.2 g L"−"1 ethanol. The fermented substrate was subsequently supplied to a second bioreactor with immobilized kefir, which increased the OAs content (15 g L"−"1), especially lactic acid, and slightly the ethanol concentration (0.3–0.4 g L"−"1). To further increase ethanol concentration, a second experiment was conducted supplying whey firstly to the immobilized kefir bioreactor and then pumping the effluent into the acidogenesis bioreactor, resulting in 40% increase of OAs and 10-fold higher ethanol content. The residual sugar was ∼50% of the initial whey lactose; consequently, future research could result to further increase of ethanol and OAs.

  19. Anaerobic conversion of lactic acid to acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri

    Elferink, SJWHO; Krooneman, J; Gottschal, JC; Spoelstra, SF; Faber, F; Driehuis, F

    The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade

  20. Anaerobic conversion of lactic acid to acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri

    Elferink, S.; Krooneman, J.; Gottschal, J.C.; Spoelstra, S.F.; Faber, F.; Driehuis, F.

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of lactic acid under anoxic conditions was studied in several strains of Lactobacillus buchneri and in close relatives such as Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus kefir, and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Of these lactobacilli, L. buchneri and L. parabuchneri were able to degrade

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, Part II.

    1988-10-30

    particularly hard time of it. In Golyshmanovo, our rayon center, we cannot even buy a bottle of kefir or a jar of sour cream, but to all appearances no...service of a lofty platform. Such a science can exist only if there is guaranteed immunity for the genuine scientist and Communist. Criticism—yes! But

  2. USSR Report Agriculture

    1986-02-12

    structure, which will make it possible to expand and intensify research on cold hardiness, immunity , resistance to acidity, genetics, physiology and...that the quality of sausage, cheese, kefir and several other products does not always respond to the growing demand. Increases in the production

  3. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  4. Selection of Suitable Microorganism for Biocatalytic Oxidation Reaction of Racemic Propranolol

    Rahime SONGÜR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol is one of the β-blockers which are pharmaceutically important, especially used for treatment of cardiovasculer disease. In this study, the production of enantiomerically pure propranolol was aimed via biocatalytic deracemization including tandem oxidation-reduction reactions of racemic propranolol. Within this content, firstly suitable microorganism for the oxidation of racemic propranolol was investigated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH enzyme for oxidation of propranolol and NADH oxidase enzyme for cofactor regeneration were necessary for the oxidation reactions. For this reason, ADH and NADH oxidase enzymes activities of different microorganisms were measured to select the microorganism for using as enzyme source. These microorganisms are Lactobacillus kefir NRRL B-1839, Rhodotorula glutunis DSM 70398, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 111718, Rhizopus arhizus. The highest ADH and NADH oxidase activities were obtained for L. kefir.

  5. USSR Report Agriculture.

    1986-03-06

    knows how much and what quality milk, kefir [ fermented goat’s milk] and sour cream are needed by the population? They know better than anyone else...were prepared in their own juices, using garlic, rather than vinegar , as a preservative. However, it turns out that garlic is not in the standards...had to produce 3-liter containers with kilograms of pickels in vinegar . Who needs them? [Question) Mikkail Mikhailovich, I would like to ask you how

  6. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  8. Probiotic Lactococcus lactis: A Review

    Priti Khemariya; Sudhir Singh; Gopal Nath; Anil K Gulati

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis plays a critical role in food, dairy and health sectors. In food and dairy industries, it is found in production processes of various fermented products such as sausages, pickled vegetables, beverages such as beer and wine, breads, soymilk kefir, sour milk, butter, cream, fresh cheese and different types of cheeses, like Cheddar, Colby, Cottage cheese, Camembert, cream cheese, Roquefort and Brie. Additionally, there is an increasing interest towards the possible health bene...

  9. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    1990-07-26

    the right of immunity and can be removed from his post only by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet in case of a violation by him of the constitution...ities of judges and people’s assessors and their execution of justice is inadmissible and is punishable by law. The immunity of judges and people’s...ecologically clean water to be sold in bottles and cardboard containers- -like kefir . Understandably, this beverage will cost more than tap water, but is

  10. Literature-Related Discovery: Potential Treatments and Preventives for SARS

    2010-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial...retrieval and analysis of the core SARS literature and literatures related directly to the core SARS literature (e.g., immune system component literatures...According to recent reviews of the pandemic, none of the drugs worked. Those who recovered did so by natural means; their immune systems were

  11. Dual function of Lactobacillus kefiri DH5 in preventing high-fat-diet-induced obesity: direct reduction of cholesterol and upregulation of PPAR-α in adipose tissue.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dana; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-11-01

    Kefir consumption inhibits the development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) in mice fed 60% high-fat diet (HFD). To identify the key contributor of this effect, we isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kefir and examined their anti-obesity properties from in vitro screening and in vivo validation. Thirteen kefir LAB isolates were subjected to survivability test using artificial gastrointestinal environment and cholesterol-reducing assay. Lactobacillus kefiri DH5 showed 100% survivability in gastrointestinal environments and reduced 51.6% of cholesterol; thus, this strain was selected for in vivo experiment. Compared to the HFD-saline group, the HFD-DH5 group showed significantly lower body weight (34.68 versus 31.10 g; p kefiri DH5 administration significantly modulated gut microbiota of HFD-fed mice. The hepatic steatosis was significantly milder (Lesion score, 2.1 versus 1.2; p kefiri DH5 upregulated PPAR-α, FABP4, and CPT1 expression in the epididymal adipose tissues (2.29-, 1.77-, and 2.05-fold change, respectively), suggesting a reduction in adiposity by stimulating fatty acid oxidation. L. kefiri DH5 exerts anti-obesity effects by direct reduction of cholesterol in the lumen and upregulation of PPAR-α gene in adipose tissues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Estimation of the antioxidant activity of the commercially available fermented milks.

    Najgebauer-Lejko, Dorota; Sady, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are connected with the increased risk of certain diseases, especially cancers. There is some scientific evidence that antioxidant-rich diet may inhibit the negative impact of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to analyse the antioxidant capacity of the selected commercial natural and flavoured fermented milks offered in Poland, derived from different producers. The following commercially available natural fermented milks: 12 yoghurts, 12 kefirs, 2 butter milks, 2 cultured milks, Turkish yoghurt drink (ayran) and the following flavoured fermented milks: 22 yoghurts, 2 acidophillus milks, 2 kefirs, butter milk and vegetable flavoured fermented milk were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The antioxidant capacity was assessed, in two replicates and twice for each product, by means of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging ability (expressed as ARP - anti radical power) methods. Among all analysed plain products, yoghurts and kefirs were characterised by the highest antioxidant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively affected both FRAP and ARP values. Antioxidant capacity of the flavoured fermented milks was primarily affected by the type and quality (e.g. fruit concentration) of the added flavouring preparation. The most valuable regarding the estimated parameters were chocolate, coffee, grapefruit with green tea extract as well as bilberry, forest fruits, strawberry and cherry with blackcurrant fillings. Protein content, inclusion of probiotic microflora as well as type and quality of flavouring preparations are the main factors affecting antioxidant properties of fermented milks.

  13. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fonksiyonel Özellikleri Geliştirilmiş Yoğurt Üretimi

    Özge Duygu Okur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, farklı inkübasyon sıcaklık (25 ºC ve 42 ºC ve kefir destek kültürü kullanımının, yoğurtların mikrobiyolojik, fizikokimyasal ve duyusal özellikleri üzerine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Tam yağlı yoğurt örneklerinin yanı sıra, yağ ikamesi ve prebiyotik özelliği olan inulin yağsız yoğurt üretiminde kullanılmıştır. Mikrobiyolojik değerlendirmeler sonucunda özellikle Lactobacillus içerikleri, farklı kültür ve inkübasyon sıcaklık kombinasyonlarından önemli derecede etkilenmiştir. Kefir destek kültürü kullanılan yoğurtlarda mayalar da gelişmiştir. Duyusal analiz değerlendirmeleri sonucunda ise, en fazla puan alan ürün inulin ilaveli yoğurt kültürü ile yapılan yağsız yoğurt olurken, ikinci sırayı yine inulin ilaveli, kefir ve yoğurt kültürünün birlikte kullanıldığı ve 420C'de inkübe edilen yağsız yoğurt örneği almıştır. En düşük genel skoru, sadece kefir kültürü kullanılıp 420C'de inkübe edilen örnek almıştır. Kefir destek kültürü ile üretilen örneklerde CO2 oluşumundan dolayı orta büyüklükte gözenekler (yaklaşık 0.5 cm çaplı tespit edilmiştir. Duyusal analiz sonuçlarına göre ürünlerde kefir kültür kullanımı yabancı tat üzerine önemli düzeyde etkili olmuştur.

  15. Biodegradable coatings on the postharvest of blackberry stored under refrigeration Revestimentos biodegradáveis na pós-colheita de amora-preta armazenada sob refrigeração

    Dalany Menezes Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry is a notable fruit due to bioactive compounds. However it has a fragile structure, which reduces the consumption in natura. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical quality of the cv. Tupy blackberry fruits, produced in an organic system, and coated with emulsions based on cassava starch and water kefir grains stored under refrigeration. The fruits were divided into three groups: a control (T1 and two treatments with coatings. The coatings used were: cassava starch solution 2.5% (T2; water kefir grains at 20% (T3. The fruits of the three treatments were stored at 10 ± 2 ºC and RH 85 ± 3%, and were evaluated every three days for 12 days period. It was determined: weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acid, soluble solids, ratio, anthocyanins and decay incidence. The results for the chemical features showed statistical differences (p>0.05 except for the pH value at the end of the storage. There were differences between crop for all parameters. During the storage period, the anthocyanin content increased on the 2008 crop and reduced on the fruits of 2009. To reduce the decay incidence it is recommended to use the coating with kefir grains. These fruits can be consumed until the third day of storage at 10 ºC.A amora preta é um fruto que vem se destacando por apresentar compostos bioativos em sua composição, no entanto, a sua estrutura frágil reduz o seu consumo in natura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade físico-química dos frutos de amora-preta, cv. Tupy, produzidas em sistema orgânico, e recobertos com emulsões a base de fécula de mandioca e grãos de kefir de água, armazenadas sob refrigeração. Os frutos foram separados em três tratamentos, sendo um controle (T1 e dois tratamentos com revestimentos. Os revestimentos usados foram: solução de fécula de mandioca a 2,5% (T2 e grãos de kefir de água a 20% (T3. Os frutos dos três tratamentos foram armazenados a 10 ± 2 ºC e UR 85

  16. Study of the use of probiotic foods as a complement of the conventional antibiotic-therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and it's use as a prophylactic therapy in the reinfection by this pathogen

    Zubillaga, M.; Goldman, C.; Caro, R.; Boccio, J.; Weill, R.; Postaire, E.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is very frequent in children in developing countries. Studies on eradication regimens and its complications are not well documented. The European Helicobacter pylori Study Group strongly recommends that treatment should be with proton pump inhibitor based triple therapy, consisting of a proton pump inhibitor and two of the following: clarithromycin, a nitroimidazole (metronidazole or tinidazole) and amoxycillin in various combinations. Recent advances in probiotic research show much promise in a new product development of functional foods based on milk. Among the reported beneficial effects of consuming certain strains of cultures or their metabolites, or both are control of ulcers related to Helicobacter pylori. Kefir seems to be a potential probiotic to control Helicobacter pylori infection. In this study 2 groups of 10 children each which demonstrate to be Helicobacter pylori positive will be treated as follows: Group 1: antibiotic treatment + placebo (fluid milk) and Group 2: antibiotic treatment + kefir. The Triple Therapy consists in the combination of two antibiotics (amoxycillin and clarithromycin) with a proton pump inhibitor (Lansoprazole). In all the cases, the post-treatment control will be performed by the 13 C UBT 2 months after the end of the treatment. Once the infection is eradicated, the group who received the antibiotic-therapy with milk (placebo) as well as the group who received the antibiotic-therapy with the probiotic under study will continue with the administration of the milk and/or probiotic food during one year. During this period, the children will be submitted to post-treatment controls performed by the 13 C UBT every three months. We expect to find that the group that received the triple therapy in combination with the probiotic food (kefir) would have less recidiva rates for the Helicobacter pylori infection than the group that received the triple therapy with the placebo (fluid milk). (author)

  17. Study of the use of probiotic foods as a complement of the conventional antibiotic-therapy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and it's use as a prophylactic therapy in the reinfection by this pathogen

    Zubillaga, M; Goldman, C; Caro, R; Boccio, J [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Weill, R [Departamento de Industrias Agrarias, Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de Moron, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Postaire, E [Research International Center Daniel Carasso (France)

    2000-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is very frequent in children in developing countries. Studies on eradication regimens and its complications are not well documented. The European Helicobacter pylori Study Group strongly recommends that treatment should be with proton pump inhibitor based triple therapy, consisting of a proton pump inhibitor and two of the following: clarithromycin, a nitroimidazole (metronidazole or tinidazole) and amoxycillin in various combinations. Recent advances in probiotic research show much promise in a new product development of functional foods based on milk. Among the reported beneficial effects of consuming certain strains of cultures or their metabolites, or both are control of ulcers related to Helicobacter pylori. Kefir seems to be a potential probiotic to control Helicobacter pylori infection. In this study 2 groups of 10 children each which demonstrate to be Helicobacter pylori positive will be treated as follows: Group 1: antibiotic treatment + placebo (fluid milk) and Group 2: antibiotic treatment + kefir. The Triple Therapy consists in the combination of two antibiotics (amoxycillin and clarithromycin) with a proton pump inhibitor (Lansoprazole). In all the cases, the post-treatment control will be performed by the {sup 13}C UBT 2 months after the end of the treatment. Once the infection is eradicated, the group who received the antibiotic-therapy with milk (placebo) as well as the group who received the antibiotic-therapy with the probiotic under study will continue with the administration of the milk and/or probiotic food during one year. During this period, the children will be submitted to post-treatment controls performed by the {sup 13}C UBT every three months. We expect to find that the group that received the triple therapy in combination with the probiotic food (kefir) would have less recidiva rates for the Helicobacter pylori infection than the group that received the triple therapy with the placebo (fluid milk). (author)

  18. Probiotics: current trends in the treatment of diarrhoea.

    Narayan, Sujatha S; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila; Shahani, S; Kulkarni, Vijaya N

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, research into and public interest in probiotics and probiotic foods have risen. Lactobacilli and bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics while yoghurt and kefir are popular foods containing probiotics. Probiotics have been used to manage diarrhoea. Many things cause diarrhoea, including bacterial, viral and protozoal infections, radiation and antibiotic therapy. Different studies have found that probiotics may also enhance the immune response, reduce serum cholesterol, prevent colonic cancer, prevent dental caries, prevent ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, maintain urogenital health, and ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy. Further studies are required to establish their role in these conditions.

  19. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  20. Genomic characterization reconfirms the taxonomic status of Lactobacillus parakefiri

    TANIZAWA, Yasuhiro; KOBAYASHI, Hisami; KAMINUMA, Eli; SAKAMOTO, Mitsuo; OHKUMA, Moriya; NAKAMURA, Yasukazu; ARITA, Masanori; TOHNO, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing was performed for Lactobacillus parakefiri JCM 8573T to confirm its hitherto controversial taxonomic position. Here, we report its first reliable reference genome. Genome-wide metrics, such as average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, and phylogenomic analysis based on multiple genes supported its taxonomic status as a distinct species in the genus Lactobacillus. The availability of a reliable genome sequence will aid future investigations on the industrial applications of L. parakefiri in functional foods such as kefir grains. PMID:28748134

  1. The antimicrobial role of probiotics in the oral cavity in humans and dogs

    Csilla Zambori; Ciceronis Cumpănăşoiu; Daniela Moţ; Ioan Huţu; Camelia Gurban; Emil Tîrziu

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been defined in 2001 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as "live microorganisms, and as the main bacteria that administered in adequate amounts in humans and animals have beneficial effects on the health of the host". Probiotics are single or mixed cultures of live and non-pathogenic microorganisms that are found in foods (especially acidic dairy yoghurt, kefir, buttermilk, cheese) or in nutritional ...

  2. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuevas aplicaciones de polisacáridos de bacterias lácticas: geles de kefiran y su aplicación como vehículo de microorganismos probióticos

    Zavala, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta la capacidad del polisacárido kefiran de formar geles, se pretende profundizar el conocimiento del comportamiento de este polisacárido en sistemas complejos y utilizar los mismos como vehículo de sustancias bioactivas o microorganismos. Se han propuesto los siguientes objetivos específicos: A. Seleccionar microorganismos aislados de kefir con potencialidad probiótica. B. Utilizar los geles de kefiran como vehículos para la inclusión de componen...

  4. Structural investigation and response surface optimisation for improvement of kefiran production yield from a low-cost culture medium.

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Taheri, Salman

    2012-07-15

    Kefiran, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide with molecular weight of 1.35×10(6)Da and a specific optical rotation of +64° (c 1.0, H2O), was isolated from kefir grains grown in cheese whey and further purified through DEAE-Sepharose XK26. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the culture conditions for kefiran production from kefir grains to be lactose concentration 67 g/l, yeast extract 13g/l, pH 5.7 and temperature 24°C. Intrinsic viscosity was 5.84 dl/g using the Huggins extrapolation and 5.53 dl/g using the Kramer extrapolation. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that kefiran is composed of glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) in a relative molar ratio of 1.0:1.1. Its structural features were elucidated by a combination of FT-IR, methylation and GC-MS analysis, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, partial acid hydrolysis and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C and HMBC). The data obtained indicated that kefiran possessed a backbone of (1→6)-linked Glc, (1→3)-linked Gal, (1→4)-linked Gal, (1→4)-linked Glc and (1→2,6)-linked Gal, with a branch attached to O-2 of Gal residues and terminated with Glc residues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DD2 against oral pathogens.

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background : Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are major causative bacterial pathogens of dental caries. Objective : We investigated the applicability of three Lactobacillus strains ( L. kefiranofaciens DD2, DD5, and DD6) isolated from kefir and three commercial Lactobacillus strains ( L. plantarum ATCC 10,012, L. johnsonii JCM 1022, and L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469) as potential oral probiotics with respect to their survivability in an experimental oral environment, antimicrobial activity, and anti-biofilm formation activity against S. mutans and S. sobrinus . Results : Strains DD2, ATCC 10012, ATCC 7469, and JCM 1022 had the best oral survivability, including aerotolerance and enzymatic resistance, and inhibited the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus . In particular, DD2 suppressed all three classes of biofilm formation-associated genes: those associated with carbohydrate metabolism and those encoding regulatory biofilm and adhesion proteins. Conclusions : These results indicate that the novel kefir isolate L. kefiranofaciens DD2 effectively and directly inhibits S. mutans and S. sobrinus .

  6. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks.

    Bonczar, Genowefa; Walczycka, Maria; Duda, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to observe the changes which take place in the electrophoretic picture of milk proteins after pasteurisation and inoculation with different starter cultures (both traditional and probiotic). After incubation, the yoghurt, kefir, acidified milk, fermented Bifidobacterium bifidum drink and Lactobacillus acidophillus drink were chilled for 14 days to observe the changes which occurred. The research materials were raw and pasteurised milk, as well as fermented milk- based drinks. The raw milk used for research came from Polish Holstein-Fresian black and white cows. The milk was sampled 3 times and divided into 5 parts, each of which was pasteurised at 95°C for 10 min and then cooled for inoculation: yoghurt to 45°C, kefir and acidified milk to 22°C and drinks with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus to 38°C. Milk was inoculated with lyophilised, direct vat starter cultures, in an amount equal to 2% of the working starter. For the production of fermented drinks, the subsequent starters were applied: "YC-180" Christian Hansen for yoghurt, "D" Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for kefir, CH-N--11 Christian Hansen for acidified milk, starter by Christian Hansen for the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, starter by Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophillus milk. The analyses were conducted in raw, pasteurised and freshly fermented milk as well as in milk drinks stored for 14 days. The total solid content was estimated by the drying method; the fat content by the Gerber method; the lactose content by the Bertrand method; the protein content by the Kjeldahl method with Buchi apparatus; the density of milk was measured with lactodensimeter; acidity with a pH-meter; and potential acidity by Soxhlet-Henkl method (AOAC, 1990). The electrophoretic separation of proteins in raw and pasteurised milk, as well as in freshly produced milk drinks and those stored for 14 days, was performed with SDS-PAGE (on

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Chemical Changes in Three Kinds of Fermented Milk Products during Fermentation Using Quantitative Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Lu, Yi; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kwon, Yeondae; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2018-02-14

    Fermented milk products are rising in popularity throughout the world as a result of their health benefits, including improving digestion, normalizing the function of the immune system, and aiding in weight management. This study applies an in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance method to monitor chemical changes in three kinds of fermented milk products, Bulgarian yogurt, Caspian Sea yogurt, and kefir, during fermentation. As a result, the concentration changes in nine organic compounds, α/β-lactose, α/β-galactose, lactic acid, citrate, ethanol, lecithin, and creatine, were monitored in real time. This revealed three distinct metabolic processes in the three fermented milk products. Moreover, pH changes were also determined by variations in the chemical shift of citric acid during the fermentation processes. These results can be applied to estimate microbial metabolism in various flora and help guide the fermentation and storage of various fermented milk products to improve their quality, which may directly influence human health.

  8. Coadjuvants in the Diabetic Complications: Nutraceuticals and Drugs with Pleiotropic Effects

    Thiago Melo Costa Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Because diabetes mellitus (DM is a multifactorial metabolic disease, its prevention and treatment has been a constant challenge for basic and clinical investigators focused on translating their discoveries into clinical treatment of this complex disorder. In this review, we highlight recent experimental and clinical evidences of potential coadjuvants in the management of DM, such as polyphenols (quercetin, resveratrol and silymarin, cultured probiotic microorganisms and drugs acting through direct/indirect or pleiotropic effects on glycemic control in DM. Among several options, we highlight new promising therapeutic coadjuvants, including chemical scavengers, the probiotic kefir and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, which besides the reduction of hyperglycemia and ameliorate insulin resistance, they reduce oxidative stress and improve endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vascular circulation. In the near future, experimental studies are expected to clear the intracellular pathways involving coadjuvants. The design of clinical trials may also contribute to new strategies with coadjuvants against the harmful effects of diabetic complications.

  9. RISK FACTORS AND PECULIARITIES OF NUTRITION OF INFANTS WITH CHRONIC DIARRHEA

    T.S. Lazareva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of observation of children from 2,5 months to 4 years old, treated in hospital with diagnosis chronic diarrhea are analyzed in this article. Diarrhea debuted in first year of living in most cases. The reason of onset of diarrhea often was alimentary factor. Hereditary predisposition, pathologic pregnancy, and diseases in women at the time of pregnancy played an important role in development of disease. Nutrition of children in early age was characterized by low duration of breast feeding and early conversion of children to the mixed and artificial feeding. Main food stuffs in children's nutrition on mixed and artificial feeding was adapted milk formulas, and rarely non adapted milk food (cow's and goat's milk, kefir. Only 30% of mothers had a definite knowledge of proper child's feeding and advantages of breast feeding. This fact indicates necessity of more active educational work by medical staff.Key words: children, chronic diarrhea, nutrition.

  10. Shear and extensional properties of kefiran.

    Piermaría, Judith; Bengoechea, Carlos; Abraham, Analía Graciela; Guerrero, Antonio

    2016-11-05

    Kefiran is a neutral polysaccharide constituted by glucose and galactose produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. It is included into kefir grains and has several health promoting properties. In the present work, shear and extensional properties of different kefiran aqueous dispersions (0.5, 1 and 2% wt.) were assessed and compared to other neutral gums commonly used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutics industries (methylcellulose, locust bean gum and guar gum). Kefiran showed shear flow characteristics similar to that displayed by other representative neutral gums, although it always yielded lower viscosities at a given concentration. For each gum system it was possible to find a correlation between dynamic and steady shear properties by a master curve including both the apparent and complex viscosities. When studying extensional properties of selected gums at 2% wt. by means of a capillary break-up rheometer, kefiran solutions did not show important extensional properties, displaying a behaviour close the Newtonian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  12. Oral administration of kefiran induces changes in the balance of immune cells in a murine model.

    Medrano, Micaela; Racedo, Silvia M; Rolny, Ivanna S; Abraham, Analía G; Pérez, Pablo F

    2011-05-25

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the oral administration of kefiran on the balance of immune cells in a murine model. Six week old BALB/c mice were treated with kefiran (300 mg/L) for 0, 2 and 7 days. Kefiran treatment increased the number of IgA+ cells in lamina propria after 2 and 7 days. Percentage of B220+/MHCII(high) cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (2 days) and Peyer's patches (7 days) was higher compared to untreated control mice. An increase of macrophages (F4/80+ cells) was observed in lamina propria and peritoneal cavity (2 and 7 days). In contrast, at day 7, macrophage population decreased in Peyer's patches. These results show the ability of kefiran to modify the balance of immune cells in intestinal mucosa. This property could be highly relevant for the comprehension of the probiotic effect attributed to kefir.

  13. LACTOBACTERIA IN FOOD: THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICAL MEANING (BY EXAMPLE OF LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG

    S.V. Belmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal intestinal microflora is necessary for human health. Sour milk products influence the composition and functional state of intestinal micro flora. Multiple studies showed high probiotic activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103, LGG and its safety in children and adults. LGG has beneficial effect on functional disorders of intestinal motor function, and in treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases. These effects are realized through TLR2 receptors activating NFkB-mediated signal way and regulating cytokines synthesis. Besides, LGG blocks interaction of mast cells and IgE and favors to the expression of H4 histamine receptors. LGG (ATCC 53103 are included in liquid yoghurts («Tyoma» for children from 8 months old, kefir, tan, cottage cheese and other food produced by Bio Balance.Key words: children, nutrition, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, probiotics, sour milk products, food allergy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 80–85

  14. Modulation of gut microbiota and increase in fecal water content in mice induced by administration of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DN1.

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hong-Seok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-02-22

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is the key probiotic bacterium in kefir. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral consumption of L. kefiranofaciens on the fecal quality and intestinal microbiota of mice. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into two groups (n = 8 each) and administered 0.2 mL of saline (control group) or saline containing 2 × 10 8 cfu L. kefiranofaciens DN1 (LKF_DN1 group) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, their fecal samples were collected and the fecal quality and microbiota were assessed. The LKF_DN1 group exhibited higher total fecal weight and fecal weight per stool sample than the control group (p kefiranofaciens DN1 administration could alleviate constipation and improve gut microbiota.

  15. THE USE OF A DOMESTIC PROBIOTIC WITH LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS AND OTHER PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN

    A. A. Novokshonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies showing the effectiveness of the use of the domestic probiotic Acipol containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and the kefiric fungal polysaccharide are summarized in a wide range of diseases in children, such as acute intestinal infections of bacterial, viral (rotavirus and mixed etiology, for the prevention of the development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, for the normalization of the intestinal microflora in various conditions (acute respiratory diseases, atopic dermatitis, often ill children, etc.. The appointment of Acipol contributed to a reduction in the duration of clinical manifestations, restoration of normoflora, rapid elimination of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, and reduced the risk of developing of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

  16. Coadjuvants in the Diabetic Complications: Nutraceuticals and Drugs with Pleiotropic Effects

    Pereira, Thiago Melo Costa; Pimenta, Fabio Silva; Porto, Marcella Lima; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Campagnaro, Bianca Prandi; Gava, Agata Lages; Meyrelles, Silvana Santos; Vasquez, Elisardo Corral

    2016-01-01

    Because diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disease, its prevention and treatment has been a constant challenge for basic and clinical investigators focused on translating their discoveries into clinical treatment of this complex disorder. In this review, we highlight recent experimental and clinical evidences of potential coadjuvants in the management of DM, such as polyphenols (quercetin, resveratrol and silymarin), cultured probiotic microorganisms and drugs acting through direct/indirect or pleiotropic effects on glycemic control in DM. Among several options, we highlight new promising therapeutic coadjuvants, including chemical scavengers, the probiotic kefir and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, which besides the reduction of hyperglycemia and ameliorate insulin resistance, they reduce oxidative stress and improve endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vascular circulation. In the near future, experimental studies are expected to clear the intracellular pathways involving coadjuvants. The design of clinical trials may also contribute to new strategies with coadjuvants against the harmful effects of diabetic complications. PMID:27527163

  17. The history of probiotics: the untold story.

    Ozen, M; Dinleyici, E C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic, a word derived from Latin, means 'for life'. A long time before the awareness of probiotic microorganisms, fermented products, such as beer, bread, wine, kefir, kumis and cheese had been very frequently used for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. It is widely believed that fermented products were probably found, or better to say, discovered spontaneously. The legend tells that yoghurt is most likely resulted from a fermentation process within the animal skin bags used for transportation of water and milk in regions with low humidity and high temperatures (Middle Asia and Middle East). The history of probiotics goes paralel with the evolution of human race and, thanks to the sophisticated techniques at the moment, can be traced back to the ancient times, nearly 10,000 years ago. The aims of this review are to highlight the important events for probiotic history, to correct the widely available anonymous misinformation in the literature and to remind to the readers important characters in its history.

  18. Characterization of bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis.

    Escalante, Adelfo; Rodríguez, María Elena; Martínez, Alfredo; López-Munguía, Agustín; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2004-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, was studied in 16S rDNA clone libraries from three pulque samples. Sequenced clones identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus strain ASF360, L. kefir, L. acetotolerans, L. hilgardii, L. plantarum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Microbacterium arborescens, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, Acetobacter pomorium, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Hafnia alvei, were detected for the first time in pulque. Identity of 16S rDNA sequenced clones showed that bacterial diversity present among pulque samples is dominated by Lactobacillus species (80.97%). Seventy-eight clones exhibited less than 95% of relatedness to NCBI database sequences, which may indicate the presence of new species in pulque samples.

  19. Protection against an infectious disease by enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0-157.

    Ota, A

    1999-07-01

    Preventive measures against infection by enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 0-157 are described. Eating yoghurt and Kefir supposedly induces more bifid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria to colonize in the intestines, thereby protecting humans from infection by E. coli 0-157. Some foods, such as plum extract, act as a mild antibiotic and produce an acidic environment within the intestine, thus interfering with growth of the E. coli 0-157. The natural colonization of harmless E. coli or other bacteria that are more powerful than E. coli 0-157 can possibly protect against infection. A vaccination against E. coli 0-157 H7 may also be effective. In addition, it has been suggested that the correct levels of nitric oxide and calcium in the blood may activate immunity and protect against infection by E. coli 0-157.

  20. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  1. Molecular mechanisms and in vitro antioxidant effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2.

    Tang, Wei; Xing, Zhuqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Jinju; Wang, Yanping

    2017-04-15

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from Chinese traditional Tibetan kefir grains. The antioxidant activities in vitro of this strain were evaluated extensively. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 can tolerate hydrogen peroxide up to 2.0mM, and its fermentate (fermented supernatant, intact cell and cell-free extract) had strong reducing capacities, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacities, Fe 2+ -chelating abilities, as well as various free radical scavenging capacities. Additionally, both the fermented supernatant and cell homogenate exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity. In order to investigate the antioxidant mechanism of L. plantarum MA2 at the molecular level, eight antioxidant-related genes were identified, and further analyzed. Three groups of genes cat, gshR and npx, were found up-regulated under H 2 O 2 challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products.

    Erginkaya, Z; Turhan, E U; Tatlı, D

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the antibiotic resistance (AR) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Turkish fermented dairy products was investigated. Yogurt, white cheese, tulum cheese, cokelek, camız cream and kefir as dairy products were collected from various supermarkets. Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Enterecoccus spp. were isolated from these dairy products. Lactobacillus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (58%), erythromycin (10.8%), tetracycline (4.3%), gentamicin (28%), and ciprofloxacin (26%). Streptococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (40%), erythromycin (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (30%). Bifidobacterium spp. were resistant to vancomycin (60%), E 15 (6.6%), gentamicin (20%), and ciprofloxacin (33%). Enterococcus spp. were resistant to vancomycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), rifampin (100%), and ciprofloxacin (100%). As a result, LAB islated from dairy products in this study showed mostly resistance to vancomycin.

  3. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  4. The estimated possibilities of process monitoring in milk production by the simple thermodynamic sensors

    Martin Adámek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and monitoring of thermal processes in thermodynamic systems can be performed using the thermodynamic sensors (TDS. The basic idea of thermodynamic sensor is possible to use in many various applications (eq. monitoring of frictional heat, thermal radiation, pollution of cleaning fluid, etc.. One of application areas, where the thermodynamic sensor can find the new area for a using, is a production of milk products - cheese, yogurt, kefir, etc. This paper describes the estimated possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of the use of thermodynamic sensors in diary productions and simple experiments for characterization and monitoring of basic operations in milk production process by thermodynamic sensors. The milk products are often realized by fermenting or renneting process. Final stages of fermentation and renneting processes are often determined on the base of sensory evaluation, pH measurement or by analytical method. The exact time of the fermentation process completion is dependent on various parameters and is often the company know-how. The fast, clean and simple non-analytical non-contact method for monitoring and for the determination of process final stages does not exist in this time. Tests of fermentation process, renneting process and yoghurt process by thermodynamic sensors were characterized and measured in this work. Measurement of activity yeasts was tested in first series of experiments. In second series of experiments, measurement of processes in milk production was tested. First results of simple experiments show that the thermodynamic sensors might be used for determination of time behaviour of these processes. Therefore, the milk products (cheese, yogurt, kefir, etc. is opened as a one of new application areas, where the thermodynamic sensor can be used.

  5. Species classifier choice is a key consideration when analysing low-complexity food microbiome data.

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; O'Sullivan, Orla; Finnegan, Laura; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D

    2018-03-20

    The use of shotgun metagenomics to analyse low-complexity microbial communities in foods has the potential to be of considerable fundamental and applied value. However, there is currently no consensus with respect to choice of species classification tool, platform, or sequencing depth. Here, we benchmarked the performances of three high-throughput short-read sequencing platforms, the Illumina MiSeq, NextSeq 500, and Ion Proton, for shotgun metagenomics of food microbiota. Briefly, we sequenced six kefir DNA samples and a mock community DNA sample, the latter constructed by evenly mixing genomic DNA from 13 food-related bacterial species. A variety of bioinformatic tools were used to analyse the data generated, and the effects of sequencing depth on these analyses were tested by randomly subsampling reads. Compositional analysis results were consistent between the platforms at divergent sequencing depths. However, we observed pronounced differences in the predictions from species classification tools. Indeed, PERMANOVA indicated that there was no significant differences between the compositional results generated by the different sequencers (p = 0.693, R 2  = 0.011), but there was a significant difference between the results predicted by the species classifiers (p = 0.01, R 2  = 0.127). The relative abundances predicted by the classifiers, apart from MetaPhlAn2, were apparently biased by reference genome sizes. Additionally, we observed varying false-positive rates among the classifiers. MetaPhlAn2 had the lowest false-positive rate, whereas SLIMM had the greatest false-positive rate. Strain-level analysis results were also similar across platforms. Each platform correctly identified the strains present in the mock community, but accuracy was improved slightly with greater sequencing depth. Notably, PanPhlAn detected the dominant strains in each kefir sample above 500,000 reads per sample. Again, the outputs from functional profiling analysis using

  6. Structural characterization of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 and its in situ application in yogurt.

    Qin, Q Q; Xia, B S; Xiong, Y; Zhang, S X; Luo, Y B; Hao, Y L

    2011-01-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains in China, which was identified by 16S rDNA tests and designated as Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that it was composed of galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.8 with a molecular mass of 2.5 × 10(4) Da. EPS was further revealed to have α-d-glucose, α-d-galactose, β-d-glucose, and β-d-galactose by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with 1D (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The length of EPS ranged from 10 to 100 nm and the maximal height of lumps was 2.5 nm through atomic force micrograph analysis. Furthermore, yogurt fermented with EPS-producing S. thermophilus 05-34 exhibited lower susceptibility to whey separation, higher viscosity, and sensory scores than those made with non-EPS-producing strain in yogurt production. These results suggested that EPS-producing Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 provided a potential application in the fermented dairy industry. © 2011 China Agricultural University © 2011 Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Novel Functional Whey-Based Drinks with Great Potential in the Dairy Industry

    Marta Henriques

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the production of liquid whey protein concentrates by ultrafiltration followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization of the ultrafiltrated concentrate, as well as on the production of ultrafiltrated permeates concentrated by reverse osmosis. Kefir grains (fresh and thawed and/or commercial probiotic bacteria were inoculated in both liquid whey protein concentrates and concentrated ultrafiltrated permeates and grown at 25 °C for 24 h for the manufacture of fermented drinks. The physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, and content of total solids, ash, fat and proteins of the obtained drinks was then assessed and compared. Enumeration of viable microorganisms was carried out immediately aft er inoculation (at 0 h, during the fermentation period (at 12 and 24 h and during refrigerated storage (at 48, 168 and 336 h. The fermented drinks showed acceptable physicochemical and sensorial properties, and contained above 7 log CFU/mL of lactococci and lactobacilli and 6 log CFU/mL of yeasts after 14 days of refrigerated storage, which is in agreement with the standards required by international organizations like European Food Safety Authority (EFSA and Food and Drug Administration (FDA for products containing probiotics. In summary, the strategy developed in this work contributes to the expansion of the applications of products derived from whey fractionation for the design of novel functional foods.

  8. Inhibitory effect of kefiran on ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

    Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Lee, Mee-Young; Kim, So-Young; Park, Bo-Young; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu

    2008-12-01

    Kefiran is a major component of kefir which is a microbial symbiont mixture that produces jelly-like grains. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic availability of kefiran on the ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse model in which airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness were found in the lung. BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged to ovalbumin were treated intra-gastrically with kefiran 1 hour before the ovalbumin challenge. Kefiran significantly suppressed ovalbumin-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine. Administration of kefiran significantly inhibited the release of both eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue which was measured by Diff-Quik. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) were also reduced to normal levels after administration of kefiran in BAL fluid. Histological studies demonstrate that kefiran substantially inhibited ovalbumin-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue by H&E staining and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway by PAS staining. Taken above data, kefiran may be useful for the treatment of inflammation of lung tissue and airway hyper-responsiveness in a murine model and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic bronchial asthma.

  9. Oral administration of kefiran exerts a bifidogenic effect on BALB/c mice intestinal microbiota.

    Hamet, M F; Medrano, M; Pérez, P F; Abraham, A G

    2016-01-01

    The activity of kefiran, the exopolysaccharide present in kefir grains, was evaluated on intestinal bacterial populations in BALB/c mice. Animals were orally administered with kefiran and Eubacteria, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria populations were monitored in faeces of mice at days 0, 2, 7, 14 and 21. Profiles obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) with primers for Eubacteria were compared by principal component analysis and clearly defined clusters, correlating with the time of kefiran consumption, were obtained. Furthermore, profile analysis of PCR products amplified with specific oligonucleotides for bifidobacteria showed an increment in the number of DGGE bands in the groups administered with kefiran. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH) with specific probes for bifidobacteria showed an increment of this population in faeces, in accordance to DGGE results. The bifidobacteria population was also studied on distal colon content after 0, 2 and 7 days of kefiran administration. Analysis of PCR products by DGGE with Eubacteria primers showed an increment in the number and intensity of bands with high GC content of mice administered with kefiran. Sequencing of DGGE bands confirmed that bifidobacteria were one of the bacterial populations modified by kefiran administration. DGGE profiles of PCR amplicons obtained by using Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus specific primers confirmed that kefiran administration enhances bifidobacteria, however no changes were observed in Lactobacillus populations. The results of the analysis of bifidobacteria populations assessed on different sampling sites in a murine model support the use of this exopolysaccharide as a bifidogenic functional ingredient.

  10. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor

    Daniel Joe Dailin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L−1, respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L−1 concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L−1.

  11. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

    Dailin, Daniel Joe; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Othman, Nor Zalina; Malek, Roslinda; Phin, Hiew Siaw; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad; El Enshasy, Hesham Ali

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1).

  12. Structural characterization and biological activities of an exopolysaccharide kefiran produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens WT-2B(T).

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Zhu, Xia; Suzuki, Shiho; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2004-08-25

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, isolated from kefir grains, produces an extracellular polysaccharide when cultured, not only in PYG10 medium but also in a liquid medium containing a rice hydrolysate that had been previously degraded by treatment with a glucoamylase. The maximum yield of the polysaccharide, using the rice hydrolysate as the medium, was 2.5 g/L after a 7-day culture period at pH 5.0 and 33 degrees C. Compositional analysis, methylation analysis, specific rotation, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy revealed that the structures of polysaccharides obtained from these two different culture media are essentially identical. The polysaccharide is composed of a hexasaccharide repeating unit and, thus, is known as kefiran. The weight-average molecular weight and the z-average radius of gyration of a sample, purified from the rice hydrolysate medium, were determined to be 7.6 x 10(5) g/mol and 39.9 nm, respectively, by gel permeation chromatography equipped with a multiangle laser-light-scattering photometer. Changes in blood pressure and serum components were examined in SHRSP/Hos rats, using doses of 100 and 300 mg of kefiran/kg of rat. A suppression in the increase in blood pressure was observed in these rats after 30 days. This activity is discussed in terms of the concentration of serum components of the rat, with emphasis on lipid components such as cholesterols, triglycerides, and free fatty acids.

  13. Preparation and characterization of kefiran electrospun nanofibers.

    Esnaashari, Seyedeh Sara; Rezaei, Sasan; Mirzaei, Esmaeil; Afshari, Hamed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Faridi-Majidi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we report the first successful production of kefiran nanofibers through electrospinning process using distilled water as solvent. For this purpose, kefiran was extracted from cultured kefir grains, and homogenous kefiran solutions with different concentrations were prepared and then electrospun to obtain uniform nanofibers. The effect of main process parameters, including applied voltage, tip-to-collector distance, and feeding rate, on diameter and morphology of produced nanofibers, was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize electrospun mats. Rheological behavior of the kefiran solution was evaluated via a cone and plate rheometer too. The results exhibited that diameter of kefiran nanofibers increased with increasing polymer concentration, applied voltage, and polymer feeding rate, while tip-to-collector distance did not have significant effect on nanofiber diameter. ATR-FTIR spectra showed that kefiran has maintained its molecular structure during electrospinning process. Flow curves also demonstrated shear thinning behavior for kefiran solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Evaluation of Adults' Water and Fluid Consumption

    Hülya Yardimci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to determine the daily water and fluid consumption of health professionals. Methods: The sample included 313 subjects (female: 222, male: 91 between 22 and 49 years of age. The questionnaire solicited demographic information from the participants and asked about their fluid consumption and its frequency. The principal variable was gender. To analyze the data statistically, tables of means, standard deviations (X±SD and percentage (% values were used. When identifying the fluid intake of healthcare staff, the independent t test was used to account for gender. Results: The fluid consumption of the participants was examined, and the average was 2,262.6±845.2 mL. The mean consumption of water was 1,404.0±719.8 mL. Other significant fluid intake included black tea at 314.4±147.9 mL, instant coffee at 160.5±52.2 mL, milk/ayran/kefir at 157.7±134.8 mL, soft drinks at 61.6±104.7 mL and fruit juice at 72.5±103.9 mL. It was also found that the gender differences in total fluid and soft drink consumption were statistically significant (p.05. Conclusion: To precisely determine water and fluid intake, studies should be planned and conducted with large samples using standardized assessment tools.

  15. Kefiran antagonizes cytopathic effects of Bacillus cereus extracellular factors.

    Medrano, Micaela; Pérez, Pablo Fernando; Abraham, Analía Graciela

    2008-02-29

    Kefiran, the polysaccharide produced by microorganisms present in kefir grains, is a water-soluble branched glucogalactan containing equal amounts of D-glucose and D-galactose. In this study, the effect of kefiran on the biological activity of Bacillus cereus strain B10502 extracellular factors was assessed by using cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells) and human erythrocytes. In the presence of kefiran concentrations ranging from 300 to 1000 mg/L, the ability of B. cereus B10502 spent culture supernatants to detach and damage cultured human enterocytes was significantly abrogated. In addition, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was higher when kefiran was present during the cell toxicity assays. Protection was also demonstrated in hemolysis and apoptosis/necrosis assays. Scanning electron microscopy showed the protective effect of kefiran against structural cell damages produced by factors synthesized by B. cereus strain B10502. Protective effect of kefiran depended on strain of B. cereus. Our findings demonstrate the ability of kefiran to antagonize key events of B. cereus B10502 virulence. This property, although strain-specific, gives new perspectives for the role of bacterial exopolysaccharides in functional foods.

  16. Bazı Laktik Asit Bakterilerinin Fizyolojik, Biyokimyasal, Plazmit DNA ve Protein Profil Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi

    Zehra Nur Yüksekdağ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, toplam 36 adet laktik asit bakterisi kefir, beyaz peynir, kasar peyniri ve sucuktan izole edilmistir. Izole edilen kültürler biyokimyasal testler ve API 50 CH kiti ile tanımlanmıs ve toplam protein profilleri Sodyum Dodesil Sülfat Poliakrilamid Jel Elektroforezi (SDS-PAGE ile belirlenmistir. Tanımlama testleri sonucunda 36 adet laktik asit bakterisi, Leuconostoc cremoris (1 sus, Leu. mesenteroides (1 sus, Lactobacillus brevis (1 sus, Lb. casei (2 sus, Lb. lactis (2 sus, Lb. plantarum (2 sus, Lb. helveticus (3 sus, Lactococcus cremoris (3 sus, Lac. lactis (3 sus, Streptococcus durans (1 sus, Strep. thermophilus (2 sus, Pediococcus acidilactici (2 sus, P. pentosaceus (4 sus ve P. dextrinicus (9 sus olarak tanımlanmıstır. 36 adet laktik asit bakteri susunun plazmit DNA incelemesinde, 21 adet susta 1-5 arasında degisen sayılarda plazmit DNA’ya rastlanılmıstır. Bu plazmit DNA’ların moleküler agırlıklarının 3.11-28.07 kb arasında oldugu belirlenmistir. 15 adet laktik asit bakterisinin ise plazmit DNA içermedikleri gözlenmistir.

  17. Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of a Heterodimeric β-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3.

    He, Xi; Han, Ning; Wang, Yan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 was obtained from kefir grains, which have high lactose hydrolytic activity. In this study, a heterodimeric LacLM-type β-galactosidase gene (lacLM) from ZW3 was isolated, which was composed of two overlapping genes, lacL (1,884 bp) and lacM (960 bp) encoding large and small subunits with calculated molecular masses of 73,620 and 35,682 Da, respectively. LacLM, LacL, and LacM were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and these recombinant proteins were purified and characterized. The results showed that, compared with the recombinant holoenzyme, the recombinant large subunit exhibits obviously lower thermostability and hydrolytic activity. Moreover, the optimal temperature and pH of the holoenzyme and large subunit are 60°C and 7.0, and 50°C and 8.0, respectively. However, the recombinant small subunit alone has no activity. Interestingly, the activity and thermostability of the large subunit were greatly improved after mixing it with the recombinant small subunit. Therefore, the results suggest that the small subunit might play an important role in maintaining the stability of the structure of the catalytic center located in the large subunit.

  18. L-Tryptophan, Melatonin, Serotonin Profiles in the Foods and their Effects on Health

    Seda Kurtulmuş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depending on the progress of science and technology, our eating habits have changed. The shape and quality of nutrition is important for human health. Especially, some food components have various effect on central nervous system such as depression, anxiety, sleep, appetite. Food constituents are transported into the central nervous system via the neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and valine. Amino acids have an important role in human nutrition. It cannot be synthesized in the body and one of the essential amino acids that must be taken outside, trytophan, is indispensable in human nutrition because of it has the many functions. In recent years, scientific community concentrated on the various functions of L-Trytophan (L-Trp as pioneer in the secretion of the hormones serotonin and melatoninin in the human body. The hormones serotonin and melatonin is responsible for activities such as psychology, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure balance, antioxidant effect, cancer inhibitor, sexuality, autism and circadian rhythms in human body that they are available in various foods such as milk, kefir, yogurt, orange, strawberry, grape, olive oil, walnut, prune, nut, pomegranate, coffee, kiwi and banana. In this study, L-Trp, serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis and metabolism, food profiles and in terms of their physiological and biological effects on human health has been compiled.

  19. ECONOMIC VALUE OF USE OF ORANGE AS THE COAGULANT AND SUBTITUTION OF KORO TUNGGAK IN MAKING OF TOFU

    Wahyu Setya Ratri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available of tofu. The objectives of the research were: (1 to prove the effect of the use of oranges as coagulant and koro tunggak for soybean substitution in tofu production process, (2 to calculate production cost of tofu manufacture from organic frown. The study used organoleptic test. Obtained data that 90 percent of respondents can not distinguish between the texture, taste, color, and aroma between nutritious tofu and ordinary tofu. Protein content and antioxidants nutrientious tofu were higher than regular tofu. The fat content between nutritious tofu and ordinary tofu is the same. From an economic point of view, to produce nutritious tofu once more costs less than regular tofu, so the profit of producing nutritious tofu is higher than ordinary tofu. There is an opportunity to utilize oranges as a substitute for chemical ingredients because oranges can be obtained easily and the use of koro tunggak as a substitute of soybeans. Waste from the process of making tofu (whey tofu can be processed into nata or kefir as the basic ingredients of cosmetics.

  20. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their technological properties isolated from the Himalayan ethnic fermented milk products.

    Dewan, Sailendra; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2007-10-01

    Ethnic people of the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan and China consume a variety of indigenous fermented milk products made from cows milk as well as yaks milk. These lesser-known ethnic fermented foods are dahi, mohi, chhurpi, somar, philu and shyow. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g in these Himalayan milk products. A total of 128 isolates of LAB were isolated from 58 samples of ethnic fermented milk products collected from different places of India, Nepal and Bhutan. Based on phenotypic characterization including API sugar test, the dominant lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus bifermentans, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. pseudoplantarum, Lactobacillus kefir, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Enterococcus faecium. LAB produced a wide spectrum of enzymes and showed high galactosidase, leucine-arylamidase and phosphatase activities. They showed antagonistic properties against selected Gram-negative bacteria. None of the strains produced bacteriocin and biogenic amines under the test conditions used. Most strains of LAB coagulated skim milk with a moderate drop in pH. Some strains of LAB showed a high degree of hydrophobicity, suggesting these strains may have useful adhesive potential. This paper is the first report on functional lactic acid bacterial composition in some lesser-known ethnic fermented milk products of the Himalayas.

  1. The antimicrobial role of probiotics in the oral cavity in humans and dogs

    Csilla Zambori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been defined in 2001 by the World Health Organization (WHO and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO as "live microorganisms, and as the main bacteria that administered in adequate amounts in humans and animals have beneficial effects on the health of the host". Probiotics are single or mixed cultures of live and non-pathogenic microorganisms that are found in foods (especially acidic dairy yoghurt, kefir, buttermilk, cheese or in nutritional supplements on the form of tablets, capsules or powder. These bacteria have to belong to the normal microbial flora of the host to withstand acidity, to survive the intestinal transit, to adhere to the intestinal mucosa, to produce antimicrobial substances and to maintain the health of the host.  The most often strains that are used as probiotics are: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus. The objective of this study is to reveal the importance of probiotics on the health of oral cavity in humans and dogs.

  2. Determination of melatonin and its isomer in foods by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Yılmaz, Cemile; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to develop a reliable analytical method for the determination of melatonin and its isomers in various food products. The method entails ethanol extraction of solid samples (or dilution of liquid samples) prior to liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadruple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of target analytes. The method was in-house validated and successfully applied to various food matrices. Recovery of melatonin from different matrices were found to be 86.0 ± 3.6%, 76.9 ± 5.4%, 98.6 ± 6.4%, and 67.0 ± 4.5% for beer, walnut, tomato and sour cherry samples, respectively. No melatonin could be detected in black and green tea, sour cherry, sour cherry concentrate, kefir (a fermented milk drink) and red wine while the highest amount of melatonin (341.7 ± 29.3 pg/g) was detected in crumb. The highest amounts of melatonin isomer were detected in yeast-fermented foods such as 170.7 ± 29.9 ng/ml in red wine, 14.3 ± 0.48 ng/ml in beer, and 15.7 ± 1.4 ng/g in bread crumb. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Functional Whey-Based Drinks with Great Potential in the Dairy Industry

    Pereira, Carlos; Gomes, David; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea; de Antoni, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Summary This work focuses on the production of liquid whey protein concentrates by ultrafiltration followed by thermal denaturation and homogenization of the ultrafiltrated concentrate, as well as on the production of ultrafiltrated permeates concentrated by reverse osmosis. Kefir grains (fresh and thawed) and/or commercial probiotic bacteria were inoculated in both liquid whey protein concentrates and concentrated ultrafiltrated permeates and grown at 25 °C for 24 h for the manufacture of fermented drinks. The physicochemical characterization (pH, titratable acidity, viscosity, and content of total solids, ash, fat and proteins) of the obtained drinks was then assessed and compared. Enumeration of viable microorganisms was carried out immediately after inoculation (at 0 h), during the fermentation period (at 12 and 24 h) and during refrigerated storage (at 48, 168 and 336 h). The fermented drinks showed acceptable physicochemical and sensorial properties, and contained above 7 log CFU/mL of lactococci and lactobacilli and 6 log CFU/mL of yeasts after 14 days of refrigerated storage, which is in agreement with the standards required by international organizations like European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for products containing probiotics. In summary, the strategy developed in this work contributes to the expansion of the applications of products derived from whey fractionation for the design of novel functional foods. PMID:27904362

  4. A 100-Year Review: Yogurt and other cultured dairy products.

    Aryana, Kayanush J; Olson, Douglas W

    2017-12-01

    The history of the last 100 years of the science and technology of yogurt, sour cream, cultured butter, cultured buttermilk, kefir, and acidophilus milk has been one of continuous development and improvement. Yogurt leads the cultured dairy product category in terms of volume of production in the United States and recent research activity. Legal definitions of yogurt, sour cream and acidified sour cream, and cultured milk, including cultured buttermilk, are presented in the United States Code of Federal Regulations and summarized here. A tremendous amount of research has been done on traditional and novel ingredients, starter cultures and probiotics, mix processing, packaging, chemical aspects, physical and sensory properties, microstructure, specialized products, composition, quality and safety of yogurt and various manufacturing methods, addition of flavorings, viscosity measurements, and probiotic use for sour cream. Over time, there have arisen alternative manufacturing methods, flavor problems, addition of flavorings, and use of probiotics for cultured buttermilk. Many health benefits are provided by yogurt and other cultured dairy products. One hundred years of testing and development have led to wider uses of cultured dairy products and new processing methods for enhanced shelf life and safety. Future research directions will likely include investigating the effects of probiotic dairy products on gut microbiota and overall health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An application in cheddar cheese manufacture for a strain of Lactococcus lactis producing a novel broad-spectrum bacteriocin, lacticin 3147.

    Ryan, M P; Rea, M C; Hill, C; Ross, R P

    1996-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis DPC3147, a strain isolated from an Irish kefir grain, produces a bacteriocin with a broad spectrum of inhibition. The bacteriocin produced is heat stable, particularly at a low pH, and inhibits nisin-producing (Nip+) lactococci. On the basis of the observation that the nisin structural gene (nisA) does not hybridize to DPC3147 genomic DNA, the bacteriocin produced was considered novel and designated lacticin 3147. The genetic determinants which encode lacticin 3147 are contained on a 63-kb plasmid, which was conjugally mobilized to a commercial cheese starter, L. lactis subsp. cremoris DPC4268. The resultant transconjugant, DPC4275, both produces and is immune to lacticin 3147. The ability of lacticin 3147-producing lactococci to perform as cheddar cheese starters was subsequently investigated in cheesemaking trials. Bacteriocin-producing starters (which included the transconjugant strain DPC4275) produced acid at rates similar to those of commercial strains. The level of lacticin 3147 produced in cheese remained constant over 6 months of ripening and correlated with a significant reduction in the levels of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Such results suggest that these starters provide a means of controlling developing microflora in ripened fermented products. PMID:8593062

  6. Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to Be Concerned?

    Ronan Lordan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, the relationship between dairy consumption, cardiometabolic risk factors and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are discussed. Functional dairy foods and the health implications of dairy alternatives are also considered. In general, evidence suggests that milk has a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes but fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese may have a positive or neutral effect. Particular focus is placed on the effects of the lipid content on cardiovascular health.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel disease patients: frequency and risk factors.

    Fernández, Alberto; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Vallejo, Nicolau; Iglesias, Marta; Carmona, Amalia; González-Portela, Carlos; Lorenzo, Aurelio; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2012-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel disease patients is progressively increased. To evaluate the use of complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel disease patients and to know potential risk factors for their use. The subjective response of these therapies and the impact on treatment adherence were also evaluated. Prospective, descriptive and transversal study. Inflammatory bowel disease patients were classified according to demographic and clinical characteristics. A questionnaire about the use of complementary and alternative medicine was collected. 705 patients were included. 126 patients (23%) had used complementary and alternative medicine. The most commonly used was herbal remedies (n=61), homoeopathy (n=36), acupuncture (n=31), kefir (n=31) and aloe vera (n=25). Factors associated with its use were extraintestinal manifestations (OR 1.69, CI 95% 1.11-2.57) and long-term evolution of the disease (OR 2.08, CI 95% 1.44-2.99). Most patients (74%) had the subjective feeling that use of complementary and alternative medicine had not improved their condition, 11 had adverse events related to its use and 11% of patients discontinued their conventional drugs. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel disease patients is frequent, especially in those with extraintestinal manifestations and long-term evolution. The use of these therapies was not perceived as a benefit for patients. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidative effects in vivo and colonization of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 in the murine intestinal tract.

    Tang, Wei; Xing, Zhuqing; Hu, Wei; Li, Chao; Wang, Jinju; Wang, Yanping

    2016-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 was isolated from traditional Chinese Tibet kefir grains, which possess several excellent properties and functions. We previously demonstrated the antioxidant activities of this bacterium in vitro. However, the maintenance and survival of L. plantarum MA2 inside the murine intestinal tract, where it exerts its probiotic properties, and whether its effects are elicited directly on the host remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms of L. plantarum MA2 in aging mice following D-galactose administration. The levels of malondialdehyde decreased significantly in the L. plantarum MA2 groups after oral ingestion compared to the D-galactose model group, and total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities increased significantly in the serum and liver. We combined fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and green fluorescent protein expression to dynamically monitor the colonization and distribution of L. plantarum MA2 in the murine intestinal tract. The results indicated that L. plantarum MA2 was detected in the ileum, colon, and feces after single and continuous oral administration at day 21 and was maintained at 10(4)-10(5) CFU/g. These results suggest that L. plantarum MA2 colonizes and survives in the murine intestinal tract to exert its antioxidative effects.

  9. Probiotic Lactococcus lactis: A Review

    Priti Khemariya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis plays a critical role in food, dairy and health sectors. In food and dairy industries, it is found in production processes of various fermented products such as sausages, pickled vegetables, beverages such as beer and wine, breads, soymilk kefir, sour milk, butter, cream, fresh cheese and different types of cheeses, like Cheddar, Colby, Cottage cheese, Camembert, cream cheese, Roquefort and Brie. Additionally, there is an increasing interest towards the possible health benefits of the probiotic activity of this organism which generally is species and strain specific and depends upon the survival in gastrointestinal tract with sufficient number. Certain strains have the ability to produce antimicrobial peptide called nisin which exhibits preservative potential. Therefore, application of bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis in food and dairy sectors to preserve foods as a natural way and contributing health promoting attributes due to probiotic activity would definitely fulfil today’s consumer demands. This paper aimed to review the adaptation, antibiotic resistance, therapeutic and preservation potential of bacteriocinogenic and probiotic Lactococcus lactis.

  10. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures.

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J H; Luttik, Marijke A H; Pronk, Jack T; Smid, Eddy J; Bron, Peter A; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations.

  11. Encapsulation of Lactobacillus kefiri in alginate microbeads using a double novel aerosol technique.

    Demitri, Christian; Lamanna, Leonardo; De Benedetto, Egidio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Cappello, Maria Stella; Siculella, Luisa; Sannino, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Alginate micro beads containing Lactobacillus kefiri (the principal bacteria present in the kefir probiotic drink) were produced by a novel technique based on dual aerosols spaying of alginate based solution and CaCl 2 as cross linking agent. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been also added to the alginate in order to change the physic-chemical properties (viscosity and permeability) of the microbeads. Calcium alginate and CMC are biopolymers that can be used for developing oral drug-delivery systems. These biopolymers have been reported to show a pH-dependent swelling behaviour. Calcium alginate and CMC have also been known to possess an excellent mucoadhesive property. The loaded microbeads have been characterized in terms of morphology, chemical composition and stability in different conditions mimicking the gastric environment. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous fabrication of alginate microbeads in a range of 50-70μm size, encapsulating L. kefiri as active ingredient. The technique involves the use of a double aerosols of alginate based solution and CaCl 2 as crosslinking agent. Moreover, the encapsulation process was proved to be effective and not detrimental to bacteria viability. At the same time, it was verified the protective efficacy of the microcapsules against the gastric environment using both SGF pH1.2 (fasted state) and pH2.2 (feed state). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to Be Concerned?

    Tsoupras, Alexandros; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, the relationship between dairy consumption, cardiometabolic risk factors and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are discussed. Functional dairy foods and the health implications of dairy alternatives are also considered. In general, evidence suggests that milk has a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes but fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese may have a positive or neutral effect. Particular focus is placed on the effects of the lipid content on cardiovascular health. PMID:29494487

  13. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BOZA

    Gamze Başbülbül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resistance of 83 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish cheese, yogurt, kefir and boza samples to 6 antibiotics (gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin was evaluated. The 83 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and according to BLAST comparisons with sequences in the data banks, those strains showing the highest similarities with the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (10, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis (10, Lactobacillus fermentum (6, Lactobacillus plantarum (6, Lactobacillus coryniformis (7, Lactobacillus casei (13, Leuconostoc mesenteroides (14, Pediococcus pentosaceus (10, Weisella confusa (7. Antimicrobial resistance of strains to 6 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. The antibiotic resistance among all the isolates was detected against chloramphenicol (31,3 % of the isolates, tetracycline (30,1 %, erythromycin (2,4 %, ciprofloxacin (2,41%, vancomycin (73,5 %, intrinsic resistance. Overall 19,3 % of the isolates showed resistance against multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes were studied by PCR and the following genes were detected; tet(M gene in Lactobacillus fermentum (1, Lactobacillus plantarum (1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (5, Enterococcus faecium (2, Weisella confusa (4 and the vancomycin resistance gene van(A in one Weisella confusa strain.

  14. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  15. Analisis Komponen Aktif Cita-Rasa Pada Susu Fermentasi Dengan Kromatografi Gas

    Dzarnisa Dzarnisa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available (Active component analysis of fermented milk flavor by gas chromatography ABSTRACT. Fermented milk is milk processed product that to be one source of nutritious food for humans. The action of food component such as flavor is accepted, sense of taste and smell generated complex assessment of food flavors in the mouth. The flavor components of fermented milk together and interact with each other when consumed and cause the perception of taste between like or dislike. This is an important factor in developing diversification of fermented milk product so as to attract customers other than in terms of aspects of nutrition and health. Flavor is one of the most important criteria in the acceptance of a food ingredient. During processing and storage flavor change easily. This study used gas chromatography to detect the formation of the active component of the flavor of fermented milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the active components in fermented milk which is the formation of flavor. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Animal Feed Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture and Food Chemistry Unsyiah and PAU Food and Nutrition IPB Bogor. This study uses a Likens - Nickerson distillation stage concentrated with Vigreux column and identified by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer. Gas chromatography has identified that the class of acids, alcohols, esters and alkanes group forming an active component in the flavor of fermented milk although relatively varied. In yoghurt, acid found in relatively high amount of alcohol is more varied in its kind. Yogurt with single culture L.bulgaricus has more ketones and aldehydes components. Volatile components were detected mostly in kefir acids, alcohols, esters and alkane derivatives. The curd is dominated by acidic components in addition to alcohol and aldehyde.

  16. Use of whey lactose from dairy industry for economical kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in mixed cultures with yeasts.

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Radchabut, Sirilaor

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of producing kefiran industrially, whey lactose, a by-product from dairy industry, was used as a low cost carbon source. Because the accumulation of lactic acid as a by-product of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens inhibited cell growth and kefiran production, the kefir grain derived and non-derived yeasts were screened for their abilities to reduce lactic acid and promote kefiran production in a mixed culture. Six species of yeasts were examined: Torulaspora delbrueckii IFO 1626; Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0216; Debaryomyces hansenii TISTR 5155; Saccharomyces exiguus TISTR 5081; Zygosaccharomyces rouxii TISTR 5044; and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis TISTR 5018. The mixed culture of L. kefiranofaciens with S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 enhanced the kefiran production best from 568 mg/L in the pure culture up to 807 and 938 mg/L in the mixed cultures under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, respectively. The optimal conditions for kefiran production by the mixed culture were: whey lactose 4%; yeast extract 4%; initial pH of 5.5; and initial amounts of L. kefiranofaciens and S. cerevisiae IFO 0216 of 2.1×10(7) and 4.0×10(6)CFU/mL, respectively. Scaling up the mixed culture in a 2L bioreactor with dissolved oxygen control at 5% and pH control at 5.5 gave the maximum kefiran production of 2,580 mg/L in batch culture and 3,250 mg/L in fed-batch culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactobacillus kefiri shows inter-strain variations in the amino acid sequence of the S-layer proteins.

    Malamud, Mariano; Carasi, Paula; Bronsoms, Sílvia; Trejo, Sebastián A; Serradell, María de Los Angeles

    2017-04-01

    The S-layer is a proteinaceous envelope constituted by subunits that self-assemble to form a two-dimensional lattice that covers the surface of different species of Bacteria and Archaea, and it could be involved in cell recognition of microbes among other several distinct functions. In this work, both proteomic and genomic approaches were used to gain knowledge about the sequences of the S-layer protein (SLPs) encoding genes expressed by six aggregative and sixteen non-aggregative strains of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri. Peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis confirmed the identity of SLPs extracted from L. kefiri, and based on the homology with phylogenetically related species, primers located outside and inside the SLP-genes were employed to amplify genomic DNA. The O-glycosylation site SASSAS was found in all L. kefiri SLPs. Ten strains were selected for sequencing of the complete genes. The total length of the mature proteins varies from 492 to 576 amino acids, and all SLPs have a calculated pI between 9.37 and 9.60. The N-terminal region is relatively conserved and shows a high percentage of positively charged amino acids. Major differences among strains are found in the C-terminal region. Different groups could be distinguished regarding the mature SLPs and the similarities observed in the PMF spectra. Interestingly, SLPs of the aggregative strains are 100% homologous, although these strains were isolated from different kefir grains. This knowledge provides relevant data for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in SLPs functionality and could contribute to the development of products of biotechnological interest from potentially probiotic bacteria.

  18. Dietary habits of Serbian preschool and schoolchildren with regard to food of animal origin

    Đorđević, V.; Šarčević, D.; Glišić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to explore attitudes and habits of Serbian preschool and school children in consumption of meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products and honey and bee products. The survey was conducted on a sample of 227 children, divided into three different age groups: preschool (ages 4-6), primary school I-IV grade (ages 7-11) and primary school V-VIII grade (ages 12-15). The results showed that all examined groups of children consumed meat products, milk and milk products, eggs and egg products, and honey and bee products. In all groups of children, the most frequently consumed food (among our food category choices) was dried ham (consumed by 19.64% of preschool children; 23.75% of schoolchildren from I-IV grade; 19.74% of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade). Fewer preschool children consumed sterilized milk compared to children of school age. The results showed that in all three groups of children, the most commonly consumed milk products were yoghurt (from 12.20 to 15.29% of children consumed these) and sour cream (from 11.57 to 12.74% of children consumed this), while kefir was the least-consumed product. In addition, there was no difference in consumption of boiled or fried eggs in the examined groups of children, while the consumption of egg products (mayonnaise) was higher in the group of preschool children than in the group of schoolchildren from V-VIII grade. Preschool children consumed honey 14.99% more often than schoolchildren from I-IV grade, and 14.49% more often than did schoolchildren from grade V-VIII.

  19. PGASO: A synthetic biology tool for engineering a cellulolytic yeast

    Chang Jui-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve an economical cellulosic ethanol production, a host that can do both cellulosic saccharification and ethanol fermentation is desirable. However, to engineer a non-cellulolytic yeast to be such a host requires synthetic biology techniques to transform multiple enzyme genes into its genome. Results A technique, named Promoter-based Gene Assembly and Simultaneous Overexpression (PGASO, that employs overlapping oligonucleotides for recombinatorial assembly of gene cassettes with individual promoters, was developed. PGASO was applied to engineer Kluyveromycesmarxianus KY3, which is a thermo- and toxin-tolerant yeast. We obtained a recombinant strain, called KR5, that is capable of simultaneously expressing exoglucanase and endoglucanase (both of Trichodermareesei, a beta-glucosidase (from a cow rumen fungus, a neomycin phosphotransferase, and a green fluorescent protein. High transformation efficiency and accuracy were achieved as ~63% of the transformants was confirmed to be correct. KR5 can utilize beta-glycan, cellobiose or CMC as the sole carbon source for growth and can directly convert cellobiose and beta-glycan to ethanol. Conclusions This study provides the first example of multi-gene assembly in a single step in a yeast species other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We successfully engineered a yeast host with a five-gene cassette assembly and the new host is capable of co-expressing three types of cellulase genes. Our study shows that PGASO is an efficient tool for simultaneous expression of multiple enzymes in the kefir yeast KY3 and that KY3 can serve as a host for developing synthetic biology tools.

  20. Antifungal activity of streptomycetes isolated bentonite clay

    V. P. Shirobokov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the biological activity of streptomycetes, isolated from Ukrainian bentonite clay. Methods. For identification of the investigated microorganisms there were used generally accepted methods for study of morpho-cultural and biochemical properties and sequencing of 16Ѕ rRNA producer. Antagonistic activity of the strain was determined by agar diffusion and agar block method using gram-positive, gram-negative microorganisms and fungi. Results. Research of autochthonous flora from bentonite clay of Ukrainian various deposits proved the existence of stable politaxonomic prokaryotic-eukaryotic consortia there. It was particularly interesting that the isolated microorganisms had demonstrated clearly expressed antagonistic properties against fungi. During bacteriological investigation this bacterial culture was identified like representative of the genus Streptomyces. Bentonite streptomycetes, named as Streptomyces SVP-71, inagar mediums (agar block method inhibited the growth of fungi (yeast and mold; zones of growth retardation constituted of 11-36 mm, and did not affect the growth of bacteria. There were investigated the inhibitory effects of supernatant culture fluid, ethanol and butanol extracts of biomass streptomycetes on museum and clinical strains of fungi that are pathogenic for humans (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. utilis, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. kefir, S. glabrata, C. lusitaniae, Aspergillus niger, Mucor pusillus, Fusarium sporotrichioides. It has been shown that research antifungal factor had 100% of inhibitory effect against all fungi used in experiments in vitro. In parallel, it was found that alcohol extracts hadn’t influence to the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria absolutely. It was shown that the cultural fluid supernatant and alcoholic extracts of biomass had the same antagonistic effect, but with different manifestation. This evidenced about identity of antifungal substances

  1. Differences in dietary patterns between overweight and normal-weight adolescents.

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the differences in the dietary patterns of Polish overweight and normal weight adolescents. The study was carried out on a group of 1906 pupils from gymnasium (lower secondary school) aged 13-15 years, of whom 953 were overweight and 953 had normal body mass. The sample was taken from a representative group of 8386 pupils. Their height and body weight were measured, and their BMI was calculated. Overweight was defined as BMI ł85 percentile for gender and age. Using the method of "selection in pairs", each overweight pupil was paired with a pupil with normal body weight. The research tool was a self-reported questionnaire, containing questions regarding how often selected food products were usually consumed during the week, how regularly basic meals (breakfast, lunch, supper) were eaten, and data on snacking. Overweight adolescents consumed unhealthy products such as sweets and crisps significantly less often than their peers with appropriate body mass. Overweight girls ate dark bread significantly more often, and consumed soft drinks less often than their peers with normal weight. Overweight adolescents had more irregular meals than those with normal weight: only 44% overweight adolescents had breakfast every day, significantly less than adolescents with normal weight. Nevertheless, overweight teenagers snacked significantly less often than young people with normal body mass. The overweight teenagers also less often chose snacks with high fat content, sugar and salt, and more often vegetables, fruits, as well as yoghurt and kefir. 1. Our study shows that compliance of low energy diet alone does not ensure the maintenance of normal body weight. Irregularity of meals and breakfast skipping play an important role in developing overweight and obesity in adolescents. 2. In future studies on dietary patterns in a larger sample of adolescents, emphasis should be placed on adding questions about portion size, food preparation and meal time. Eating

  2. Influence of biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA S547

    Laavanya M. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB biofilms on the planktonic and biofilm population of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (S547. Methods: In this study, biofilm-forming LAB were isolated from tairu and kefir. Isolate Y1 and isolate KF were selected based on their prominent inhibition against test pathogens (using spot-on-agar method and agar-well-diffusion assay and efficient biofilm production (using tissue culture plate method. They were then identified as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei Y1 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum KF, respectively using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The influence of incubation time, temperature and aeration on the biofilm production of L. casei Y1 and L. plantarum KF was also investigated using tissue culture plate method. The inhibitory activity of both the selected LAB biofilms was evaluated against MRSA (Institute for Medical Research code: S547 using L. plantarum ATCC 8014 as the reference strain. Results: L. casei Y1 showed the highest reduction of MRSA biofilms, by 3.53 log at 48 h while L. plantarum KF records the highest reduction of 2.64 log at 36 h. In inhibiting planktonic population of MRSA (S547, both L. casei Y1 and L. plantarum KF biofilms recorded their maximum reduction of 4.13 log and 3.41 log at 24 h, respectively. Despite their inhibitory effects being time-dependent, both LAB biofilms exhibited good potential in controlling the biofilm and planktonic population of MRSA (S547. Conclusions: The results from this study could highlight the importance of analysing biofilms of LAB to enhance their antibacterial efficacy. Preferably, these protective biofilms of LAB could also be a better alternative to control the formation of biofilms by pathogens such as MRSA. Keywords: MRSA, Biofilms, Lactic acid bacteria, Antibacterial

  3. İnkübasyon Sıcaklığının Kefirin Bazı Nitelikleri Üzerine Etkisi

    Nesrin Kaptan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kefirin bazı nitelikleri üzerine, farklı inkübasyon sıcaklıklarının etkisinin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada, 20±1 oC (A, 25±1 oC (B ve 30±1 oC (C de 16 saat süreyle inkübasyon ve iki gün süreyle olgunlaştırma aşamalarından sonra, örnekler titrasyon asitliği, pH, viskozite, serum ayrılması gibi bazı kalite ölçütleri yanısıra asetaldehit, etil alkol gibi aroma unsurları ve duyusal özellikleri yönünden karşılaştırılmıştır. Denenen inkübasyon sıcaklıkları örneklerin titrasyon asitliği üzerinde önemli bir etki yaratmış (P<0.01 ve en yüksek titrasyon asitliği değeri 30 oC de inkübe edilen örneklerde saptanmıştır. PH değeri, viskozite, serum ayrılması ve asetaldehit içeriği açısından örnekler arasında istatistik olarak önemli bir farklılık görülmemiş, bu niteliklerdeki önemli değişimler olgunlaştırma süresi içinde ortaya çıkmıştır. Toplam uçucu yağ asitleri ve karbondioksit içeriklerinde ise gerek inkübasyon sıcaklıkları ve gerekse olgunlaştırma süresi önemli bir farklılığa yol açmamıştır. Duyusal nitelikler yönünden, 25 oC de inkübasyona bırakılan kefir örneği beğenilmiştir.

  4. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Walsh, Helen

    produced with probiotic bacteria. Carbonation was applied to a drinkable yogurt to enhance its benefits. This process helps reduce the oxygen levels in the foodstuff thus potentially being advantageous to the microaerophilic probiotic bacteria while simultaneously producing a product, somewhat similar to kefir, which has the potential to fill a niche in the functional foods market. Yogurt was combined with a syrup to reduce its viscosity, making it drinkable, and also to allow infusion of CO2. This dilution reduced the protein content of the drink and so whey protein concentrate was added to increase levels in the final product. High-methoxyl pectins were used to provide stability by reducing the tendency of the proteins to sediment out. The objectives of this study were to develop a manufacturing technology for drinkable carbonated symbiotic yogurts, and to evaluate their physicochemical properties. Two flavors of yogurt drink, pomegranate and vanilla, were formulated containing inulin as prebiotic, along with probiotic bacteria, producing symbiotic dairy beverages.

  5. Коллоидно-химические свойства биологических дисперсий

    Sagadat Tazhibayeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Представлены результаты исследования коллоидно-химических свойств клеток микроорганизмов. Показано, что поведение клеток дрожжей Torulopsis kefir  var kumis, Sacharomyces cerevisiae и сферосом растительной клетки на границе фаз масло/вода определяется свойствами граничащей фазы: диэлектрической проницаемостью, природой и размерами молекул органической среды. Установлен факт неизменности заряда электрокинетического потенциала дрожжевых клеток при изменении рН среды от 2 до 8 и наличие ИЭТ для сферосом и водорослей при рН 5,0-5,2. Выявлена высокая сорбционная способность  клеток к ионам металлов.