WorldWideScience

Sample records for keeping protogalactic gas

  1. Gas infall into atomic cooling haloes: on the formation of protogalactic disks and supermassive black holes at z > 10

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Joaquin; Haiman, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    We have performed cosmo-hydro simulations using the RAMSES code to study atomic cooling (ACHs) haloes at z=10 with masses 5E7Msun10 to date. We examine the morphology, angular momentum (AM), thermodynamic, and turbulence of these haloes, in order to assess the prevalence of disks and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find no correlation between either the magnitude or the direction of the AM of the gas and its parent DM halo. Only 3 haloes form rotationally supported cores. Two of the most massive haloes form massive, compact overdense blobs. These blobs have an accretion rate ~0.5 Msun/yr (at a distance of 100 pc), and are possible sites of SMBH formation. Our results suggest that the degree of rotational support and the fate of the gas in a halo is determined by its large-scale environment and merger history. In particular, the two haloes forming blobs are located at knots of the cosmic web, cooled early on, and experienced many mergers. The gas in these haloes is lumpy and highly turbulent, with Mach N....

  2. Protogalactic explosions and intracluster chemical enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fazio, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati; Vagnetti, F.; Wilson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Using a hydrodynamic model of protogalactic evolution, we explain the amount of iron in rich clusters, deduced from X-ray observations. In fact, our calculations show that a strong shock wave originates in the first violent collapse phase and leaves the protogalaxy, carrying out a substantial fraction of its mass, with roughly solar metallicity and high temperature (10 7 -10 8 K). We also show that hot material ejected from proto-cD galaxies can probably explain the observed X-ray emission in clusters. (orig.)

  3. A giant protogalactic disk linked to the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Moore, Anna; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Chang, Daphne

    2015-08-01

    The specifics of how galaxies form from, and are fuelled by, gas from the intergalactic medium remain uncertain. Hydrodynamic simulations suggest that `cold accretion flows'--relatively cool (temperatures of the order of 104 kelvin), unshocked gas streaming along filaments of the cosmic web into dark-matter halos--are important. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium, creating disk- or ring-like structures that eventually coalesce into galaxies that form at filamentary intersections. Recently, a large and luminous filament, consistent with such a cold accretion flow, was discovered near the quasi-stellar object QSO UM287 at redshift 2.279 using narrow-band imaging. Unfortunately, imaging is not sufficient to constrain the physical characteristics of the filament, to determine its kinematics, to explain how it is linked to nearby sources, or to account for its unusual brightness, more than a factor of ten above what is expected for a filament. Here we report a two-dimensional spectroscopic investigation of the emitting structure. We find that the brightest emission region is an extended rotating hydrogen disk with a velocity profile that is characteristic of gas in a dark-matter halo with a mass of 1013 solar masses. This giant protogalactic disk appears to be connected to a quiescent filament that may extend beyond the virial radius of the halo. The geometry is strongly suggestive of a cold accretion flow.

  4. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  5. Gas treatment processes for keeping the environment of nuclear plants free from gas-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, H.

    1977-01-01

    The separation processes in gas treatment steps for the decontamination of circuit or offgas streams are described and their practicability is evaluated. Examples of the effectiveness of gas separation plants for keeping the environment within and without nuclear plants free from harmful gas-borne activity are presented. (orig.) [de

  6. Oilpatch Infobahn: SCADANet keeps gas marketers up to speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschart, M.

    2002-01-01

    A new SCADAnet product that keeps tabs on the performance of natural gas wells in real time is described. The system consists of two subgroups. In one subgroup the system acts as a SCADA host for groups of wells, via the field connection, that communicate directly to the SCADAnet server through a dedicated remote terminal. In the second subgroup an augmented PC at the plant concentrates data from a number of SCADA hosts and plant-distributed control systems. One of the system's key selling points is the ability to provide real-time data to marketers, who up-to-now had to rely on old (up to a month) figures when estimating the amount of sales gas a producing company has available. The software not only allows incorporation of field data directly into its production accounting system, but also has an alarm feature notifying the operator or marketer of a production problem at a specific well via e-mail, pager or voice mail. Since the developers of the system had remote plant sites in mind when developing the system, SCADAnet contains few display-stalling, high resolution graphic images. It is designed for 19.2 bytes/sec modem in mind, so that even with a relatively slow Internet connection producers can access real-time production data and analyze the information with the software's trending features

  7. Oilpatch Infobahn: SCADANet keeps gas marketers up to speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschart, M.

    2002-08-01

    A new SCADAnet product that keeps tabs on the performance of natural gas wells in real time is described. The system consists of two subgroups. In one subgroup the system acts as a SCADA host for groups of wells, via the field connection, that communicate directly to the SCADAnet server through a dedicated remote terminal. In the second subgroup an augmented PC at the plant concentrates data from a number of SCADA hosts and plant-distributed control systems. One of the system's key selling points is the ability to provide real-time data to marketers, who up-to-now had to rely on old (up to a month) figures when estimating the amount of sales gas a producing company has available. The software not only allows incorporation of field data directly into its production accounting system, but also has an alarm feature notifying the operator or marketer of a production problem at a specific well via e-mail, pager or voice mail. Since the developers of the system had remote plant sites in mind when developing the system, SCADAnet contains few display-stalling, high resolution graphic images. It is designed for 19.2 bytes/sec modem in mind, so that even with a relatively slow Internet connection producers can access real-time production data and analyze the information with the software's trending features.

  8. Laser-based gas sensors keep moisture out of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    Natural gas often contains contaminants that cause corrosion, and long-term deterioration, and must be cleaned and brought to pipeline standards before it can be delivered to high-pressure, long-distance pipelines. Many older sensors produce false data that can result in contaminated gas getting through. This article presented details of the SpectraSensor, a new laser-based sensor technology used by the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The SpectraSensor is comprised of a tunable diode laser (TDL) based technology developed by the National American Space Agency (NASA). The gas analyzer provides non-contact measurement of moisture, carbon dioxide, and other corrosives in natural gas pipelines, and the tunable laser-based gas sensors are fast, accurate, and flexible. Producers can monitor El Paso's gas analyzer readings by capturing the electronic signal from El Paso's unit via a SCADA system and view the readings from control rooms. While initial purchase price is higher than more problematic surface-based gas sensors, an evaluation of the technology has indicated that maintenance savings alone may provide an almost immediate return on investments. Unlike electrochemical and crystal gas sensors, laser-based gas analyzers do not come into direct contact with any substances, a fact which practically eliminates maintenance and operational costs. Studies have shown that the cost of operating conventional electrochemical sensors can result in a cumulative annual expense exceeding $50,000 per unit including labour; recalibration and rebuilding; back-up sensor heads; and gas dehydration and tariffs. 1 fig.

  9. Technology keeps ice away from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-05-01

    Ice management services provided to oil and natural gas operators off Canada's North Atlantic coast by Provincial Airlines is described. Provincial Airlines performs iceberg reconnaissance for both the offshore oil and natural gas operators as well as for the Canadian Ice Centre, using its specially equipped B-200 aircraft. The special equipment includes a complete electronic sensor package with 360-degree anti-submarine warfare radar, a thermal imaging system, high powered gyro-stabilized TV camera system, and a computerized data collection and management system. The Ice Data Network System (IDNS) is a fifth generation computer software package designed to monitor ice, provide drift analysis and forecast future trajectories, assess potential threats or risks associated with each piece of ice, and monitor and evaluate towing operations if required. The IDNS is backed up by a fully staffed ice operations centre from which Provincial Airline ice specialists can access satellite data and reports on ice conditions from around the world. Using a process of data fusion and careful analysis, staff of the Ice Centre can produce near-real time reports that depict ice conditions specific to individual operational requirements. Since drilling platforms cannot move, or require a great deal of time to move, to avoid any risk of an iceberg colliding with an oil platform it is important to know where exactly an iceberg is at any given time, hence the enormous importance of iceberg location information.

  10. Generation of scaled protogalactic seed magnetic fields in laser-produced shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G; Ravasio, A; Murphy, C D; Schaar, K; Baird, A; Bell, A R; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Bingham, R; Constantin, C; Drake, R P; Edwards, M; Everson, E T; Gregory, C D; Kuramitsu, Y; Lau, W; Mithen, J; Niemann, C; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Reville, B; Robinson, A P L; Ryutov, D D; Sakawa, Y; Yang, S; Woolsey, N C; Koenig, M; Miniati, F

    2012-01-25

    The standard model for the origin of galactic magnetic fields is through the amplification of seed fields via dynamo or turbulent processes to the level consistent with present observations. Although other mechanisms may also operate, currents from misaligned pressure and temperature gradients (the Biermann battery process) inevitably accompany the formation of galaxies in the absence of a primordial field. Driven by geometrical asymmetries in shocks associated with the collapse of protogalactic structures, the Biermann battery is believed to generate tiny seed fields to a level of about 10(-21) gauss (refs 7, 8). With the advent of high-power laser systems in the past two decades, a new area of research has opened in which, using simple scaling relations, astrophysical environments can effectively be reproduced in the laboratory. Here we report the results of an experiment that produced seed magnetic fields by the Biermann battery effect. We show that these results can be scaled to the intergalactic medium, where turbulence, acting on timescales of around 700 million years, can amplify the seed fields sufficiently to affect galaxy evolution.

  11. Numerical-experiment investigation of coalescence of gaseous protogalactic fragments in triple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, L.G.; Orlov, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    The numerical-experiment approach in the framework of the general gravitational three-body problem has been used to investigate the dynamical evolution of triple systems of gaseous protogalactic fragments. The masses of the fragments are equal, the initial velocities zero. The initial positions were specified by uniform scanning in the region D of all possible initial configurations. Calculations were continued until the first two-body encounter of the fragments. Different values of the fragment radii at this times were considered, namely, r in the interval [0.001, 0.1]d, where d is the mean diameter of the system. It is shown that for such r the pair of gaseous fragments coalesces in the majority of cases (from 50.2% for r = 0.001d to 96.7% for r = 0.1d). The mean specific angular momentum of their relative motion, which becomes spin angular momentum of the coalescence product, is (0.8 +- 1.0)/centered dot/10 29 /root/μl cm 2 sec for the most probable value r = 10l kpc (the masses of the fragments are 5/centered dot/10 10 μM/circled dot/; l and μ are scale factors), this agreeing in order of magnitude with the specific angular momenta of disk galaxies if l, μ /approximately/ 1. For each value of r, a continuous zone of initial configurations corresponding to coalescences is identified in the region D

  12. Inner Super-Earths, Outer Gas Giants: How Pebble Isolation and Migration Feedback Keep Jupiters Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Lee, Eve J.

    2018-06-01

    The majority of gas giants (planets of masses ≳102 M ⊕) are found to reside at distances beyond ∼1 au from their host stars. Within 1 au, the planetary population is dominated by super-Earths of 2–20 M ⊕. We show that this dichotomy between inner super-Earths and outer gas giants can be naturally explained should they form in nearly inviscid disks. In laminar disks, a planet can more easily repel disk gas away from its orbit. The feedback torque from the pile-up of gas inside the planet’s orbit slows down and eventually halts migration. A pressure bump outside the planet’s orbit traps pebbles and solids, starving the core. Gas giants are born cold and stay cold: more massive cores are preferentially formed at larger distances, and they barely migrate under disk feedback. We demonstrate this using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of disk–planet interaction lasting up to 105 years: we track planet migration and pebble accretion until both come to an end by disk feedback. Whether cores undergo runaway gas accretion to become gas giants or not is determined by computing one-dimensional gas accretion models. Our simulations show that in an inviscid minimum mass solar nebula, gas giants do not form inside ∼0.5 au, nor can they migrate there while the disk is present. We also explore the dependence on disk mass and find that gas giants form further out in less massive disks.

  13. How to keep the profit from Norwegian gas export in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund; Straume, Odd Rune

    2005-01-01

    The EU has set a goal of facilitating increased competition in the European gas market, and that this among other things shall lead to lower prices on natural gas. A substantial aspect for Norway, as a big supplier of natural gas to the EU, is weather this will lead to a larger part of the profits being moved down the value chain, thus benefiting the gas consuming countries. In light of this the Norwegian regulating authorities are reviewed and an analysis is provided of how strategic pricing of the natural gas transport from Norway to the EU market can ensure that as much as possible of the profit remains in Norway. The results are divided; increased competition in the EU's gas market may result in importing countries getting more of the profit in the natural gas value chain, but increased competition within Norwegian gas production may give a welfare profit for Norway while it affects the consuming countries in the EU negatively. Strategic pricing of the natural gas transport can in both cases be used to influence the distribution of profits between Norway and importing countries (ml)

  14. On the Application of Hall Thruster Working with Ambient Atmospheric Gas for Orbital Station-Keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application of the Hall thruster using the ambient atmospheric air for orbital station keeping. This is a relevant direction at the up-to-date development stage of propulsion systems. Many teams of designers of electric rocket thrusters evaluate the application of different schemes of particle acceleration at the low-earth orbit. Such technical solution allows us to abandon the storage systems of the working agent on the spacecraft board. Thus, lifetime of such a system at the orbit wouldn`t be limited by fuel range. The paper suggests a scheme of the propulsion device with a parabolic confuser that provides a required compression ratio of the ambient air for correct operation. Formulates physical and structural restrictions on ambient air to be used as a working agent of the thruster. Pointes out that the altitudes from 200 to 300 km are the most promising for such propulsion devices. Shows that for operation at lower altitudes are required the higher capacities that are not provided by modern onboard power supply systems. For the orbit heightening the air intakes with significant compression rate are of necessity. The size of such air intakes would exceed nose fairing of exploited space launch systems. To perform further design calculations are shown dependencies that allow us to calculate an effective diameter of the thruster channel and a critical voltage to be desirable for thrust force excess over air resistance. The dependencies to calculate minimal and maximal fluxes of neutral particles of oxygen and nitrogen, that are necessary for normal thruster operation, are also shown. Calculation results of the propulsion system parameters for the spacecrafts with cross-sectional area within 1 - 3 m2 and inlet diameter of air intake within 1 - 3 m are demonstrated. The research results have practical significance in design of advanced propulsion devices for lowaltitude spacecrafts. The work has been supported by the RFFR

  15. IndigoVision IP video keeps watch over remote gas facilities in Amazon rainforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    In Brazil, IndigoVision's complete IP video security technology is being used to remotely monitor automated gas facilities in the Amazon rainforest. Twelve compounds containing millions of dollars of process automation, telemetry, and telecom equipment are spread across many thousands of miles of forest and centrally monitored in Rio de Janeiro using Control Center, the company's Security Management software. The security surveillance project uses a hybrid IP network comprising satellite, fibre optic, and wireless links. In addition to advanced compression technology and bandwidth tuning tools, the IP video system uses Activity Controlled Framerate (ACF), which controls the frame rate of the camera video stream based on the amount of motion in a scene. In the absence of activity, the video is streamed at a minimum framerate, but the moment activity is detected the framerate jumps to the configured maximum. This significantly reduces the amount of bandwidth needed. At each remote facility, fixed analog cameras are connected to transmitter nodules that convert the feed to high-quality digital video for transmission over the IP network. The system also integrates alarms with video surveillance. PIR intruder detectors are connected to the system via digital inputs on the transmitters. Advanced alarm-handling features in the Control Center software process the PIR detector alarms and alert operators to potential intrusions. This improves operator efficiency and incident response. 1 fig.

  16. Vital signs: oil supplies improving but natural gas tight enough to keep prices high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Canada's 1999 year-end oil reserves were boosted by 2.1 million barrels by the launch of new oil sands mining projects near Fort McMurray and revisions in two existing operations, offsetting a decline of 3.7 per cent in remaining conventional reserves. Total oil reserves at year end stood at some 11.9 billion barrels, up from 9.8 billion barrels a year earlier. Conventional crude reserves dropped to 4.37 billion barrels. Despite the decline, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) were encouraged by a 70 per cent replacement rate, on production of 441 million barrels of oil, despite low activity resulting from soft prices in early part of 1999. Production from offshore Newfoundland sites amounted to 38.6 million barrels; remaining reserves in the Hibernia and Terra Nova field are estimated at 868 million barrels. Meanwhile, natural gas reserves slipped by about a trillion cubic feet to about 61 trillion cubic feet, reflecting an 83 per cent replacement rate which, however, represented an improvement from 76 per cent in 1998. Reserves replacement in 2000 is expected to improve over 1999 due to improved prices resulting in increased activity in 2000 which is expected to continue into 2001. Despite improvements in replacement, consumers have much to worry about as far as further consumer price increases are concerned. The situation can be traced back to the summer 2000 storage injection period when supplies normally stored for use in the winter were sold instead, to take advantage of high prices. The injection for storage was reduced due largely to continued strong demand from the US electric power generating sector. This situation will continue, barring a dramatic softening of the US economy

  17. A NEWLY FORMING COLD FLOW PROTOGALACTIC DISK, A SIGNATURE OF COLD ACCRETION FROM THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Trainor, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool ( T ∼ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Ly α emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous ( R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 10"1"2 M _⊙ halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  18. A NEWLY FORMING COLD FLOW PROTOGALACTIC DISK, A SIGNATURE OF COLD ACCRETION FROM THE COSMIC WEB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Matuszewski, Mateusz; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 278-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Moore, Anna [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 11-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 249-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Trainor, Ryan, E-mail: cmartin@srl.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 15 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. While the classical Cold Dark Matter paradigm posits galaxies forming from cooling virialized gas, recent theory and numerical simulations have highlighted the importance of cold accretion flows—relatively cool ( T ∼ few × 104 K) unshocked gas streaming along filaments into dark matter halos, including hot, massive, high-redshift halos. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We earlier reported a bright, Ly α emitting filament near the QSO HS1549+19 at redshift z = 2.843 discovered with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager. We now report that the bright part of this filament is an enormous ( R > 100 kpc) rotating structure of hydrogen gas with a disk-like velocity profile consistent with a 4 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ⊙} halo. The orbital time of the outer part of the what we term a “protodisk” is comparable to the virialization time and the age of the universe at this redshift. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.

  19. Keeping a Laboratory Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Anne

    1982-01-01

    Since the keeping of good records is essential in the chemistry laboratory, general guidelines for maintaining a laboratory notebook are provided. Includes rationale for having entries documented or witnessed. (Author/JN)

  20. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  2. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  3. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  4. Keeping Plateaued Performers Motivated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLon, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of keeping library staff motivated when promotions are not available. Topics addressed include the importance of management training that emphasizes communication skills; alternative ways to help employees grow, including staff development programs, lateral transfers, job rotation, and short-term projects; and helpful…

  5. Keeping Track of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    A lack of consistent and accurate auditing and record keeping of district IT equipment can lead to confusion between administrative departments, including redundant purchases, transferred equipment being mislabeled as stolen, computers and other equipment simply being lost, or a variety of other scenarios. This had led to an increased demand for…

  6. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  7. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  8. Keeping Up: Personal Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolls, Blanche

    2009-01-01

    Some essential components of "keeping current" with trends and new developments in the school library field for library media specialists includes attending conferences and reading professional literature. Beginning in May 2007, one article on "keeping up" each year has been devoted to summarizing the major themes in conferences and professional…

  9. Torness. Keep it green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood, M.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: Torness foolishness (concerning the steps being taken towards constructing a nuclear power station at Torness Point in East Lothian, Scotland); the case against Torness (a summary); is Torness necessary (discusses the present, planned and forecast positions of electricity supply and demand in Scotland); how much will Torness cost, and who will pay; the local impact of Torness (on employment, infrastructure, amenity and future prospects); how reliable is the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (the choice of the AGR type reactor and discussions on the 'Hinkley Point incident' and the 'Hunterston incident'); how safe is nuclear power (discussion on AGR programme, nuclear accidents, sabotage, war, nuclear waste, plutonium, secrecy and security); public opposition to Torness; what can be done. (U.K.)

  10. Keeping Noise Down on the Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do > Keeping Noise Down on the Farm Keeping Noise Down on the Farm SHARE Some people may ... risks permanent hearing damage. Take steps to reduce noise from machinery. Keep machinery running smoothly by replacing ...

  11. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  12. Racing to keep up; Aufholjagd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, Johannes

    2011-10-31

    In the summer of 2010, Manz AG presented a turnkey concept for production of thin film modules of copper-indium-gallium diselenide. The producer then had to make amends in view of the dramatic price drop. Thin film modules of micromorphous silicon have problems to keep up.

  13. The importance of keeping competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews remarks made at the AGA's 77th annual conference in Atlanta. The use of natural gas-fueled buses for the Olympic Games, growth in the residential market, coordination of the development of promising new natural gas technologies, and the need for the gas industry to sell natural gas as the fuel of the future, both environmentally and efficiency-wise, were discussed. Advice was offered on how to do business in a deregulated market. Ramifications of the restructuring of the electric power industry to the gas industry was discussed in panel sessions

  14. Keeping your armour intact: how HIV-1 evades detection by the innate immune system: HIV-1 capsid controls detection of reverse transcription products by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Seiradake, Elena; Rehwinkel, Jan

    2014-07-01

    HIV-1 infects dendritic cells (DCs) without triggering an effective innate antiviral immune response. As a consequence, the induction of adaptive immune responses controlling virus spread is limited. In a recent issue of Immunity, Lahaye and colleagues show that intricate interactions of HIV capsid with the cellular cofactor cyclophilin A (CypA) control infection and innate immune activation in DCs. Manipulation of HIV-1 capsid to increase its affinity for CypA results in reduced virus infectivity and facilitates access of the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS to reverse transcribed DNA. This in turn induces a strong host response. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of recent developments in innate immunity and consider the implications for disease control and vaccine design. © 2014 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Community Perspective of Alternative Methods of keeping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    methods of keeping childhood immunization records based on community's .... An alternative home-based record keeping ... coded before computer entry. Data was managed using the Statistical ..... encounter and also work to ensure accurate.

  16. Keeping Up-to-Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman L Jones

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As a senior (read older practising respirologist, I have come to appreciate my position as editor, which keeps me current with present practice standards. Everyone talks about the volume and flow of new knowledge, and not a week goes by in which I feel that I know enough to treat my patients optimally. This is particularly the case when it comes to antibiotic usage: the number of antibiotics and the confident way that junior colleagues bandy them about leaves me distinctly depressed because most of the names mean little to me; even the families and generations of antibiotics seem beyond my grasp. That is why I welcomed the request from Dr Lionel Mandell to publish a summary statement on the use of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which appears on pages 371-382 of the current issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal.

  17. Snoehvit still keeps Norway waiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasanow, S.

    2001-01-01

    Although it is 17 years since Statoil discovered natural gas in the Barents Sea, the challenge to develop Snoehvit and its neighbouring fields has yet to be met. The reasons for the lack of development are compared with the lack of development in the West Delta Deep off Egypt and Corrib off Eire. Apart from technical difficulties, there were problems with LNG sales agreements with America and Iberia, which have taken years to negotiate. Until the onshore tariff issue is sorted, the internal rate of return cannot be assessed

  18. Barriers Keep Drops Of Water Out Of Infrared Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sean K.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared-sensor cells used for measuring partial pressures of CO(2) and other breathable gases modified to prevent entry of liquid water into sensory optical paths of cells. Hydrophobic membrane prevents drops of water entrained in flow from entering optical path from lamp to infrared detectors.

  19. KEEP Five-Year Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This brief summary outlines the activities and findings of the research and development efforts of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) from 1971 to 1976. The paper suggests that the original goals of the program were met and that the initial operating procedures agreed upon by KEEP and the Hawaii State Department of Education were…

  20. KEEP Language Research Strategy. Technical Report #14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Roland G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    This paper outlines the strategies of Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) language research, and briefly reviews the findings through Spring 1974. A major research emphasis has been placed on the assessment of Standard English comptence of Hawaii school children. (CM)

  1. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...

  2. Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS) is part of the Clinical Information Support System (CISS) portal framework and the initial CISS partner system. OHRS...

  3. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000031.htm Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  4. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌

    2014-01-01

    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  5. [The evolution of nursing record-keeping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didry, Pascale

    2017-05-01

    Nursing record-keeping forms an integral part of the provision of care. It helps to assure its traceability and monitoring. It also contributes to the circulation of information among the different players involved in the patient's treatment, thereby helping to assure the quality and safety of care. For nurses, whose professional history has its roots in a culture of oral communication, record-keeping represents the affirmation of a real nursing way of thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Keeping a Journal: A Path to Uncovering Identity (and Keeping Your Sanity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joanne E.

    2013-01-01

    A journal can help keep a person more organized, clarify their identity, and help them grapple with them own sense of belonging in the often bewildering world of academe. In this article, the author discusses: (1) the benefits and uses of keeping a journal; (2) Techniques for writing in a journal; and (3) Drawbacks of journal writing.

  7. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  8. Keep the best of your life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stultiens, Andrea

    Keep the Best of Your Life (for the Rest of Your Life) is part Making Oneself ‘a twofold exhibition of both historical investigations and contemporary showcases of photo studio practises in South and Southeast Asia and Uganda.’ ‘Making Oneself’ was one exhibitions of the Noorderlicht Photo festival

  9. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  10. Being@: keep company with electronic evidence!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, J.; Hopstaken, Kees

    2000-01-01

    The title heading this paper Being@ keep company with electronic evedence is referring to an university training on the Internet which is processing insight into how science 'works' (in the active sense of the word) under the articulation of information- and communication technology (ICT) and

  11. Towards station-keeping using GPI controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    In this paper, we propose to use a Generalized Proportional-Integral controller for station-keeping of a ship. For output feedback, this has the advantage of not requiring the use of an asymptotic Luenberger or Kalman observer. After describing the methodology for the simple case of controlling...

  12. Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Recycling Project Successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Victor R.

    1975-01-01

    Through the efforts of community groups, the support of local industries, and the state government, Keep New Mexico Beautiful, Inc. (KNMB) is now operating a large-scale recycling business. KNMB has been able to save tons of natural resources, provide local employment, and educate the public to this environmental concern. (MA)

  13. Web Tools: Keeping Learners on Pace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloski, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in teaching technology and engineering is pacing. Some students grasp new technological concepts quickly, while others need repetition and may struggle to keep pace. This poses an obstacle for the technology and engineering teacher, and is particularly true when teaching students to build a website. However, there…

  14. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  15. Keeping the quality of cows' butter by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Badr, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows' butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the Other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows' butter and increased its shelf life at 4 +/- 1degreeC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples) without any effects on its sensory properties [es

  16. Keeping You Close at a Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbenfeldt Bengtsson, Tea; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ethics into research with young people in vulnerable life situations is an on-going challenge that cannot be solved through predefined guidelines or fixed standards. In this article, we address the ethical predicaments of keeping in contact with young people in vulnerable life ...... the blurriness of what is appropriate could lead to suggestions for more well-defined ethical guidelines, we argue that the best and most ethical way to deal with this ambiguity is to recognize it and actively address it as both a practical and an academic challenge.......The integration of ethics into research with young people in vulnerable life situations is an on-going challenge that cannot be solved through predefined guidelines or fixed standards. In this article, we address the ethical predicaments of keeping in contact with young people in vulnerable life...

  17. Mouse-resistant insulated covers keep pipes from freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    Fabric wellhead covers and insulated blankets are commonly used at well sites in the Wyoming coalbed methane field to keep surface pipes from freezing. These materials are often chewed up by mice who build nests close to the warm pipes. The mice attract rattlesnakes, a potentially serious problem for the workmen who check the wells daily. Kennon Products of Sheridan, Wyoming solved this problem by making a flexible covering material that has a coating of hardened guard plates that prevents mice from chewing through it. More than a hundred of Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers have been used successfully in the gas fields for over a year. They can be installed in less than 30 minutes and cost only a fraction of what a fiberglass hut costs to purchase and install. Huts are being discouraged for use on federal lands because they alter the nesting patterns of eagles, who perch upon them to hunt rodents. Huts also trap methane gas, which is a potential safety hazard. Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers are lower than the fiberglass huts and blend into the landscape. The company is working on camouflage colours to make wellheads less noticeable. In the future, the company plans to insulate water pipes. 1 fig.

  18. Good Thoughts to Keep in Mind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保行

    2005-01-01

    I magine life as a game in which you are juggling some five balls in the air.You name them:Work,Family,Health,Friends,Spirit.And you are keeping all of these in the air.You will soon understand that work is a rubber ball.lf you drop it,it will bounce back.But the other four balls-family,health,friends and spirit are made of glass.lf you drop one of these,they will be irrevocably scuffed,marked,nicked,damaged or even shattered .They will never be the same.You must understand that and strive for balance inyour life.

  19. 7 CFR 3200.9 - Accountability and record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability and record keeping. 3200.9 Section... TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.9 Accountability and record keeping. USDA requires that Federal... accountability and record keeping systems. ...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1925 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... it is important to keep required information readily available. (b) Keep the following paper or electronic records of your in-use testing for five years after you complete all the testing required for an... determine why a vehicle failed the vehicle-pass criteria described in § 86.1912. (3) Keep a copy of the...

  1. Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2003-01-01

    At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection

  2. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  3. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  4. Pancreatic and duodenal injuries: keep it simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Matthew J F X; Brohi, Karim; Bautz, Peter C

    2005-07-01

    The management of pancreatic and duodenal trauma has moved away from complex reconstructive procedures to simpler methods in keeping with the trend towards organ-specific, damage control surgery. A retrospective case note review was undertaken over a 30-month period to evaluate a simplified protocol for the management of these injuries. Of 100 consecutive patients there were 51 with pancreatic injury, 30 with a duodenal injury and 19 with combined pancreaticoduodenal trauma. Overall mortality was 18.0%, with a late mortality (after 24 h) of 9.9%. This is comparable to previous studies. Morbidity from abscesses, fistulas and anastomotic breakdown was acceptably low. The concept of staged laparotomy can be successfully applied to wounds of the pancreas and duodenum. Debridement of devitalized tissue and drainage can be employed for most cases of pancreatic trauma. Most duodenal injuries can be managed with debridement and primary repair. Temporary exclusion and reoperation should be employed for unstable patients.

  5. The book-keeping program INDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, H.

    1975-12-01

    When the automatic measuring device for bubble chamber film, the Spiral Reader, at the Institute of Physics, University of Stockholm, came into operation in 1971, the 19 GeV/c pd-experiment was the first one to use it. New software was needed in order to process events, found in the scanning to the Spiral Reader for measurement. This piece of software should also be able to combine information from different scans into one unique record of necessary information per event. It was also desirable that this software could keep track of the events when further processed through the bubble chamber chain of programs. In addition it was wanted that events, which failed somewhere in the program chain, were not further processed, but instead were selected for remeasurement or rerunning if there was hope to get them through by such a procedure. The program called INDEX was constructed according to these demands. (Auth.)

  6. IAEA instrumentation programme keeping pace with technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortakov, V.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear components, nuclear practices and nuclear facilities have all improved with the maturing of the industry. These improvements have been driven by forces, which are beyond the normal evolutionary pressures, such as increased safety, as low as possible radiation exposure for the workers as well as for the public and the increasing competiveness of alternative forms of energy generation. International nuclear safeguards has had to keep pace with these technological and administrative changes. Moreover, the political climate has changed since the initial implementation of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Implementation of safeguards agreements has accommodated to these changes as well as to the technical innovations. One important component of safeguards implementation, namely the instruments deployed by inspectors, has matured with the help of Member States. Continued efforts in the development and deployment of appropriate instruments are needed to maintain an acceptable level of efficiency and credibility. (orig.)

  7. Strategies To Keep Secret Through Sophie Kinsella’s Novel “Can You Keep A Secret”

    OpenAIRE

    Sihombing, Mariaty A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper entitled “Strategies to Keep Secret Through Sophie Kinsella’a novel : Can You Keep a Secret is about Emma Corrigan who like every girl in the world. She has a few little secrets. Can You Keep a Secret is the fifth novel that written by Sophie Kinsella and get best seller. The writer discusses about the strategies to keep secret. The strategies are Trust, Silence, and Cooperation. The writer interested in analyzing this novel, because it’s contain some informantions about keeping a s...

  8. Nord Stream 2: keeping the head cool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nord Stream 2 is the name of a project of a pipeline which will transport Russian natural gas into the European Union. The author first presents the context of this project announced during a forum in Saint Petersburg, and signed in september 2015 between Gazprom and several European stakeholders (Eon, BASF, Engie, Shell and OMV). The objective is for Moscow to secure its north-western European market on the long term. Some physical characteristics of the project are evoked, and the European dependence on gas imports is described. The author then discusses how European countries are divided about this project: some support it (like mainly Germany) while some others are fiercely against (Eastern European countries which complain about their loss of transfer revenues, or countries like Bulgaria, Greece and Italy about the loss of an alternative gas corridor). The project also faces legal obstacles related to patrimony separation and access of third parties to the network. Finally, and while mentioning other projects (Nord Stream 1 and South Stream), the author shows that the difficulties and problems faced by this project are a perfect illustration of a fractured European gas sector

  9. Young children mostly keep, and expect others to keep, their promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Köymen, Bahar; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Promises are speech acts that create an obligation to do the promised action. In three studies, we investigated whether 3- and 5-year-olds (N=278) understand the normative implications of promising in prosocial interactions. In Study 1, children helped a partner who promised to share stickers. When the partner failed to uphold the promise, 3- and 5-year-olds protested and referred to promise norms. In Study 2, when children in this same age range were asked to promise to continue a cleaning task-and they agreed-they persisted longer on the task and mentioned their obligation more frequently than without such a promise. They also persisted longer after a promise than after a cleaning reminder (Study 3). In prosocial interactions, thus, young children feel a normative obligation to keep their promises and expect others to keep their promises as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Keep online应用趋势预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢剑超

    2010-01-01

    @@ 随着执智能机的普及和上网资费下降,用户逐渐形成了keep online的使用习惯.保持在线是现在智能终端的最主要的特点. Keep online不是always oline,keep online 表示用户保持在线,而不指用户一直使用应用.Keep lnline 并不代表用户使用应用的时间变长,而是指用户使用应用更加频繁.

  11. KEEP Motivational Research: Strategy and Results. Technical Report #24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report briefly summarizes the motivation research strategy and results from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). The rationale behind KEEP's use of on-task behavior to measure student motivation is discussed and the two strategies of motivation enhancement researched are described. These two strategies were: (1) staff training in…

  12. The KEEP Phone Discrimination Test. Technical Report No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth; And Others

    The urban, ethnically Hawaiian child typically experiences great difficulty in learning to read English. In order to determine whether phonological confusion is a source of dialectical interference, the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Phone Discrimination Test (KPDT) was developed for the one hundred twelve students in the KEEP school…

  13. 78 FR 78504 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ..., logistical questions, and conclusion. The total estimated annual burden will be 15 hours. Participants will incur no costs from the data collection and participants will incur no record keeping burden and no record keeping cost from the information collection. If the Optional Task is funded, we assume a subset...

  14. 78 FR 23824 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... questions, potential participant questions, logistical questions, and conclusion. The total estimated annual burden will be 40 hours. Participants will incur no costs from the data collection and participants will incur no record keeping burden and no record keeping cost from the information collection. Authority: 44...

  15. 4-H Animal Science: Financial Record Keeping Book

    OpenAIRE

    Callan, Peter L.; Thompson, John; Woodard, Scott; Kastan, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This document includes six lessons that focus on financial record keeping in relation to raising and caring for livestock. These lessons include activities and objectives ranging from selection of an animal for the project to keeping records of costs of feed, and other expenses. There are lessons which also analysis of data to determine if goals were met, and if the project was profitable.

  16. Why Should Scholars Keep Coming Back to John Dewey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    This essay attempts to explain why philosophers, philosophers of education, and scholars of democracy should keep coming back to John Dewey for insights and inspiration on issues related to democracy and education. Mordechai Gordon argues that there are four major reasons that contribute to scholars' need to keep returning to Dewey for inspiration…

  17. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.455 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068.455 What records must I keep? (a) We may review your records at any time so it is important to keep required...) If you shipped the engine/equipment for testing, the date you shipped it, the associated storage or...

  19. Filipino power debate keeps buyers at bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pundol, F.

    1999-11-01

    Legislative measures that would set the stage for the restructuring of the Philippines' power sector continue to be held up by Congress. The Manila Electric Co. is unhappy with the proposed ban on the cross-ownership of generating, transmission and distribution companies. Many foreign companies have expressed interest in joining the great reformation. All have fixed their sights on the National Power Corp. (NPC), the biggest government firm to be privatised under President Estrada's rule with total assets at Dec 1998 of more than 16 billion dollars. The country is likely to witness a radical change in its energy mix - coal, which is predominantly imported, will find keen competition with geothermal and natural gas. For now at least though steam coal is going strong. The Government has pledged to honour its constracts with the IPPs after the industry has been restructured. 2 tabs., 1 photo.

  20. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)

    2011-01-01

    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  1. Will the Copenhagen Summit keep its promises?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Published three months before the Copenhagen Conference, this analysis aims at identifying the postures of the different negotiators, at deciphering what is at stake as far as the future regime of struggle against climate change is concerned, and at giving the keys of a possible positive outcome for these negotiations. First, the authors comment the challenges of the definition of mitigation objectives for greenhouse gas emissions which requires an agreement between developed countries, emerging countries, developing countries, and less advanced developing countries which, until now, are not submitted to the same regime. Developed countries already have some obligations and will have to define these objectives, and the challenge is to obtain a commitment of emerging countries (notably China), and maybe of some developing countries, to adopt some constraints. On another hand, these negotiations could be the occasion of a revision of North-South and South-South relationships because of diverging interests between emerging countries and developing countries on technological issues. Other issues are at stake: intellectual property rights, the CDM (Clean development mechanism) reform, the deforestation. Finally, the authors highlight the difficult issues of financial transfers

  2. Improving the quality of endodontic record keeping through clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E; Shekaran, L; Muthukrishnan, A

    2017-03-10

    Introduction Record keeping is an essential part of day-to-day practice and plays an important role in treatment, audit and dento-legal procedures. Creating effective endodontic records is challenging due to the scope of information required for comprehensive notes. Two audits were performed to assess the standards of endodontic record keeping by dentists in a restorative dentistry department and students on an endodontic MSc course.Methods Fifty sets of departmental records and 10 sets of student records were retrospectively evaluated against the European Society of Endodontology 2006 guidelines. Results of the first cycle of both audits were presented to departmental staff and MSc students, alongside an educational session. Additionally, departmental guidelines, consent leaflets and endodontic record keeping forms were developed. Both audits were repeated using the same number of records, thus completing both audit cycles.Results The most commonly absent records included consent, anaesthetic details, rubber dam method, working length reference point, irrigation details and obturation technique. Almost all areas of record keeping improved following the second audit cycle, with some areas reaching 100% compliance when record keeping forms were used. Statistically significant improvements were seen in 24 of the 29 areas in the departmental audit and 14 of the 29 areas in the MSc audit (P = 0.05).Conclusions Significant improvements in endodontic record keeping can be achieved through the provision of education, departmental guidelines, consent leaflets and endodontic record keeping forms.

  3. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human–goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats’ inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development. PMID:28083538

  4. Biology, Culture, and the Origins of Pet-Keeping

    OpenAIRE

    Harold A. Herzog

    2014-01-01

    Attachments between non-human animals of different species are surprisingly common in situations involving human agency (e.g., homes, zoos, and wildlife parks). However, cross-species animal friendships analogous to pet-keeping by humans are at least rare and possibly non-existent in nature. Why has pet-keeping evolved only in Homo sapiens? I review theories that explain pet-keeping either as an adaptation or an evolutionary by-product. I suggest that these explanations cannot account for the...

  5. Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. ... identify gaps in the current knowledge base and priority intervention areas. ... A total of 13 published research articles and 27 reports obtained through a ...

  6. Dose record keeping: a multi purpose tool in individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermann, F.; Julius, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Proper recording of radiation doses is an essential part of the process of individual monitoring and shares in the same objective. A dose record keeping system is more than just a computer based data storage system and should rather be a Dose Registration and Information System (DRIS). Objectives of dose record keeping are given. As a result of the integration of member states of the European Communities, co-operation and exchange of personnel between countries will be increasing. This will probably require national dose registration systems and adequate data communication between them. These developments emphasize the necessity for international harmonization of dose record keeping systems and categorization of the data they contain. General characteristics and specific aspects of dose record keeping systems will be dealt with. Attention will also be given to some special applications of the recorded information, such as: the use of data for epidemiological studies and for QA purposes. (authors). 5 tabs., 4 refs

  7. Virginia Tech dining keeps customer service fresh (with Relish!)

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech is consistently ranked among the top universities in providing its students with the very best in dining options. One important way they make that happen is keeping in touch with student preferences and needs.

  8. Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services Search form Search Site Menu Home Latest Issue Past Issues Special Issues Subscribe May 2018 Print this issue Struggling to Hear? Tiny Devices Can Keep You Connected En español Send us ...

  9. Gate-Keeping and Feedback as Determinants of the Translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    Based on a theoretical perspective and a critical documentary analysis, this paper ... view since the message (the context, meaning) is first encoded (given form) in ... (feedback and gate keeping) greatly determine the communication process ...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5430 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... versions of the plan and make them readily available for inspection for at least 5 years after each... process operation. (g) If you use an emission control device, you must keep records of monitoring data as...

  11. Drought Tip: Keeping Plants Alive under Drought or Water Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartin, Janet; Oki, Loren; Fujino, Dave; Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants that don't receive enough water eventually show signs of water stress. During a drought or under water restrictions aimed at water conservation, keeping plants alive can be particularly difficult.

  12. INTERNATIONAL PEACE-KEEPING OPERATION: A BREACH OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Observer group activity was resumed after the wars of 1956, 1967 and 1973. .... International peacekeeping examines the theory and practice of peace-keeping .... U.O. Umozurike, Introduction to International Law, Spectrum Law Publishing, ...

  13. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... car and avoid extended idling. Be sure your tires are properly inflated. Keep car, boat and other ... little higher in the summer and lower in winter. Participate in local energy conservation programs. Look for ...

  14. A comprehensive audit of nursing record keeping practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Paul; Debbage, Samantha; Smith, Alison

    Good quality record keeping is essential to safe and effective patient care. To ensure that high standards of record keeping are maintained, regular clinical audit should be undertaken. This article describes an audit and re-audit of nursing record keeping at Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. The article demonstrates improving audit data in 2005 and 2006 and describes how audit and the resulting recommendations and action plans can result in real improvements in the quality of record keeping. The keys to success in this ongoing audit programme are identified as stakeholder involvement, support from the senior nurses in the organization and the use of the data for both local and trust-wide purposes.

  15. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... in Check Better Check Your Bowels Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  16. Belly Fat in Women: Taking --and Keeping-- It off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuts and certain vegetable oils — instead. Replace sugary beverages. Drink water or beverages with artificial sweetener instead. Keep portion sizes in ... steps per day to prevent weight gain. Some studies indicate it might take 15,000 steps per ...

  17. Emergency management in the gas and water supply; Notfallmanagement in der Gas- und Wasserversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, Stephan [KKI GmbH, Kompetenzzentrum Kritische Infrastrukturen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Gas and water pipes belong to the critical infrastructure in Germany. Their protection requires a holistic risk analysis, which also keep an eye on the dependence of the power supply. [German] Gas- und Wasserleitungen gehoeren zu den kritischen Infrastrukturen in Deutschland. Ihr Schutz erfordert eine ganzheitliche Risikoanalyse, die auch die Abhaengigkeit von der Stromversorgung im Blick hat.

  18. The NRPB's new dosimeter and dose record keeping services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Marshall, T.O.; Shaw, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    A new automated dosimeter and record keeping service which the National Radiological Protection Board (UK) intends to introduce in 1977 is described. The automated system, based on a thermoluminescent dosimeter, will be linked to a fully computerised record keeping system with automatic printing of dose records and Transfer Records operated at its Headquarters at Harwell. The new system will dispense with much manual labour which in the past has introduced inevitable errors and incurred increasing costs. (U.K.)

  19. Gate-keeping in the Age of Information Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Henriksen, Helle Zinner

    ’ being reluctant to accept imposed standards and control from central level (top-down) but also avoiding demands from parents (and children) on transparency and accountability (bottom-up). The lack of accessibility of grades on the web can thus be seen as a classical gate-keeping mechanism evolving...... in the age of information society where expectations of end-of-gatekeeping by providing accessibility and transparency using information systems has been outnumbered by classical forces of gate-keeping....

  20. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  1. Novel gas target for laser wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniculaesei, C.; Kim, Hyung Taek; Yoo, Byung Ju; Oh, Kyung Hwan; Nam, Chang Hee

    2018-02-01

    A novel gas target for interactions between high power lasers and gaseous medium, especially for laser wakefield accelerators, has been designed, manufactured, and characterized. The gas target has been designed to provide a uniform density profile along the central gas cell axis by combining a gas cell and slit nozzle. The gas density has been tuned from ˜1017 atoms/cm3 to ˜1019 atoms/cm3 and the gas target length can be varied from 0 to 10 cm; both changes can be made simultaneously while keeping the uniform gas profile. The gas density profile inside the gas cell has been measured using interferometry and validated using computational fluid dynamics.

  2. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market.

  3. Natural gas market review 2006 - towards a global gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is essential to the world economy. Gas now accounts for almost a quarter of OECD primary energy requirements and is expected to become the second most important fuel in the world in the next decade. Industrial and residential consumers increasingly rely on natural gas to keep their houses warm, their lights on and their factories running. Meanwhile the gas industry itself has entered a new phase. Where gas used to be restricted to regional markets, it is now increasingly traded on a global scale. While gas production and transport requires long-term investment, now it is optimised on a short-term basis. Demand continues to grow, but local gas production has become much more expensive. How should we react? How will demand be satisfied? What changes are required to promote flexibility and trade? What are the implications for gas security, investment and interdependence? At stake is an opportunity to diversify supply and demand - but this goal is threatened by barriers to competition and investment. This book is the first of a new IEA publication series. It takes an unprecedented look at developments in natural gas to 2010, analysing not only the three IEA regions (Asia Pacific, North America and Europe) but also broader global trends, such as the interaction of pipeline gas with LNG which binds the regions together. The Review provides invaluable insights for understanding this dynamic market

  4. Biology, Culture, and the Origins of Pet-Keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold A. Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Attachments between non-human animals of different species are surprisingly common in situations involving human agency (e.g., homes, zoos, and wildlife parks. However, cross-species animal friendships analogous to pet-keeping by humans are at least rare and possibly non-existent in nature. Why has pet-keeping evolved only in Homo sapiens? I review theories that explain pet-keeping either as an adaptation or an evolutionary by-product. I suggest that these explanations cannot account for the wide variation in the distribution and forms of pet-keeping across human societies and over historical time. Using fluctuations in the popularity of dog breeds in the United States, I show how shifts in choices of pets follow the rapid changes in preferences that characterize fashion cycles. I argue that while humans possess some innate traits that facilitate attachment to members of other species (e.g., parental urges, attraction to creatures with infantile features, pet-keeping is largely a product of social learning and imitation-based cultural evolution.

  5. Argon cover gas purity control on LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi [PNC (Japan); Ishiyama, Satoshi [Toshiba (Japan); Motonaga, Tetsuji [Hitachi (Japan)

    1987-07-01

    Various control methods on chemical impurities and radioactive materials (fission products) in the primary argon gas of LMFBRs' have been studied based on experiences in Joyo and results of research and development. These results are reflected on MONJU design. On-line gas chromatographs are installed both in the Primary and in the Secondary Argon Gas Systems in JOYO. Also, chemical analysis has been done by batch sampling in JOYO. Though the rise of impurity concentration had been measured after periodical fuel exchange operation, impurity concentration has been controlled sufficiently under target control limits. In MONJU detailed design, the Rare Gas Removal and Recovery System which consisted of cryogenic distillation equipment had been eliminated and the capacity of Charcoal Beds in the Primary Argon Gas System has been improved to keep the concentration of radioactive materials sufficient low levels. The necessity to control the impurities in fresh argon gas which is supplied to the Primary Argon Gas System is now considered to keep the concentration of Kr and Xe isotopes in specified level, because their isotopes may make background rise for the Tagging Gas Failed Fuel Detection and Location System. Based on various investigations performed on sodium vapor trapping to obtain its detailed characteristics, design specifications and operating conditions of MONJU's Vapor Traps have been decided. To keep the level of radioactivity in gaseous effluents to the environment as low as reasonably achievable, the following means are now adopted in MONJU: the Primary Argon Gas System is composed of a closed recirculating path, but the exhaust gas discharged has different path after the Charcoal Beds; fresh argon gas is blown down to prevent Primary Argon Gas from releasing to the circumference during opening of the primary argon gas boundary, such as fuel exchange operations. (author)

  6. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  7. Art, science, or both? Keeping the care in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmine, Tayray

    2009-12-01

    Nursing is widely considered as an art and a science, wherein caring forms the theoretical framework of nursing. Nursing and caring are grounded in a relational understanding, unity, and connection between the professional nurse and the patient. Task-oriented approaches challenge nurses in keeping care in nursing. This challenge is ongoing as professional nurses strive to maintain the concept, art, and act of caring as the moral center of the nursing profession. Keeping the care in nursing involves the application of art and science through theoretical concepts, scientific research, conscious commitment to the art of caring as an identity of nursing, and purposeful efforts to include caring behaviors during each nurse-patient interaction. This article discusses the profession of nursing as an art and a science, and it explores the challenges associated with keeping the care in nursing.

  8. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  9. Keep up or drown: adjustment of western Pacific coral reefs to sea-level rise in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woesik, R; Golbuu, Y; Roff, G

    2015-07-01

    Since the Mid-Holocene, some 5000 years ago, coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean have been vertically constrained by sea level. Contemporary sea-level rise is releasing these constraints, providing accommodation space for vertical reef expansion. Here, we show that Porites microatolls, from reef-flat environments in Palau (western Pacific Ocean), are 'keeping up' with contemporary sea-level rise. Measurements of 570 reef-flat Porites microatolls at 10 locations around Palau revealed recent vertical skeletal extension (78±13 mm) over the last 6-8 years, which is consistent with the timing of the recent increase in sea level. We modelled whether microatoll growth rates will potentially 'keep up' with predicted sea-level rise in the near future, based upon average growth, and assuming a decline in growth for every 1°C increase in temperature. We then compared these estimated extension rates with rates of sea-level rise under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our model suggests that under low-mid RCP scenarios, reef-coral growth will keep up with sea-level rise, but if greenhouse gas concentrations exceed 670 ppm atmospheric CO2 levels and with +2.2°C sea-surface temperature by 2100 (RCP 6.0 W m(-2)), our predictions indicate that Porites microatolls will be unable to keep up with projected rates of sea-level rise in the twenty-first century.

  10. KEEP Reading Research: 1972-1975. Technical Report No. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kathryn H.

    This report presents a summary of reading research conducted by the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) during 1972-75. Research was conducted in four areas: student industriousness, reading readiness, teaching of sound-symbol relationships, and language (especially dialect interference). With regard to industriousness, it was found that…

  11. 40 CFR 1051.350 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and... section. We may review your records at any time. (b) Keep paper or electronic records of your production... production-line vehicles or engines. (2) The names of supervisors involved in each test. (3) The name of...

  12. 75 FR 76781 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... conducted with persons on cell phones, a single user of the cell phone will be selected. Each sample member... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [U.S. DOT Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0157] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  13. [How can I keep up with my literature?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, J P

    1998-03-28

    To keep up with the literature, the author and his wife have personal home subscriptions to the 'big five' general medical journals, two top general science journals, and close to a dozen specialist journals. Two of the general medical journals are regularly read in more depth. Since computerized search systems permit almost immediate retrieval on whatever subject at whatever work location, the author keeps no filing system of the items of interest. For three (slowly growing) subjects that transgress the boundaries of the usual keywords of search systems, copies of papers are collected in piles: (a) important methodological papers (which may have been published anywhere, on any subject), (b) papers about concepts of the origin and evolution of diseases, and (c) papers of strong general interest. The disadvantage of not keeping track of the literature by a personal filing system is that the author regularly forgets about papers and books he already has; the advantage is that no time is spent keeping a personal filing system.

  14. Analysis of COMS-1 North-South Station Keeping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The perturbations caused by the Sun and the Moon are predominantly out-of-plane effects causing a change in the inclination and in the right ascension of ascending node of a geostationary satellite. Due to the change of the inclination, subsatellite latitude of the geostationary satellite has a daily variations of the same magnitude of the inclination. Therefore we need a facility to control the orbital inclination and right ascension of ascending node for maintaining the satellite position in specified subsatellite latitude boundary using thrusters. In this paper we studied North-South station keeping strategies of the COMS-1 such as Track-Back Chord Target (TBCT method, Maximum Compensation Target (MCT method and Minimum Fuel Target (MFT method. We accomplished those North-South station keeping maneuvers for one year starting from December 2008. The required velocity increments to maintain the satellite are estimated as MCT 52.6065m/s, TBCT 52.2383m/s, MFT 51.5428m/s, respectively. We demonstrated that TBCT and MFT methods are proper to North-South station keeping for COMS-1. MFT method showed the minimum required velocity increments whereas TBCT traced narrow inclination boundary area for North-South station keeping.

  15. Keep Food, Water, and Medications Safe PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-25

    This 60 second public service announcement is about the need to keep food, water and medications safe after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  16. 40 CFR 63.7952 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and ongoing determinations for affected sources that are exempt from control requirements under this...., superseded) versions of the plan as required in § 63.8(d)(3). (c) You must keep the records required by this... information in § 63.696(g) for planned routine maintenance of a control device for emissions from process...

  17. Getting Students in the Journal-Keeping Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the value of journals for understanding a historical period. Suggests that social studies students be encouraged to keep journals to understand better the difference between something written at the time and a later description of the same event. Lists examples of journals from historical periods that may interest students in journal…

  18. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemin, Butch; Pape, Larry

    2017-01-01

    "Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning 2016" marks the thirteenth consecutive year Evergreen has published its annual research of the K-12 education online learning market. The thirteen years of researching, writing and publishing this report represents a time of remarkable change. There has been a constant presence that has become the…

  19. 40 CFR 63.5915 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Notifications, Reports, and... section, when complying with the percent reduction and/or lbs/ton requirements specified in paragraphs (a... determine percent reduction and/or lbs/ton as applicable; (2) You must keep a brief description of the...

  20. How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Fitness + Weight Management How Can I Keep Track of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? Food Diary — Once you’ve set your eating goals, use this sample chart to track your efforts. WEEK: ________________________ DAY: ________________________ Food or Beverage Amount Number of Calories Grams of Saturated Fat ...

  1. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes care plan. The more information you, your parents, and your diabetes health care team have, the easier it is to keep your blood sugar levels under control. And when they're under control, diabetes isn't controlling you — you're controlling it! Reviewed by: Steven ...

  2. 22 CFR 507.8 - Recording keeping of closed meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of a meeting, closed to the public. (b) The Board, after review by the Chairman, shall make promptly... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Recording keeping of closed meetings. 507.8 Section 507.8 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS RULES FOR IMPLEMENTING OPEN MEETINGS UNDER...

  3. Keeping Children Safe: Afterschool Staff and Mandated Child Maltreatment Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarilla, Maria; O'Donnell, Julie

    2014-01-01

    With 8.4 million children in the U.S. spending an average of eight hours a week in afterschool programs, afterschool providers are an important part of the network of caring adults who can help to keep children safe. In addition, afterschool staff are "mandated reporters." Whether or not the laws specifically mention afterschool staff,…

  4. 78 FR 65038 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [U.S. DOT Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0113] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on proposed collection of information. SUMMARY...

  5. 75 FR 50034 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [U.S. DOT Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0109] Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on proposed collection of information. SUMMARY...

  6. 76 FR 30423 - Reports, Forms, and Record keeping Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms, and Record keeping Requirements AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.), this...

  7. Chair's Address: Voices of the Company We Keep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokye, Akua Duku

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a written version of the address Akua Duku Anokye, chairwoman of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), gave at the CCCC meeting in New York on March 24, 2007. In her address, Anokye talked about the importance of how an entity or an individual is known by the company they keep. To learn with whom has…

  8. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domnin, Y.; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G.

    2005-01-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI-the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH 4 laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard. (authors)

  9. Keep Young Riders Safe (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children in the United States. Adults can prevent many of these tragedies by properly securing children in vehicles. In this podcast, Dr. Erin Sauber-Schatz discusses ways to keep kids safe in vehicles.

  10. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make sure your kids brush for 2 minutes, twice a day. En Español facebook twitter instagram Kids’ Healthy Mouths Health Watch & Brush! Watch ... About Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time ...

  11. Keep Young Riders Safe (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-06

    Motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children in the U.S. This podcast discusses ways to keep kids safe in vehicles.  Created: 2/6/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/6/2014.

  12. Convexification of the Range-Only Station Keeping Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.; Morse, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Using concepts from switched adaptive control theory plus a special parameterization of the class of 2 x 2 nonsingular matrices, a tractable and provably correct solution is given to the three landmark station keeping problem in the plane in which range measurements are the only sensed signals upon

  13. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domnin, Y.; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G. [VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI-the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH{sub 4} laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard. (authors)

  14. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnin, Yu; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G.

    2005-06-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI—the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH4 laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard.

  15. Bearing up: natural gas, new technology, and rising efficiency keep the wolf from Canadian industry doors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, M.

    1999-03-01

    Poor commodity prices forced many of the oil field service companies to cut budgets, cut staff and to undertake unusual measures to stay afloat and ride out the current low price regime. The new measures include increased efficiency, technology and international connections. Some examples of the latter are discussed in this article. For example, Calgary-based Merak Projects Ltd. teamed up with Microsoft Corp`s energy services arm to score strong performance with lightning-fast information technology for head offices in the production community. Alberta-based Tesco Corporation entered a joint operating agreement with the French multinational service and supply giant Schlumberger to field a high-technology drilling package including gear and and expertise for coiled tubing systems, and capabilities to handle `underbalanced` wells. Serval Integrated Energy Services raised nearly US $ 7 million for expansion by an equipment lease-back arrangement with an undisclosed financial institution in the United States. These and other similar moves attest to the ingenuity of Canadian entrepreneurs and while there will be several casualties, there is confidence that companies that are big enough and innovative enough, will survive the current price crisis.

  16. Bearing up: natural gas, new technology, and rising efficiency keep the wolf from Canadian industry doors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, M.

    1999-01-01

    Poor commodity prices forced many of the oil field service companies to cut budgets, cut staff and to undertake unusual measures to stay afloat and ride out the current low price regime. The new measures include increased efficiency, technology and international connections. Some examples of the latter are discussed in this article. For example, Calgary-based Merak Projects Ltd. teamed up with Microsoft Corp's energy services arm to score strong performance with lightning-fast information technology for head offices in the production community. Alberta-based Tesco Corporation entered a joint operating agreement with the French multinational service and supply giant Schlumberger to field a high-technology drilling package including gear and and expertise for coiled tubing systems, and capabilities to handle 'underbalanced' wells. Serval Integrated Energy Services raised nearly US $ 7 million for expansion by an equipment lease-back arrangement with an undisclosed financial institution in the United States. These and other similar moves attest to the ingenuity of Canadian entrepreneurs and while there will be several casualties, there is confidence that companies that are big enough and innovative enough, will survive the current price crisis

  17. 40 CFR 63.1456 - What records must I keep and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (d..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep the records off... bag leak detection system. (ii) Description of the corrective actions taken following each bag leak...

  18. Making sure natural gas gets to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleckaitis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The role of natural gas in power generation was discussed with reference to price implications and policy recommendations. New natural gas supply is not keeping pace with demand. Production is leveling out in traditional basins and industry investment is not adequate. In addition, energy deregulation is creating disconnects. This presentation included a map depicting the abundant natural gas reserves across North America. It was noted that at 2002 levels of domestic production, North America has approximately 80 years of natural gas. The AECO consensus wholesale natural gas price forecast is that natural gas prices in 2010 will be lower than today. The use of natural gas for power generation was outlined with reference to fuel switching, distributed generation, and central generation. It was emphasized that government, regulators and the energy industry must work together to address policy gaps and eliminate barriers to new investment. 13 figs

  19. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  20. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  1. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  2. Gas manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, J W

    1915-05-03

    Retorts for the distillation of shale or coal for the production of oil or illuminating-gas are heated by gas from a generator or a gas-holder, and a portion of the gas from the flue leading to the heating-flues is forced by a steam jet through a by-pass and is injected into the bottom of the retorts. If the gas to be admitted to the retort is cold, it is first heated.

  3. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  4. Organizational Learning: Keeping Pace with Change through Action Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yeadon-Lee, Annie

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of economic ‘austerity’, organisational learning has increasingly gained importance, and a need for new ways of transferring learning has been identified. Organisational learning is seen as key to organisational success, ensuring both competitive advantage and organisational longevity. However, in order for organisations to keep pace with change they must not only strive to learn but also pay attention to how they might learn. A dominant view within the field of organis...

  5. How to Keep Your Campus Safe from Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how antivirus programs work. He also explains how performances of various antivirus programs vary from one to another. He also takes a look at 13 antivirus programs and explains which of these will keep computers protected. These programs include: (1) Sophos Anti-Virus Version 3.86.2; (2) McAfee VirusScan 9.0;…

  6. Drilling methods to keep the hydrogeological parameters of natural aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqin

    2004-01-01

    In hydrogeological drilling, how to keep the hydrogeological parameters of natural aquifer unchanged is a deeply concerned problem for the technicians, this paper introduces the methods taken by the state-owned 'Red Hill' geological company of Uzbekistan. By the research and contrast of different kinds of flush liquid, the company has found the methods to reduce the negative effects of drilling on the permeability of the vicinal aquifer. (author)

  7. Keep Young Riders Safe (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-06

    Motor vehicle-related injuries are a leading cause of death among children in the United States. Adults can prevent many of these tragedies by properly securing children in vehicles. In this podcast, Dr. Erin Sauber-Schatz discusses ways to keep kids safe in vehicles.  Created: 2/6/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/6/2014.

  8. The personnel dosimetry record keeping system at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.W.

    1979-09-01

    Since May 1978 the exposure of personnel to external radiation has been assessed by Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, (TLD). The dosemeter consists of a TLD card similar to that used by the National Radiological Protection Board, held in a plastic badge designed at AEE Winfrith, and used in conjunction with a D A Pitman Ltd Type 605 Automatic Reader. The report describes the dosemeter, the operation of the dosimetry service and the system for maintaining a computerised record keeping system. (author)

  9. NRPB TLD and dose record keeping service - further progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenslade, E.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the National Radiological Protection Board's service are described. An increasing number of UK employers are transferring from film monitors, and record keeping is now provided for both large and small groups of workers. Data entry directly from punched cards prepared by the larger employers has reduced initial costs and therefore carries a reduced registration fee for these users. Computerized dose record keeping allows automatic retrieval of cumulative dose information from any NRPB record of previous employment, thus safeguarding itinerant workers. Warning Dose Reports are issued automatically when cumulative dose totals reach or exceed 60% of a limit, or when a dose rate greater than 0.1 rem per 4 weeks is recorded. Flexibility in wearing period results in dosemeter economy and reduces laboratory work load. High recorded doses can be checked by UV stimulation of both disks to confirm the accuracy of the previous measurement. Employers are provided with a comprehensive and accurate monitoring package, fulfilling HSE requirements and exempting employers from their former responsibility to keep their own comprehensive records. (UK)

  10. Western Canada drilling barely keeping pace with production replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided a unique perspective of gas exploration, production and expectations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). For the past several years, approximately 80 per cent of Canada's natural gas production has come from Alberta. In order to sustain this production level, greater activity is needed in the large and mature fields where conventional production is in decline. Rising gas prices resulting from tight supply in North America are providing incentive for additional activity, particularly in small, unconventional gas pools. The trend away from large, conventional gas pools has resulted in a decline in average well productivity. Continuing this trend will become more challenging and costly to sustain in the coming years, particularly since the oil and gas industry in Canada is already encountering manpower limitations, climate change, stringent environmental standards, and resistance from the general public. The author cautioned that the low cost and finite natural gas resource has been squandered in North America since the 1980s. The challenge now is to carefully consider how much gas can be produced in the future, but also at a cost that the consumer will pay in the global market. It was suggested that in addition to ensuring that domestic consumption and exports are targeted on the most efficient and value-added outcomes, Alberta's and Canada's energy plan should recognize the limitations of natural gas production. figs

  11. Modernization of the gas utility; La modernisation du service public du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    After a large discussion, the project of law for the modernization of the French gas utility and for the development of gas companies was finally adopted by the government on May 17, 2000. This legislative project aims at modernizing and strengthening the gas public utility and adapting the gas sector to the progressive opening of this market to international competition with keeping up the quality and security of supplies and the position of French gas operators. (J.S.)

  12. Assignment of stock keeping units to parallel undirectional picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An order picking system consisting of a number of parallel unidirectional picking lines is investigated. Stock keeping units (SKUs that are grouped by product type into distributions (DBNs are assigned daily to available picking lines. A mathematical programming formulation and its relaxations is presented. A greedy insertion and a greedy phased insertion are further introduced to obtain feasible results within usable computation times for all test cases. The walking distance of the pickers was shown to decrease by about 22 per cent compared with the current assignment approach. However, product handling and operational risk increases.

  13. Improving nurse documentation and record keeping in stoma care

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Lesley; Akroyd, Karen; Burke, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that nurse documentation is often inconsistent and lacks a coherent and standardized approach. This article reports on research into the use of nurse documentation on a stoma care ward in a large London hospital, and explores the factors that may affect the process of record keeping by nursing staff. This study uses stoma care as a case study to explore the role of documentation on the ward, focusing on how this can be improved. It is based on quantitative and qualitative me...

  14. North/south Station Keeping of Geostationary Satellite Using Mft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Young Ahn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A precise determination of the fuel efficiency is important because North/South station keeping ,which controls the inclination of the geostationary orbit, consumes most of the satellite fuel. We estimate the amount of fuel required during the lifetime of the KOREASAT when MFT(Minimum Fuel Target technique is adopted, and the result is compared to those when MCT(Maximum Compensation Target and TBCT(Track-Back Chord Target technique are applied. From this computation, we find that if MFT technique is adopted, the lifetime of the satellite can be extended at least 45 and 15 days, respectively, compared to those consumed with MCT and TBCT technique.

  15. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  16. Clinical negligence and the need to keep professionally updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, John

    Nurses and doctors are under a legal duty to keep reasonably up to date; this is a fundamental aspect of their legal duty of care to their patients. A nurse or doctor could be negligent if a patient is harmed because of ignorance of well accepted and known published nursing and medical research findings. It is all a question of fact and degree and cases will turn on their own circumstances. There are a number of reported court cases which explore this issue and which contain useful guidance. These cases are discussed within the context of the new NHS and the Government's emphasis on health quality, and increasing healthcare litigation.

  17. FAMILY AND SELF-KEEPING BEHAVIOR OF YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Pavlov

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper actual problems of self-keeping behavior and healthy mode of life of youth in the Urals are considered. The role of family in psychological education of children and teenagers is analyzed. As empirical base for the analysis of the declared problem and conclusions for the author the results of some sociological interrogations lead by him in 1990-2007 in the Institute of economy of the Ural Branch of Russian academy of sciences in various cities and settlements of subjects of the Russian Federation, amounting to the Ural federal district are used.

  18. The development of the time-keeping clock with TS-1 single chip microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiguang; Li, Yongan

    The authors have developed a time-keeping clock with Intel 8751 single chip microcomputer that has been successfully used in time-keeping station. The hard-soft ware design and performance of the clock are introduced.

  19. 40 CFR 141.571 - What records does subpart T require my system to keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records does subpart T require my system to keep? Your system must keep several types of records based on... Benchmarking(§§ 141.540-141.544) Benchmark (including raw data and analysis) Indefinitely. ...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6155 - What records must I keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required in § 63.10(b)(2)(ii). (5) Records of all maintenance on the air pollution control equipment as... annual basis, or if you are operating a lean premix gas-fired stationary combustion turbine or a...

  1. Improving nurse documentation and record keeping in stoma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Lesley; Akroyd, Karen; Burke, Linda

    Evidence suggests that nurse documentation is often inconsistent and lacks a coherent and standardized approach. This article reports on research into the use of nurse documentation on a stoma care ward in a large London hospital, and explores the factors that may affect the process of record keeping by nursing staff. This study uses stoma care as a case study to explore the role of documentation on the ward, focusing on how this can be improved. It is based on quantitative and qualitative methods. The medical notes of 56 patients were analysed and in addition, focus groups with a number of nurses were undertaken. Quantitative findings indicate that although 80% of patients had a chart filed in their medical notes, only a small portion of the form was completed by nursing staff. Focus group findings indicate that this is because forms lacked standardization and because the language used was often ambiguous. Staff also felt that such documentation was not viewed by other nurses and so, was not effective in improving patient care. As a result of this study, significant improvements have been made to documentation used on the stoma care ward. This is an important exploration of record keeping within nursing in the context of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's emphasis on the importance of documentation in achieving effective patient outcomes.

  2. Keeping education fresh-not just in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2017-11-15

    Innovative practice from around the globe, addressing a range of recent educational themes and trends, was published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Keeping Education Fresh' in October 2017. Its thought-provoking content is reviewed here to more directly facilitate reflections and discussions in the professional community. The focus is on best practice approaches when enhancing student engagement, how to adjust those to the diversity of learners, learning situations and infrastructures, and to a broad range of subjects. The need for authentic learning and to move away from didactic teaching is emphasized. The 'students as researchers' theme is featured e.g. in context of service learning. Creative approaches are presented such as using performing arts, popular culture and gamification. The development of interdisciplinary and intercultural competences, and the exploration of socioscientific themes and philosophical issues are considered. Revisions of curricula and programmes, reflective of educational advancements and sector drivers, are discussed from undergraduate to postgraduate and professional specialist level also in light of problem-based learning, interactive distance and on-campus learning, and even the legacy of Massive Open Online Courses. Such changes always require resources and skills, and carry risks. Yet, innovation is a risk worth taking to keep education fresh. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. How unconventional gas prospers without tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Stevens, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    It was widely believed that the development of unconventional natural gas (coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas) would die once US Sec. 29 credits stopped. Quieter voices countered, and hoped, that technology advances would keep these large but difficult to produce gas resources alive and maybe even healthy. Sec. 29 tax credits for new unconventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992. Now, nearly three years later, who was right and what has happened? There is no doubt that Sec. 29 tax credits stimulated the development of coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas. What is less known is that the tax credits helped spawn and push into use an entire new set of exploration, completion, and production technologies founded on improved understanding of unconventional gas reservoirs. As set forth below, while the incentives inherent in Sec. 29 provided the spark, it has been the base of science and technology that has maintained the vitality of these gas sources. The paper discusses the current status; resource development; technology; unusual production, proven reserves, and well completions if coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas; and international aspects

  4. A Remote Social Robot to Motivate and Support Diabetic Children in Keeping a Diary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drift, E.J.G. van der; Looije, R.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with diabetes can benefit from keeping a diary, but seldom keep one. Within the European ALIZ-E project a robot companion is being developed that, among other things, will be able to support and motivate diabetic children to keep a diary. This paper discusses the study of a robot supporting

  5. A remote social robot to motivate and support diabetic children in keeping a diary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Drift, Esther J G; Beun, Robbert Jan; Looije, Rosemarijn; Henkemans, Oliver A Blanson; Neerincx, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Children with diabetes can benefit from keeping a diary, but seldom keep one. Within the European ALIZ-E project a robot companion is being developed that, among other things, will be able to support and motivate diabetic children to keep a diary. This paper discusses the study of a robot supporting

  6. 30 CFR 250.401 - What must I do to keep wells under control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do to keep wells under control? 250... General Requirements § 250.401 What must I do to keep wells under control? You must take necessary precautions to keep wells under control at all times. You must: (a) Use the best available and safest drilling...

  7. 49 CFR 172.317 - KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT handling mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT handling mark. 172.317 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.317 KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT handling mark. (a) General. For... of Division 5.2 must be marked with the KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT handling mark specified in this section...

  8. Natural gas poised to penetrate deeper into electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how advancements in gas supply, distribution and storage, coupled with new options in combustion equipment, continue to expand the use of natural gas for electric generation. The challenge is to meet the increasing demand while keeping prices competitive with other fuels--and keep a small band of skeptics at bay. To prepare for the projected growth in gas consumption, the natural-gas industry has invented in new infrastructure and technologies. Pipelines have been built; storage facilities have been expanded; and highly precise flow measurement stations have been installed. To mitigate supply and price risk, suppliers are offering short-, mid-, or long-term contracts which include service options and guarantees. In spite of these preparations, not all power producers are comfortable with the potential tidal wave of gas-fired capacity. Reason: It limits the electric-generation resource base to one fuel for future capacity

  9. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  10. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  11. Gas magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  12. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  13. Natural Gas Liberalisation and Deregulation - The German Gas Industry's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernie, W.

    2001-01-01

    In Europe, the process of creating a single energy market is under way. The 1998 Gas Directive established an important date for the European gas industry. On 10 August 1998, ''Directive 98/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas'' came into force. It had to be transposed into national law by the EU member states within two years, i.e. by 10 August 2000. The Directive is a cornerstone in establishing a competitive gas market in the European Union. It is the outcome of several years of negotiations and can be regarded as a compromise between the various interests. On the whole, it leaves EU member states with sufficient scope for adequately taking account of national characteristics in keeping with the principle of subsidiarity. The process of transposing the Gas Directive into the national law of individual EU member states is being closely followed by the European Commission. While acknowledging all the progress made in the single market process, the Commission still detects shortcomings in the implementation of the Gas Directive on the road to an actual single market. This is seen as a justification for new initiatives and intervention, even though the new political framework for the gas industry has not yet been tested in practice and been able to prove itself on a broad scale for any length of time. In the debate on liberalisation, tried-and-tested instruments of secure and market-oriented gas supply on the European continent long-term supply contracts with take-or-pay clauses and competitive oil-indexed gas prices have also come under scrutiny. However, even under the conditions of liberalisation, security of supply has to be achieved mainly by a balanced mix of supply sources and by long-term supply contracts, including competitive pricing as ensured by so-called oil indexing. In the further liberalisation of west European gas industries, it will be essential to ensure

  14. The NRPB automated thermoluminescent dosemeter and dose record keeping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Marshall, T.O.; Shaw, K.B.

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the thermoluminescent personal radiation dosemeter and its associated automated processing equipment, which are being developed by the National Radiological Protection Board, together with the operation of a computerised dosemeter issue and record keeping system. The main justifications for introducing these systems are improvements in the organizational efficiency of the maintenance of individual dose records, a more flexible and accurate dosimetry system, and economics in operational costs. The dosemeter is based on a numbered aluminium plate containing two lithium fluoride in polytetrafluorethylene disks for the measurement of surface and body dose. This dosemeter is wrapped in thin plastic and labelled with the wearer's name and address. On return, the dosemeter is checked automatically for radioactive contamination; it is unwrapped and evaluated; the dose readings are included in the wearer's stored dose record; the dosemeter is annealed and is then available for re-issue to another wearer. Dose reports and warnings are automatically issued to the wearer or his employer. (author)

  15. Research of radiation technology in keeping pet feed fresh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qin; Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Wang Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find a effective, simple, quick method of radiation keeping fresh technology. Method: To detect the number of bacterium colony and pathogen and D 10 in Raschide dog chews firstly, then calculate them with the formulate of S D = D 10 log N 0 /SAL. Result: The total number of bacterium colony and pathogen in Raschide dog chews, a kind of pet feed, were detected. The mean total number of colony forming units was 3980 every gram and G + bacilli predominant, cocci less. The D 10 value of G + bacilli was 1.51 KGy. Conclusion: According to the certain formula method, the product SAL can be kept at 10 -6 level with 14.50 KGy radiation dose

  16. Clinical examination & record-keeping: Part 2: History taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, A M

    2017-12-15

    This article is the second part of a BDJ series of Practice papers on the subject of clinical examination and related record keeping. The series is taken from the Faculty of General Dental Practice UK (FGDP[UK]) 2016 Good Practice Guidelines book on this topic, edited by A. M. Hadden. This particular article discusses history taking, where information may be gathered prior to the patient seeing the clinician or, in some cases, this may be carried out chairside by the individual. The information gathered can include a medical history, socio-behavioural history, and patient anxiety levels. It is important to note that throughout this article (and the BDJ series and associated FGDP[UK] book), the specific guidelines will be marked as follows: A: Aspirational, B: Basic, C: Conditional. Further information about this guideline notation system is provided in Part 1 of this series ( 2017; 223: 765-768).

  17. Art: a powerful tool for keeping memory alive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    According to Cecile Massart, a belgian visual artist, any radioactive waste disposal site has to be made very visible in order to preserve memory of the activities on the very long term and avoid dangerous excavations. Art has a role to play to maintain vivid this local memory by proposing works of art that reveal the very inside of the site making useless any digging. A complementary way to maintain local memory is to consider disposal sites as historical monuments that will glorify the use of nuclear energy that allowed humanity to keep on going forwards decades ago. This strategy of openness and transparency opposes the present approach of concealing disposal sites through landscaping. (A.C.)

  18. Today's gas glut and yesterday's contracts: the British Gas predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoppard, M.

    1996-10-01

    Deregulation of the gas and electricity industries has led to a state of pronounced oversupply in the UK gas market. The effects of this oversupply became apparent during the course of 1995 and took two forms. Firstly, there was the emergence of a market for the short-term trading of gas. The price levels in this market collapsed in the first half of 1995 opening up a price gap between ''spot'' and contract gas. Secondly, some contract gas was paid for but was not produced, so that delivery to market was indefinitely postponed: there was a run-up in inventory - or ''take-or-pay'' - gas levels, as a form of keeping supply off the market. Oversupply has exerted great pressure on a number of market participants throughout the gas chain who remain locked into purchase agreements for volumes which have no market outlet, and at prices above market levels. The rally in spot price levels experienced since the second quarter of 1996 has eased pressure within the market but has not removed the fundamental strains. The market is expected to remain in oversupply at least up to the end of 1998. Keen price competition may not clear the market even at discount prices, so that shut-in of production capacity is likely. The consequent build-up in take-or-pay levels will continue through the period, although at steadily declining rates, and there is little scope prior to 1999 for the industry as a whole to offload this inventory gas on the market. (author)

  19. Standards for collection of identifying information for health record keeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.; Fair, M.E.; Lalonde, P.; Scott, T.

    1988-09-01

    A new recommended guideline for the standard data collection of individual identifying information has been developed and tested by Statistics Canada. The purpose of developing a standard method is to improve health record keeping in Canada: in particular for long term medical follow-up studies of individuals exposed to potentially hazardous agents for detection of possible health risks or delayed harm, e.g. individuals exposed to radiation through occupations, the environment, emergencies, or therapeutic practice. A data collection standard is also useful for epidemiological follow-up studies for other occupation groups such as chemical workers and miners, or for lifestyle, genetic and other studies. Statistics Canada, Health Division, Occupational and Environmental Health Research Unit (OEHRU), from their experience with long term health studies using the Canadian Mortality Data Base, has prepared a 'Data Collection Package' to include the developed and tested data collection guideline. It is anticipated this will help produce more thorough and comparable on-going record keeping while saving costs and time for many organizations e.g. Atomic Energy Control Board licensees who report radiation doses to the National Dose Registry, as well as for other companies and organizations across the country where long term medical follow-up studies are anticipated now or in the future. It may also allow for broader industrial, national and international comparisons. The guideline consists of a two page Individual Identity Summary (IIS): the first page for completion by the individual/employee to give unique identifying information; the second page for the study organizer/employer to include essential additional information (work history etc.). A third optional page can be used by organizations wishing to collect data on children. The Data Collection Package also includes brief explanatory notes, a suggested file record layout and detailed computer coding advice for entering

  20. Keeping all options open: Parents' approaches to advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Emma; Oostendorp, Linda; Crocker, Joanna; Kelly, Paula; Dinsdale, Andrew; Hemsley, June; Russell, Jessica; Jones, Louise; Bluebond-Langner, Myra

    2017-08-01

    Early engagement in advance care planning (ACP) is seen as fundamental for ensuring the highest standard of care for children and young people with a life-limiting condition (LLC). However, most families have little knowledge or experience of ACP. To investigate how parents of children and young people with LLCs approach and experience ACP. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of 18 children; nine children who were currently receiving palliative care services, and nine children who had received palliative care and died. Verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were analysed following principles of grounded theory while acknowledging the use of deductive strategies, taking account of both the child's condition, and the timing and nature of decisions made. Parents reported having discussions and making decisions about the place of care, place of death and the limitation of treatment. Most decisions were made relatively late in the illness and by parents who wished to keep their options open. Parents reported different levels of involvement in a range of decisions; many wished to be involved in decision making but did not always feel able to do so. This study highlights that parents' approaches to decision making vary by the type of decision required. Their views may change over time, and it is important to allow them to keep their options open. We recommend that clinicians have regular discussions over the course of the illness in an effort to understand parents' approaches to particular decisions rather than to drive to closure prematurely. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1947-05-01

    A short description of the process is given, with gas yields from various feedstocks, and the composition of the gas. Short descriptions of several batch digester designs are given: Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofta, and Somagaz. The utilization and the economics of the process are discussed. Two diagrams of Ducellier and Isman designs are included.

  2. Landfill gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnell, Gaynor

    2000-01-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned

  3. How the nuclear industry keeps it gases clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The paper surveys briefly the papers presented at a conference on gas filtration in the nuclear industry. The theory, development, design, use (under various conditions of temperature, humidity, corrosion), performance, cleaning and testing of fibrous, HEPA, metal, packed bed and magnetic filters are included, and the problems, advantages and disadvantages of the various types of filter are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. The extent and characteristics of United Kingdom hospital pharmacists keeping, or not keeping, a professional development portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewski, Andrzej J; Dhillon, Soraya; Goodsman, Danë; Taylor, Kevin M G; Weinman, John A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of continuing professional development (CPD) portfolios by hospital pharmacists. The objectives were to assess the extent to which pharmacists use portfolios in CPD and to examine the attitudes/beliefs which differentiate those who do and do not keep a portfolio. Participants completed two questionnaires: (1) personality traits were examined using the Big-Five questionnaire and (2) a new Pharmacist Portfolio-Engaging Behaviour Questionnaire (PPEBQ) examined the attitudes and beliefs. What constitutes a portfolio was left to the interpretation of the participants, but it was specified that the survey was about participants' views of producing written records of their professional practice for CPD. The setting was hospital pharmacists based in the London area in December 2004. Overall, 134 pharmacists (78%) returned both questionnaires, and 80 stated that they kept a portfolio and 52 stated that they did not (two questionnaires were returned spoilt). There was no significant difference in the age or number of years qualified between those with and without a portfolio. Three personality traits were linked to keeping a portfolio (conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability). Pharmacists with a portfolio scored highly on the perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention scales of the PPEBQ. The Big-Five personality questionnaire is a useful tool to investigate pharmacists' use of a portfolio. Results of the PPEBQ suggested that hospital pharmacists who had a portfolio were concerned with having control over its production. However, the PPEBQ requires further development to improve its reliability. These findings have implications for the educational support of CPD.

  5. Treatment of Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding IFFGD Symposium reports Industry Council Contact Us Treatment of Gas You are here: Home Symptoms & Causes Intestinal Gas ... Controlling Intestinal Gas Foods That May Cause Gas Treatment of Gas Tips on Controlling Gas Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  6. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  7. Gas dusulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, B.E.; Bakhshi, V.S.; Randolph, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for adsorbing sulfur dioxide from a gas comprising contacting a gas containing SO 2 , such as a flue gas, with about stoichiometric amounts of a specially prepared calcium oxide so that substantially all of the sulfur dioxide content is reacted throughout the calcium oxide particle to form a calcium sulfate reaction product. The useful calcium oxide particles comprise a highly voided skeletal structure of very large surface area and large pore volume with numerous macro pores. Such particles are obtained by flash calcining sand-size grains of calcium carbonate, such as aragonite, calcite or dolomite

  8. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  9. The long term challenges of energy management: keeping all options open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, F.

    2003-01-01

    Before the end of the 21. century, the global energy sector will need to face up to two challenges: climate warming due to greenhouse gas emissions and the increasing scarcity of traditional hydrocarbons. The likely scenarios expected by 2030 demonstrate that we are in the process of witnessing strong growth in the consumption of energy and in CO 2 emissions while at the same time climate experts warn us that we need to achieve a 75 % reduction of emissions in the industrialized nations by 2050. Several technological options may be envisaged in order to meet these challenges including a view generation nuclear power, renewable energy, the storage of carbon dioxide or managing energy consumption, and we need to keep all options open because none of these alone can solve all the problems. The time required for technologies to emerge following research and their penetration into the marketplace can often be several decades. The 2050 deadline is therefore not so at away and we need to stem and reverse the growth in demand from today onwards, something we should da without any misgivings when we consider the considerable uncertainties surrounding supply-side technologies. This profound transformation of our production and consumption methods also involves a change in our lifestyle and our behaviour: our efforts in the field of technological development must be accompanied by a commitment by all citizens to creating a more rational society where energy is concerned. (author)

  10. Ottawa keeps a promise, leaving the oil industry to recover unhindered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1998-01-01

    The recent assurances of the federal Finance Minister that the favorable tax regime for oil sands projects will continue and that there would be no tax on energy consumption, were hailed as examples of how the present federal government keeps its political commitments. The Finance Minister assured the industry that he has no intention of acting on the recent recommendations by the Technical Committee on Business Taxation. It suggested the withdrawal of tax changes that only two years ago gave the industry the same terms as enjoyed by mineral mines, changes that resulted in a whole string of multi-billion dollar oil sands projects. He also reassured industry representatives that there will be no carbon tax, another recommendation of the Committee that would impose 'user-pay' environmental taxes to punish polluters. The Finance Minister expressed his preference for 'economic instruments' like the trading of emission reduction credits now being pioneered by the oil, gas and power industries. He suggested that taxes are being re-examined but the objective is to reduce and not to raise them. He also reassured his audiences on his recent Western tour that the much-hated National Energy Policy of the early 1980s is dead and buried, and that the government's principal concern is to establish a climate which encourages people to undertake major projects. The government has no intention of being a player itself, or impose unreasonable burdens on the industry

  11. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  12. Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, H. R.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, M.-C.; Heeger, K. M.; Kwok, M. W.; Shih, K.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Q.

    2012-11-01

    The Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is designed to protect the liquid scintillator targets of the antineutrino detectors against degradation and contamination from exposure to ambient laboratory air. The gas system is also used to monitor the leak tightness of the antineutrino detector assembly. The cover gas system constantly flushes the gas volumes above the liquid scintillator with dry nitrogen to minimize oxidation of the scintillator over the five year lifetime of the experiment. This constant flush also prevents the infiltration of radon or other contaminants into these detecting liquids keeping the internal backgrounds low. Since the Daya Bay antineutrino detectors are immersed in the large water pools of the muon veto system, other gas volumes are needed to protect vital detector cables or gas lines. These volumes are also purged with dry gas. Return gas is monitored for oxygen content and humidity to provide early warning of potentially damaging leaks. The design and performance of the Daya Bay Antineutrino Detector gas system is described.

  13. Panorama 2009 - outlook for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    World consumption of natural gas continued to climb in 2007, but with significant variations depending on the geographical region. The market is expected to keep growing for years, albeit at a slower rate due to the competition with coal, because of the specific advantages that natural gas brings to the energy mix. Consumption may be inhibited by the global financial and economic crisis. By 2030, gas supply and demand will diverge widely at regional level. Considering the uncertainties associated with key markets like the United States, Europe and Russia, it is imperative to develop appropriate strategies to meet the justifiable need to ensure the security of each link in the gas supply chain

  14. Volcanic Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offensive odor. It is sometimes referred to as sewer gas. Interestingly, the human nose is more sensitive ... the atmosphere where they can potentially cause acid rain. In an ash -producing eruption, ash particles are ...

  15. Gas - flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and other symptoms such as stomach pain, rectal pain, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fever, or ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  16. Keep-Left Behavior Induced by Asymmetrically Profiled Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C. L. N.; Vieira, A. P.; Helbing, D.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    We show, computationally and analytically, that asymmetrically shaped walls can organize the flow of pedestrians driven in opposite directions through a corridor. Precisely, a two-lane ordered state emerges in which people always walk on the left-hand side (or right-hand side), controlled by the system's parameters. This effect depends on features of the channel geometry, such as the asymmetry of the profile and the channel width, as well as on the density and the drift velocity of pedestrians, and the intensity of noise. We investigate in detail the influence of these parameters on the flow and discover a crossover between ordered and disordered states. Our results show that an ordered state only appears within a limited range of drift velocities. Moreover, increasing noise may suppress such flow organization, but the flow is always sustained. This is in contrast with the "freezing by heating" phenomenon according to which pedestrians tend to clog in smooth channels for strong noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1240 (2000)]. Therefore, the ratchetlike effect proposed here acts on the system not only to induce a "keep-left" behavior but also to prevent the freezing by heating clogging phenomenon. Besides pedestrian flow, this new phenomenon has other potential applications in microfluidics systems.

  17. Factors to keep in mind when introducing virtual microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz-Krieger, Katharina; Spornitz, Udo; Spatz, Alain; Mihatsch, Michael J; Glatz, Dieter

    2006-03-01

    Digitization of glass slides and delivery of so-called virtual slides (VS) emulating a real microscope over the Internet have become reality due to recent improvements in technology. We have implemented a virtual microscope for instruction of medical students and for continuing medical education. Up to 30,000 images per slide are captured using a microscope with an automated stage. The images are post-processed and then served by a plain hypertext transfer protocol (http)-server. A virtual slide client (vMic) based on Macromedia's Flash MX, a highly accepted technology available on every modern Web browser, has been developed. All necessary virtual slide parameters are stored in an XML file together with the image. Evaluation of the courses by questionnaire indicated that most students and many but not all pathologists regard virtual slides as an adequate replacement for traditional slides. All our virtual slides are publicly accessible over the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://vmic.unibas.ch . Recently, several commercially available virtual slide acquisition systems (VSAS) have been developed that use various technologies to acquire and distribute virtual slides. These systems differ in speed, image quality, compatibility, viewer functionalities and price. This paper gives an overview of the factors to keep in mind when introducing virtual microscopy.

  18. Can you keep a secret? Confidentiality in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younggren, Jeffrey N; Harris, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    Confidentiality is the secret-keeping duty that arises from the establishment of the professional relationship psychologists develop with their clients. It is a duty created by the professional relationship, it is set forth in the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct, and it is codified in many state regulations. However, the difference between confidentiality and legal privilege; how, why, and when it can be violated; and the reasons for so doing are not well understood by many practitioners. While on the surface confidentiality might seem to be an easy concept to apply to professional practice, in fact it is quite complex and filled with exceptions that frequently differ from circumstance to circumstance and from state to state. A lack of respect for and a lack of familiarity with the significance of these exceptions could have dire professional consequences. This article reviews the ethical imperative of confidentiality and then provides examples of legal cases that help to better understand its complexity. Then, we offer strategies designed to help metal health practitioners when they are confronted with questions regarding confidentiality and privilege.

  19. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  20. How the visual brain encodes and keeps track of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvioni, Paolo; Murray, Micah M; Kalmbach, Lysiann; Bueti, Domenica

    2013-07-24

    Time is embedded in any sensory experience: the movements of a dance, the rhythm of a piece of music, the words of a speaker are all examples of temporally structured sensory events. In humans, if and how visual cortices perform temporal processing remains unclear. Here we show that both primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate area V5/MT are causally involved in encoding and keeping time in memory and that this involvement is independent from low-level visual processing. Most importantly we demonstrate that V1 and V5/MT come into play simultaneously and seem to be functionally linked during interval encoding, whereas they operate serially (V1 followed by V5/MT) and seem to be independent while maintaining temporal information in working memory. These data help to refine our knowledge of the functional properties of human visual cortex, highlighting the contribution and the temporal dynamics of V1 and V5/MT in the processing of the temporal aspects of visual information.

  1. A preference for a sexual signal keeps females safe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Won Kim

    Full Text Available Predation is generally thought to constrain sexual selection by female choice and limit the evolution of conspicuous sexual signals. Under high predation risk, females usually become less choosy, because they reduce their exposure to their predators by reducing the extent of their mate searching. However, predation need not weaken sexual selection if, under high predation risk, females exhibit stronger preferences for males that use conspicuous signals that help females avoid their predators. We tested this prediction in the fiddler crab Uca terpsichores by increasing females' perceived predation risk from crab-eating birds and measuring the attractiveness of a courtship signal that females use to find mates. The sexual signal is an arching mound of sand that males build at the openings of their burrows to which they attract females for mating. We found that the greater the risk, the more attractive were males with those structures. The benefits of mate preferences for sexual signals are usually thought to be linked to males' reproductive contributions to females or their young. Our study provides the first evidence that a female preference for a sexual signal can yield direct survival benefits by keeping females safe as they search for mates.

  2. Keeping it wild: mapping wilderness character in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Steve; Tricker, James; Landres, Peter

    2013-12-15

    A GIS-based approach is developed to identify the state of wilderness character in US wilderness areas using Death Valley National Park (DEVA) as a case study. A set of indicators and measures are identified by DEVA staff and used as the basis for developing a flexible and broadly applicable framework to map wilderness character using data inputs selected by park staff. Spatial data and GIS methods are used to map the condition of four qualities of wilderness character: natural, untrammelled, undeveloped, and solitude or primitive and unconfined recreation. These four qualities are derived from the US 1964 Wilderness Act and later developed by Landres et al. (2008a) in "Keeping it Wild: An Interagency Strategy to Monitor Trends in Wilderness Character Across the National Wilderness Preservation System." Data inputs are weighted to reflect their importance in relation to other data inputs and the model is used to generate maps of each of the four qualities of wilderness character. The combined map delineates the range of quality of wilderness character in the DEVA wilderness revealing the majority of wilderness character to be optimal quality with the best areas in the northern section of the park. This map will serve as a baseline for monitoring change in wilderness character and for evaluating the spatial impacts of planning alternatives for wilderness and backcountry stewardship plans. The approach developed could be applied to any wilderness area, either in the USA or elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Keeping warming within the 2 deg. C limit after Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The object of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 was to reach an agreement on a new international legal architecture for addressing anthropogenic climate change post-2012. It failed in this endeavour, producing a political agreement in the form of the Copenhagen Accord. The Accord sets an ambitious goal of holding the increase in the global average surface temperature to below 2 deg. C. This paper describes 45 CO 2 -only mitigation scenarios that provide an indication of what would need to be done to stay within the 2 deg. C limit if the international climate negotiations stay on their current path. The results suggest that if developed countries adopt a combined target for 2020 of ≤20% below 1990 levels, global CO 2 emissions would probably have to be reduced by ≥5%/yr, and possibly ≥10%/yr, post-2030 (after a decade transitional period) in order to keep warming to 2 deg. C. If aggressive abatement commitments for 2020 are not forthcoming from all the major emitting countries, the likelihood of warming being kept within the 2 deg. C limit is diminutive.

  4. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  5. Numerical experimental investigation of coalescence phenomenon in triple systems of gaseous protogalactic fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, L.G.; Orlov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    By computer simulations in the framework of the general three-body problem, the evolution of triple systems of gasous photogalactic fragments has been investigated. The fragments have the same masses the initial velocities are equal to zero. The initial positions are chosen by uniform scanning in the region D of all possible initial configurations. The computations are carried on until a moment of the first double approach of fragments. The different fragment radii in this moment are considered. It is shown for these r a merging (coalescence) in the pair of gaseous fragments takes place in the majority of cases (from 50.2% at r=0.001 d to 96.7% at r=0.1 d (where d - an average system size). An average specific momentum of their orbital motion transforming to spin momentum of a ''merger'' is (0.4±0.5)x10 29 √μxl cm 2 /s for the most probable value r=10xl kpc (the fragment masses are equal to 5x10 10 μM Sun ; l and μ are the scale factors), it is in agreement with the specific angular momenta for disc galaxies on l, μ ∼ 1. In the region D for every r a continuous zone of initial configurations corresponding to the mergings is separated

  6. Tomorrow, gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icart, Laura; Jean, Pascale; Georget, Cyrille; Schmill, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This document contains 12 articles notably addressing the importance of natural gas production and supplies in Europe. The themes of the articles are: the advantages of natural gas in the context of energy and environmental policies, energy diversification, energy supply in the local territories, etc.; the position of GrDF, one of the main French natural gas supplier; LPG (butane, propane), a solution which popularity grows in remote areas; the Gaya project (production of renewable gas from dry biomass); a panorama of gas supply routes in Europe; the situation of gas in Europe's energy supply and consumption; the promotion of LNG fuel for maritime and fluvial ships; why the small scale LNG could be the next revolution; presentation of the new 'Honfleur' ferry (using LNG fuel) that will cross the English Channel by 2019; carbon market and the role of ETS for the energy policy in Europe facing the climatic change challenge; presentation of the French 'Climate Plan' that aims to engage France into a carbon neutrality by 2050; presentation of the French policy against air pollution; economic growth, energy, climate: how to square this circle?

  7. Natural gas drive for city buses in Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Veljanovski, Krsto; Dimitrovski, Dame

    2002-01-01

    Emission improvement in both city centers and conurbations is an important factor which developers of public-utility vehicles and buses must take into account. If natural gas is used as a fuel the emission is considerably lower than that from conventional diesel drive. Thus it is an important contribution to keep the air clean in the area where the vehicles are deployed. In this paper the project 'Ecological Natural gas drive for city buses in Skopje' is analysed. (Original)

  8. Natural gas : a critical component of Ontario's electricity future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleckaitis, A.

    2004-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation identified natural gas as part of the electricity solution. It reviewed price implications and policy recommendations. New natural gas supply is not keeping pace with demand. Production is leveling out in traditional basins and industry investment is not adequate. In addition, energy deregulation is creating disconnects. This presentation included a map depicting the abundant natural gas reserves across North America. It was noted that at 2002 levels of domestic production, North America has approximately 80 years of natural gas. The AECO consensus wholesale natural gas price forecast is that natural gas prices in 2010 will be lower than today. The use of natural gas for power generation was outlined with reference to fuel switching, distributed generation, and central generation. It was emphasized that government, regulators and the energy industry must work together to address policy gaps and eliminate barriers to new investment. tabs., figs

  9. Natural gas network resiliency to a "shakeout scenario" earthquake.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James F.; Corbet, Thomas Frank,; Brooks, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    A natural gas network model was used to assess the likely impact of a scenario San Andreas Fault earthquake on the natural gas network. Two disruption scenarios were examined. The more extensive damage scenario assumes the disruption of all three major corridors bringing gas into southern California. If withdrawals from the Aliso Canyon storage facility are limited to keep the amount of stored gas within historical levels, the disruption reduces Los Angeles Basin gas supplies by 50%. If Aliso Canyon withdrawals are only constrained by the physical capacity of the storage system to withdraw gas, the shortfall is reduced to 25%. This result suggests that it is important for stakeholders to put agreements in place facilitating the withdrawal of Aliso Canyon gas in the event of an emergency.

  10. Keeping the doctor in the loop: Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlu, Chithprabha

    2016-12-01

    Ethnographic inquiry into Ayurvedic commodification in Kerala revealed the prevalence of a distinct regional pharmaceutical market dominated by physician-manufacturers, oriented towards supplying classical medicines to Ayurvedic doctors. This stands in sharp contrast to mainstream Ayurveda that is observed to have undergone biomedicalization and pharmaceuticalization. This paper argues that Kerala's classical-medicine-centric pharmaceutical market constitutes an alternative modernity because it provided Kerala Ayurveda with a different route to modernization impervious to the biomedical regime, as well as endowing it with the institutional power to safeguard its regional identity. Although physician-entrepreneurs are its key architects, it is sustained by value regimes shaped by a unique regional medico-cultural milieu. Even when industrially produced, classical medicines remain embedded within Ayurveda's socio-technical network; unlike proprietary drugs sold as individual product-identities through non-Ayurvedic channels, they travel together as a pharmacopeia, distributed through exclusive doctor-mediated agencies. This clinic-centric distribution format is best conceptualized as an open-source business model as it made low-margin generics viable by packaging them with therapies and services. Besides ensuring better access and affordability, it provided resistance to pharmaceuticalization and intellectual property concentration. By keeping the doctor in the loop, it prevented medicines from degenerating into de-contextualized commodities; the service component of Ayurveda therein preserved went on become the unique selling point in the health-tourism market. The tourism-inspired proliferation of Brand Kerala eventually triggered a paradigm shift in mainstream Ayurveda - shifting focus from 'pharmaceuticals' to 'services' and from 'illness' to 'wellness'. Furthermore, interacting with hybrid Ayurvedas in transnational markets, Kerala Ayurveda co-produces new

  11. Trace conditioning in insects-keep the trace!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylla, Kristina V; Galili, Dana S; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination-a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  12. Trace conditioning in insects – Keep the trace!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V Dylla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS and an unconditioned stimulus (US following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination – a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase, which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning.

  13. Keeping nurse researchers safe: workplace health and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennieffer; Welch, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a qualitative study of workplace health and safety issues in nursing research. Researcher health and safety have become increasing concerns as there is an increased amount of research undertaken in the community and yet there is a lack of appropriate guidelines on how to keep researchers safe when undertaking fieldwork. This study employed a descriptive qualitative approach, using different sources of data to find any references to researcher health and safety issues. A simple descriptive approach to inquiry was used for this study. Three approaches to data collection were used: interviews with 15 researchers, audits of 18 ethics applications, and exploration of the literature between 1992 and 2010 for examples of researcher safety issues. Data analysis from the three approaches identified participant comments, narrative descriptions or statements focused on researcher health and safety. Nurse researchers' health and safety may be at risk when conducting research in the community. Particular concern involves conducting sensitive research where researchers are physically at risk of being harmed, or being exposed to the development of somatic symptoms. Nurse researchers may perceive the level of risk of harm as lower than the actual or potential harm present in research. Nurse researchers do not consistently implement risk assessment before and during research. Researcher health and safety should be carefully considered at all stages of the research process. Research focusing on sensitive data and vulnerable populations need to consider risk minimization through strategies such as appropriate researcher preparation, safety during data collection, and debriefing if required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-06-30

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

  15. Gas war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1992-01-01

    The sale of natural gas to California is one of the most complex and contested trade disputes between the USA and Canada. The background and the issues involved are discussed. An oversupply of Canadian gas, combined with USA subsidies for producing coalbed methane and a general oversupply of gas in the USA, have made spot gas prices decline to unexpectedly low levels. California regulators have responded to this situation by trying to secure the lowest possible prices for consumers, thereby causing them to abandon long-standing trade policies with Canada. The main agent of this change is the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), whose actions have reduced the value of Canadian exports and Alberta government revenues by at least $250 million annually. CPUC supported buying from a supply pool (Alberta ampersand Southern Gas) since it provided monopoly purchasing power, and CPUC's policy against pipeline expansion produced the limited access to California that the CPUC now cites as evidence of a producer cartel. CPUC has interfered in contracts with Canadian producers in its pipeline access policies, its capacity brokering decision of 1991, and its reasonableness test for past sales. In its haste to force its own view of market results onto existing contractual relationships, the CPUC is not allowing open negotiations to reshape the relationship, and CPUC actions may be generating countermeasures by Alberta that are inappropriate under deregulation. 3 figs

  16. Gas attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, D.

    1977-08-01

    Consumersfirst Ltd. is reacting to deregulation with a massive advertising campaign. The gas utility is owned by Consumers Gas Energy Inc., and is struggling to hold onto its 35 per cent share of Ontario`s two million residential natural gas buyers. An industry analyst pointed out that deregulation could mean that Consumers` Gas has much to lose: customers, market share, control of the assets and control of the process. The Ontario Energy Board (OEB) however, had specified that Consumersfirst is not to proceed with paperwork to sign up new customers until the OEB issues a draft code-of-conduct that would prevent cross-subsidizing between regulated franchise holders. This has now been done, and several heavyweights such as Calgary-based Suncor Energy Inc., Union Gas of Chatham, Ontario, and the US-based Enron Corp. of Houston, have started campaigns to sign up potential consumers. It is predicted that brand loyalty will be a factor, but in the end, like long distance telephone rates, it will all come down to pricing, and a winning formula is not easy to find.

  17. Grooming customers and keeping customers loyal; Kunden pflegen - Kunden erhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufholz, W [Hamburger Gaswerke GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Over the medium term the German gas economy must be prepared to meet new challenges as they arise. Customer grooming will attain particular importance in this connection. Customer grooming is an instrument for securing the future; it must be oriented to specific target groups and is not solely the task of the actual sales team. The relationship between the gas supply company and its customers is burdened with inherent problems. While the consumer would rather like to feel like a customer, he actually has the impression of dealing with an official authority. The present paper develops some basic thoughts on this matter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die deutsche Gaswirtschaft wird sich mittelfristig immer neuen Herausforderungen des Marktes stellen muessen. Besondere Bedeutung wird dabei zukuenftig die Kundenpflege haben. Kundenpflege ist ein Instrument der Zukunftssicherung, sie muss zielgruppenorientiert sein und ist nicht allein Aufgabe der eigentlichen Vertriebsmannschaft. Dabei ist die Beziehung zwischen dem Gasversorgungsunternehmen und seinen Kunden nicht ohne Widersprueche. Einerseits moechte sich der Verbraucher als Kunde fuehlen und andererseits hat er den Eindruck, mit einer Behoerde zu verhandeln. Zu diesem Themenkreis werden einige grundsaetzliche Ausfuehrungen gemacht. (orig.)

  18. Iran as the natural gas supplier to Europe: a view from Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleknejad, A.

    1996-01-01

    The presentation deals with natural gas reserves in Iran, shaping up the gas industry, the role of Iran as a transit country for gas transport to the east and west, and possibilities of exporting natural gas to Europe. In order to keep the natural gas transportation costs low and achieve sustainable growth in gas industry, technological progress related to design and cost of pipelines and innovative development in pricing, financing and inter-government policies will play a crucial role. The industry growth will require continued environmental support

  19. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  20. Heat transfer education : Keeping it relevant and vibrant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A. M.

    1998-08-14

    The motivation for a fresh look at heat transfer education, both in content and in methodology, is generated by a number of trends in engineering practice. These include the increasing demand for engineers with interdisciplinary skills, rapid integration of technology, emergence of computerized and interactive problem-solving tools, shortening time of concept-to-market, availability of new technologies, and an increasing number of new or redesigned products and processes in which heat transfer plays a part. Examination of heat transfer education in this context can be aided by considering the changes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in the student, educator, and researcher populations, employment opportunities, in the needs of corporations, government, industry, and universities, and in the relevant technical problems and issues of the day. Such an overview provides the necessary background for charting a response to the difficult question of how to maintain excellence and continuity in heat transfer education in the face of rapid, widespread, and complex changes. The present paper addresses how to make heat transfer education more relevant and stimulating. This paper represents a written summary of a 1996 panel discussion at the 1996 International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exhibition (IMECE) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in Atlanta, Georgia, on ''Heat Transfer Education: Keeping it Relevant and Vibrant,'' with significant expansion and amplification by the authors and the panelists in the 1997-98 period. The consensus of the participants is that the steps necessary to ensure the desired outcome in heat transfer education should include: (1) a better understanding of the interaction between the student, course content, and market needs; (2) an appreciation of the need in multidisciplinary industrial environments for engineers trained with a broad background: (3) a revision of the introductory heat

  1. Pretest and Posttest Results of the First KEEP Program Year. Technical Report #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report presents a pre- and posttest evaluation of the first program year of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Each of the 28 children in the KEEP kindergarten class received three tests: the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Standard English Repetition…

  2. Standardized Test Results: KEEP and Control Students. 1975-1976, Technical Report #69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, Ellen; Speidel, Gisela E.

    This report presents the results of various standardized measures administered to Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) students and control students in the school year 1975-1976. In contrast to previous comparisons, KEEP employed more rigorous procedures for the selection of the control students and for the conditions of test administration.…

  3. Description of the KEEP Reading Curriculum, 1975-76. Technical Report No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kathryn H.

    The Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) is a research and development program designed to develop, demonstrate, and disseminate methods for improving the education of Hawaiian and part-Hawaiian children; this report contains a description of the reading curriculum used in the KEEP demonstration school during the 1975-76 school year. The…

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.345 - What records do we need to keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.345 What records do we need to keep? You are responsible for... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What records do we need to keep? 102-34.345 Section 102-34.345 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  5. Longitudinal Associations between Keeping a Secret and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2009-01-01

    Increasing bodies of evidence suggest that keeping secrets may be detrimental to well-being and adjustment, whereas confiding secrets may alleviate the detriments of secrecy and benefit well-being and adjustment. However, few studies have addressed the consequences of keeping and confiding secrets simultaneously, and even fewer have done so…

  6. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control information... Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...

  7. 25 CFR 12.41 - Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities? 12.41 Section 12.41 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.41 Who keeps statistics for Indian country law enforcement activities? The Director...

  8. Effect of irradiation on fresh-keeping of strawberry stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Xie Zongchuan; Lu Zhaoxin

    1999-01-01

    The fresh keeping period of strawberry irradiated with 4.0 kGy dose and stored at room temperature was prolonged to 6 days. Further experiment showed that the irradiation treatment decreased the number of mold in strawberry by two orders of magnitude, inhibited the strawberry fruit respiration and water loss, therefore, improved the effect of strawberry fresh-keeping

  9. 30 CFR 210.40 - Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS keep the information I provide... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS General Provisions § 210.40 Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential? The MMS will treat information obtained under this part as confidential to the...

  10. 78 FR 73237 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...-0088] Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB... entities over which the agency exercises regulatory authority. Recent trends lead the agency to estimate.... Requesters are not required to keep copies of any records or reports [[Page 73238

  11. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This is the 10th annual "Keeping Pace" report. "Keeping Pace" has several goals: (1) add to the body of knowledge about online education policy and practice, and make recommendations for advances; (2) serve as a reference source for information about programs and policies across the country, both for policymakers and…

  12. Cowdung gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A basic guide for the design and construction of a small biogas plant is presented. The gas holder consists of a battery of seven used oil drums bound together with interconnected via plastic piping. Most other components, with the exception of metal valves and joints, are made of wood, stone or cement.

  13. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  14. Manure gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, I

    1948-11-01

    Descriptions are given of several batch digesters: the Algerian, Salubra, Betur, Baudot-Hardoll and Ofla, and Somagaz designs. Sketches of two Ducellier and Isman designs are given with a photograph of an installation consisting of four contiguous, rectangular concrete tanks. There are short explanations of the fundamentals and economics of the process, and of the use of the gas.

  15. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: towards integrating animal welfare, human health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmans, Frank; Bogaerts, Serge; Braeckman, Johan; Cunningham, Andrew A; Hellebuyck, Tom; Griffiths, Richard A; Sparreboom, Max; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Martel, An

    2017-10-28

    The keeping of exotic pets is currently under debate and governments of several countries are increasingly exploring the regulation, or even the banning, of exotic pet keeping. Major concerns are issues of public health and safety, animal welfare and biodiversity conservation. The keeping of reptiles and amphibians in captivity encompasses all the potential issues identified with keeping exotic pets, and many of those relating to traditional domestic pets. Within the context of risks posed by pets in general, the authors argue for the responsible and sustainable keeping of reptile and amphibian pets by private persons, based on scientific evidence and on the authors' own expertise (veterinary medicine, captive husbandry, conservation biology). © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity

  17. Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Shen, Qingqing; Sun, Xuhui

    2017-10-01

    Looking toward world technology trends over the next few decades, self-powered sensing networks are a key field of technological and economic driver for global industries. Since 2006, Zhong Lin Wang's group has proposed a novel concept of nanogenerators (NGs), including piezoelectric nanogenerator and triboelectric nanogenerator, which could convert a mechanical trigger into an electric output. Considering motion ubiquitously exists in the surrounding environment and for any most common materials used every day, NGs could be inherently served as an energy source for our daily increasing requirements or as one of self-powered environmental sensors. In this regard, by coupling the piezoelectric or triboelectric properties with semiconducting gas sensing characterization, a new research field of self-powered gas sensing has been proposed. Recent works have shown promising concept to realize NG-based self-powered gas sensors that are capable of detecting gas environment without the need of external power sources to activate the gas sensors or to actively generate a readout signal. Compared with conventional sensors, these self-powered gas sensors keep the approximate performance. Meanwhile, these sensors drastically reduce power consumption and additionally reduce the required space for integration, which are significantly suitable for the wearable devices. This paper gives a brief summary about the establishment and latest progress in the fundamental principle, updated progress and potential applications of NG-based self-powered gas sensing system. The development trend in this field is envisaged, and the basic configurations are also introduced.

  18. Working under the PJVA gas processing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.

    1996-01-01

    The trend in the natural gas industry is towards custom processing. New gas reserves tend to be smaller and in tighter reservoirs than in the past. This has resulted in plants having processing and transportation capacity available to be leased to third parties. Major plant operators and owners are finding themselves in the business of custom processing in a more focused way. Operators recognize that the dilution of operating costs can result in significant benefits to the plant owners as well as the third party processor. The relationship between the gas processor and the gas producer as they relate to the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA) Gas Processing Agreement were discussed. Details of the standard agreement that clearly defines the responsibilities of the third party producer and the processor were explained. In addition to outlining obligations of the parties, it also provides a framework for fee negotiation. It was concluded that third party processing can lower facility operating costs, extend facility life, and keep Canadian gas more competitive in holding its own in North American gas markets

  19. The changing face of the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, G.

    1997-01-01

    As in all industrialized countries, in order to keep abreast of the increasing demand for energy and environmental protection requirements, the Canadian gas industry must take up the challenge of the next century and ensure a sustainable economic development in which gas will play an important role. What share of the energy mix for the years to come should be allocated to gas? How should demand be met? What changes should take place in order to be able to offer consumers an energy which is plentiful, safe and cost-effective? How should gas companies organize themselves in market which is becoming more and more de-regulated? Such the themes tackled by Mr Gerard Doucet, President of the Canadian Gas Association, during a presentation which took place at the French Gas Association's executive committee meeting. (author)

  20. Nitrogen large area proportional counter with gas regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Sadri, E.

    1984-10-01

    A nitrogen large area proportional chamber with gas regeneration is introduced to measure alpha and beta/gamma activites. In contrast to the flow counters used till now the new detector is independent of an external gas supply. The gas amplification factor of nitrogen keeps constant up to an impurity of 2% of O 2 . Oxygen diffusing through unavoidable leakages into the counting gas is removed by an activated catalyzer using low temperature copper oxidation. Humidty is adsorbed by a molecular sieve. The closed counter consists of three components: the actual detector, a gas purification cartridge and a gas circulating pump. Finally, the report describes long run experiments being carried out with prototypes. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Any time, anywhere : communications system keeps employees connected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, J.

    2007-07-15

    Cisco Systems Canada is a leading computer networking company that has developed a business solution for the oil and gas sector that allows employees to communicate more effectively. Cisco Unified Communications provides a set of applications or services that can ride on top an existing data network. The network allows telephone conferencing through a centrally located internal application, saving companies the cost of using a conferencing service. Cisco Unified Meeting place allows workers at different locations to discuss, review and edit documents in real time. Other applications can be added and made available to everyone. Pengrowth Energy Trust, which implemented the Cisco system a few years ago, claims it is much faster and more convenient than the previous system. Pengrowth has benefited from the its tie-in with e-mail server Microsoft Exchange. Users can listen to voice mails on their computers and also have the option of listening to their e-mails when they call into the office. The system provides a very well tracked record and also allows four-digit dialing throughout most of the company's multiple locations, thereby eliminating costly long distance charges. Pengrowth is now considering implementing other new products from Cisco, such as the Unified Mobility Manager which links cell phones and desk phones. It was concluded that Cisco systems offer the advantages of flexibility, mobility and cost reduction. 1 fig.

  2. Introducing new technology in the gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, S.; Powrie, D.

    1995-01-01

    The approach taken by Consumer's Gas in the introduction of new products was described. The company's role in technology development in the last decade was summarized in the context of other industries' practices. New product experiences and the key factors for success were also revealed. A professionally managed New Product Introduction (NPI) process launched by Consumer Gas in 1994 was outlined. Its objectives were stated as (1) providing strong leadership; (2) a widely held sense of urgency; (3) customer orientation; (4) doing the 'up front homework'; (5) the importance of teamwork; (6) a formal new product process; and (7) a simple management structure. The need for keeping up with technological changes and customer trends, while inspiring others in the gas distribution business to act similarly, was emphasized

  3. Developments on the European energy market. Part 1. Natural gas supply. Extra import covers growing natural gas demand in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This first part of a series on developments in the European gas market features the growth in gas supply. 35% of the gas demand must be covered from sources outside Europe. For the future additional imports are required from countries such as the Russian Federation, Algeria and Nigeria. Over the next few years the artificial link between ga and oil prices will disappear, bringing the gas price to a structurally lower level. It will be of crucial importance that gas suppliers will not be able to form cartels to keep prices high. All competing projects will curb price increases on the European market, but will definitely result in more freedom of choice for European natural gas consumers

  4. N.R.P.B.'s new record-keeping service and thermoluminescent dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Marshall, T.O.; Shaw, K.B.; Kendall, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    With the approval of the Health and Safety Executive the National Radiological Protection Board is introducing a radiation dose record keeping service in association with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. This service will relieve employers of the responsibility for maintaining and keeping dose records. Both the record keeping and dosimeter systems are described, including the documents which will be produced for employers. The thermoluminescent dosimeter is more accurate and less sensitive to environmental factors than the film dosimeter, which it replaces. It also reduces the consumption of materials and, with automated processing, is labour saving. (author)

  5. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners’ attitudes towards keeping horses in groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is vailable about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners’ attitudes...... widespread, such as it is the case for most farm animals, future research could focus on solving some of the reoccurring problems perceived with keeping horses in groups. The dissemination of evidence-based information on all aspects around keeping horses in groups can ultimately stimulate further positive...

  6. Keeping options open. Energy, technology and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger; Langlois, Lucille; McDonald, Alan

    2001-01-01

    The Ninth Session of the the Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD-9) in April 2001 provided an excellent opportunity for a full debate on the role of nuclear power in sustainable development, as part of its over-all discussion of energy, transport and the atmospheric change issues. On nuclear power, there were two important conclusions. First, countries agreed to disagree on the role of nuclear power in sustainable development. CSD-9's final text recognizes that some countries view nuclear power as incompatible with sustainable development while others believe it is an important contributor to sustainable development. For each case, the reasoning is presented in the text. The second conclusion, on which there was consensus agreement, is that 'the choice of nuclear energy rests with countries'. The arguments in favor of an important role for nuclear power role in sustainable development are that it broadens the resource base by putting uranium to productive use; it reduces harmful emissions; it expands electricity supplies and it increases the world's stock of technological and human capital. It is ahead of other energy technologies in internalizing all externalities, from safety to waste disposal to decommissioning - the costs of all of these are already included in the price of nuclear electricity in most countries. The complete nuclear power chain, from resource extraction to waste disposal including reactor and facility construction, emits only two to kilowatt-hour -- about the same as wind and solar power and two orders of magnitude below coal, oil, and even natural gas. In addition, nuclear power avoids the emission of many other air pollutants, such as SO 2 , NO x and particulates

  7. Gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.P.; Risby, T.H.; Field, L.R.; Yu, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to the published literature for the years 1978 - 79, this review of developments in the field of gas chromatography includes earlier articles of particular significance appearing in foreign journals and the patent literature which was not available at the time of the previous review. The articles cited were selected as presenting the most fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation. Some applications are cited if they reflect an advance in the state-of-the-art or have particular relevance to new developments. 1149 references are cited

  8. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  9. Quick response to growth opportunities makes a winner of Piedmont Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    Diversification became a necessity to Piedmont Natural Gas Co. as it increasingly faced curtailments and restrictions on supplies from its single energy source, Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp. Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 marked the beginning of a turnaround in Piedmont's sharply curtailed gas supplies, keeping Piedmont totally involved in both conventional marketing and construction and expansion into diversified operations. Its diversifications include (1) a program of energy-saving conservation services, (2) formation of a propane gas division, and (3) distribution of fuel oil, all of which helped Piedmont become a full-service energy-distribution system.

  10. 40 CFR 63.6012 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2283 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2183 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  13. 40 CFR 63.8695 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or..., measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep the...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7843 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record according to § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep the records offsite...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9643 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  16. 40 CFR 63.8822 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep the records...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7192 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep the records...

  18. 40 CFR 63.5590 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record onsite for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  19. 40 CFR 63.5435 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record onsite for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  20. 40 CFR 63.9550 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep the records...

  1. Social and cognitive factors associated with children's secret-keeping for a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Heidi M; Lyon, Thomas D; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children's secret-keeping for a parent and its relation to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Children (N = 107) between 4 and 12 years of age participated in a procedure wherein parents broke a toy and asked children to promise secrecy. Responses to open-ended and direct questions were examined. Overall, secret-keeping increased with age and promising to keep the secret was related to fewer disclosures in open-ended questioning. Children who kept the secret in direct questioning exhibited greater trust and better parental ratings of EF than children who disclosed the secret. Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Social and cognitive factors associated with children’s secret-keeping for a parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Heidi M.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children’s secret-keeping for a parent and its relationship to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Children (N = 107) between 4 and 12 years of age participated in a procedure wherein parents broke a toy and asked children to promise secrecy. Responses to open-ended and direct questions were examined. Overall, secret-keeping increased with age and promising to keep the secret was related to fewer disclosures in open-ended questioning. Children who kept the secret in direct questioning exhibited greater trust and better parental ratings of EF than children who disclosed the secret. Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development. PMID:25291258

  3. It's about time : investing in transportation to keep Texas economically competitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This current report, It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to Keep Texas : Economically Competitive, updates the February 2009 report by providing : an enhanced analysis of the current state of the Texas transportation system, : determining th...

  4. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: animal welfare and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C; Jessop, M; Arena, P; Pliny, A; Nicholas, E; Lambiris, A

    2017-10-28

    In a review summary on page 450, Pasmans and others discuss the future of keeping reptiles and amphibians as pets. Here, Clifford Warwick and others discuss the animal welfare and public health implications of exotic pet business. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Who will keep the public healthy?: educating public health professionals for the 21st century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebbie, Kristine M; Rosenstock, Linda; Hernandez, Lyla M

    2003-01-01

    ...? Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? provides an overview of the past, present, and future of public health education, assessing its readiness to provide the training and education needed to prepare men and women to face 21st century challenges...

  6. 40 CFR 63.9060 - In what form and how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may be maintained in hard copy or computer-readable format including, but not limited to, on paper, microfilm, hard disk drive, floppy disk, compact disk, magnetic tape, or microfiche. (d) You must keep each...

  7. Implementation of standards at a research institute. Storage and keeping of radioactive materials following DIN 25422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeble, T.; Weinand, U.

    2016-01-01

    The secure storage and keeping of radioactive materials is increasingly important especially in times of a growing threat by terrorists. Authorities and users are jointly recommended to adapt the storage and keeping of radioactive materials to increasing security requirements. Here the different possibilities to fulfil the requirements regarding fire prevention and theft prevention which in Germany are set by DIN 25422 were determined for the radioactive materials and their storage and keeping places present in a research institute. The required measures were than agreed about with the relevant authority. Difficulties which are occurring due to the demanding combination of requirements out of the areas of radiation protection, fire prevention, and theft prevention are discussed. The storage and keeping of radioactive materials especially such of high activity requires a high level of security which must be continuously adapted to rising requirements.

  8. Keep the Worms Out of Your Pet's Heart! The Facts About Heartworm Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... disease so you can keep your pet healthy and heartworm-free. Dogs Cats Ferrets Heartworm Disease – What Is It and ...

  9. Shallow Water Station Keeping of AUVs Using Multi-Sensor Fusion for Wave Disturbance Prediction and Compensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riedel, Jeffrey S; Healey, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    An important capability for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) is station keeping. Station keeping is the ability of a vehicle to maintain position and orientation with regard to a reference object...

  10. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  11. LASL computerized quality assurance record-keeping system for analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlby, J.W.; Phillips, J.R.

    1976-06-01

    Research programs requiring quality assurance surveillance, certification procedures, and associated record keeping have increased markedly at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. A computer-based system, accessible through time-sharing terminals, performs many routine operations, including continued records updating for equipment calibration, personnel certification, quality assurance procedure listings, and controlled-document distribution lists. The system described has operated successfully for more than a year, resulting in a significant savings in man-hours required to keep quality assurance records

  12. Experience of introducing a new database for an approved coordination and record keeping service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garratt, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Health Protection Agency (and its predecessors) has many years experience of running Approved Dosimetry Services, including coordination and record keeping. This paper describes the experiences gained whilst introducing a new web-based system for coordination and record keeping to replace the ageing mainframe database. This includes the planning of the project, the migration of the data between the two systems, parallel running of all the operational tasks and lessons learned during the process. (authors)

  13. Evidence Regarding Teaching and Assessment of Record-Keeping Skills in Training of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Kate J; Bearman, Margaret; Palermo, Claire

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the literature on teaching and assessing dental students' record-keeping skills prior to qualification to practice independently as a dentist. A systematic literature review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Keywords used in the search included dental, record, audit, education, and assessment. Electronic search results were screened for publications that targeted undergraduate dental training, related to a record-keeping education intervention, and were published in English and available in full text. Six studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed, and research findings were compared across the included studies. These six articles addressed the techniques used to teach and assess record-keeping skills in a pre-qualification context. The techniques included supervisor audits, peer audits, lectures, tutorials, research assignments, case reports, record-keeping templates, and checklists of required record components. The use of record audit as part of teaching and evaluation dominated these articles; it was used as the assessment method in five of the six studies. All methods of record-keeping training in studies published to date were found effective in improving student record-keeping skills. However, there was insufficient evidence to determine whether certain methods were more effective than others.

  14. Spark ignition natural gas engines-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Haeng Muk; He, Bang-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the operating envelope, fuel economy, emissions, cycle-to-cycle variations in indicated mean effective pressure and strategies to achieve stable combustion of lean burn natural gas engines are highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines are briefly reviewed. To keep the output power and torque of natural gas engines comparable to those of their gasoline or Diesel counterparts, high boost pressure should be used. High activity catalyst for methane oxidation and lean deNOx system or three way catalyst with precise air-fuel ratio control strategies should be developed to meet future stringent emission standards

  15. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharmoko, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field

  16. Medium-term perspectives of the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990's, natural gas was the energy source with the fastest rate of growth in the world energy balance. Nevertheless, recent evolutions of the energy context, in particular in terms of prices, have had a rather strong impact on the progress of the different energy sources penalizing gas a little. Beyond this competition between energies, which may increase, the medium-term perspectives of natural gas development is in keeping with an environment full of uncertainties. This article presents: the world supply and demand prospects for 2010-2015 (impact of high gas prices on other energy sources, occurrence of production constraints, political decisions of producing countries and world gas industry balance), trends on main markets (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania), and international trade. (J.S.)

  17. PERSPECTIVE: Keeping a closer eye on fossil fuel CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.

    2009-12-01

    all have a major influence on progress to an international agreement. It is important that the political challenges are not underestimated. Long-term observers of the negotiations necessary for global agreements (Inman 2009) are pessimistic about the chances for success at COP15, and argue that agreements between smaller groups of countries may be more effective. China and other developing countries clearly expect greater emission cuts by developed nations as a condition for a successful deal (Pan 2009). Conversely, the constraints on US climate policies are considerable, notably those imposed by fears that an international agreement that does not include equitable emission control measures for developing countries like China and India, will compromise the agreement and reduce its effectiveness (Skodvin and Andresen 2009). In this context the need for earlier, and more reliable, information on emissions is a high priority. Myhre and coworkers (Myhre et al 2009) provide an efficient method for calculating global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion by combining industry statistics with data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; http://cdiac.ornl.gov/). Recent analyses of carbon dioxide emission data show a worrying acceleration in emissions, beyond even the most extreme IPCC projections, but are based largely on the CDIAC which gives information about emissions released two to three years before real time (Canadell et al 2007, Raupach et al 2007). The approach used by Myhre et al (2009) uses BP annual statistics of fossil fuel consumption and has a much shorter lag, of the order of six months. Of significant concern is that their analysis of the data also reveals that the recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 is largely driven by an increase in emissions from coal, most significantly in China. By contrast, emissions from oil and gas continue to follow longer-term historical trends. Earlier and accurate data on CO2 emissions is

  18. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  19. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  20. Iranian gas will be an issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with director of the Nabucco project, Reinhard Mitchek is published. There is extract from this interview: Iranian gas is a politically sensitive topic Europe cannot avoid I believe that it will become a topic in Europe in the medium to long term. Shouldn't Europe declare that it needs Iranian gas? Otherwise Russia or China may take over. I do not want to advise the European Commission via the media. Iranian gas would bring the Nabucco project closer to reality. A common European Union (EU) foreign policy and common foreign energy policy in particular will be of major importance. We of course need competition in the EU gas sector. But that is a business topic. The political issue is the competitiveness of Europe as an entity competing for energy sources with other regions. The European Union keeps repeating that the Nabucco project has high priority. But what steps has it undertaken to support it? The Commissioner for Energy, Andris Piebalgs, and the Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, visited Central Asia and supported the export of gas to Europe. That is exactly what Russia does and with more success. We will see. Naturally - these countries have a history of relationships with Russia. Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have been exporting gas to Russia. But in the meantime these countries also want to extend their export portfolio. We think that through the Trans-Caspian pipeline and the existing gas pipeline connecting Azerbaijan with Turkey, gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan will also get to Nabucco. (authors)

  1. The Spanish gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The spanish gas industry has become one of the major actors in the gas sector of the European Economic Community. This paper pictures the spanish gas industry on the basis of a study by Sedigas, the spanish member of the International Gas Union (IGU). The main subjects described are structure of gas companies, natural gas supply, transport and storage, natural gas distribution networks, statistical data on natural gas consumption, manufactured gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) production-consumption in Spain. 7 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Effect of milk temperature during irradiation on total bacterial count and keeping quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbour, M.M.; Dawod, A.H.; Newigy, N.A.; Wahab, G.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cows' and buffaloes' milk samples were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100, 200 and 300 Kr) at 10 and 30°C. Irradiation of milk at 10°C caused more reduction in total bacterial count than that occurred at 30°C. The rate of microbial destruction due to irradiation at 10°C was higher than that occurred at 30°C. The keeping quality was determined daily for 15 days by clot-on-boiling test for samples kept at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The keeping quality recorded for cows' and buffaloes' milk samples in the refrigerator was 4 days, while it was only 1 day at room temperature. Irradiation of milk at 10°C was more effective than irradiation at 30°C, to increase the keeping quality of irradiated milk kept at refrigeration. Irradiation of milk samples at 10°C by 200 Kr increased the keeping quality for two weeks in the refrigerator, i.e. such a treatment increased the keeping quality by 4 folds

  3. Natural gas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thierry; Todoc, Jessie L.

    1999-11-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Country background; Overview of the energy sector; Natural gas supply; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas infrastructure; Natural gas demand; Outlook-government policy reform and industry development, and Appendices on Global and regional energy and gas trends; Overview of India's investment policy, incentives and regulation; The ENRON Dabhol power project. (Author)

  4. Natural gas trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the natural gas industry. Topics include: Canadian, Mexican; US natural gas reserves and production; Mexican and US natural gas consumption; market conditions for natural gas in the US; and Canadian natural gas exports

  5. Natural gas reserve growth in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronuk, R. [Canadian Gas Potential Committee, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[GasEnergy Strategies Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An appreciation study of a natural gas reservoir is a component of assessing its ultimate reserve potential. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) defines appreciation as the change in a reserve estimate from a previously booked pool or basin. Basins cannot appreciate through the addition of new pools. Ultimate potential includes all of the following: cumulative production; remaining discovered reserves; adjustments to remaining discovered reserves; and, full appreciated undiscovered reserves. This presentation outlined the procedures used by the CGPC in its appreciation studies. It also reviewed data supplier issues, regulatory practices, and booking issues. A series of graphs were also included depicting pools discovered in 1993 and the average pool gas in place. Reservoir loss from 1993 to 1998 was attributed to the fact that enhanced recovery technology cannot keep pace with the degradation in pool quality. It was noted that beyond 1998, significant increases in gas prices should increase recovery factors. Special studies by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board have included the depreciation of unconnected gas pools and the appreciation of sheet sands. The challenge of tracking pool appreciation was discussed with reference to estimating new pool discoveries in established fields. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-11-01

    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  7. Writedowns, soft gas markets trim profits of OGJ independents' group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.; Biggs, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    A widely expected rise in 1990 profits stemming from a runup in oil prices did not happen for the group of 50 U.S. independent oil and gas companies the Oil and Gas Journal tracks. Instead, a string of special charges spurred big losses for a number of companies. In addition, an unexpectedly weak natural gas market also helped dampen upstream earnings for independents with reserves portfolios dominated by gas. As a result, overall profits for the OGJ group of independents slipped 2.3% in 1990 from 1989 levels. That occurred despite the group's increase of 13% in revenues, largely on the strength of oil production and prices climbing 16% and 25%, respectively. The group's gas production rose 8%, while gas prices remained flat. A few companies heavily skewed to oil saw profits about double year to year. However, the squeeze on revenues and profits from lower gas prices often more than offset increased gas production for many of the companies dependent on gas sales for most of their revenues. The situation was even worse for companies that shut in gas rather than sell it at less than replacement costs, thereby slicing, gas sales volumes as well. The depressed North American gas market has lasted into 1991, and oil prices have fallen from second half 1990 highs. Industry expectations are that oil prices overall will be lower in 1991 than they were last year, so it falls generally to increased gas prices and production in the second half to buoy profits enough to keep pace with 1990 levels. Prospects in 1991 are for big asset writedowns and plunging profits for U.S. independents if oil prices fall much below current levels and gas prices don't rally in the second half

  8. Exploring the economic consequences of paying a supplier to keep a reserve inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    basis, most often only once per month. In addition lead-times are long, as the suppliers are situated overseas.  Therefore the company must keep all the inventories at considerable costs. The company wishes to make contracts with its suppliers such that they keep some reserve inventory that can...... be accessed (at a higher unit price than the normal one) but also with a shorter lead-time. Furthermore the company must also pay a cost proportional to inventory level for maintaining this reserve inventory. This problem can be considered as an inventory control model with two suppliers. We propose a dynamic......This work inspired by a contact with a larger telecommunication company. Many of the products offered are unique for this company and they also have very short lifetimes, normally about 18 months. Furthermore the suppliers do not wish to keep any inventories and they only accept orders on periodic...

  9. Pet-keeping in early childhood and airway, nose and skin symptoms later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, C.; Sundell, Jan; Hagerhed, L.

    2003-01-01

    got rid of pets because of allergy in the family, and 27.3% reported 'avoidance' behaviour towards pets. In a cross-sectional analysis current pet-keeping was 'protective', but this may be due to the fact that people avoid exposing their child to something that they believe is a risk factor......Background: It is discussed whether exposure to pets during childhood is a risk or a protective factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pet-keeping at time of birth and allergic symptoms in airways, nose and skin among young...... children in Sweden. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the parents of 14 077 children (1-6 years), the focus being on allergic symptoms, home environment and other background factors including pet-keeping and avoidance behaviour. The response rate was 79%. Results: Almost one-tenth of the population had...

  10. How Does My Cellphone GPS Work?-The Physics of Precision Time-Keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Steven

    The most precise measurements in all of science are frequency and frequency difference measurements, or alternatively, phase and phase change of electromagnetic waves. Improvements in time-keeping have opened up many horizons in fundamental and applied physics that range from the detection of gravity waves to the melting of glaciers and the depletion of underground aquifers. Precision time keeping has also had important practical applications such as in the navigation, beginning with the determination of the longitude position of sailing ships. We now use our cell phones to help us navigate city streets and hail taxis from Uber and Lyft based on our geographical position within a few meters. How did this come about? What will the new time-keeping technologies enable in the future?

  11. Gas Between the Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    man numeral 'I' signifying that hydrogen is not ionized. And he named the ... The success of this process depends on the electron speed– the smaller it is, the ... their business, keeping a pressure equilibrium among themselves. Since pressure ...

  12. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  13. EFFECT OF GENOTYPE, SEX AND KEEPING TECHNOLOGY ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF BREAST AND THIGH MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZ. KONRÁD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades because of the alternative poultry meat production technologies (free range and organic farming, which are gaining ground in some of the European countries, only special slow growing breeds and hybrids can be used. The end products created by crossing the indigenous Yellow Hungarian hen with different meat type cocks were suitable for alternative keeping technology. The valuable meat parts of the pure bred Yellow Hungarian kept in free range for 84 days and the end product created with crossing (first group as well as the valuable meat parts of Ross 308 broilers fattened for 42 days in intensive keeping technology (second group were thoroughly examined in order to establish whether the genotype, sex and/or keeping technology has any kind of influence on different chemical parameters of the meat. There were no essential differences between the dry matter content of breast meat of the two different keeping technology groups (25.34 and 26.25%. However, dry matter content of thigh was 5.28 to 7.48 percentage points higher in the second group. Protein contents of breast and thigh meat were not affected by the keeping technology. Fat content of thigh meat was two and a half times higher than in the first group (6.03 and 13.73%. Thus, this study have revealed that only the ash content of breast meat affected from the keeping technology, as this parameter was higher in the first group than the second group (0.84 to 1.05 % vs 0.53 %.

  14. Individual, household and community level factors associated with keeping tuberculosis status secret in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Amo-Adjei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In tuberculosis (TB control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families’ a secret. Methods The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive statistics of proportions with Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to identify individual, household and community level factors that predicted the outcome variable (keeping TB secret. Results Women were more inclined (33% than men (25% to keep TB in the family a secret. Views about keeping TB secret declined with age for both sexes. For women, higher education had a positive association with whether TB in the family would be kept a secret or not but the same was not observed for men. In a multivariable regression model, the strongest predictor of keeping TB secret was whether the respondent would keep HIV secret, and this was uniform among women (OR = 6.992, p < 0.001 and men (OR = 9.870, p < 0.001. Conclusion Unwillingness towards disclosing TB status in Ghana is associated with varied socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, which may be driven by fears of stigma and discrimination. Addressing TB-related stigma and discrimination can enhance positive attitudes towards TB disclosure. For an infectious disease such as TB, openness towards status disclosure is important for public health.

  15. Coalbed gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties

  16. 75 FR 42432 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...

  17. Overview of the U.S. gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas supply and demand is first reviewed in a discussion of the current state of the gas industry in the USA. The deliverability surplus is declining due to factors including a decline in drilling and workover rig activity and a continuing growth in demand at least partly caused by new markets for gas such as gas-fired power generation. The environmental movement, influencing laws favoring clean-burning fuels such as gas, is an additional influence on future demand. A key factor in the gas industry's ability to keep demand growing is how safely and successfully it can implement many aspects of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 636 regarding pipeline restructuring. It is expected that this restructuring will see changes in gas transport and marketing, including an increasing role for supply aggregators and capacity brokers and an abandonment of the merchant function by some pipeline companies. A significant change in the last year or so is that US producers are willing and able to enter into long term supply contracts. Finally, gas production from the Gulf of Mexico basin is expected to continue to produce 2-2.5 trillion ft 3 /y for years to come, despite being a mature area for gas production

  18. The influence of irradiation and packaging on the keeping quality of prepacked cut endive, chicory and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerak, D.Is.

    1975-01-01

    The experiments with endive and chicory showed that by washing immediatedly after cutting, pink-discolouration decreased. During storage, however, this discolouration increased again. Discolouration was partially prevented by packaging in nonperforated polythene foil of 0.02 mm thereby decreasing the O 2 and increasing the CO 2 content in the bags. A difficulty in using non-perforated bags was that in non-irradiated products, fermentation took place caused by a high microbial count /10 8 g -1 /. In irradiated samples no fermentation occurred probably due to the decreased microbial count. Cut onions had to be packed in perforated polythene bags because strong gas /CO 2 / development took place in non-perforated bags at temperatures above 10 0 C. The initial total viable count of endive, chicory and onions varied from 10 3 to 10 7 g -1 . Irradiation with doses above 50 krad gave a reduction of this count of 3-6 log cycles through which the keeping time was lengthened by about 100% at 10-20 0 C. The Enterobacteriaceae were mainly eliminated by irradiation doses higher than 100 krad. The optimal dose for chicory, onions and endive was found to be 50, 75, and 100 krad, respectively. Higher doses intensified discolouration and influenced unfavourably the flavour. Cooking experiments with cut onions packed in perforated bags showed that the non-irradiated product discoloured quickly into brown after cooking. By irradiation with 75-100 krad this discolouration was prevented. (F.J.)

  19. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  20. Keeping Tradition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenhong, C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese dumplings such as Jiao Zi and Bao Zi are two of the popular traditional foods in Asia. They are usually made from wheat flour dough (rice flour or starch is sometimes used) that contains fillings. They can be steamed, boiled and fried and are consumed either as a main meal or dessert. As

  1. Keeping Updated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reading, David; Botjes, Erna; Nørhede, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of food allergy is constantly developing. The food industry makes decisions based on what is currently known, but there is a need to remain at the forefront of understanding so that actions taken by the industry are not outdated and are of maximum benefit to food allergic consumers....... The best way to stay up to date is via the Internet. There are numerous websites that fulfill this function, including those run by regulatory bodies, scientific organizations, and groups whose specific objective is to provide industry with helpful information to assist with the assessment and management...

  2. 49 CFR 192.947 - What records must an operator keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 192.947 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline...

  3. 49 CFR 192.1011 - What records must an operator keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 192.1011 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Distribution Pipeline...

  4. Prospects of and challenges to natural gas industry development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chengzao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented breakthrough has been made over the past decades in natural gas industry, which helps improve energy mix and promote the low-carbon economy in China. With such abundant hydrocarbon resources, China owns two intensive oil and gas producing blocks in the Ordos Basin and Xinjiang province and two other concentrated gas producing blocks in Sichuan and Western South Sea. In addition, arterial gas lines have been connected as a gas grid all over China and natural gas market has become more and more mature and expanded. Thus, a natural gas industry system has come into being. However, with natural gas unevenly scattering all across China, the remnant resources mainly are distributed in the stratigraphic strata, deep strata in superimposed basins or in mature exploration zones, foreland basin thrust belts, marine gas fields, and so on. In reality, the future gas exploration should focus on such domains as the weathered crust karst reservoirs or carbonate and stratigraphic traps, deep clastic gas layers, and unconventional oil and gas plays. Achievements have been made in marine shale gas exploration, CBM gas steady development, and other unconventional natural gas resources. From the perspective of exploration potential, more giant oil and gas fields will be possibly discovered in deep strata or deep sea water, and stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs and tight oil and gas reservoirs will also be the exploration focus. With the increase of exploration depth and degree, the overall oil and gas exploration cost will be significantly rising in general. New discoveries or reserves increase in natural gas exploration will highly depend upon research theory and technology progress, and such development technologies as 3D seismic survey, horizontal drilling and fracturing treatment will be more highlighted. Through enhancing the cost in natural gas exploration and development and strengthening the research of core technologies, natural gas

  5. KEEP Reading Research and Instruction: Results of the 1973-74 Program. Technical Report No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kathryn H.; Speidel, Gisela E.

    This report summarizes research related to the use of a conventional basal reading program with students in the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Results of instruction were measured by the number of objectives gained each quarter, the total number of objectives gained, the number of lessons taken for each objective, and scores on the…

  6. A Comparison of the Industriousness Levels of KEEP and Public School Students. Technical Report #55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, Ellen; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report compares the on-task behavior (industriousness) of K-3 students in the demonstration school of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) with that of children from classes in four public schools. Industriousness was measured by tallying the occurrence of such behaviors as working on an appropriate task, attending to the teacher, or…

  7. Standardized Test Results, 1972-75: KEEP and Selected Comparison Groups. Technical Report #36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, Ellen

    To verify the assumption that research activities do not interfere with the normal instruction given to students in the demonstration school of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP), each class's educational and intellectual achievement was assessed, and comparisons were made with other classes in Hawaii. This report compares the results…

  8. Pre- and Post-Test Results of KEEP Class 2: 1973-74. Technical Report #40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Candy

    This report presents the pre-and posttest results for the kindergarten year of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Class 2, 1973-1974. Results are presented for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Standard English Repetition Test (SERT). Comparisons are made…

  9. Selection of Children for the KEEP Demonstration School: Criteria, Procedures, and Results. Technical Report #13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Violet; And Others

    This brief report describes the selection of the pupil population of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Demonstration School. The pupil population must be representative of the Kalihi community (an urban area of Honolulu) from which it is drawn. An attempt was made to include 75% Hawaiian and 25 % Non-Hawaiian children, to select equal…

  10. For the Horticulture Teacher--A Personal In-Service Program Can Keep You Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Christine D.

    1980-01-01

    To keep current with industry changes, the vocational horticulture instructor can join horticulture industry associations, utilize horticulture outlets for field trips, use horticulture experts as resource persons, work in the industry, participate in university-sponsored inservice programs, attend industry association workshops and seminars, and…

  11. 26 CFR 20.6001-1 - Persons required to keep records and render statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... executor to keep such complete and detailed records of the affairs of the estate for which he acts as will... executor so as to be available for inspection whenever required. (b) In addition to filing an estate tax return (see § 20.6018-1) and, if applicable, a preliminary notice (see § 20.6036-1), the executor shall...

  12. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and

  13. Keeping up with Big Data--Designing an Introductory Data Analytics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Universities need to keep up with the demand of the business world when it comes to Big Data. The exponential increase in data has put additional demands on academia to meet the big gap in education. Business demand for Big Data has surpassed 1.9 million positions in 2015. Big Data, Business Intelligence, Data Analytics, and Data Mining are the…

  14. Keep Kids Current on Vaccines (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Twenty years ago, the Vaccines for Children program was created in response to a major measles epidemic. This program provides vaccinations for children whose parents cannot afford them. In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger discusses the importance of keeping children up-to-date on their vaccinations.

  15. Revisiting the Least Force Required to Keep a Block from Sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Subhranil

    2013-01-01

    This article pertains to a problem on static friction that concerns a block of mass "M" resting on a rough inclined plane. The coefficient of static friction is microsecond and the inclination angle theta is greater than tan[superscript -1] microsecond. This means that some force "F" must be applied (see Fig. 1) to keep the…

  16. 30 CFR 206.61 - What records must I keep and produce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 206.61 What records must I keep and produce? (a) On request, you must make available sales, volume, and transportation data for production you sold, purchased, or..., Indian representatives, or other authorized persons may review and audit such data you possess, and MMS...

  17. Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away: Seven Keys to a Safer Healthier Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cdc.gov/getsmart 6 Be Careful With Pets Pets provide many benefits to people, including comfort and companionship. However, some animals can also pass diseases to humans. Keep these tips in mind to make sure your pet relationship is a happy and healthy one. • Pets ...

  18. Keep Your Brain Fit! A Psychoeducational Training Program for Healthy Cognitive Aging: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Jennifer; van Heugten, Caroline; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A psychoeducational face-to-face training program (Keep Your Brain Fit!) was developed to support the working population in coping with age-related cognitive changes and taking proactive preventive measures to maintain cognitive health. A feasibility study was conducted to test the training program presented in a workshop format. Participants…

  19. Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice. Eleventh Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Pape, Larry; Murin, Amy; Gemin, Butch; Vashaw, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    "Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning" (2014) is the 11th in a series of annual reports that began in 2004 that examine the status of K-12 online education across the country. The report provides an overview of the latest policies, practices, and trends affecting online learning programs across all 50 states. It summarizes that at a…

  20. Managing "keep" factors of office tenants to raise satisfaction and loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to add to behavioural property literature and improve the landlord-tenant relationship, through exploring the effect of office (location and building) "keep", push and pull factors on satisfaction and loyalty of tenants. Design/methodology/approach – Structured

  1. 50 CFR 84.12 - What are the information collection, record keeping, and reporting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), and financial reporting (43 CFR 12.81). The project report should include information about the acres... the information collection, record keeping, and reporting requirements? (a) Information collection... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the information collection...

  2. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  3. 36 CFR 1202.66 - How does NARA keep account of disclosures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(a) and (b)), NARA keeps an accurate accounting of each disclosure and retains it for 5 years after the disclosure or for the life of the record, whichever is longer. The accounting includes the: (1... or agency to which the disclosure is made. (b) The system manager also maintains with the accounting...

  4. 21 CFR 111.535 - Under this subpart N, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart N, what records must you make and keep? 111.535 Section 111.535 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  5. 21 CFR 111.570 - Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart O, what records must you make and keep? 111.570 Section 111.570 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  6. 21 CFR 111.23 - Under this subpart C, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart C, what records must you make and keep? 111.23 Section 111.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  7. 21 CFR 111.325 - Under this subpart J, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart J, what records must you make and keep? 111.325 Section 111.325 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  8. 21 CFR 111.375 - Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart K, what records must you make and keep? 111.375 Section 111.375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  9. 21 CFR 111.475 - Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart M, what records must you make and keep? 111.475 Section 111.475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  10. 21 CFR 111.14 - Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart B, what records must you make and keep? 111.14 Section 111.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  11. 21 CFR 111.430 - Under this subpart L, what records must you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under this subpart L, what records must you make and keep? 111.430 Section 111.430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  12. 21 CFR 111.605 - What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to the records that you make and keep? 111.605 Section 111.605 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  13. Frankenstein's Validity Monster: The Value of Keeping Politics and Science Separated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, Denny; Wijsen, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between facts and moral values is highly desirable: science and politics should keep to their own territories. Traditionally speaking, science can be seen as an ivory tower, which attempts to do its job in isolation of external influences. Politics does not mandate methods of scientific research or standards of justification;…

  14. Keeping a common bawdy house becomes a "serious offence" under Criminal Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New federal regulations targeting organized crime will make keeping a common bawdy house a "serious offence" under the Criminal Code. Sex work advocates reacted by calling the measure a serious step back that will undermine the protection of sex workers' human rights, safety, dignity and health.

  15. You're Never Too Old: Keep Active as You Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people age 85 and older. Experts recommend four types of exercise for older adults: endurance, balance, strength, and ... started and keep moving, NIH brought together some of the nation’s leading experts on aging, exercise, and motivation. They developed a guide to exercise for older ...

  16. Keeping up with a warming world; assessing the rate of adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The pivotal question in the debate on the ecological effects of climate change is whether species will be able to adapt fast enough to keep up with their changing environment. If we establish the maximal rate of adaptation, this will set an upper limit to the rate at which temperatures can increase

  17. Keep IT Real : On Tools, Emotion, Cognition and Intentionality in Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, R. E.; Kruiper, R.; Marjanović, D.; M., Štorga; Pavković, N.; Bojčetić, N.; Škec, S.

    2016-01-01

    Keep IT real, create, build, and develop design tools that support designers during the early phases of design processing. This paper investigates how, and whether, current technology can afford real-time interaction and affective computing in a HDT(E) design tool that integrates and blends

  18. Microbiological quality of air in free-range and box-stall stable horse keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna

    2018-04-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of air in three horse riding centers differing in the horse keeping systems. The air samples were collected in one facility with free-range horse keeping system and two with box stalls of different sizes. The samples were collected over a period of 3 years (2015-2017), four times per year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) to assess the effect of seasonal changes. The prevalence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mold fungi, actinomycetes, Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli was determined by the air collision method on Petri dishes with appropriate microbiological media. At the same time, air temperature, relative humidity, and particulate matter concentration (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ) were measured. It was found that the horse keeping system affects the occurrence of the examined airborne microorganisms. Over the 3-year period of study, higher temperature and humidity, as well as particulate matter concentration-which notoriously exceeded limit values-were observed in the facilities with the box-stall system. The air sampled from the largest horse riding center, with the largest number of horses and the box-stall system of horse keeping, was also characterized by the heaviest microbiological contamination. Among others, bacteria from the following genera: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., and E. coli and fungi from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Trichothecium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria were identified in the analyzed samples.

  19. [Examples of the keeping of drugs during the XVIth, XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries: silenes and drawers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, B

    1998-01-01

    Silenes are wooden boxes with colourful paintings for the keeping of drugs and can be found nowadays in three collections in France: Hotel-Dieu in Troyes (Aube), a pharmacy in Bauge (Maine-et-Loire) and St-Roch museum in Issoudun (Indre). Drawers can be related to silenes but they are more ordinary and less attractive.

  20. 17 CFR 1.31 - Books and records; keeping and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exclusively in a non-rewritable, non-erasable format; (B) Verifies automatically the quality and accuracy of... immediately provide at the expense of the person required to keep such records, any easily readable hard-copy... or the Department of Justice may request. Records must use a format and coding structure specified in...

  1. Keep It Simple: A Lesson in Linking Teens to Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Alexandra; Avellino, Lia; Chilcoat, Deborah; Schlanger, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The "Keep It Simple" package, which includes a short animated film (available online for streaming or download), a lesson plan, and supporting materials, was designed to be used with adolescents ages 15-19 to empower them to seek sexual and reproductive health care, and emphasize the availability of long-acting reversible contraception…

  2. Time Keeping and Working Memory Development in Early Adolescence: A 4-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Helen; Mantyla, Timo; Carelli, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined time keeping in relation to working memory (WM) development. School-aged children completed two tasks of WM updating and a time monitoring task in which they indicated the passing of time every 5 min while watching a film. Children completed these tasks first when they were 8 to 12 years old and then 4 years…

  3. STUDIES IN WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION AND RADIATION INJURY. VOLUME III, A REPORT ON IONIZING RADIATION RECORD KEEPING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    THE SUCCESSFUL OPERATION OF THE PERMISSIBLE LEVEL CONCEPT OF RADIATION CONTROL NECESSARILY ENTAILS A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM UNDER WHICH EXPOSURE MUST BE RECORDED AND EMPLOYEES NOTIFIED OF THEIR EXPOSURE HISTORY. IN AN INVESTIGATION OF RECORD KEEPING NECESSARY TO PROCESS RADIATION CLAIMS, QUESTIONNAIRES OR LETTERS WERE RECEIVED FROM 45 STATE AGENCIES…

  4. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the…

  5. Academic Value of Non-Academics: The Case for Keeping Extracurriculars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2012-01-01

    With school districts struggling to keep their noses above choppy budget waters and voters howling about taxes, should schools be funding Ping-Pong and trading-card clubs? Swim teams, moot court, powder puff football? Latino unions, gay-straight alliances, the Future Business Leaders of America, the French Honors Society, the jazz band, the…

  6. Adolescent Physical Activity and Motivational Profiles While Keeping a Physical Activity Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Matthew O.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Eggett, Dennis; Pennington, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between adolescents (N = 124) from physical education classes keeping a daily online leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) record and feelings of competence toward LTPA, motivational profiles toward LTPA, and LTPA behaviors. Method: A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to examine the relationships…

  7. Keep Your Voice Sound: How to Prevent and Avoid Voice Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Listen Up! Wise Choices Avoid Voice Problems Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day. This helps keep your vocal folds moist and healthy. Limit intake of caffeinated or alcoholic drinks. These can dehydrate your body and make the ...

  8. The challenge to keep nuclear fusion alive as a future energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'haeseleer, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Few people are preoccupied with the energy issue. Indeed, inflation-corrected energy prices (in euros) are currently lower than before the first oil crisis of 1973; the annual growth rate of primary-energy use in the industrialized world has diminished considerably compared to before 1970, and oil and gas production is characterized by increased exploration activity and a wider geographical spread. Nevertheless, there is a real energy issue. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be real, then mankind should at least slow down the consumption of fossil fuels. Given the fact that world energy consumption (especially by the developing countries) will rise in the future, and that nuclear fission power has become unpopular in the western world, the idea reigning in some circles to cope with this situation by total reliance on energy savings and renewable energy sources comes close to wishful thinking. A realistic analysis makes it clear that there will be a need for large workhorses for electricity generation to keep the overall electricity grid sufficiently robust. From a global and long-term perspective, the logical conclusion is the following: because mankind cannot count on the continued use of fossil fuels (due to the finiteness of the resources combined with the possible climate change effects), our generation has the responsibility to develop alternative energy sources for the distant future. Many parallel lines of research and development therefore need be pursued; because of the uncertainties with other alternative sources, it would be irresponsible to kill some of these development lines. This holds for renewable sources, the nuclear fission breeder, and for nuclear fusion. A major hurdle for the survival of long term energy research and development is the liberalization of the electricity market. Because of the revolutionary changes taking place, utilities concentrate on cost cutting and short-term survival. In addition, they are no longer supposed to take

  9. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  10. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  11. Scram device for gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Atsushi; Takahashi, Suehiro.

    1989-01-01

    A scram device for gas-cooled reactors has a hopper disposed below a stand pipe standing upright passing through a reactor container and electromagnets disposed therein. It further comprises neutron absorbing steel balls maintained between the electromagnets and the hopper upon energization of the electromagnets. Upon emergency reactor shutdown, energization for the electromagnets is interrupted to drop the neutron absorption stainless steel balls into the reactor core. It is an object of the present invention to keep the mechanical strength of the electromagnets in a high temperature gas atmosphere and not to reduce the insulation performance. That is, coils for the electromagnets are constituted with a small oxide-insulated metal sheath cable (MI cable). As the feature of the MI cable, it can maintain the mechanical strength even when exposed to high temperature gas coolant and the insulation performance thereof does not reduce by virture of its gas sealing property. Accordingly, a scram device of stable reliability can be obtained. (K.M.)

  12. The natural gas industry in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheloufi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article makes a synthesis of the evolution of the natural gas sector in Portugal since the end of the 1990's. The aim of the energy policy of Portugal was the creation of a liberalized energy market capable to ensure the security of the energy supplies and to encourage the energy efficiency in order to reduce the environmental impact. The success of the introduction of natural gas in Portugal perfectly fulfills these goals. Since 1997, the natural gas consumption has increased significantly. The start-up of the methane terminal of Sines allows the diversification of the supply sources and contributes to the growth of the offer. The opening of the market is under development. It will allow the main consumers to select their supplier among those present on the Portuguese market. GALP company should keep its leader position and its daughter company 'Gas du Portugal' should reach 300 MW of power generation capacities by 2005 with the development of multi-energy services. The creation of an Iberian energy market between Spain and Portugal should speed up in 2004 leading to deep modifications in the energy sector of southern Europe. (J.S.)

  13. New method of leak detecting in diagnostic of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, K.; Dabrowski, A.; Sobkiewicz, D.; Oracz, H.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes new directions in gas transmission pipelines diagnostics as well as new methods and equipment used to detect leaks. It was also shown that efficient and functional diagnostics system is the necessary condition to keep the exploitation of transmission systems safe. (author)

  14. Prenatal dog-keeping practices vary by race: speculations on implications for disparities in childhood health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Jerel M; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Joseph, Christine L M; Wegienka, Ganesa; Jones, Kyra; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2014-01-01

    There is consistent evidence demonstrating that pet-keeping, particularly of dogs, is beneficial to human health. We explored relationships between maternal race and prenatal dog-keeping, accounting for measures of socioeconomic status that could affect the choice of owning a pet, in a demographically diverse, unselected birth cohort. Self-reported data on mothers' race, socioeconomic characteristics and dog-keeping practices were obtained during prenatal interviews and analyzed cross-sectionally. Robust methods of covariate balancing via propensity score analysis were utilized to examine if race (Black vs White), independent of other participant traits, influenced prenatal dog-keeping. A birth cohort study conducted in a health care system in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan between September 2003 and November 2007. 1065 pregnant women (n=775 or 72.8% Black), between ages 21 and 45, receiving prenatal care. Participant's self-report of race/ethnicity and prenatal dog-keeping, which was defined as her owning or caring for > or =1 dog for more than 1 week at her home since learning of her pregnancy, regardless of whether the dog was kept inside or outside of her home. In total, 294 women (27.6%) reported prenatal dog-keeping. Prenatal dog-keeping was significantly lower among Black women as compared to White women (20.9% vs 45.5%, Pdog-keeping not fully explained by measures of socioeconomic status. Racial differences in prenatal dog-keeping may contribute to childhood health disparities.

  15. Future of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.; Widdershoven, C.; Nicola, S.; Cragg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles and two columns in this section on the future of natural gas. In the first article attention is paid to the possibility that large natural gas producers are setting up a cartel a la OPEC. Most experts argue that the structure of gas markets makes the gas business much less amenable to cartelisation than the oil business. If that is true, why are so many people in the gas industry afraid of a gas cartel? The second article focuses on the future role of North Africa in the supply of natural gas

  16. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  17. Natural gas monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  18. Worldwide gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas is an important source of energy throughout the world due to its availability and clean burning characteristics. From liquefied natural gas being shipped via tanker from Alaska to Japan, to natural gas via pipeline from Canada to the US, to inter-country natural gas shipment within the European continent, natural gas continues to expand and justify its place of honor in the world energy picture

  19. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  20. Opportunities in the United States' gas processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.S.; Leppin, D.

    1997-01-01

    To keep up with the increasing amount of natural gas that will be required by the market and with the decreasing quality of the gas at the well-head, the gas processing industry must look to new technologies to stay competitive. The Gas Research Institute (GR); is managing a research, development, design and deployment program that is projected to save the industry US dollar 230 million/year in operating and capital costs from gas processing related activities in NGL extraction and recovery, dehydration, acid gas removal/sulfur recovery, and nitrogen rejection. Three technologies are addressed here. Multivariable Control (MVC) technology for predictive process control and optimization is installed or in design at fourteen facilities treating a combined total of over 30x10 9 normal cubic meter per year (BN m 3 /y) [1.1x10 12 standard cubic feet per year (Tcf/y)]. Simple pay backs are typically under 6 months. A new acid gas removal process based on n-formyl morpholine (NFM) is being field tested that offers 40-50% savings in operating costs and 15-30% savings in capital costs relative to a commercially available physical solvent. The GRI-MemCalc TM Computer Program for Membrane Separations and the GRI-Scavenger CalcBase TM Computer Program for Scavenging Technologies are screening tools that engineers can use to determine the best practice for treating their gas. (au) 19 refs

  1. Green gas in the natural gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinsma, B.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to map the technical, economic and organizational options and limitations of feeding biogas back into the natural gas grid by means of regional co-digestion. Emphasis is put on feeding back into the natural gas grid, analogous to a comparable situation in a number of landfill gas projects. This report first provides insight into the energetic potential of co-digestion. Next several landfill gas projects are examined that feed back into the natural gas grid. After that the political and policy-related issues and preconditions for feeding back biogas from co-digestion are discussed, including the technical and economic aspects. Finally, a picture is painted of the future potential of green gas. [mk] [nl

  2. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  3. Gas-on-gas competition in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuhutu, Chassty; Owen, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    In common with other major economic centres in China, Shanghai's energy consumption has been increasing rapidly to support the high growth rate of its economy. To achieve rational, efficient and clean use of energy, together with improved environmental quality within the city, the Shanghai municipal government has decided to expand the supply and utilization of natural gas. Shanghai plans to increase the share of natural gas in its primary energy mix to 7 per cent by 2010, up from 3 per cent in 2005. This increase in natural gas demand has to be matched with a corresponding increase in supply. To date, the Shanghai region has relied on offshore extracted natural gas but this supply is limited due to the size of the reserves. Since 2005, the West-East pipeline has provided an alternative for Shanghai but demands from other regions could reduce the potential for expanding supplies from that source. Since domestic production will not be sufficient to meet demand in the near future, Shanghai is building a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal at the Yangshan deep-water port that would allow an additional supply of more than 3 billion cubic meters per year of natural gas. Malaysia has already committed to supply LNG to the Shanghai terminal at a price that is significantly higher than the wholesale 'city-gate' price for natural gas transported via pipeline, but still lower than the gas price to end-use consumers. The presence of both an LNG terminal and a transmission pipeline that connects Shanghai to domestic gas-producing regions will create gas-on-gas competition. This study assesses the benefits of introducing such competition to one of China's most advanced cities under various scenarios for demand growth. In this paper, the impact of imported LNG on market concentration in Shanghai's gas market will be analysed using the Herfindahl-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the residual supply index (RSI). Our results show that Shanghai remains a supply

  4. Shale gas. Shale gas formation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Francois; Artru, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    A first article recalls the origin of shale gases and technological breakthroughs which allowed their exploitation, describes the development of shale gas exploitation in the USA during the 2000's and the consequences for the gas and electricity markets, and discusses the various environmental impacts (risks of pollution of aquifers, risks of induced seismicity, use and processing of drilling and production waters). The second article describes the formation of shale gas: presence of organic matter in sediments, early evolution with the biogenic gas, burrowing, diagenesis and oil formation, thermal generation of gas (condensates and methane). The author indicates the location of gas within the rock, and the main sites of shale oils and shale gases in the World. In the next part, the author describes the various phases of shale gas extraction: exploration, oriented drillings, well preparation for hydraulic fracturing, fracturing, processing of fracturing fluids, flow-back, gas production and transport, aquifer protection. He finally gives a brief overview of technical evolution and of shale gas economy

  5. Studies of Standard English and Hawaiian Islands Creole English: KEEP Linguistic Research, 1971-1976. Technical Report No. 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report presents a summary of the linguistic research conducted at the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) during its first five years of operation, as well as a description of relevant linguistic theories. The subjects of the research are the students in the KEEP elementary school (K-3) who were tested twice a year during the five-year…

  6. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance system(s...

  7. 32 CFR 37.910 - How long must I require participants to keep records related to the TIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records related to the TIA? 37.910 Section 37.910 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... require participants to keep records related to the TIA? Your TIA must require participants to keep records related to the TIA (for which the agreement provides Government access under § 37.915) for a...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will identify...

  9. 12 CFR 225.175 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking... conduct, monitor and manage such investment activities and the risks associated with such investment...

  10. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? (a) What...

  11. Supporting Early Warning Systems: Using Data to Keep Students on Track to Success. Data for Action 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Supporting early warning systems is important because keeping students on track is vital to graduating all students college and career ready. Failing to keep students on track toward completing high school has perilous consequences for students, communities, and the economy. Predictive analyses are important to ensuring students are on track.…

  12. Selling gas, selling services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncel, V.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, the commercial activities of gas companies have been limited almost exclusively to the sale of gas. However, several socioeconomic factors specific to the gas industry, such as increasing customer expectations, competition between gas operators, a growing emphasis on services in many companies and the opening of public monopolies to competition, will bring inevitable change. Moreover, these developments coincide with imminent gas market opening. In response to the changing situation, the gas industry will seek to develop a range of multi-service offers, probably through external partnerships. (authors)

  13. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  14. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  15. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  16. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  17. The Secret of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse: Who Keeps It and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tener, Dafna

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes how women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse perceive the family members who took part in keeping it secret and their tactics for doing so. Analysis of 20 in-depth interviews with Jewish Israeli women revealed unique ways of guarding the secret. These were attributed to the perpetrator, the mother and the family. Secret-keeping tactics included presenting a normative public identity or an unstable psychological identity, presenting multiple personas, reframing the abuse, concealing any trace of the secret after it was disclosed, as if the abuse had never happened, and making a monument of the abuser. These tactics are discussed in the context of silencing, the interpersonal relations orientation model, and the wider concepts of secrecy in society. Implications for professional practice and for society are considered, and new attitudes toward intrafamilial child sexual abuse secrecy are suggested.

  18. Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Denholm J; Delfabbro, Paul; Proeve, Michael

    2015-05-01

    There are two methods commonly used to measure dream recall in the home setting. The retrospective method involves asking participants to estimate their dream recall in response to a single question and the logbook method involves keeping a daily record of one's dream recall. Until recently, the implicit assumption has been that these measures are largely equivalent. However, this is challenged by the tendency for retrospective measures to yield significantly lower dream recall rates than logbooks. A common explanation for this is that retrospective measures underestimate dream recall. Another is that keeping a logbook enhances it. If retrospective measures underestimate dream recall and if logbooks enhance it they are both unlikely to reflect typical dream recall rates and may be confounded with variables associated with the underestimation and enhancement effects. To date, this issue has received insufficient attention. The present review addresses this gap in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinçarslan, Ş.; Akkurt, İ.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F.

    2012-09-01

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  20. Controller Design and Evaluation of Lane-Keeping-Assistance System for Motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Nozomi; Marumo, Yoshitaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi

    This study seeks to design a lane keeping controller for motorcycles and to evaluate it by computer simulation with a four-degree-of-freedom model and a rider control model. We applied the optimal control theory to the lane keeping controller as a model-based control. By examining the computer simulation with the rider-in-the-loop system consisting of the motorcycle, the controller, and the rider control model, good lane following performance is achieved without interference between the control input and the rider's input. In addition, the virtual point regulator, which compensates the lateral displacement at the virtual point ahead of the vehicle, corresponds to not only the steering torque disturbance but also the lateral force disturbance by choosing the distance to the virtual point.

  1. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilincarslan, S.; Akkurt, I.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F. [Department of Construction Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Department of Construction Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Textil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2012-09-06

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  2. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilinçarslan, Ş.; Akkurt, İ.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F.

    2012-01-01

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  3. An Audit of Anaesthesia Record-keeping at the Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Audit of Anaesthesia Record-keeping at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. ... in the re-audit were Pre-operative history (51% to 91% p<0.0001), blood pressure (65% to 78% p=0.04), pulse rate (47% to 65% p=0.015), administration of premedication (30% to 63% p<0.001), and ASA score (60% to 78%, p=0.009).

  4. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  5. NAT Traversal Capability and Keep-Alive Functionality with IPSec in IKEv2 Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    CHAMAN SINGH; K.L.BANSAL

    2012-01-01

    Since IPv4 Private Networks are behind NAT (Network Address Translation) devices. So, to bypass the Binding Update and Binding Acknowledgment by NAT, we need to encapsulate it in UDP (User datagram Protocol) Packets. Hence, the Dual Stack Mobile IPv6 should support NAT Traversal and Detection. So for proper securing and fully functionality of NAT traversal, it should be IP Security Protected. Paper presents design and implementation of NAT traversal capability and keeps alive functionality wi...

  6. Keep Kids Current on Vaccines (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-24

    Twenty years ago, the Vaccines for Children program was created in response to a major measles epidemic. This program provides vaccinations for children whose parents cannot afford them. In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger discusses the importance of keeping children up-to-date on their vaccinations.  Created: 3/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/24/2014.

  7. MathGR: a tensor and GR computation package to keep it simple

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the MathGR package, written in Mathematica. The package can manipulate tensor and GR calculations with either abstract or explicit indices, simplify tensors with permutational symmetries, decompose tensors from abstract indices to partially or completely explicit indices and convert partial derivatives into total derivatives. Frequently used GR tensors and a model of FRW universe with ADM type perturbations are predefined. The package is built around the philosophy to "keep it si...

  8. Keeping cool, staying virtuous: Social media and the composite habitus of young Muslim women in Copenhagen

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Waltorp

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on long-term anthropological fieldwork among young Muslim women in a social housing area in Copenhagen. It explores how morality, modesty, and gender- and generational relations become reconfigured in the ways in which young women use the Smartphone and social media to navigate their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourd...

  9. Energy conservation in pig keeping companies. Ventilation; Energieeinsparung in der Schweinehaltung. Lueftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonkoss, K.; Neiber, S.; Neser, S.

    2012-09-15

    One major approach in favour of energy saving opportunities in pig keeping companies is the ventilation. The consumption of electricity can be reduced significantly by means of a favourable design of the air flow, optimal configuration of the ventilation system as well as a modern control technology such as frequency regulation and EC technology. In the case of a new investment or replacement investment especially the specific energy consumption of the single components should be considered.

  10. Centrifugal gas separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M

    1970-03-27

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art.

  11. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  12. East–West GEO Satellite Station-Keeping with Degraded Thruster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Borissov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The higher harmonic terms of Earth’s gravitational potential slowly modify the nominal longitude of geostationary Earth orbit (GEO satellites, while the third-body presence (Moon and Sun mainly affects their latitude. For this reason, GEO satellites periodically need to perform station-keeping maneuvers, namely, east–west and north–south maneuvers to compensate for longitudinal and latitudinal variations, respectively. During the operational lifetime of GEO satellites, the thrusters’ response when commanded to perform these maneuvers slowly departs from the original nominal impulsive behavior. This paper addresses the practical problem of how to perform reliable east–west station-keeping maneuvers when thruster response is degraded. The need for contingency intervention from ground-based satellite operators is reduced by breaking apart the scheduled automatic station-keeping maneuvers into smaller maneuvers. Orbital alignment and attitude are tracked on-board during and in between sub-maneuvers, and any off nominal variations are corrected for with subsequent maneuvers. These corrections are particularly important near the end of the lifetime of GEO satellites, where thruster response is farthest from nominal performance.

  13. System for keeping atmospheric pressure in nuclear facility and its peripheral equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hatsuo

    1993-02-01

    The design to keep radioactive materials in the facility and not to make them spread inside the facility and into the environments is an essential issue in the construction of nuclear facilities. One reason of the contamination is due to the diffusion with air flow, therefore, negative pressure for the ambients has been utilized to keep gaseous radioactivities inside the facility of interest. The pressure difference is not so large, though, the atmospheric pressure level of the contaminated and possibly contaminated areas are always kept to be lower than those of the ambient one to prevent the dissemination of radioactivity from the defined area. The technique using negative pressure, at present, is employed widely in nuclear facilities, and the basic system is the same as that of JRR-1 built as the first nuclear facility in Japan. In the present work, the conventional system with negative pressure was reexamined on the sate-of-art of the regulations for the nuclear facilities, and consequently some shortages of the system has been found. Thus, an advanced system with an excellent performance keeping the negative pressure has been developed to cover the shortage. In this report, the new system is introduced with a couple of comments, acquired from the author's experience, to the design and the maintenance of the composite equipments of the system. (author)

  14. Keeping venomous snakes in the Netherlands: a harmless hobby or a public health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genderen, P J J; Slobbe, L; Koene, H; Mastenbroek, R D L; Overbosch, D

    2013-10-01

    To describe the incidence of venomous snakebites and the hospital treatment thereof (if any) amongst private individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. Descriptive study. Private keepers of venomous snakes were invited via the social media Facebook, Hyves, Twitter, Google Plus, Linked In and two large discussion forums to fill in an online questionnaire on a purely voluntary and anonymous basis. In the period from 1 September 2012 to 31 December 2012, 86 questionnaires were completed by individuals who keep venomous snakes as a hobby. One-third of the venomous snake keepers stated that they had at some point been bitten by a venomous snake. Out of those, two-thirds needed hospital treatment and one-third of those bitten required at least one, sometimes more, doses of antiserum. The chances of being bitten increased the more venomous snakes a person kept. An inventory of the collections of venomous snakes being kept further revealed that no antiserum exists for 16 of the species, including for the most commonly held venomous snake, the coral cobra. Keeping venomous snakes as a hobby is not without danger. Although in the majority of snakebite cases no antiserum had to be administered, there is nevertheless a significant risk of morbidity and sequelae. Preventing snakebites in the first place remains the most important safety measure since there are no antiserums available for a substantial number of venomous snakes.

  15. The ANKLe Score: An Audit of Otolaryngology Emergency Clinic Record Keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Sara C; Hayashi, Daichi; Tysome, James R

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Accurate and legible medical records are essential to good quality patient care. Guidelines from The Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCSE) state the content required to form a complete medical record, but do not address legibility. An audit of otolaryngology emergency clinic record keeping was performed using a new scoring system. PATIENTS AND METHODS The Adjusted Note Keeping and Legibility (ANKLe) score was developed as an objective and quantitative method to assess both the content and legibility of case notes, incorporating the RCSE guidelines. Twenty consecutive otolaryngology emergency clinic case notes from each of 7 senior house officers were audited against standards for legibility and content using the ANKLe score. A proforma was introduced to improve documentation and handwriting advice was given. A further set of 140 notes (20 notes for each of the 7 doctors) was audited in the same way to provide feedback. RESULTS The introduction of a proforma and advice on handwriting significantly increased the quality of case note entries in terms of content, legibility and overall ANKLe score. CONCLUSIONS Accurate note keeping can be improved by the use of a proforma. The legibility of handwriting can be improved using simple advice. The ANKLe score is an objective assessment tool of the overall quality of medical note documentation which can be adapted for use in other specialties. PMID:18430339

  16. Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Morena; Nicol, Sam; Wells, Jessie A; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan; Bode, Michael; Wardrop, Martin; Walshe, Terry; Probert, William J M; Runge, Michael C; Possingham, Hugh P; Madden, Eve McDonald

    2014-06-01

    Policy documents advocate that managers should keep their options open while planning to protect coastal ecosystems from climate-change impacts. However, the actual costs and benefits of maintaining flexibility remain largely unexplored, and alternative approaches for decision making under uncertainty may lead to better joint outcomes for conservation and other societal goals. For example, keeping options open for coastal ecosystems incurs opportunity costs for developers. We devised a decision framework that integrates these costs and benefits with probabilistic forecasts for the extent of sea-level rise to find a balance between coastal ecosystem protection and moderate coastal development. Here, we suggest that instead of keeping their options open managers should incorporate uncertain sea-level rise predictions into a decision-making framework that evaluates the benefits and costs of conservation and development. In our example, based on plausible scenarios for sea-level rise and assuming a risk-neutral decision maker, we found that substantial development could be accommodated with negligible loss of environmental assets. Characterization of the Pareto efficiency of conservation and development outcomes provides valuable insight into the intensity of trade-offs between development and conservation. However, additional work is required to improve understanding of the consequences of alternative spatial plans and the value judgments and risk preferences of decision makers and stakeholders. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Administration of the natural gas shortage in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluge, W [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1978-05-01

    The natural gas deficit is basically a consequence of the price policy of the U.S. government which keeps the prices of natural gas transported from one state to another subject to a maximum-price regulation. In the course of this development, the U.S. natural gas market has been characterized by three different types of shortage since the early seventies. There are regional differences in the administration of the shortage. Compared to the alternatives the rationing plan of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the best solution from on overall economic point of view, but it is rather impracticable and hard to put through completely. Natural gas rationing in the USA did not prevent temporary production losses and unemployment due to shortage. If the maximum-price regulation policy for natural gas is continued, the supply deficit for this energy carrier will become even greater. If, as the National Energy Plan proposes, the maximum-price regulation for natural gas would also pertain to the intrastate market in the future, natural gas shortages would occur there, too.

  18. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  19. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Natural Gas STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Voluntary Methane Programs encourage oil and natural gas companies to adopt cost-effective technologies and practices that improve operational efficiency and reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas.

  1. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France

  2. Sulphur hexafluoride gas detection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This poster describes the development process of an electro-optical based solution for detecting and locating SF6 gas leaks at gas insulated switch gear. The principal technologies that were researched are explained with their advantages...

  3. Comparative analysis of efficiency in cooking with natural gas and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amell Arrieta, Andres; Cadavid Sierra Francisco Javier; Ospina Ospina, Juan Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The natural gas will have, at the Aburra Valley, a massive application in residential process like heating water and cooking, historically doing with electricity. In the study of electricity substitution in necessary to estimate the gas consumption in order to keep satisfying the energetic requirements at the different strata supposing that, alimentary habits in these have not important valuation through the time. Since the volume of natural gas requirements for the electricity substitution at given conditions depend on electrical energy before substitution, electrical equipment efficiency, gas equipment efficiency and gas substitution heating value, the determination of these efficiencies are necessary. This work presents the calculation processes comparing gas heating and cooking processes, versus electrical devises taking in mind several schemes and essay conditions

  4. Super liquid-repellent gas membranes for carbon dioxide capture and heart-lung machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paven, Maxime; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Schöttler, Susanne; Deng, Xu; Mailänder, Volker; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In a gas membrane, gas is transferred between a liquid and a gas through a microporous membrane. The main challenge is to achieve a high gas transfer while preventing wetting and clogging. With respect to the oxygenation of blood, haemocompatibility is also required. Here we coat macroporous meshes with a superamphiphobic-or liquid repellent-layer to meet this challenge. The superamphiphobic layer consists of a fractal-like network of fluorinated silicon oxide nanospheres; gas trapped between the nanospheres keeps the liquid from contacting the wall of the membrane. We demonstrate the capabilities of the membrane by capturing carbon dioxide gas into a basic aqueous solution and in addition use it to oxygenate blood. Usually, blood tends to clog membranes because of the abundance of blood cells, platelets, proteins and lipids. We show that human blood stored in a superamphiphobic well for 24 h can be poured off without leaving cells or adsorbed protein behind.

  5. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  6. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  7. The gas menace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Richard.

    1994-01-01

    The NSW Southern Coalfield at Bulli is Australia's most gas plagued producing region. Whilst gas drainage using long boreholes has been successfully adapted in high methane areas, these techniques are not efficient when high levels of carbon dioxide are present, as is the case at Bulli NSW. This article discusses the limitations of the current gas drainage technologies and the improvements needed in underground drilling technologies and hydrofacing for efficient gas drainage. 1 table, 1 photo

  8. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  9. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  10. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  11. Natural gas for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, A.

    2006-01-01

    Following a decade-long upsurge in the use of natural gas in the energy sector (heating and especially electricity), new outlets for natural gas are being developed in the transport sector. For countries endowed with substantial local resources, development in this sector can help reduce oil dependence. In addition, natural gas is often used to reduce pollution, particularly in cities

  12. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  13. Water into gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodord, Julian.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the move by water utilities into the gas market and potentially into the electricity supply market. Operation by Dee Valley Holdings, York Waterworks, York Gas, and North Wales Gas are reported, and investment, use of mail campaigns and telemarketing to secure customers, and the opportunities offered by diversification are considered. (UK)

  14. Gas conference Paris 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of Gaz d'Aujourd'hui journal contains the proceedings of the 2013 edition of the annual French gas conference. These proceedings comprise 7 talks, 5 round-tables and 9 workshops: 1 - Opening talk (H. Malherbe); 2 - Defending the natural gas position in the energy mix (G. Mestralet); 3 - The new youth of natural gas (P. Sauquet); 4 - Round-table No.1: the natural gas market perspectives; 5 - Round-table No.2: natural gas in France's energy transition; 6 - Answering the energy transition challenges (B. Lescoeur); 7 - Round-table No.3: towards an integrated European market in 2014?; 8 - Building up the European gas market (P. de Ladoucette); 9 - Workshop No.1: the big client's strategies in the gas market; 10 - Workshop No.2: the fuel gas perspectives in terrestrial mobility; 11 - Workshop No.3: gas innovations; 12 - The 2030 and 2050 strategy of the European Union policy (B. Devlin); 13 - Round-table No.4: Decentralized production and local development; 14 - Workshop No.4: Gas and maritime transport; 15 - Workshop No.5: bio-methane, vector of the energy transition; 16 - Workshop No.6: Evolution of the storage activity; 17 - Workshop No.7: Dwellings renovation and natural gas development; 18 - Workshop No.8: Is the target model of gas a reality?; 19 - Workshop No.9: Non-conventional gases in the world; 20 - Round-table No.5: Actors' strategy; 21 - Closing talk (J. Ferrier)

  15. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  16. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  17. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  18. Gas development plan - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A detailed description of the plan for the development of gas utilization in Lithuania is presented. The plan is subdivided under the headings of gas supply, gas demand, gas transmission and distribution, economy and the organization of the gas sector in the country. The first phase of the project has been undertaken by a Danish firm in cooperation with the Lithuanian firm Lietuvos Dujos. The first aim was to clarify the problems that will arise in connection with this joint venture on developing the use of gas in Lithuania, focusing on existing gas supply and market conditions, the current flow control and metering and economic constraints. The organization of the gas sector in the country as it stands today is described and possible models for its future organization are discussed in addition to a strategy of implementation. Possible development trends are outlined and maximum/minimum demand scenarios are suggested. Subjects and areas related to the gas sector in Lithuania are identified for further investigation in the next phase. It is stated that Lithuania is at present undergoing a fast transformation towards a market economy and that the transfer of foreign currency has been liberalized. Only the pipeline from Minsk to Vilnius is open at present and provides the total supply of natural gas to Lithuania and Kalingrad, controlled by the Russian gas company, Lentransgas, on the basis of a gas purchase agreement regulated on a yearly basis. Other possible supply sources are the Danish part of the North Sea and the Norwegian offshore fields. (AB)

  19. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  20. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  1. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  2. Gas assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, Jerome; Bouchard, Georges; Al-Saffar, Ali; ); Bros, Thierry; Khayat, Armand; Leger, Sebastien; Nyouki, Evariste; Jamme, Dominique; Remont, Sophie; Delamare, Monique; Hureau, Geoffroy; Poillion, Christophe; Noilhan, Fabrice; Lafon, Madeleine; Lagumina, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This document reports the content of contributions and debates of the 'Gas assessment and perspectives' convention organised by the AFG (the French Gas Association) in March 2015. After an introduction speech, a contributor proposed a comment of the 'World energy outlook 2014' (discussion of factors related to demand and to supply, pressures related to climate change). A round table discussed the context and overview of the gas market, and more precisely addressed the evolution of the gas European market on the short term (demand, storage, production, imports, LNG market), the gas demand for electricity production (the electricity European market, impact on gas, European perspectives, the gas market, three scenarios of evolution of gas demand, World perspectives), the European gas demand on the medium term (the control of gas price in Europe, the final decline of gas, the assessment of the European energy policy, the divorce between Russia and Europe), the recent trends and perspectives for the LNG market (price evolution, a still comfortable market, LNG back in Europe, demand and supply, LNG in the global energy mix), and an assessment of the French gas market by the CRE (the French Commission on Energy Regulation). A second round table addressed the security of gas supply: status and perspectives for the European gas supply, stress tests and measures on the short term to improve supply security, role of the State in the security of gas supply, storage as a key tool for the security of supply, development of new policy for security of supplies. The last speech stated the point of view of a GrDF manager

  3. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  4. Gas trade and investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrelie, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The WOC 9 workshop of the CMG 2000 world gas congress was devoted to gas projects and economics. One round table chaired by G. Bouchard (Gaz de France) and T.H. Thorn (Enron) was devoted to the commercial and financial challenges the gas industry will have to face in the context of inter-region markets and investments. This article summarizes the discussion that took place during this round table: towards a progressive un-partitioning of regional markets, the strategic changes in the European gas market, the LNG industry: new actors and new markets, the gas producers at the crossroads. (J.S.)

  5. Landfill gas: development guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A Guide produced as part of the UK DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme provides information which forms a framework enabling landfill gas to be exploited fully as a renewable energy resource. The eight chapters cover the resource base of landfill gas in the UK in the wider context, the technology for energy recovery from landfill gas, the utilisation options for landfill gas, the various project development arrangements and their implementation, the assessment of a site's landfill gas resource, the factors which influence the project economies, financing aspects and the management of project liabilities and finally the national waste disposal policy and required consents followed by the overall process for project mobilisation. (UK)

  6. The Gas Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document is published before a congress which will address the struggle against climate change, the security of the gas supply chain, the responses of energy groups to environmental and economic challenges, the opening of the gas market, the European energy policy, the future role of gas in the third industrial revolution, and the security of gas supplies. After an introduction briefly discussing these issues and the impacts of the French 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and the struggle against climate change for gas production and consumption, several interviews are proposed with actors belonging to the AFG (Association Francaise du Gaz), ADEME, European Commission, Total, GDF Suez, other professional bodies, or local communities

  7. Gas: the great depression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the worrying situation of gas industry: thermal plants are being closed one after the other because of the concurrence of renewable energies and of consumption decrease. European gas industries outline that gas plants could be used for back-up production in case of consumption peaks, and criticize subsidies awarded to renewable energies. Several factors impact this situation: decrease of gross prices, decrease of energy consumption due to a better energy efficiency, development of shale gas production in the USA and in Canada, revival of coal plants (coal is now competitive with respect to gas, and CO 2 is very cheap on the ETS)

  8. Intraoperative non-record-keeping usage of anesthesia information management system workstations and associated hemodynamic variability and aberrancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, David B; Lin, Hung-Mo; Reich, David L

    2012-12-01

    Anesthesia information management system workstations in the anesthesia workspace that allow usage of non-record-keeping applications could lead to distraction from patient care. We evaluated whether non-record-keeping usage of the computer workstation was associated with hemodynamic variability and aberrancies. Auditing data were collected on eight anesthesia information management system workstations and linked to their corresponding electronic anesthesia records to identify which application was active at any given time during the case. For each case, the periods spent using the anesthesia information management system record-keeping module were separated from those spent using non-record-keeping applications. The variability of heart rate and blood pressure were also calculated, as were the incidence of hypotension, hypertension, and tachycardia. Analysis was performed to identify whether non-record-keeping activity was a significant predictor of these hemodynamic outcomes. Data were analyzed for 1,061 cases performed by 171 clinicians. Median (interquartile range) non-record-keeping activity time was 14 (1, 38) min, representing 16 (3, 33)% of a median 80 (39, 143) min of procedure time. Variables associated with greater non-record-keeping activity included attending anesthesiologists working unassisted, longer case duration, lower American Society of Anesthesiologists status, and general anesthesia. Overall, there was no independent association between non-record-keeping workstation use and hemodynamic variability or aberrancies during anesthesia either between cases or within cases. Anesthesia providers spent sizable portions of case time performing non-record-keeping applications on anesthesia information management system workstations. This use, however, was not independently associated with greater hemodynamic variability or aberrancies in patients during maintenance of general anesthesia for predominantly general surgical and gynecologic procedures.

  9. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  10. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  11. Venezuelan gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the Venezuelan natural gas industry. The structure of PDVSA, the Petroleos de Venezuela Organization, its foreign and domestic affiliates, and its subsidiaries are discussed. Natural gas resources in Venezuela total 290 trillion cubic feet, and Venezuela's share of world, OPEC and latin American production and reserves are 1%, 11% and 26%, respectively for production and 3%, 6% and 49% for reserves. Venezuela's gas pipeline network, plants, production, and marketing are described. Natural gas production and demand forecasts to 2002 are presented. Gas resources are largely located in eastern Venezuela, and large volumes of natural gas non-associated with crude oil will start to become important in the Venezuelan natural gas industry. 19 figs

  12. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  13. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  14. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  15. Natural gas in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on various aspects of the natural gas industry in Mexico. Some of the viewgraphs depicted statistics from 1998 regarding natural gas throughput from various companies in North America, natural gas reserves around the world, and natural gas reserves in Mexico. Other viewgraphs depicted associated and non-associated natural gas production from 1988 to 1998 in million cubic feet per day. The Burgos Basin and the Cantarell Basin gas production from 1997 to 2004 was also depicted. Other viewgraphs were entitled: (1) gas processing infrastructure for 1999, (2) cryogenic plant at Cd. PEMEX, (3) average annual growth of dry natural gas production for 1997-2004 is estimated at 5.2 per cent, (4) gas flows for December 1998, (5) PGPB- interconnect points, (6) U.S. Mexico gas trade for 1994-1998, (7) PGPB's interconnect projects with U.S., and (8) natural gas storage areas. Technological innovations in the industry include more efficient gas turbines which allow for cogeneration, heat recovery steam generators which reduce pollutant emissions by 21 per cent, cold boxes which increase heat transfer efficiency, and lateral reboilers which reduce energy consumption and total costs. A pie chart depicting natural gas demand by sector shows that natural gas for power generation will increase from 16 per cent in 1997 to 31 per cent in 2004. The opportunities for cogeneration projects were also reviewed. The Comision Federal de Electricidad and independent power producers represent the largest opportunity. The 1997-2001 investment program proposes an 85 per cent sulphur dioxide emission reduction compared to 1997 levels. This presentation also noted that during the 1998-2001 period, total ethane production will grow by 58 tbd. 31 figs

  16. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  17. Record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Guidelines and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers record keeping for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Nuclear facilities include large commercial facilities such as nuclear power plants or chemical nuclear facilities (e.g. for fabrication and reprocessing), but also include smaller facilities such as research reactors and medical, industrial and other research facilities. Special attention may be needed for these small facilities owing to factors such as the low priority given to decommissioning by research teams and the possibility of poorly recorded structural and operational changes. A focus on research reactors is also important because of their widespread distribution. Two IAEA TECDOCs address record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities, and therefore these areas are not covered in this report. The objective of this report is to provide information, experience and assistance on how to identify, update as needed and maintain records to assist in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including for the decommissioning plan. This report is intended to be useful to policy makers, regulators, owners, operators, decommissioning contractors and other interested parties. Record keeping is an integral part of overall QA or quality management programmes, and this is emphasized in this report. This report also indicates the possible consequences of not maintaining adequate records. This report describes the needs and the sources of the records for decommissioning (Section 3) and the process of identifying and selecting these records (Section 4). Section 5 considers the records from the decommissioning process itself and their retention, while Section 6 deals with QA, organization and responsibilities. The Records Management System (RMS) is dealt with in Section 7 and the management of new records in Section 8. A summary of observations is included in Section 9. The report is complemented by an appendix and annexes that describe case histories

  18. Can a nudge keep you warm? Using nudges to reduce excess winter deaths: insight from the Keeping Warm in Later Life Project (KWILLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, Peter; Tod, Angela M

    2014-03-01

    Nudges are interventions that aim to change people's behaviour through changing the environment in which they choose rather than appealing to their reasoning. Nudges have been proposed as of possible use in relation to health-related behaviour. However, nudges have been criticized as ethically dubious because they bypass peoples reasoning and (anyway) are of little help in relation to affecting ill-health that results from social determinants, such as poverty. Reducing the rate of excess winter deaths (EWDs) is a public health priority; however, EWD seems clearly to be socially determined such that nudges arguably have little role. This article defends two claims: (i) nudges could have a place in tackling even the heavily socially determined problem of EWD. We draw on evidence from an empirical study, the Keeping Warm in Later Life Project (KWILLT), to argue that in some cases the risk of cold is within the person's control to some extent such that environmental modifications to influence behaviour such as nudges are possible. (ii) Some uses of behavioural insights in the form of nudges are acceptable, including some in the area of EWD. We suggest a question-based framework by which to judge the ethical acceptability of nudges.

  19. Why do people keep their promises? An overview of strategic commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda del Corral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategic commitments, such as promises and threats, pose several problems to the standard model of economic rationality: first, they can only arise when there is an incentive to free ride; second, they need to be credible in order to manipulate the others' behaviour; third, once the commitment has succeeded, it is no longer in the agent's self interest to fulfil her commitment. Why, then, do people keep their promises (and threats? This paper reviews the literature concerning the problem of commitment within the scope of pro-sociality and cooperation, and examines two mechanisms that enable credibility and trust: reputation and social emotions

  20. HeadsUp: Keeping Pedestrian Phone Addicts from Dangers Using Mobile Phone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhengjuan

    2015-01-01

    Walking while staring at the mobile phone is dangerous, and the danger mainly arises from distraction. While watching the mobile phone, one could fall into a deep well without noticing the manhole cover was missing, one could be hit by a rushing car without observing the traffic light, and so forth. Some mobile phone users are already aware of the crisis, and they keep looking up and down to allocate some focus to danger spying; however, the statistics data revealed by US government make such...

  1. Securing VoIP keeping your VoIP network safe

    CERN Document Server

    (Bud) Bates, Regis J Jr

    2015-01-01

    Securing VoIP: Keeping Your VoIP Network Safe will show you how to take the initiative to prevent hackers from recording and exploiting your company's secrets. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and case studies, technology guru Bud Bates discusses the business realities that necessitate VoIP system security and the threats to VoIP over both wire and wireless networks. He also provides essential guidance on how to conduct system security audits and how to integrate your existing IT security plan with your VoIP system and security plans, helping you prevent

  2. Waste inventory record keeping systems (WIRKS) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This report is intended to serve Member States planning to develop or implement radioactive waste disposal programmes and to discuss possible ways for compiling and managing information about the inventories in their radioactive waste repositories, which includes low and intermediate level waste (short lived and long lived) and high level radioactive waste. This report identifies generic information that may be recorded in a Waste Inventory Record Keeping System (WIRKS), as identified by consultants and based on their collective expertise in radioactive waste management. The report provides examples of WIRKS implementation in some countries

  3. The company you keep: spreading effects of financial fraud on investor trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Patrick Michael; Getzen, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Investor trust is valuable to health care organizations. Without it, they may face higher capital costs. This study explores recent cases of fraud and the appearance of impropriety by health care organizations, focusing on the manners in which trust was violated, the systems that allowed those violations, and the effects on financial markets. Increases in the incidence and scale of such transgressions may be harbingers of worse times ahead. This article examines how recent events have affected the cost of capital, and what health care organizations can do to avoid being judged by the company they keep.

  4. One year of a thermoluminescent dosemeter and dose record keeping service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description is given of the National Radiological Protection Board's (NRPB) thermoluminescent dosemeter. The automated processing of these dosemeters is linked to a computer-based system of dose records. The postal system is currently used by about 10% of the establishments for which the NRPB provides a personnel monitoring service, but it will soon be extended to other establishments. The distributions of individual whole body doses in 1977 are tabulated. The significant advantage of this new system lies in the improvements in accuracy, completeness, and convenience to the employers of record keeping. (U.K.)

  5. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  6. Automatic procedure go keep updated the activity levels for each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic procedure to keep updated the activity levels each radionuclide existing in a radioactivity laboratory, and its classification according to the Spanish Regulations on Nuclear and Radioactive Establishments is described. This procedure takes into account the mixed composition of each source and whether it is sealed or the activity and mass variation due to extraction or evaporation in non-sealed sources. For a given date and time, the procedure prints out a complete listing of the activity of each radioactive source, the accumulated activity for each radionuclide, for each kind of radionuclide and the actual classification of the laboratory according to the legal regulations above mentioned. (Author)

  7. Competitive landscape for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, J.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1990s, natural gas will be the critical pressure point for energy and environmental developments in North America, according to the author of this paper. The author points to the forces bearing on natural gas, including the need for new power generation capacity, tightening environmental standards, growing concerns about energy security, cyclical factors in U.S. oil and gas exploration, and changes in the oil services industry. This paper discusses how these external factors will shape gas markets in the 1990s. First, it states that gas will gain market share in power generation through greater use of both existing gas-fired facilities and new turbines by electric utilities. Second, it predicts that the cumulative impact of the Clean Air Act and other environmental legislation having significant consequences for the relative roles of coal and natural gas, particularly during the late 1990s. Third, it points to the eventual reawakening of energy security concerns, focusing attention on developing North America's sizeable gas reserves. Finally, it states that while the long-term view of a gas supply crisis without a rebound in drilling activity is accurate, it has been disastrously wrong in the short term. This had led to underestimation of the amount of extra gas that can be provided in the interim from conventional areas at relatively low cost

  8. Asia Gas Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Asia region has experienced a period of dynamic growth, both of economies and energy demand. The next fifteen years are likely to see further rapid economic growth in Asia. To fuel this growth energy consumption will also increase rapidly. Of all forms of energy, natural gas demand is likely to grow the fastest. The gas sector will face rapid and dramatic change, creating challenges for the governments of the region. Infrastructure, both for export and domestic consumption of gas, will need to expand significantly. Regional trade in natural gas could triple by 2010. Trade will continue to be dominated by liquefied natural gas (LNG) but pipeline exports will also grow rapidly. Investment needs will be large, putting pressure on governments to look for alternative funding mechanisms. As Asian gas transmission and distribution networks expand and become more interconnected, consumer choice becomes possible. How to encourage and regulate competition will become a vital policy question. As gas consumption increases both in absolute terms, and in terms of its share of energy consumption within particular sectors of the economy (for example, as a fuel for power generation), governments will need to give higher priority to policies dealing with gas security. This study examines the current and possible future role of natural gas in Asia. In particular, it examines in detail the relevant energy policies of six of the key gas producing and consuming economies in the region: Brunei-Darussalam, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. (author). 17 figs., 14 tabs., 7 appends

  9. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  10. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  11. 40 CFR 63.8495 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... years following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or..., measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You may keep the...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4931 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on-site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3931 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record according to § 63.10(b)(1). You may keep the records off...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4131 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7753 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record according to the requirements in § 63.10(b)(1). You can keep...

  16. 40 CFR 63.8645 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You may keep the records...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7133 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record onsite for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4313 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c..., maintenance, corrective action, report, or record, according to § 63.10(b)(1). You may keep the records off...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4731 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on-site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3513 - In what form and for how long must I keep my records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective action, report, or record. (c) You must keep each record on site for at least 2 years after the date of each occurrence, measurement, maintenance, corrective...

  1. Is improved lane keeping during cognitive load caused by increased physical arousal or gaze concentration toward the road center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Markkula, Gustav; Li, Yibing; Merat, Natasha

    2018-08-01

    Driver distraction is one of the main causes of motor-vehicle accidents. However, the impact on traffic safety of tasks that impose cognitive (non-visual) distraction remains debated. One particularly intriguing finding is that cognitive load seems to improve lane keeping performance, most often quantified as reduced standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). The main competing hypotheses, supported by current empirical evidence, suggest that cognitive load improves lane keeping via either increased physical arousal, or higher gaze concentration toward the road center, but views are mixed regarding if, and how, these possible mediators influence lane keeping performance. Hence, a simulator study was conducted, with participants driving on a straight city road section whilst completing a cognitive task at different levels of difficulty. In line with previous studies, cognitive load led to increased physical arousal, higher gaze concentration toward the road center, and higher levels of micro-steering activity, accompanied by improved lane keeping performance. More importantly, during the high cognitive task, both physical arousal and gaze concentration changed earlier in time than micro-steering activity, which in turn changed earlier than lane keeping performance. In addition, our results did not show a significant correlation between gaze concentration and physical arousal on the level of individual task recordings. Based on these findings, various multilevel models for micro-steering activity and lane keeping performance were conducted and compared, and the results suggest that all of the mechanisms proposed by existing hypotheses could be simultaneously involved. In other words, it is suggested that cognitive load leads to: (i) an increase in arousal, causing increased micro-steering activity, which in turn improves lane keeping performance, and (ii) an increase in gaze concentration, causing lane keeping improvement through both (a) further increased micro

  2. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  3. U.S. gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that U.S. gas producers won't see much price relief in 1991, barring a Persian Gulf war that interrupts crude supply which might be replaced by gas on short notice. Besides the current supply surplus, natural gas futures have added yet another dimension to the process of setting gas prices. Spectators (read speculators) having no intention of ever buying one cu ft of gas now have a hand in setting the forward price of gas. That doesn't necessarily mean something bad; it simply means that there is a new game with new rules and new players. All things considered, look for an average spot price of $1.70 this year. Exploration should pick up modestly, but production from conventional sources is expected to decline slightly in the '90s. Technological developments that enhance deliverability and reduce finding costs will moderate the decline, but not halt it

  4. The gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part proposes an overview of the current situation of the gas market and predictions regarding gas consumption and turnovers of gas producers and dealers, indication of important recent events, and a dashboard of the sector activity. A second part proposes an annual report on trends and on the competition context. It describes the activity structure (sector organisations, gas types, main customers, heating modes in French housing, tariff offers), indicates the main determining factors for the sector activity, describes the context (temperature evolution, thermal electricity production, production of the chemical industry, housing stock, natural gas consumption), analyses the evolution of the sector activity (trends, indicators), describes the sector economic structure (upstream sector, gas supply), and gives an overview of actors: historical suppliers, alternate suppliers, highlights of the sector, company rankings, and financial performance

  5. OPEC and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, A.M.; Shahbudaghlou, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the involvement of OPEC Member Countries in the natural gas industry in the past, present and future. It notes a tenfold increase in marketed production and a fourfold rise in re-injection since 1970. Collectively, Members now hold 41 per cent of the world's proven gas reserves and account for 20 per cent of exports. Individually, four of these countries hold position 2-5 in the world gas reserve rankings. Within OPEC, however, there remains an emphasis of oil over gas, not least because of oil's favourable position with regard to revenue-generation and profitability. As global demand continues on its upward growth curve in a more environmentally aware world, OPEC's gas horizons will widen. OPEC's strong reserve base will give its Members an undeniable role to play on the future global gas stage. However, these countries will give priority to domestic usage, particularly re-injection schemes

  6. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  7. The 'new' gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Vornel

    2000-01-01

    The use of computer-aided 3-dimensional design tools to overcome problems associated with extraction of gas from unconventional gas deposits such as shale, sand and coal gas fields in landlocked nations is examined, and the economics of land based gas exploration in the USA, and the transport of the product to market are considered. The use of 3D design tools by the Pearl Development Company for providing engineering solutions for the recovery of natural gas liquids (NGL) for the Thunder Creek Gas Services company servicing the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and utilisation of the CADWorx/PIPE 3D piping design tool are reported. The benefits of the software package which allows easy visualisation of designs and produces 2D drawings from multi-discipline plant models are outlined

  8. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  9. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  10. Do They Keep Coming? The Emergence of New Spatial Mobility Patterns in Macaé/RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faber Paganoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Macaé is the “Oil Capital” of Brazil: a city of opportunity, full of jobs andwhere royalties fatten public coffers or that is the image presented in the media that has attracted thousands of migrants to Macaé. This study investigated why people feel that migrants keep coming to Macaé even though recent statistics show that in-migration to the city has decreased. Also, new forms of spatial mobility of the population have emerged so that Macaé can be characterized as region of polar attraction. Commuting from neighbouring cities is a common pattern in metropolitan areas and in Macaé it is associated to the high cost of living and violence present there so that many workers have their residence elsewhere, especially Rio das Ostras. In addition to daily commuting, another kind was detected in the research: "long distance commuting". This kind of commuting is associated basically to specific characteristics of the labour market in the oil sector involving periods on the platforms interspaced with periods off duty on the mainland as well as outsourcing practices. A third trend noted was the presence of a significant number of transients, who keep coming to the city in large numbers but do not lay residence.

  11. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew A; Cook, Peter F; Large, Edward W; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms-i.e., beat keeping-is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced "perturbations," altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms.

  12. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  13. Is dream recall underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Denholm J

    2016-05-01

    In a recent review, Aspy, Delfabbro, and Proeve (2015) highlighted the tendency for retrospective measures of dream recall to yield substantially lower recall rates than logbook measures, a phenomenon they termed the retrospective-logbook disparity. One explanation for this phenomenon is that retrospective measures underestimate true dream recall. Another explanation is that keeping a logbook tends to enhance dream recall. The present study provides a thorough empirical investigation into the retrospective-logbook disparity using a range of retrospective and logbook measures and three different types of logbook. Retrospective-logbook disparities were correlated with a range of variables theoretically related to the retrospective underestimation effect, and retrospective-logbook disparities were greater among participants that reported improved dream recall during the logbook period. These findings indicate that dream recall is underestimated by retrospective measures and enhanced by keeping a logbook. Recommendations for the use of retrospective and logbook measures of dream recall are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-Thrust Out-of-Plane Orbital Station-Keeping Maneuvers for Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of out of plane orbital maneuvers for station keeping of satellites. The main idea is to consider that a satellite is in an orbit around the Earth and that it has its orbit is disturbed by one or more forces. Then, it is necessary to perform a small amplitude orbital correction to return the satellite to its original orbit, to keep it performing its mission. A low thrust propulsion is used to complete this task. It is important to search for solutions that minimize the fuel consumption to increase the lifetime of the satellite. To solve this problem a hybrid optimal control approach is used. The accuracy of the satisfaction of the constraints is considered, in order to try to decrease the fuel expenditure by taking advantage of this freedom. This type of problem presents numerical difficulties and it is necessary to adjust parameters, as well as details of the algorithm, to get convergence. In this versions of the algorithm that works well for planar maneuvers are usually not adequate for the out of plane orbital corrections. In order to illustrate the method, some numerical results are presented.

  15. A new shared control for lane keeping and road departure prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merah, Abdelkader; Hartani, Kada; Draou, Azeddine

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the driver's active assistances have become important features in commercialised vehicles. In this paper, we present one of these features which consists of an advanced driver assistance system for lane keeping. A thorough analysis of its performance and stability with respect to variations in driver behaviour will be given. Firstly, the lateral control model based on visual preview is established and the kinematics model based on visual preview, including speed and other factors, is used to calculate the lateral error and direction error. Secondly, and according to the characteristics of the lateral control, an efficient strategy of intelligent electric vehicle lateral mode is proposed. The integration of the vehicle current lateral error and direction error is chosen as the parameter of the sliding mode switching function to design the sliding surface. The control variables are adjusted according to the fuzzy control rules to ensure that they meet the existence and reaching condition. A new fuzzy logic-based switching strategy with an efficient control law is also proposed to ensure a level of continuous and variable sharing according to the state of the driver and the vehicle positioning on the roadway. The proposed control law acts either at the centre of the lane, as a lane keeping assistance system to reduce the driver's workload for long trips, or as a lane departure avoidance system that intervenes for unintended lane departures. Simulation results are included in this paper to explain this concept.

  16. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shengjun; Yang, Xianqing; Li, Laihao

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic products are extremely perishable food commodities. Developing methods to keep the freshness of fish represents a major task of the fishery processing industry. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as food preservative is a novel approach. In the present study, the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi was examined. Fish fillets were dipped in Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 (obtained from China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) suspension as LAB-treated group. Changes in K-value, APC, sensory properties and microbial flora were analyzed. Results showed that LAB treatment slowed the increase of K-value and APC in the earlier storage, and caused a smooth decrease in sensory score. Gram-negative bacteria dominated during refrigerated storage, with Pseudomonas and Aeromonas being relatively abundant. Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 had no obvious inhibitory effect against these Gram-negatives. However, Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 changed the composition of Gram-positive bacteria. No Micrococcus were detected and the proportion of Staphylococcus decreased in the spoiled LAB-treated samples. The period that tilapia fillets could be used as sashimi material extended from 24 h to 48 h after LAB treatment. The potential of using LAB in sashimi processing was confirmed.

  17. An effective utilization management strategy by dual approach of influencing physician ordering and gate keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnenaei, Manal O; Campbell, Samuel G; Thoni, Andrea J; Lou, Amy; Crocker, Bryan D; Nassar, Bassam A

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of appropriate laboratory test utilization. We investigate the effect of a multifaceted educational approach that includes physician feedback on individual test ordering, in conjunction with targeted restriction, on the utilization of selected laboratory tests. Scientific evidence was compiled on the usefulness and limitations of tests suspected of being over utilized in our laboratories. A variety of approaches were used to deliver education on each of the targeted tests, with greater focus on primary care physicians (PCPs). Feedback on requesting behavior of these tests was also communicated to the latter group which included an educational component. Laboratory based restriction of testing was also exercised, including the unbundling of our electrolyte panel. PCP requesting patterns for the selected tests were found to be markedly skewed. The interventions implemented over the study period resulted in a substantial 51% reduction in overall ordering of five of the targeted tests equating to an annual marginal cost saving of $60,124. Unbundling of the electrolyte panel resulted in marginal cost savings that equated annually to $42,500 on chloride and $48,000 on total CO2. A multifaceted educational approach combined with feedback on utilization and laboratory driven gate-keeping significantly reduced the number of laboratory tests suspected of being redundant or unjustifiably requested. Laboratory professionals are well positioned to manage demand on laboratory tests by utilizing evidence base in developing specific test ordering directives and gate-keeping rules. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  19. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  20. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  1. Valve for gas centrifuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  2. String Gas Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...

  3. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  4. More natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, P.; Valais, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that large resources and growing markets are the salient prospects of natural gas for the coming decades. The greater impact of natural gas on the worldwide energy market can become a reality if several scientific disciplines can be mobilized in order to succeed in cutting production costs. Modeling, mechanics of complex fluids, and physical chemistry of interfaces are basic disciplines for understanding and mastering the gas processing technologies

  5. Gas in Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) can be thought of as the galactic atmosphere which fills the space between stars. When clouds within the ISM collapse, stars are born. When the stars die, they return their matter to the surrounding gas. Therefore the ISM plays a vital role in galactic evolution. The medium includes starlight, gas, dust, planets, comets, asteroids, fast moving charged particles (cosmic rays) and magnetic fields. The gas can be further divided into hot, warm and cold components, e...

  6. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  7. Gas ampoule-syringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes disposable gas ampoule holding or containing a gas such as a radioactive gas, comprising: (a) a cylindrical glass tube which is adapted to hold the gas; (b) a layer of absorbent material which circumscribes and which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a) which absorbs the gas; (c) a plastic tube, which circumscribes and contacts absorbent material layer (b) and which is externally threaded on each of its end portions; (d) a cap, which is threaded onto a first end of plastic tube (c); (e) a cylindrical block, which is positioned in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) adjacent to cap (d), which contacts cylindrical glass tube (a), which is composed of a foamed material and which is impregnated with a gas adsorbent material; (f) a cylindrical plunger tip, which is located in the first end of cylindrical glass tube (a) in a gas-tight manner adjacent to cylindrical block (e); (g) an end stopper, which has a central cylindrical shaft that is positioned in the second end of cylindrical glass tube (a); and (h) a cap, which is threaded onto the second end of plastic tube (e). A combination of the disposable gas ampoule and syringe adapted to operably interface with the gas ampoule is also described

  8. Hydrogen gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A differential thermocouple hydrogen gas detector has one thermocouple junction coated with an activated palladium or palladium-silver alloy catalytic material to allow heated hydrogen gas to react with the catalyst and raise the temperature of that junction. The other juction is covered with inert glass or epoxy resin, and does not experience a rise in temperature in the presence of hydrogen gas. A coil heater may be mounted around the thermocouple junctions to heat the hydrogen, or the gas may be passed through a heated block prior to exposing it to the thermocouples

  9. Natural gas purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, natural gas has gained new momentum because of changes in marketing and regulations. The gas industry has always received an inordinate amount of regulatory control starting at the well head where the gas is produced to the consuming burner tip. Regulations have drastically impacted the availability of gas. Changes in the marketing and regulations have made the natural gas market sensitive at the point of production, the well head. Now, with plentiful supply and ease of transportation to bring the gas from the producing fields to the consumer, natural gas markets are taking advantage of the changed conditions. At the same time, new markets are developing to take advantage of the changes. This section shows consumers, especially the energy planners for large buyers of fuel, the advantages, sources and new methods of securing natural gas supplies. Background on how natural gas is produced and marketed are given. This section lists marketing sources, regulatory agencies and information groups available to help buyers and consumers of this important fuel for US industries and residences. 7 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Gas development plan - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The total supply of natural gas to Estonia is provided by the Russian company ''Lentransgas'', a 10 year contract is under negotiation. The gas transmission system is physically a part of the transmission network in the Baltic region which previously operated as an integral part of the USSR gas transmission system. The potential market is too small to justify investment in an alternative pipeline from the North Sea. The general reduction in purchasing power in the former COMECON countries has resulted in a decreased industrial production in Estonia and lead to a steep decline in natural gas consumption in all sectors except households. The Danish firm ''Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S'' has been requested to assist the Estonian company ''AS Eesti Gaas J.S.C.'' in preparing a gas development plan for Estonia. Phase 1 of this plan aims to provide a detailed description of the status of the existing situation under the headings of gas supply and demand, transmission and distribution, economy and organization. The most important problems related to the current transition of the Estonian gas sector towards operation under market conditions are addressed, focussing on gas supply and market conditions, flow control and metering. The general organization of the gas sector in Estonia is described and possible models for future organization are discussed. Some recommendations are given and areas in need of further investigation are identified. (AB)

  11. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  12. Natural gas outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of natural gas markets in Canada and in the United States was provided. The major factors that determine the direction of natural gas prices were depicted graphically. Price volatility has decreased in recent months. As expected, April through November total energy consumption reached historically high levels. Demand for natural gas during the summer of 1997 was not as strong as anticipated. Nuclear energy appears to be on the slippery slope, with natural gas-driven electricity projects to fill the void. Hydroelectricity had a strong showing in 1997. Prospects are less bright for 1998 due to above average temperatures. Canadian natural gas export capacity has increased 5.5 times between 1986 and estimated 1999 levels. Despite this, in 1997, deliveries to the United States were marginally behind expectations. Natural gas consumption, comparative fuel prices, natural gas drilling activity, natural gas storage capacity, actual storage by region, and average weekly spot natural gas prices, for both the U. S. and Canada, were also provided. With regard to Canada, it was suggested that Canadian producers are well positioned for a significant increase in their price realization mostly because of the increase in Canada's export capacity in 1997 (+175 Mmcf/d), 1998 (1,060 Mmcf/d) and potentially in 1999 or 2000, via the Alliance Pipeline project. Nevertheless, with current production projections it appears next to impossible to fill the 10.9 Bcf/d of export capacity that will be potentially in place by the end of 1999. tabs., figs

  13. Latin American gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the economic recovery that is underway in Latin America which remains one of the world's most important markets for natural gas which will need investment over the coming years. Forecasts of rising gas demand, the restructuring of the gas industry, estimates of the investments needed, Latin America's heavy use of hydroelectric power, market patterns for international gas trade in South America, and the construction of a Bolivia to Brazil pipeline are discussed. Overviews of the situations in Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, and Bolivia are presented

  14. The natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrasta, F.; Kaminski, V.; Prevatt, R.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief history of the natural gas market highlighting the changes in the gas market and examining risk management in practice detailing the types of price risks, and the use of hedging using forwards and swaps. Options to manage risk are identified, and the role of risk management in financing, the role of the intermediary, and the market outlook are discussed. Panels describing the market structure, storage and natural gas risk management, the art of risk management, the winter 1995-96 basis blowout, spark spreads, the UK gas market and Europe, and weather derivatives are presented

  15. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  16. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  17. 2017 Gas Congress special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, Patrick; Ferrier, Jerome; Holleaux, Didier; Vivier, Laurent; Gattaz, Pierre; Delga, Carole; Carenco, Jean-Francois; Sadamori, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of 'Gaz d'Aujourd'hui' journal is entirely devoted to the 2017 Gas Congress proceedings. The congress was organized in 5 round tables and 12 workshops: Round table 1 - COP 21 2 years after, workshops 1-6: 1 - digital transformation: what are the challenges for the gas sector? 2 - Which actors and what policies to fight against energy insecurity? 3 - Natural gas development: what fiscal signs? 4 - Terrestrial transportation: current situation and prospects; 5 - Consumers' perception of gas; 6 - industrial uses; Round table 2 - Maritime and fluvial LNG perspectives; Round table 3 - Territories, the new decision-makers, workshops 7-12: 7 - What energy regulation for tomorrow? 8 - How to succeed in injecting more and more green gas? 9 - Digital, data and emerging technologies (drones, blockchain..): challenges and applications for gas networks? 10 - Underground storage: a promising infrastructure? 11 - Security of supply: what new cooperation? 12 - Power-to-gas: a new way of energy valorization; Round table 4 - Gas and electricity, winning synergies; Round table 5 - The Europe of gas

  18. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  19. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and power generation sector is quite variable depending on increases of temperature during summer time. There are also external issuesthat affect the normal gas flow such as fails on the national system or unexpected interruptions on it, what imply that companies which distribute natural gas should design plans that allow supplying the requirements above mentioned. One plan is using underground natural gas storage with capacities and deliverability rates enough to supply demands. In Colombia there are no laws in this sense but it could be an exploration to discuss different ways to store gas either way as underground natural gas storage or above superficies. Existing basically three different types of underground natural gas storage; depleted reservoirs, salt caverns and aquifers. All ofthem are adequate according to geological characteristics and the needs of the distributors companies of natural gas. This paper is anexploration of technical and economical characteristics of different kind of storages used to store natural gas worldwide.

  20. Close loop gas recirculation and purification system for INO RPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.V.; Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Close loop gas recirculation system (CLS) is designed to overcome problems. The present system is a pilot unit catering to about 12 RPC detectors of 2m ÃâĂŤ 2m size. The gas mixture is prepared in required concentration, in-situ, and circulated throughout the loop at controlled flow rates. The pressure band is adjusted to be within 20mm of water column. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) keeps track of pressure and flow rates, process sequence and safety conditions. The loss of gas is continuously monitored to assess effectiveness of CLS. The concentration of gas components in the mixtures is monitored by sampling through Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). The RPC performance parameters, such as leakage current, noise rate, efficiency and cross-talk are monitored vis-a-vis CLS parameters. It has been found that RPC parameters respond in coordination with CLS functioning. Room pressure and temperature also seem to have influence on both of them