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  1. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    SHIVANAND BHAT; M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY; L. Rajanna

    2014-01-01

    Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species), Apocynaceae (11spp.), Cucurbitaceae (10 spp.) and Fabaceae (10 spp.) are the predominant f...

  2. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar

    2012-04-01

    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

  3. Resurgence of diphtheria in rural areas of North Karnataka, India

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    Mahantesh V Parande

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diphtheria outbreak was identified from Vijayapura (formerly Bijapur district in the South Indian state of Karnataka in 2011. There was a surge in the number of throat swab samples received under the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP in North Karnataka since then. Objectives: A microbiological study was undertaken to generate information on the status of resurgence of the disease in the region. Materials and Methods: Throat swabs from 432 suspected cases of diphtheria during 2012–2015 were obtained from government hospitals and primary health centres of 8 districts in North Karnataka and were processed for the culture and identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Polymerase chain reaction for the presence of toxin gene (toxA and toxB was carried out on the isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed on the isolates with a panel of 14 antibiotics. Results: Thirty-eight (8.79% out of 432 samples yielded C. diphtheriae on culture. All isolates possessed the diphtheria toxin gene. Out of the 38 confirmed cases, whereas 21 (55.26% were between 1 and 5 years of age, 14 (36.84% were aged between 5 and 10 years. Male children were three times more than females in confirmed cases. No information was available on the immunisation status of the cases. Emergence of resistance to penicillin was found with minimum inhibitory concentration reaching up to 6.00 μg/ml. Conclusion and Discussion: Our study identified an upsurge in cases of diphtheria in North Karnataka, particularly in Vijayapura District, and to the best of our knowledge, reports the emergence of penicillin resistance for the first time in India. The study calls for enhanced surveillance for the disease, making antidiphtheritic serum available in key hospitals in the region and serves to provide a baseline for future assessment of the impact of the recently launched 'Mission Indradhanush' programme in strengthening Universal Immunisation Programme

  4. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

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    M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.

  5. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India

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    SHIVANAND BHAT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bhat S, Bhandary MJ, Rajanna L. 2014. Plant diversity in the homegardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 229-235. A study was conducted in 50 selected home gardens of Karwar, Karnataka, India to document their floristic diversity and composition with regard to life forms and uses. As many as 210 species of flowering plants belonging to 69 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae (13species, Apocynaceae (11spp., Cucurbitaceae (10 spp. and Fabaceae (10 spp. are the predominant families. Shrubs are the dominant life forms (73 spp. followed by trees (61 spp., herbs (42 spp. and climbers (24 spp.. Areca palm (Areca catechu, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera, mango tree (Mangifera indica, banana (Musa paradisiaca, shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum are the most common plants occurring in all of the 50 studied gardens. 38% of the plant species are grown mainly for ornamental and aesthetic purposes while 33% of the species are used for obtaining food products like fruits and vegetables and 22% of the plants are mainly used for medicinal purposes. The predominance of ornamental species makes the home gardens of Karwar different from those occurring in other regions in which mostly food plants form the major component.

  6. Textural characteristics of foreshore sediments along Karnataka shoreline, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.; Vinayaraj, P.; Gowthaman, R.

    Grain character analysis of beach sediments along three selected beaches (Pavinkurve, Kundapura and Padukare) of Karnataka coast, west coast of India is carried out to identify the textural behavior of beach sediments during an annual cycle from...

  7. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

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    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  8. First record of redneck goby Schismatogobius deraniyagalai (Teleostei: Gobiidae from Seethanathi river, Karnataka, Southern India.

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    Muthukumarasamy Arunachalam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schismatogobius deraniyagalai is recorded from the Seethanathi River of Karnataka state in the southern part of India. Previous records of these species were from the streams in Kerala of India and from freshwater habitats of Sri Lanka. Herein we report the occurrence of this species in Seethanathi River showing its distribution extended further north along the west coast of Peninsular India.

  9. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India.

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    Dey, Shuchismita; Parande, Mahantesh V; Parande, Aisha M; Lakkannavar, S L; Rathore, Poonam K; Mantur, B G; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Roy, Subarna

    2014-09-01

    Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. While 101 people (0.38%) were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94%) were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  10. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

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    Shuchismita Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  11. A report on some macrolichens new to Karnataka, India

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    K.S Vinayaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports six new records of lichen species to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The sampling was carried out from August 2007 to April 2010 in Malnad regions of Karnataka. Lichens were identified by studying their external and internal morphology and chemical tests. Heterodermia albidiflava, H. microphylla, Ramalina cfr. taitensis, Usnea aciculifera, U. eumitrioides and U. sinensis are described as new to Western Ghats of Karnataka. The specimens are housed at the herbarium of the Department of Botany, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Shimoga, Karnataka.

  12. Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India.

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    Chandrashekar, Janakiram; Thankappan, K R; Sundaram, K R

    2010-12-01

    Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 17 states of India. Earlier studies have reported that Jowar (a type of millet) consumption interacts with fluoride (F) in the body and enhances fluorosis. We conducted this study to determine the association between jowar consumption and severity of dental fluorosis. A community based case control study was carried out in villages having different F levels (low, medium, and high) in drinking water in North Karnataka, India. 352 school Children (12-15 years, male 58%) with severe dental fluorosis classified by Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (1988) were selected as cases. 428 school children (12-15 years, male 48.8%) with no dental fluorosis were selected randomly from the same area as controls. Exposure ascertainment of jowar consumption was done by 24-h diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the F level in spot urine samples of subjects and in drinking water. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS V. 11.01 Children who consumed jowar had 2.67 times more chance of getting severe dental fluorosis compared to those who did not [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.67, CI 1.98-3.62]. Children from high F level villages (OR 1.91, CI 1.27-2.85) had higher odds of severe dental fluorosis compared to children from medium and low F level villages. Daily jowar consumers (OR 2.14, CI 1.64-3.09) and weekly consumers (OR 1.68, CI 1.31-3.45) had higher risk for dental fluorosis compared to non jowar consumers. Children who started consuming jowar before 8 years of age had significantly higher proportion of severe dental fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Urinary F excretion among jowar consumers was significantly lower than non-jowar consumers. Jowar consumption was positively associated with severity of dental fluorosis in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Ethnomedicinal plants used in the treatment of skin diseases in Hyderabad Karnataka region, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivakumar Singh Policepatel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To document traditional medicinal plants knowledge used in treating skin diseases at Hyderabad Karnataka Region.Methods:gathered from traditional herbal healers and other villagers through interviews.Results:A total of 60 plants species belonging to 57 genera and 34 families were found useful The information on the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases was and herewith described them along with the method of drug preparation, mode of administration, probable dosage and duration of treatment. Several new findings on the traditional rural practices were reported.Conclusions:The present study revealed that the Hyderabad Karnataka rural people is primarily dependent on medicinal plants for treating skin diseases.

  14. Prevalence of classical swine fever in Karnataka, India

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    Prakash Choori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to know the current scenario of classical swine fever (CSF in Bengaluru Urban, Bengaluru Rural, Chikkaballapur, Madikeri, Mandya, Bagalkot, Gadag, Yadgir, Koppal, and Bidar districts of Karnataka with the using of both antigen and antibody ELISA. Materials and Methods: We collected 218 sera and 121 blood samples from pigs from 10 different districts of Karnataka. Screening of sera for CSF IgG antibody and whole blood for CSF virus antigen were carried out using the CSF virus (CSFV antibody and antigen ELISA kits, respectively. Results: The mean seroprevalence was 41% (89/218 and prevalence of CSFV antigen in blood samples was 32% (39/121 for the 10 districts of Karnataka. Seroprevalence of 61%, 29%, 20%, and 21%; and antigen prevalence of 40%, 50%, 13%, and 12% were recorded for Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, and Gulbarga divisions of Karnataka, respectively. Conclusions: The study revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of CSF, both for the antigen (32% and antibody (41% in Karnataka. Southern Karnataka has the highest seroprevalence (61% in Bangalore and 29% in Mysore divisions, which confirms the endemicity of the disease in that region. This could be attributed to the intensive pig farming practices in the region as compared to Northern Karnataka (Seroprevalence of 20% in Belgaum and 21% in Gulbarga divisions, where the commercial pig farming is still in infantile stages.

  15. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh

    . Coast. Res., vol.27(5); 2011; 824-829 Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India V.Sanil Kumar, G. Udhaba Dora, Sajive Philip, P.Pednekar and JaiSingh Ocean Engineering, National Institute...

  16. Use of ICT in College Libraries in Karnataka, India: A Survey

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    Kumar, B. T. Sampath; Biradar, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose; The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of information communication technology (ICT) in 31 college libraries in Karnataka, India by investigating the ICT infrastructure, current status of library automation, barriers to implementation of library automation and also librarians' attitudes towards the use of ICT.…

  17. India--Karnataka: Secondary Education and The New Agenda for Economic Growth.

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    Bashir, Sajitha

    Karnataka (India) recorded impressive growth in the 1990s, with state income growing at 8% per annum, driven largely by expansion of the industrial and service sectors. However, this impressive performance has not reduced rural poverty levels or regional disparities to a great extent. This report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in…

  18. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mony, Prem K; Jayanna Krishnamurthy; Annamma Thomas; Kiruba Sankar; B M Ramesh; Stephen Moses; James Blanchard; Lisa Avery

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health fac...

  19. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Prem K Mony; Jayanna Krishnamurthy; Annamma Thomas; Kiruba Sankar; Ramesh, B. M.; Stephen Moses; James Blanchard; Lisa Avery

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health fac...

  20. BUTTERFLY DIVERSITY AND STATUS IN MANDAGADDE OF SHIVAMOGGA, KARNATAKA, INDIA

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    E.N.Jeevan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of butterflies in Mandagadde of Shivamogga of Karnataka carried out. Many butterfly species are strictly seasonal and prefer only a particular set of habitats and they are good indicators in terms of anthropogenic disturbances and habitat destruction. The richness and diversity of butterfly species is proportional to the food plant diversity, richness of flowers and intensity of rainfall. Unfortunately, butterflies are threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation almost everywhere. A total of 52 species of butterflies belonging to 5 families were recorded during the study period. Among the 5 families, Nymphalidae dominated the list with 23 species, Paplionidae with 9 species, Pieridae and Lycaenidae with 8 species each and Hesperidae with 4 species. It is found that 9 species of butterflies are very common, 26 species are common and 17 species are rare in occurrence in Mandagadde

  1. Two new species of Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Karnataka, India.

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    Poorani, J

    2015-01-01

    The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolussororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species.

  2. Sex determination using discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kurubas) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India: A lateral cephalometric study.

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    Devang Divakar, Darshan; John, Jacob; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Mavinapalla, Seema; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed Ibrahim; Dalati, M H N; Durgesh, B H; Safadi, Rima A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To test the validity of sex discrimination using lateral cephalometric radiograph and discriminant function analysis in Indigenous (Kuruba) children and adolescents of Coorg, Karnataka, India. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixteen lateral cephalograms of 380 male and 236 females of age ranging from 6.5 to 18 years of Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India called Kurubas having a normal occlusion were included in the study. Lateral cephalograms were obtained in a standard position with teeth in centric occlusion and lips relaxed. Each radiograph was traced and cephalometric landmarks were measured using digital calliper. Calculations of 24 cephalometric measurements were performed. Results: Males exhibited significantly greater mean angular and linear cephalometric measurements as compared to females (p determine other landmarks that can help in sex determination and norms for Indigenous (Kuruba) population and also other Indigenous population of Coorg, Karnataka, India.

  3. CHANDRAVALLI – AN EARLY HISTORIC SETTLEMENT IN KARNATAKA, INDIA

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    Hema Thakur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The settlements of Chandravalli and Brahmagiri come under the Krishna basin.  Chandravalli and Brahmagiri are close to Chinnahagari, a tributary of Tungabhadra.  Both the settlements are located in district Chitradurga which is a part of South Maidan.  The area of South Maidan is marked by boulders and hills and is rich in mineral deposits and building material, notably iron, gold, copper, maganese, garnet, diamonds, granite, limestone, soapstone, etc.  It is a possibility that the Mauryas, who were based in North ventured into Karnataka to gain access to these minerals, particularly gold and diamonds.  Chandravalli has given evidence for typical early historic material assemblage comprising of brick structures, pottery, ornaments, terracottas, coins, Roman antiquities, inscriptions, etc.  In this paper the author has attempted to have an understanding of the sources which would have supported the human habitation at Chandravalli.  The discussion on sources has been done with respect to the local geographical and environmental conditions.Key Words – Chandravlli, sources, minerals, coins, traders

  4. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India.

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    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Dixit, Uma B; Nayakar, Ramesh P; Ashwin, Devasya; Ramagoni, Naveen K; Kamavaram Ellore, Vijaya P

    2016-01-01

    An earlier epidemiological study by these authors revealed fluorosis at very low levels of fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of present study was to investigate risk factors of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth in the villages of northern Karnataka, India. The present survey was carried out in three villages of Hungund Taluk, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, with the fluoride concentration of 0.136, 0.381, and 1.36 ppm. Children aged between 9 and 15, with permanent teeth, were examined for dental fluorosis using Dean's index, as per WHO criteria. Required relevant information regarding risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Data entry and analysis were performed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Comparison of means of different indices by the three groups was performed using ANOVA and t-test (p prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Those variables showing a statistically significant association (p prevalence and severity of fluorosis. From multiple logistic regression analysis, only fluoride concentration in drinking water was found significant with prevalence of fluorosis and only nutritional status showed significant association with severity of fluorosis. Presence or absence of dental fluorosis in permanent teeth was significantly associated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Once present, its severity was determined by nutritional status of the children - malnourished children exhibiting severe form of fluorosis. Mahantesha T, Dixit UB, Nayakar RP, Ashwin D Ramagoni NK, Ellore VPK. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):256-263.

  5. Clinico-epidemiological profile of malaria: Analysis from a primary health centre in Karnataka, Southern India

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    Ramachandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in India and worldwide. The present study was based on records from a primary health centre in Karnataka. Morbidity patterns and important features of malaria transmission specific to Udupi district were investigated. The incidence of malaria and various morbidity patterns during 2010 and 2011 were compared and analyzed. Factors such as rapid urbanization, increased construction activities and influx of migratory workers were highlighted as the leading causes for the advent of malaria in the area. Recommendations have been provided for implementation in the near future.

  6. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  7. PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA IN INDIA

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    Kugali. N. M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analysis such as temperature, pH, Total hardness, Chloride, fluoride, iron, Total Alkalinity, Nitrate, Nitrite and sulfate of bore wells, drinking water has been carried out from twenty sampling stations of Bagalkot territory area, India during March 2013 and August 2013 in order to assess water quality index.

  8. Heavy metal pollution in water and sediments in the Kabini River, Karnataka, India.

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    Taghinia Hejabi, Azadeh; Basavarajappa, H T; Karbassi, A R; Monavari, S M

    2011-11-01

    The River Kabini in Karnataka, India carries natural and anthropogenic pollutants, mainly heavy metal concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn which are released from industrial effluents, agricultural return flows and domestic sewage. Kabini, which is a tributary of the Cauvery, drains through the industrial area at Nanjangud, Karnataka, India. Heavy metals were determined in waters and sediment (2 μm) of Kabini River. In the present investigation, chemical partitioning studies was carried out to know the association of base metals with various sedimentary phases. The concentrations of heavy metals are higher in loosely bonded fraction than the other studied fractions. Furthermore, the degree of sediment contamination was assessed by geochemical index. It should be pointed out that Cu and Cr show the highest pollution intensity. Cluster analysis was used to know about the inter correlation amongst the studied metals. It is evident that higher concentrations of metals are found in the vicinity of industrial effluents. The concentrations of Cr followed by Zn and Ni are rather higher than the maximum background values in the Kabini River sediment. This is especially true at the influx of paper mill effluents into the River.

  9. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among malnourished children in nutritional rehabilitation centres of Karnataka, India: missed opportunities.

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    Prashant G Bhat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is the most serious form of malnutrition affecting children under-five and is associated with many infectious diseases including Tuberculosis (TB. In India, nutritional rehabilitation centres (NRCs have been recently established for the management of SAM including TB. The National TB Programme (NTP in India has introduced a revised algorithm for diagnosing paediatric TB. We aimed to examine whether NRCs adhered to these guidelines in diagnosing TB among SAM children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving review of records of all SAM children identified by health workers during 2012 in six tehsils (sub-districts with NRCs (population: 1.8 million of Karnataka, India. RESULTS: Of 1927 identified SAM children, 1632 (85% reached NRCs. Of them, 1173 (72% were evaluated for TB and 19(2% were diagnosed as TB. Of 1173, diagnostic algorithm was followed in 460 (37%. Among remaining 763 not evaluated as per algorithm, tuberculin skin test alone was conducted in 307 (41%, chest radiography alone in 99 (13% and no investigations in 337 (45%. The yield of TB was higher among children evaluated as per algorithm (4% as compared to those who were not (0.3% (OR: 15.3 [95%CI: 3.5-66.3]. Several operational challenges including non-availability of a full-time paediatrician, non-functioning X-ray machine due to frequent power cuts, use of tuberculin with suboptimal strength and difficulties in adhering to a complex diagnostic algorithm were observed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that TB screening in NRCs was sub-optimal in Karnataka. Some children did not reach the NRC, while many of those who did were either not or sub-optimally evaluated for TB. This study pointed to a number of operational issues that need to be addressed if this collaborative strategy is to identify more TB cases amongst malnourished children in India.

  10. Surface water quality evaluation and modeling of Ghataprabha River, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandara, B K; Varadarajan, N; Venkatesh, B; Choubey, V K

    2012-03-01

    Belgaum city is a developmental hub of Karnataka State in India. In the recent time, the Government of Karnataka has planned to set up many processing industries in the vicinity of Belgaum to meet the growing needs of the region and to ease out the pressure on the already existing industrial hubs in Karnataka State. Ghataprabha, a tributary of river Krishna, is one of the major sources of water supply to Belgaum city and adjoining areas. During the last decade, a lot of anthropogenic activities such as unplanned agricultural activities are ongoing in many parts of the catchment. Therefore, people of Belgaum are more concerned about the quality of water in Ghataprabha river. Considering the significance of water quality of the river, surface water samples were collected during Pre- and Post-monsoon season from selected locations and analyzed for both physical and chemical constituents in the laboratory. The results indicate that the chemical parameters such as bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium are within the permissible limits. QUAL2E model was applied to assess the impact of point and non-point sources of pollution on the river water quality. Results show that the water quality conditions are highly acceptable all along the river stretch. Further, the variation of DO-BOD(5) with river discharge was also estimated. Also, a significant variations in DO (decrease in DO) with the increase in river flow was observed. However, at the downstream end, considerable improvement in DO was noticed which is attributed to the damming effect of the reservoir.

  11. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

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    Honnavalli N. Kumara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  12. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

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    Honnavalli N. Kumara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  13. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandra Naik M; Vaishnavi Venugopalan; Preethi Kumaravelayutham; YL Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of various plants used by the Lambani ethnic group in Chitradurga District of Karnataka, Southern India for traditional veterinary purposes. The area is rich in plant wealth; therefore this study has been made to prepare an inventory of indigenous medicinal plants and to bring traditional knowledge on record. Methods: In accordance to standardized WHO questionnaires, one hundred fourteen informants - consisting of healers, practitioners, farmers and village headman - were interviewed regarding the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Chitradurga District, Karnataka during February 2010 to October 2010. Results: Ethno botanical uses of 39 plants belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as lack of appetites, bloat, fever, ephemeral fever, diarrhea, cough, foot and mouth disease etc. Of the plants studied, most were trees and leaves contributed mainly to the plant part used for medical purpose. Conclusions:Lambani tribe, who are generally poor and live in remote areas, use ethno veterinary medicine (EVM) for the primary healthcare of their animals. The use of plants reveals their interest in ethnomedicine and further research on these species could lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules for efficient management of diseases.

  14. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

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    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  15. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants.

  16. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

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    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Subsurface Water Quality in Challakere Taluk, Karnataka, India

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    H Manjunatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural India relies mainly on groundwater for drinking and agriculture. Unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater has led to the spectra of depleting the problem of water scarcity. The available groundwater quality is not only contaminated by hazardous pathogenic germs and anthropogenic substances but also geogenic substances is adversely affect the water supply of many regions. The groundwater of Challakere taluk had many threats such as anthropogenic activities, quality deterioration by agricultural activities and over exploitation and also persistence of continuous drought condition. This paper mainly addresses the physico-chemical concentration of 30 groundwater samples during August 2009 in Challakere taluk, Karnataka (India. The results of all the findings are discussed in details which reflect the present status of the groundwater quality of the study area. Groundwater is extremely important to the future economy and growth of rural India. If the resource is to remain available as high quality water for future generation it is important to protect from possible contamination. Hence it is recommended that suitable water quality management is essential to avoid any further contamination.

  18. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  19. Phosphate Solubilizers from the Rhizosphere of Piper nigrum L. in Karnataka, India Solubilizadores de Fosfatos desde la Rizósfera de Piper nigrum L. en Karnataka, India

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    Usha Seshachala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is a climbing vine known for its pungent fruit used as a spice worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available P content in the native soils where pepper is grown as a crop plant. The native population of phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM was studied from the rhizosphere of P. nigrum plants grown in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. A variety of phosphate solubilising bacteria and fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere soil samples. Phosphate solubilising capacity of different isolates was studied on Pikovskaya's medium. The isolates were tested for their phosphate solubilising capacity in vitro with three different phosphate sources, tricalcium phosphate (TCP, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KHP, and rock phosphate (RP in the concentrations 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1. The three phosphate sources were solubilised by the isolates in varying proportions. The dominant PSM flora obtained from the samples included Bacillus and Aspergillus. The study showed that PSM utilised the three phosphate sources TCP, KHP, and RP with considerable variability. The phosphatase activity of the isolates showed that the predominant microorganisms were Bacillus subtilis (5.33 U mL-1 and Aspergillus (11.5 U mL¹. The predominant organisms were identified up to molecular level.La pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L. es una planta trepadora conocida por su fruto utilizado como especia en todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de P disponible en los suelos nativos donde se cultiva. La población nativa de microbios solubilizantes de fosfato (PSM fue estudiada en la rizósfera de plantas de P. nigrum cultivadas en los Ghats occidentales de Karnataka, India. Una variedad de hongos y bacterias solubilizantes de fosfato fueron aislados de muestras de suelo de la rizósfera. La capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato de diferentes aislamientos fue estudiada en medio de Pikovskaya. Los aislados fueron

  20. Pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India

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    Ramesha K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It is important to know the nature, severity and outcome of acute poisoning cases in order to take up appropriate planning, prevention and management techniques. This study aimed to assess the pattern and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care hospital in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective hospital record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical institution in Karnataka. The study included 136 cases and data regarding age, sex, time elapsed after intake; circumstances of poisoning, name of the poisonous substance, chemical type, duration of hospitalization, severity and outcome were collected in the prestructured proforma. Results: Incidence was more common among males (75.4% compared to females (24.3. Most cases of acute poisoning presented among 20- to 29-year age group (31.2% followed by 12- to 19-year age group (30.2%. A majority of poisoning cases (36.0% were due to organophosphorus compound (OPC. Total mortality was found to be 15.4%. Mortality rate due to corrosives was significantly high compared with OPC poisoning (χ2 = 4.12, P = 0.04. Of the 56 patients of OPC and carbamate poisoning, 13 patients (23.2% had respiratory arrest and required respiratory support. Time lapse had a significant role on the mortality in cases of acute poisoning (χ2 = 10.9, P = 0.01. Conclusion: Poisoning is more common in young males. The overall mortality is substantially high, mainly contributed by self-poisoning with insecticides and corrosives. Early care in a tertiary care center may help to reduce mortality in India.

  1. Gender Variables and Reproductive Behaviour of Women from Rural Mangalore, South Karnataka, India

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    Radha Y. Aras

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a growing sense that health and development programs can contribute to transforming gender norms and achieving good health and gender equality. Married women in India lack control over decisions related to their sexual and reproductive behavior due to gender inequities, cultural norms, limited economics and social autonomy. Gender disparities in the form of adverse sex ratio, wage differentials and various health and education dimensions are still prevalent in the Karnataka State. Hence a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural community of Mangalore, Karnataka, India.Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the reproductive health of women and their associations with gender variables prevailing in the community. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Shantibagh and Vaidyanath Nagar Community in a Kotekar Panchayat at Mangalore from December 2009 to January 2010. A pretested semi structured interview tool was used to collect the information on the epidemiological variables related to reproductive health and gender issues. By systematic random sampling techinique, 214 women in the reproductive age groups were interviewed. Results were analysed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS 15.0. Results: There is a strong association between religion and type of Family as well as religion and women’s education status (p < 0.001. Average age at marriage is 21 years and average age at first pregnancy is 22.75 years. Average family size is 2.66. Prevalence of home deliveries is 11.5%. 91% of home deliveries are attended by Dai (Birth Attendants (26% of Dai’s are not trained. 57% of women (n=114- 91 Hindu, 17 Muslim & 6 Christian are using family planning measures and 90% of them decided with joint consultation (both husband and wife. Practice of family planning and traditional mis-belief that “every couple must have a son” are strongly associated with type of religion (p < 0.001. Variables

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of dental interns in Karnataka state, India, regarding implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sohini; Gowda, Triveni M; Kumar, Tarun A B; Mehta, Dhoom S

    2013-10-01

    Implant treatment today is highly reliable as a valid restorative option for missing teeth. As more patients worldwide opt for implant treatment, it is now imperative for dental practitioners to have sound information about dental implants so they can help patients make informed decisions. This study sought to define the knowledge and attitudes regarding dental implants of dental interns in the state of Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the dental implant curriculum structure at the undergraduate level. A survey was conducted of dental interns (students in their fifth, clinical year of undergraduate study) in seven of the forty-five academic dental institutions in this state. The questionnaire consisted of fifteen questions that assessed the respondents' level of knowledge and source of information regarding implants. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 417 interns responded for a response rate of 83.4 percent. In the results, 73.3 percent reported they were not provided sufficient information about implants in their undergraduate curriculum, and 95.7 percent of them wanted more. Also, 63.5 percent of the respondents believed that high costs could limit the use of dental implants as a tooth replacement modality in India. This study concludes that revision in the undergraduate dental curricula at these schools is needed to better prepare students for practicing implant dentistry.

  3. Community health worker knowledge and management of pre-eclampsia in rural Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadurg, Umesh; Vidler, Marianne; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Mallapur, Ashalata; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Bannale, Shashidhar; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Sawchuck, Diane; Qureshi, Rahat; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard

    2016-09-30

    In India, the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and postpartum haemorrhage are responsible for nearly 40 % of all maternal deaths. Most of these deaths occur in primary health settings which frequently lack essential equipment and medication, are understaffed, and have limited or no access to specialist care. Community health care workers are regarded as essential providers of basic maternity care; and the quality of care they provide is dependent on the level of knowledge and skills they possess. However, there is limited research regarding their ability to manage pregnancy complications. This study aims to describe the current state of knowledge regarding pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among community health care workers (auxiliary nurse midwives, accredited social health activists, staff nurses) in northern Karnataka, India. Furthermore, this study describes the treatment approaches used by various cadres of community health workers for these conditions. The findings of this study can help plan focussed training sessions to build upon their strengths and to address the identified gaps. Data were collected as part of a larger study aimed at assessing the feasibility of community-based treatment for pre-eclampsia. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in 2012-2013 in northern Karnataka State: four with staff nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives and four with accredited social health activists. In addition, twelve auxiliary nurse midwives and staff nurses completed questionnaires to explore their competence and self-efficacy in managing pre-eclampsia. Qualitative data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated for thematic analysis using NVivo 10. Community health workers described their understanding of the origins of hypertension and seizures in pregnancy. Psychological explanations of hypertension were most commonly reported: stress, tension, and fear. The most common explanation for eclampsia was not receiving a tetanus vaccination. Despite

  4. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

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    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  5. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of Kamataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard......This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...... screening in areas with limited data availability, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The application makes use of published geophysical data and remote sensing information and is showcasing how the CHW framework can be applied...

  6. Prominent artificial radionuclide activity in the environment of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)]. E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Avadhani, D.N.; Mahesh, H.M.; Siddappa, K. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574 199 (India)

    2000-09-01

    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka were undertaken to provide baseline data for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region and to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. As part of the programme the concentrations of two important artificial radionuclides, namely {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, have been measured in a number of environmental samples. The concentration of {sup 90}Sr is very low in most of the samples. Among the samples analysed for the concentration of {sup 137}Cs, soil samples showed elevated levels of activity in some sampling stations. Among the vegetables, brinjal (Solanum melongena. L) showed considerable activity. The internal dose due to intake of {sup 90}Sr through diet was 0.42 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the vegetarian population and 0.32 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} for the non-vegetarian population. The internal dose due to dietary intake of {sup 137}Cs was found to be 0.34 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} and 0.26 {mu}Sv year{sup -1} respectively for the vegetarian and non-vegetarian population. The results are discussed in the light of the literature values reported for other environs of India and abroad and appropriate inferences are drawn. (author)

  7. Evaluation of re-aeration equations for river Ghataprabha, Karnataka, India and development of refined equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalburgi, P B; Jha, R; Ojha, C S P; Deshannavar, U B

    2015-01-01

    Stream re-aeration is an extremely important component to enhance the self-purification capacity of streams. To estimate the dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the river, estimation of re-aeration coefficient is mandatory. Normally, the re-aeration coefficient is expressed as a function of several stream variables, such as mean stream velocity, shear stress velocity, bed slope, flow depth and Froude number. Many empirical equations have been developed in the last years. In this work, 13 most popular empirical re-aeration equations, used for re-aeration prediction, have been tested for their applicability in Ghataprabha River system, Karnataka, India, at various locations. Extensive field data were collected during the period March 2008 to February 2009 from seven different sites located in the river to observe re-aeration coefficient using mass balance approach. The performance of re-aeration equations have been evaluated using various error estimations, namely, the standard error (SE), mean multiplicative error (MME), normalized mean error (NME) and correlation statistics. The results show that the predictive equation developed by Jha et al. (Refinement of predictive re-aeration equations for a typical Indian river. Hydrological Process. 2001;15(6):1047-1060), for a typical Indian river, yielded the best agreement with the values of SE, MME, NME and correlation coefficient r. Furthermore, a refined predictive equation has been developed for river Ghataprabha using least-squares algorithm that minimizes the error estimates.

  8. Genetic variation and population structure of interleukin genes among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srilakshmi M. Raj; Diddahally R. Govindaraju; Ranajit Chakraborty

    2007-12-01

    The extent of genetic variation and the degree of genetic differentiation among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India (Bunt, Havyak, Iyengar, Lingayath, Smartha, Vaishya, Vokkaliga), was investigated using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: IL-1A 4845, IL-1B 3954, IL-1B 511 and IL-1RA 2018) of the interleukin gene cluster. Allele frequencies varied by threefold among these populations, which also differed for gene diversity and heterozygosity levels. The average degree of population subdivision among these castes was low ($F_{ST} = 0.02$). However, pair-wise interpopulation differentiation ranged from 0–7%, indicating no detectable differentiation to moderate differentiation between specific populations. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distances between populations agreed with known social and cultural data on these ethnic groups. Variation in the allele frequencies, as well as differentiation, may be attributed to differential selection and demographic factors including consanguinity among the ethnic groups. Information on the distribution of functionally relevant polymorphisms among ethnic populations may be important towards developing community medicine and public health policies.

  9. Estimation of LAI and above-ground biomass in deciduous forests: Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Nizalapur, Vyjayanthi; Jha, Chandra Shekhar

    2008-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of IRS P6 LISS-IV high-resolution multispectral sensor (IGFOV ˜ 6 m)-based estimation of biomass in the deciduous forests in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Regression equations describing the relationship between IRS P6 LISS-IV data-based vegetation index (NDVI) and field measured leaf area index (ELAI) and estimated above-ground biomass (EAGB) were derived. Remote sensing (RS) data-based leaf area index (PLAI) image is generated using regression equation based on NDVI and ELAI ( r2 = 0.68, p ≤ 0.05). RS-based above-ground biomass (PAGB) image was generated based on regression equation developed between PLAI and EAGB ( r2 = 0.63, p ≤ 0.05). The mean value of estimated above-ground biomass and RS-based above-ground biomass in the study area are 280(±72.5) and 297.6(±55.2) Mg ha -1, respectively. The regression models generated in the study between NDVI and LAI; LAI and biomass can also help in generating spatial biomass map using RS data alone. LISS-IV-based estimation of biophysical parameters can also be used for the validation of various coarse resolution satellite products derived from the ground-based measurements alone.

  10. Studies On Marine Wood-Borers Of Kali Estuary, Karwar, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Neelakanton, K. B.

    2008-05-01

    The damage caused to underwater timber construction in Marine environment by Molluscan and Crustaceans borers is well known and is of great economic significance to all maritime countries having an expanding shipping and fishing industry. Biodeterioration of marine structure, fishing crafts and living in mangrove vegetation is quite severe along the Karwar coast. The destruction is caused by atleast 14 species and 1 variety of borers belonging to the moluscan and crustacean families of the Teredinidae, Pholadidae and Sphaeromatidae. The following species have been so far recorded: Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellaatus, L.Massa, Bankia rochi, B. campanellata, Mausitora hedleyi,Martesia striata, M.NMairi,Sphaeroma terebrans, S.annandalei, S. annandalei travancorensis. These borers, particularly, the molluscs have prodigenous fecundity producing enormous number of young ones in one brood. They have unlimited appetite attacking any type woodly materials exposed in the sea. They attack in heavy intensity and, because of their fast rate of growth, destroy timber with in a short time of few months. All this together with their other highly specialized. Adaptations make marine wood borers man's number one enemy in the sea. Along Karwar costs borer damage to timber structure is heavy throughout the year, highest in September to November and lowest in June and July. Ecological and biological aspects of the borers are also discussed. Ref: L.N.Shantakumaran, Sawant S.G., Nair N.B., Anil Angre, Nagabhushanan R. STUDIES ON MARINE WOOD-BORERS OF KALI ESTUARY, KARWAR, KARNATAKA, INDIA

  11. MODELING SIMULATION OF SEDIMENT ANALYSIS FOR MALAPRABHA RIVER IN KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

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    Vinayak Krishnamurty Naik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport, settling and quantity of solutes in rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs are the important aspects in water-quality modeling. This has been the major concern for the researchers, scientists and engineers for the last 50 years who actively involved in water quality modeling. Consequently, characterization of hydrodynamics and water budgets has been an essential component in the water-quality modeling. This paper presents on the simulation model for sediment transport, solids budget, bottom sediment as a distributed system under steady-state condition, and resuspension of solids due to currents etc. The solids considered for the study was mainly allochthonous as these are inorganic in nature and the rate of decomposition is negligible. The data collected refers to the part of the research work on Malaprabha River, near Belgaum - a district headquarters in the State of Karnataka, India. This river is a non-perennial one, and the flow is very less during the pre-monsoon period, which is favorable for application of these sediment models. The results obtained for the resuspension and burial velocities showed marked variations during the different seasons of the year. Resuspension velocities predominated during the monsoon period resulting in the nonsettlement of the solids and the burial velocity during the non-monsoon period. As the river receives raw sewage from an adjoining town - Khanapur, and also the agricultural discharges, it is worth to quantify the sediment deposition in the stream.

  12. MODELING SIMULATION OF SEDIMENT ANALYSIS FOR MALAPRABHA RIVER IN KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

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    Vinayak Krishnamurty Naik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport, settling and quantity of solutes in rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs are the important aspects in water-quality modeling. This has been the major concern for the researchers, scientists and engineers for the last 50 years who actively involved in water quality modeling. Consequently, characterization of hydrodynamics and water budgets has been an essential component in the water–quality modeling. This paper presents on the simulation model for sediment transport, solids budget, bottom sediment as a distributed system under steady-state condition, and resuspension of solids due to currents etc. The solids considered for the study was mainly allochthonous as these are inorganic in nature and the rate of decomposition is negligible. The data collected refers to the part of the research work on Malaprabha River, near Belgaum – a district headquarters in the State of Karnataka, India. This river is a non-perennial one, and the flow is very less during the pre-monsoon period, which is favorable for application of these sediment models. The results obtained for the resuspension and burial velocities showed marked variations during the different seasons of the year. Resuspension velocities predominated during the monsoon period resulting in the nonsettlement of the solids and the burial velocity during the non-monsoon period. As the river receives raw sewage from an adjoining town – Khanapur, and also the agricultural discharges, it is worth to quantify the sediment deposition in the stream.

  13. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Karnataka State, India

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    K. V. V Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents oral mucosal lesions findings from a state oral health survey of Karnataka, India. A total of 46,579 subjects aged 1-4 to 65+ years were selected by using multistage-cluster-stratified random sampling method and subjects were examined by 32 dentists trained in standardized clinical diagnostic criteria for oral mucosal lesions. In the present study, 7.53% of subjects had one or more oral mucosal lesions, in which, male subjects (9.41 % had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions compared to female subjects (4.38%; urban subjects (11.61% had a significantly higher prevalence than rural subjects (5.01 % and the Christian subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of lesions than the Hindus, Muslims and others (F=211.594, <0.001, S. The observed prevalence of oral mucosal lesions increased with age (r=0.8174, P<0.05, S, which is statistically significant. The most prevalent lesions observed were Leukoplakia (1.73%, Lichen planus (2.02% Ulceration (0.73%, Candidiasis (0.94% and Abscess (1.05%. The maximum number of lesions was seen in sulci (7.33% and the minimum number of lesions was seen in lips (0.02%. Differences in prevalence were analyzed by sex, religion, location and geographical area.

  14. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  15. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn--a community based study in rural Karnataka, India.

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    Chandra S Metgud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in many developing countries, especially so in India. Although we do not know all the causes of LBW, maternal and environmental factors appear to be significant risk factors in its occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To know the factors affecting the birth weight of a newborn and to estimate the prevalence of LBW. METHODS: The present study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women and their newborns residing in area covered by Kinaye Primary Health Centre in rural Karnataka, India. The study was conducted from 1(st June 2008 to 31(st December 2009. RESULTS: The mean birth weight of newborns was 2.6 kg with a range of 1.2 to 3.8 kg. The prevalence of LBW was 22.9%. Among the studied risk factors, 25 of them were significantly associated with the birth weight of a newborn on univariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education [Odds Ratio (OR 3.2], exposure to passive smoking [OR 2.3], age at first pregnancy ≥25 years [OR 3.6], birth interval <2 years [OR 2.4], previous history of LBW baby [OR 3.3], weight gain ≤4 kg during pregnancy [OR 7.0], maternal weight at last week of gestation ≤45 kg [OR 2.3], pregnancy induced hypertension [OR 3.3], high risk pregnancy [OR 3.6] and late antenatal registration [OR 3.6] emerged as significant risk factors on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The problem of LBW is multidimensional, and hence, we need an integrated approach incorporating medical, social, economical and educational measures to address this issue.

  16. Biological indicators in relation to coastal pollution along Karnataka coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Desai, S.R.; Sarkar, A.; Dalal, S.G.

    plant at Padubidri, Karnataka.NIO technical report No. NIO/SP-17/1998, 1-141. Phatapekar P.V. and Ansari Z. A. (2000) Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a microalga. Botanica Marina 43, 367-375. Ramaiah...

  17. Monitoring trace metal contaminants in green mussel, Perna viridis from the coastal waters of Karnataka, southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Geetha; Krishnakumar, P K; Bhat, G S

    2006-08-01

    The green mussel (Perna viridis) is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia and is used in mussel watch programmes for monitoring environmental contaminants throughout the region. Green mussels representing different size groups and habitats were sampled from their natural beds at 28 locations in the inshore waters of Karnataka (southwest coast of India) to analyze the tissue concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Tissue concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, and Pb were significantly higher in smaller mussels than in the larger size group. Significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni were observed in mussels sampled from intertidal beds when compared to mussels from the subtidal beds. The sampling sites were categorized into industrial sites (IS), urban sites (US), and nonurban sites (NS) based on principal component analysis of metal concentrations in mussel. Spatial variations in tissue concentrations of all metals were observed except for Zn. Generally, the levels of toxic trace metals like Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr in the whole tissue of P. viridis were within safe limits throughout the coast of Karnataka. However, relatively high concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb were observed in the whole tissue of green mussels collected from the industrial sites (IS), which may be derived from a variety of anthropogenic activities.

  18. Scaling up antiretroviral treatment services in Karnataka, India: impact on CD4 counts of HIV-infected people.

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    Suresh Shastri

    Full Text Available SETTING: Twelve antiretroviral treatment centres under National AIDS Control Programme (NACP, Karnataka State, India. OBJECTIVE: For the period 2004-2011, to describe the trends in the numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV registered for care and their median baseline CD4 counts, disaggregated by age and sex. DESIGN: Descriptive study involving analysis of routinely captured data (year of registration, age, sex, baseline CD4 count under NACP. RESULTS: 34,882 (97% of total eligible PLHIV were included in analysis. The number registered for care has increased by over 12 times during 2004-11; with increasing numbers among females. The median baseline CD4 cell count rose from 125 in 2004 to 235 in 2011--the increase was greater among females as compared to males. However, about two-thirds still presented at CD4 cell counts less than 350. CONCLUSION: We found an increasing trend of median CD4 counts among PLHIV presenting to ART centres in Karnataka, an indicator of enhanced and early access to HIV care. Equal proportion of females and higher baseline CD4 counts among them allays any fear of differential access by gender. Despite this relative success, a substantial proportion still presented at low CD4 cell counts indicating possibly delayed HIV diagnosis and delayed linkage to HIV care. Universal HIV testing at health care facilities and strengthening early access to care are required to bridge the gap.

  19. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F(-)) were prepared with analytical grade Na(+)/F(-) and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F(-) concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F(-) levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F(-) in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  20. A badger in Bannerghatta: an opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae from Karnataka, India

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    Avinash Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A single observation of a Ratel Mellivora capensis has been photo-documented in Bannerghatta National Park on 2 November 2015. This record being the first contemporary evidence of badgers in this region of Karnataka, India, the paper also presents a case study of badgers being close to a highly human-dominated landscape which could be due to some ecological factors that may be conducive as a habitat within the Park. Though a resident population and distribution within the BNP could not be ascertained, it can be proposed that the region may be an extension of range of its most recently documented distribution in the Eastern Ghats landscape. 

  1. THE EVOLVING COMPETITIVE DYNAMICS IN THE RETAIL BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA: A CASE STUDY OF KARNATAKA BANK

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    Krishnakumar RAMANATHAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The banking industry in India is going through a unique competitive situation: on the one hand, the proliferation of new banks has increased competition multi-fold; on the other hand, given the rigid regulatory environment, banks have very little liberty to innovate products. The entry of multinational banking giants with superior service operations has further amplified the competition for customers. This paper examines the business performance of Karnataka bank during the period between 2006 and 2014 in order to bring home some of these challenges. Based on feedback from the branch managers, savings and current accounts - two classic banking products – suffered the most in the onslaught. Practicing managers as well as customers that we interviewed held that banking services in terms of customer experience ought to be improved and that various value added services could be introduced. Customers also expected reduced penalty for minimum balance and enhanced insurance cover for their accounts.

  2. Effect of water quality on the composition of fish communities in three coastal rivers of Karnataka, India

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    Arunkumar Shetty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fish assemblage and diversity in relation to water quality of three coastal rivers Sita, Swarna and Varahi of Udupi district, Karnataka, India was studied. 71 species representing 7 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded from 21 sites along the three rivers. Species composition varied longitudinally in relation to the environmental factors of the habitat. The downstream change in the three rivers indicates that fish assemblage changed with increasing loss of riparian canopy cover and increasing agricultural land-use. The richness and abundance of fishes were correlated with land-use type, canopy cover, pH and turbidity. Diversion of water, discharge of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff were prominent among the disturbances that alter the habitat quality.

  3. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl(-1) metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  4. Availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care services in Karnataka State, South India: access and equity considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Prem K; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC) = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the 'non-headquarter' taluks and 'backward' taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater attention by the government in addressing inequities in

  5. Availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care services in Karnataka State, South India: access and equity considerations.

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    Prem K Mony

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. METHODS & FINDINGS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities. Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the 'non-headquarter' taluks and 'backward' taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require

  6. Study of prevalence of work related stress and co-morbidities and its effect on work performance in KSRTC workers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India

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    Sudhir Prabhu

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Very few studies have been conducted to assess stress levels in organized sectors in India and Karnataka. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the stress levels and associated health disorders amongst the KSRTC workers of Dakshina Kannada district and to suggest suitable measures to improve occupational health, if necessary. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3161-3166

  7. Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Asian Elephants Elephas maximus in Karnataka state, India

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    B.R. Harish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wild animal’s health is of serious biodiversity concern and influenced by several factors like infectious, nutritional, environmental, behavioral and physiological factors. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species. The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.

  8. Environmental Arsenic Contamination and Its Effect on Intelligence Quotient of School Children in a Historic Gold Mining Area Hutti, North Karnataka, India: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, R; Hegde, Amitha M; Parlees, Paul; Keshan, Anisha

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic is a rare crystal element that naturally occurs in all environmental media. A combination of regional and site-specific biogeochemical and hydrological factors governs its dispersion in the environment. It has far reaching consequences on human health. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water has been associated with a decline in intellectual function in children. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between exposure to arsenic by drinking water and children's intelligence in Karnataka state, India. Twenty school children of age 10-14 years from Sandur, Bellary, Karnataka, and from Hutti, Raichur, Karnataka, were categorized as control and study group, respectively. Water samples were collected from both the villages for the analysis of arsenic and fluoride levels. Hair and nail samples were collected from the participants, and the arsenic levels were determined. Intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment was done using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Fisher's exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There was a significant increase in the arsenic content in the hair and nail samples of children in the study group. The mean IQ tests score in the control group and study group was 30.55 and 17.95, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant. Chronic arsenic exposure could be a possible cause for the reduced IQ scores seen in children residing in Hutti, Raichur District, North Karnataka.

  9. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

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    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  10. Factors associated with sexual violence against men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals in Karnataka, India.

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    Souradet Y Shaw

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of information on sexual violence (SV among men who have sex with men and transgendered individuals (MSM-T in southern India. As SV has been associated with HIV vulnerability, this study examined health related behaviours and practices associated with SV among MSM-T. DESIGN: Data were from cross-sectional surveys from four districts in Karnataka, India. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine factors related to SV. Multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the association between physician visits and SV. RESULTS: A total of 543 MSM-T were included in the study. Prevalence of SV was 18% in the past year. HIV prevalence among those reporting SV was 20%, compared to 12% among those not reporting SV (p = .104. In multivariable models, and among sex workers, those reporting SV were more likely to report anal sex with 5+ casual sex partners in the past week (AOR: 4.1; 95%CI: 1.2-14.3, p = .029. Increased physician visits among those reporting SV was reported only for those involved in sex work (ARR: 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1-2.7, p = .012. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate high levels of SV among MSM-T populations, highlighting the importance of integrating interventions to reduce violence as part of HIV prevention programs and health services.

  11. Retention in pre-antiretroviral treatment care in a district of Karnataka, India: how well are we doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Rewari, B.; Kumar, S.; Shastri, S.; Satyanarayana, S.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Nagaraja, S. B.; Devi, M.; Bhargava, N.; Das, M.; Zachariah, R.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) Centre in Tumkur district of Karnataka State, India. There is no published information about pre-ART loss to follow-up from India. Objective: To assess the proportion lost to follow-up (defined as not visiting the ART Centre within 1 year of registration) and associated socio-demographic and immunological variables. Design: Retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records of adult HIV-infected persons (aged ⩾15 years) registered in pre-ART care during January 2010–June 2012. Results: Of 3238 patients registered, 2519 (78%) were eligible for ART, while 719 (22%) were not. Four of the latter were transferred out; the remaining 715 individuals were enrolled in pre-ART care, of whom 290 (41%) were lost to follow-up. Factors associated with loss to follow-up on multivariate analysis included age group ⩾45 years, low educational level, not being married, World Health Organization Stage III or IV and rural residence. Conclusion: About four in 10 individuals in pre-ART care were lost to follow-up within 1 year of registration. This needs urgent attention. Routine cohort analysis in the national programme should include those in pre-ART care to enable improved review, monitoring and supervision. Further qualitative research to ascertain reasons for loss to follow-up is required to design future interventions. PMID:26400698

  12. Impact of Rainfall, Land-Cover and Population Growth on Groundwater - A Case Study From Karnataka State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, R. K.; Chinnapa Reddy, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recent trends in climate, land-use pattern and population has affected almost every portable water resources in the world. Due to depleting surface water and untimely distribution of precipitation, the demand to use groundwater has increased considerably. Further recent studies have shown that the groundwater stress is more in developing countries like India. This study focuses on understanding the impacts of three major factors (i.e., rainfall, land-cover and population growth) effecting the groundwater levels. For this purpose, the correlation between the trends in groundwater time series is compared with trends in rainfall, land-cover and population growth. To detect the trends in time series, two statistical methods namely, least square method and Mann-Kendall method, are adopted. The results were analyzed based on the measurements from 1800 observation wells in the Karnataka state, India. The data is obtained for a total of 9 year time period ranging from 2005 to 2013. A gridded precipitation data of 0.5o× 0.5o over the entire region is used. The change in land-cover and population data was approximately obtained from the local governing bodies. The early results show significant correlation between rainfall and groundwater time series trends. The outcomes will assess the vulnerability of groundwater levels under changing physical and hydroclimatic conditions, especially under climate change.

  13. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, A; Nair, S.; KB Chakraborthy; Darshan BB; Kamath, A

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 1...

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to uterotonic drugs during childbirth in Karnataka, India: a qualitative research study.

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    Nitya Nand Deepak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communities-for example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers' and community members' current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in India's Karnataka state. METHODS: 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais, unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists. RESULTS: Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers

  15. Comparison of insect biodiversity between organic and conventional plantations in Kodagu, Karnataka, India

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    S. Mone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a comparative analysis of ground insects and fruit eating butterflies on 29 different plantations in Kodagu District of Karnataka which is one of the rich biodiversity zones of the Western Ghats. These included organic and conventional coffee and cardamom plantations using different levels of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. A total number of 457 ground insect species were collected using pit-fall traps which included 92 species of ants and 123 species of beetles, among other insect taxa that we measured. Similarly, 25 species of butterflies belonging to the family Nymphalidae were collected using bait traps. We found a clear negative effect on the ground insect species diversity (Shannon index and evenness (Shannon evenness index in pesticide treated plantations as compared to the organic plantations. A similar negative effect was observed for butterfly diversity in plantations using pesticides. Our results corroborate the value of organic plantations in supporting higher levels of biodiversity.

  16. CLINICO - MYCOLOGICAL STUDY OF SUPERFICIAL FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN COASTAL KARNATAKA, INDIA

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    Sweta R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cutaneous fungal infections are common in coastal Karnataka owing to its tropical and humid climate. The organisms causing these infections commonly are dermatophytes, non dermatophytes and yeasts. This study aims to determine the p revalence of cutaneous mycosis, with their different clinical types and etiological agents, and correlate the findings. A total of 96 patients were included in our study, all of them attending dermatology OPD at a tertiary hospital in Mangalore with clinic ally suspected tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea capitis, tinea mannum, onychomycosis, candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor. The study revealed male to female ratio being 0.74:1. The leading diagnosis was pityriasis versicolor, the commones t organism isolated was C. albicans; and the commonest site involved is groin and skin flexures. This study emphasizes utility of timely detection of cutaneous fungal infection in preventing transmission and spread of KEYWORDS: Fungal infe ctions; Dermatophytes; Pityriasis versicolor such infections

  17. Seeing Like a Subaltern – Historical Ethnography of Pre-Modern and Modern Tank Irrigation Technology in Karnataka, India

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    Esha Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In various avatars the images of pre-modern knowledge and social organisations, also differently described as pre-colonial or traditional, are projected as alternative to the modern technologies and forms of governance not only in India but also elsewhere. I first review a few such representations of the idea of pre-modern invoked from politically diverse positions in order to demonstrate a unifying characteristic among them that form a 'view from the above'. I show how a situated position – seeing like a subaltern – can provide a way forward from the mutually opposing binary categorizations of the pre-modern and modern. Extensively referring to folk literature, I discuss here the historical ethnography of tank irrigation technology in Karnataka that covers both medieval and modern periods. I show how the technical designs of this thousand years old technology significantly transformed from the pre-modern to the modern times and how in each epoch the reproduction of the technology implied the reproduction of radically different social and cultural spaces and, most significantly, social and power relations.

  18. Are marginalized women being left behind? A population-based study of institutional deliveries in Karnataka, India

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    Adamson Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89 of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include

  19. A study of residual physical disability after a burn injury in patients admitted in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka, India

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    Gowri Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burn Injuries Are Among The Leading Causes Of Disability-Adjusted Life Years Lost In Low And Middle Income Countries. In India, About 6-7 Million People Suffer From Burn Injuries Every Year. Out Of Them, 7 Lakh Require Hospital Admission And 2.4 Lakh Become Disabled. Materials And Methods: A Prospective Study Was Conducted To Identify The Epidemiological Determinants For Residual Physical Disabilities In Burn Patients Admitted Between April 1St, 2004 And March 31St, 2005 In Two Tertiary Hospitals In Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. Out Of 316 Patients Admitted During The Study Period, 48 (15.19% Had Residual Physical Disability At The Time Of Discharge. Data About Their Socio Demographic Profile, Total Burn Surface Area, Mode And Type Of Burn, Severity And Depth Of Burn And Type Of Disability Was Collected On A Pre Designed Proforma After Informed Consent. Data Was Analyzed By Percentages And Chi-Square Test. Results: Out Of 48 Patients With Residual Physical Disability Sustained After A Burn Injury, 15 (31.25% Were Males And 33 (68.75% Were Females. Maximum Number (70.83% Were Between 15-44 Years Of Age. Majority (77.08% Were From Rural Areas. It Was Observed That 62.5% Were Wearing Synthetic Clothes At The Time Of Burn. Majority (85.4% Had Scar Contractures. Maximum Number (89.58% Had Upper Limb Injury Followed By 47.9% With Chest Injury. Conclusion: Burn Injury Should Be Prevented At All Costs And Health Education Regarding Safety Measures Should Be Implemented In All Educational Institutions.

  20. Assessment of 'accredited social health activists'-a national community health volunteer scheme in Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K

    2015-03-01

    About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist.

  1. RADIUM AND RADON EXHALATION RATE IN SOIL SAMPLES OF HASSAN DISTRICT OF SOUTH KARNATAKA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, B G; Narayana, Y

    2016-10-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m(-3) and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg(-1) Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m(-2) h(-1), and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg(-1) h(-1). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Knowledge of Computer Ergonomics among Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students in Karnataka, India

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    Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics is the science of designing the job to fit the worker. Neglect of ergonomic principles results in inefficiency and pain in the workplace. The objective of this research is to assess the knowledge of Computer Ergonomics among Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students in Karnataka. In this Cross-sectional study, 177 Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students were recruited. A questionnaire is used to gather details regarding Personal characteristics, Computer Usage and Knowledge of Ergonomics. Descriptive statistics was produced for Personal characteristics and Computer usage. The distribution of responses to the items related to Ergonomic knowledge was presented by percentage of the subjects who answered correctly. The results shows that Majority of the subjects were unaware of ergonomics (32.8% correct responses, cumulative trauma disorders (18.6% correct responses, healthy postures related to elbow (34.4% correct responses, wrist & hand (39.5% correct responses, Level of Monitor (35% correct responses, Position of mouse (47.4% correct responses and Mini breaks (42.9% correct responses. This research highlighted the necessity of Ergonomic training regarding healthy postures and the measures to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders for the students.

  3. GIS Based Approach for Vulnerability Assessment of the Karnataka Coast, India

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    Akshaya Beluru Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zones are highly resourceful and dynamic. In recent times, increased events of tropical cyclones and the devastating impact of the December 2004 tsunami have brought forth the importance of assessing the vulnerability of the coast to hazard-induced flooding and inundation in coastal areas. This study intends to develop coastal vulnerability index (CVI for the administrative units, known as talukas of the Karnataka state. Seven physical and geologic risk variables characterizing the vulnerability of the coast, including rate of relative sea level change, historical shoreline change, coastal slope, coastal regional elevation, mean tidal range, and significant wave height derived using conventional and remotely sensed data, along with one socioeconomic parameter “population,” were used in the study. A total of 298 km of shoreline are ranked in the study. It was observed that about 68.65 km of the shoreline is under very high vulnerable category and 79.26 km of shoreline is under high vulnerable category. Of the remaining shoreline, 59.14 km and 91.04 km are of moderate and low vulnerable categories, respectively.

  4. Immunization status of infants residing in an urban community of North Karnataka, India

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    Shobha Ram Bhandari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Immunization is proven cost effective intervention to reduce the child morbidity and mortality. Immunization is the cost-effective intervention which provides protection to infants and children. The objectives of study were to assess the immunization coverage and factors associated with utilization of immunization of 12-23 months children. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area of Belgaum city, Karnataka with a sample size of 370. Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the required information. Result: It was found that 79.5% were fully immunized, 20.5% were partially immunized and no children were found unimmunized. Immunization status of children was significantly associated with mother’s educational level (p<0.05 and socioeconomic class (p<0.001. Conclusion: As the immunization coverage of children was found still low then expected level of coverage prescribed by the Government, there is need of adequate health education proper training, motivation, better monitoring, supervision and strengthening of services to ensure adequate coverage for all doses of vaccine.

  5. Environmental arsenic contamination and its effect on intelligence quotient of school children in a historic gold mining area Hutti, North Karnataka, India: A pilot study

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    R Manju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Arsenic is a rare crystal element that naturally occurs in all environmental media. A combination of regional and site-specific biogeochemical and hydrological factors governs its dispersion in the environment. It has far reaching consequences on human health. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water has been associated with a decline in intellectual function in children. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between exposure to arsenic by drinking water and children's intelligence in Karnataka state, India. Settings and Design: Twenty school children of age 10–14 years from Sandur, Bellary, Karnataka, and from Hutti, Raichur, Karnataka, were categorized as control and study group, respectively. Subjects and Methods: Water samples were collected from both the villages for the analysis of arsenic and fluoride levels. Hair and nail samples were collected from the participants, and the arsenic levels were determined. Intelligence quotient (IQ assessment was done using the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Fisher's exact test. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in the arsenic content in the hair and nail samples of children in the study group. The mean IQ tests score in the control group and study group was 30.55 and 17.95, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Chronic arsenic exposure could be a possible cause for the reduced IQ scores seen in children residing in Hutti, Raichur District, North Karnataka.

  6. Factors influencing frontline health service providers' likelihood to recommend a future, preventive HIV vaccine to key populations in Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, Leigh M; Lorway, Robert R; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Wylie, John; Becker, Marissa L

    2015-01-29

    The HIV epidemic in the south Indian state of Karnataka disproportionately burdens key populations of men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Despite having successfully reduced HIV incidence among certain key populations through the use of targeted intervention, India's HIV epidemic remains one of its greatest public health issues. The best long-term strategy for managing the global HIV epidemic might involve a preventive vaccine; however, vaccine availability cannot guarantee its accessibility or acceptability. Vaccine recommendations from frontline health service providers have previously been identified as useful strategies to enhance vaccine uptake among target groups. This study used structured interviews to explore frontline health service providers' self-identified likelihood to recommend a future, preventive HIV vaccine to key populations in Karnataka. A modified social ecological model was then used to categorise factors that might prevent health service providers from recommending an HIV vaccine. Overall, 83% of health service providers reported that they would be very likely to recommend an HIV vaccine to men who have sex with men and female sex workers, while less than one-third of participants identified one or more barrier to vaccine recommendation. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural/political factors were most commonly reported to act as potential barriers to future HIV vaccine recommendation among health service providers in Karnataka. This study adds to the limited body of literature focussing on future HIV vaccine acceptability in low- and middle-income countries and highlights some of the several complexities surrounding vaccine acceptability and uptake among key populations in Karnataka. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heartwood, sapwood and bark content of teak trees grown in Karna-taka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari; K.M. Mariswamy

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated heartwood, sapwood and bark content in teak trees. A total of 27 sample plots were laid out in teak plantations raised by State Forest Department in Karnataka covering different age groups (11−36 years), density (516−2061 trees/ha) and sites. From these planta-tions, a total of 130 trees were felled for estimating the yield and bark content in relation to diameter at breast height (DBH), age and density. Bark content ranged from 22.2%−54.3%. Heartwood and sapwood con-tent were analyzed by sampling five trees each from two different planta-tions, one 30 years old at 553 trees⋅ha-1 and the other 32 years old at 911 trees⋅ha-1. The highest heartwood proportion of stem wood volume (over-bark) was 56.3%and the lowest was 37.1%. The sapwood propor-tion ranged from 12.9%−23.0%, while the bark content ranged from 27.8%−43.5%. The heartwood proportion increased with DBH, while the proportion of bark decreased. The sapwood proportion did not vary with DBH. The bark content decreased with increasing age, but increased with stand density. There was no significant difference in heartwood content with respect to age or stand density because the ages of the two stands were similar. A larger dataset from young to mature stands is needed to describe the relationships between age and stand density and heartwood, sapwood and bark content of trees.

  8. Natural radioactivity in some major rivers of coastal Karnataka on the southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Rajashekara, K M; Siddappa, K

    2007-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation level and distribution of radionuclides have been carried out in riverine environs of three major rivers of coastal Karnataka, viz. Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi. The ambient gamma radiation levels along three rivers were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil, sediment and rock were measured using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi riverbanks, the median values of absorbed gamma dose rates in air were found to be 44 nGy h(-1), 35 nGy h(-1) and 57 nGy h(-1), respectively. The highest activity of (226)Ra was found in riverbank soil samples of Sharavathi River. The highest activities of (232)Th and (40)K were found in riverbank soil and sediment samples of Netravathi River. In Kali River, the highest (226)Ra activity was recorded for rock samples. To assess the radiological hazard of natural radioactivity in the samples, absorbed gamma dose rates in air, radium equivalent activity, representative level index, external hazard index and internal hazard index associated with the radionuclides were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values. The representative level index (I(gammar)) values are high in sediment samples of Netravathi River. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) values are high in rock samples of Kali River. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. 226Ra and 210Po concentration in drinking water of Cauvery river basin south interior Karnataka State, India

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    E. Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclide 210Po which is an element of 238U decay series, contribute to the radiation that normally people are exposed. Drinking water samples collected from Cauvery river basin of south interior Karnataka State, India were analysed for the activity of 210Po using radiochemical analysis technique. The estimated concentration of 210Po in river water ranges from 0.86 to 4.49 mBq l−1, and its mean value is 2.67 ± 1.09 mBq l−1. The concentration of 210Po in bore well water ranges from 1.89 to 4.18 mBq l−1 and its mean value is 3.22 ± 0.67 mBq l−1. The dissolved radium concentration in river water varies from 9.09 mBq l−1 to 55.07 mBq l−1 with an average of 32.33 ± 14.16 mBq l−1. Total ingestion dose rate due to 226Ra and 210Po varies from 2.61 to 15.00 μSv y−1 with a mean value of 8.95 ± 3.74 μSv y−1, which is less than the recommended value by ICRP (International commission on radiological protection.

  10. Nurse Mentors to Advance Quality Improvement in Primary Health Centers: Lessons From a Pilot Program in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elizabeth A; Jayana, Krishnamurthy; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Mony, Prem; Bradley, Janet; Moses, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    High-quality care during labor, delivery, and the postpartum period is critically important since maternal and child morbidity and mortality are linked to complications that arise during these stages. A nurse mentoring program was implemented in northern Karnataka, India, to improve quality of services at primary health centers (PHCs), the lowest level in the public health system that offers basic obstetric care. The intervention, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, employed 53 full-time nurse mentors and was scaled-up in 385 PHCs in 8 poor rural districts. Each mentor was responsible for 6 to 8 PHCs and conducted roughly 6 mentoring visits per PHC in the first year. This paper reports the results of a qualitative inquiry, conducted between September 2012 and April 2014, assessing the program's successes and challenges from the perspective of mentors and PHC teams. Data were gathered through 13 observations, 9 focus group discussions with mentors, and 25 individual and group interviews with PHC nurses, medical officers, and district health officers. Mentors and PHC staff and leaders reported a number of successes, including development of rapport and trust between mentors and PHC staff, introduction of team-based quality improvement processes, correct and consistent use of a new case sheet to ensure adherence to clinical guidelines, and increases in staff nurses' knowledge and skills. Overall, nurses in many PHCs reported an increased ability to provide care according to guidelines and to handle maternal and newborn complications, along with improvements in equipment and supplies and referral management. Challenges included high service delivery volumes and/or understaffing at some PHCs, unsupportive or absent PHC leadership, and cultural practices that impacted quality. Comprehensive mentoring can build competence and improve performance by combining on-the-job clinical and technical support, applying quality improvement principles, and promoting team

  11. Patterns and Determinants of Habitat Occupancy by the Asian Elephant in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jathanna, Devcharan; Karanth, K Ullas; Kumar, N Samba; Karanth, Krithi K; Goswami, Varun R

    2015-01-01

    Understanding species distribution patterns has direct ramifications for the conservation of endangered species, such as the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, reliable assessment of elephant distribution is handicapped by factors such as the large spatial scales of field studies, survey expertise required, the paucity of analytical approaches that explicitly account for confounding observation processes such as imperfect and variable detectability, unequal sampling probability and spatial dependence among animal detections. We addressed these problems by carrying out 'detection--non-detection' surveys of elephant signs across a c. 38,000-km(2) landscape in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. We analyzed the resulting sign encounter data using a recently developed modeling approach that explicitly addresses variable detectability across space and spatially dependent non-closure of occupancy, across sampling replicates. We estimated overall occupancy, a parameter useful to monitoring elephant populations, and examined key ecological and anthropogenic drivers of elephant presence. Our results showed elephants occupied 13,483 km(2) (SE = 847 km(2)) corresponding to 64% of the available 21,167 km(2) of elephant habitat in the study landscape, a useful baseline to monitor future changes. Replicate-level detection probability ranged between 0.56 and 0.88, and ignoring it would have underestimated elephant distribution by 2116 km(2) or 16%. We found that anthropogenic factors predominated over natural habitat attributes in determining elephant occupancy, underscoring the conservation need to regulate them. Human disturbances affected elephant habitat occupancy as well as site-level detectability. Rainfall is not an important limiting factor in this relatively humid bioclimate. Finally, we discuss cost-effective monitoring of Asian elephant populations and the specific spatial scales at which different population parameters can be estimated. We emphasize the need

  12. Screening of Streptomycetes for L-Asparaginase, Therapeutic Agent of Lymphocytic Leukemia from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

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    Mamatha B Salimath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are the most economically and biotechnologically valuable prokaryotes and are responsible for the production of about half of the discovered bioactive secondary metabolites, antibiotics, anticancer agents and enzymes. The present study was successful in characterizing 25 Streptomycetes isolates inhabiting Agumbe province, of Western Ghats soil of Karnataka, India, for potential source of L-asparaginase enzyme. L- Asparaginase (L-asparagine amido hydrolase E.C.3.5.1.1 is an extracellular enzyme has anti-carcinogenic potential, received increasing awareness in the current years because of its use as an effective agent against Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL. L-asparagine is a source of essential amino acid necessary for the growth of leukemic cells in higher amounts. Depletion of L-asparagine from the circulatory blood leads to death of malignant cells. Streptomyces isolates have been collected from soil samples by serial dilution and plating method employing Starch Casein Nitrate agar and ISP media. They were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. When primarily screened for L-asparaginase production by Rapid plate assay using Modified M9 medium containing L-asparagine and Phenol red as indicator, 23 isolates were found to be positive by showing change in color of medium from yellow to pink. Strain V17 isolate proved to be potent producer of the enzyme with higher amount of enzyme up to 22.45 IU/ml. About 92% of the tested isolates were positive for anti-cancerous potential, indicating the Western Ghats soils as potential sources for anti-cancerous agents. Further studies on purification and characterization of enzyme are under progress.

  13. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Goitre among 6-12-year-old Children in a Rural Area of Karnataka in South India.

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    Manjunath, Bhanu; Suman, G; Hemanth, T; Shivaraj, N S; Murthy, N S

    2016-01-01

    In India, endemic goitre is present in sub-Himalayan region and in pockets in states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat. Being a public health problem amenable for prevention, the assessment of prevalence of endemic goitre in an area helps in understanding whether the preventive strategies under National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) have any impact on the control of endemic goitre. Hence, the current study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and factors associated with iodine deficiency goitre among 6-12-year-old children in a rural area in south Karnataka. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 838 children, using a questionnaire adopted from Iodized Salt Program Assessment Tool and the tools prescribed by WHO for goitre survey. The prevalence of goitre in the study area was 21.9% (95% CI 19.2-24.8). There was higher prevalence of goitre among those having salt iodine 15 ppm (P = 0.01; OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.10-2.29). In 10% of the children, urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was assessed and prevalence was higher among those with salt (salt iodine levels in the study area. Though NIDDCP is being implemented since five decades in India, the burden of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) is still high demanding further impetus to the monitoring systems of the programme.

  15. Document on fluoride accumulation in ground and surface water of Mysore, Karnataka, India

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    Mamatha S.V.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have documented various levels of fluoride in groundwater, running water (i.e streams, canals, river and lake water in 130 samples collected from various sources in Mysore District. Mysore is one of the most popular tourist places in India. Fluoride is one of the parameter of water analysis, which is non-degradable and persists in the environment. Fluoride was assessed by Zirconyl- SPADNS method. Fluoride level varied from 0.2 mg/L to 3.0 mg/L with the highest level at Dalvoy Lake (3.0 ppm followed by Lingambudi Borewell water (2.9 ppm giving a cautious alarm for an awareness to the Mysoreans.Water samples from north-eastern part of Piriyapatna, a small pocket of southern part of H.D.Kote and an extreme southern part of Mysore taluk (urban were having fluoride concentration above acceptable range of WHO and BIS standard.

  16. Response of Tropical Stream Fish Assemblages to Small Hydropower Induced Flow Alteration in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

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    Rao, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    Alteration of natural flow regime is considered as one of the major threats to tropical stream fish assemblages as it alters the physio-chemical and micro-habitat features of the river. Flow alteration induced by Small hydro-power (SHP) plants disrupts the flow regime by flow diversion and regulation. The effects of flow alteration on tropical stream fish assemblages, especially in the Western Ghats of India is largely understudied. Such a knowledge is imperative to set limits on flow alteration as SHPs in the Western Ghats are being planned at an unprecedented rate with exemption from environment impact assessments and backing in the form of government subsidies and carbon credits. This study aimed to understand the response of fish assemblages to SHP induced flow alteration in a regulated and unregulated tributary of the Yettinahole River in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. The study intended to quantify the natural and altered flow regime using automated periodic depth measurements, its effect on micro-habitats and environmental variables and finally, understand how fish assemblages respond to such changes. The response of fish assemblage was measured in terms of catch-per-site, species-regime associations and ecological distance between the regimes. The study used a space for time substitution approach and found that the altered flow regime dampened the diurnal and seasonal patterns of natural flow regime. The altered flow regime influenced variations in water quality, micro-habitat heterogeneity and fish assemblage response, each characteristic of the type of flow alteration. The natural flow regime was found to have a higher catch-per-site and strong associations with endemic and niche-specific taxa. Compositional dissimilarities, in terms of ecological distance were observed between the altered and the natural flow regime. Dewatered or flow diverted regime contained species with lentic affinities while an overall low catch-per-site and weak species

  17. Comparative efficacy of two poeciliid fish in indoor cement tanks against chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti in villages in Karnataka, India

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    Ojha Vijay P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis, in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia. In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067. Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%, and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index in all villages in the one-week period (p p p = 0.063 and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067. After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03% in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05. We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47

  18. Frontline Health Service Providers' Perspectives on HIV Vaccine Trials among Female Sex Workers and Men Who Have Sex with Men in Karnataka, South India.

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    Satyanarayana Ramanaik

    Full Text Available Little qualitative research is available on the role of frontline health service providers (FHSPs in the implementation of clinical trials, particularly in developing countries. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about the perspectives of FHSPs on future HIV vaccine trials involving female sex workers (FSWs and men who have sex with men (MSM in three districts of Karnataka, India. In particular, we explore FHSPs' knowledge of and views on clinical trials in general, and examine their potential willingness to play a role if such trials were introduced or implemented in the region.A field team of four researchers from Karnataka-two of whom self-identified with FSW or MSM communities ("community researchers" and two with backgrounds in social work-conducted in-depth interviews with FHSPs. Including community researchers in the study helped to build rapport with FSW and MSM participants and facilitate in-depth discussions. A coding scheme for transcribed and translated data was developed using a framework analysis approach. Data was then analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent codes.Over half of FHSPs demonstrated limited knowledge or understanding of clinical trials. Despite reported skepticism around the testing of HIV vaccines in developing countries and concerns around potential side effects, most FHSPs strongly advocated for the implementation of HIV vaccine clinical trials in Karnataka. Further, most FHSPs expressed their willingness to be involved in future HIV vaccine clinical trials in varying capacities.Given that FHSPs are often directly involved in the promotion of health and well-being of FSWs and MSM, they are well-positioned to play leadership, ethical, and communicative roles in future HIV vaccine trials. However, our findings reveal a lack of awareness of clinical trials among FHSP participants, suggesting an important area for capacity building and staff development before viable and

  19. Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India

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    Apoorva Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Little is known about the risky sexual behaviors of HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs in the developing world, which is critical for programmatic purposes. This study aims to shed light on their condom use with regular clients as well as husband/cohabiting partner, a first in India. Methods. Multivariate logistic regression analyses for consistent condom use with regular clients and husband/cohabiting partner are conducted for the sample of 606 HIV-positive FSWs. Results. Older FSWs are 90% less likely and nonmobile FSWs are 70% less likely to consistently use condoms. FSWs on ART are 3.84 times more likely to use condoms. Additionally, FSWs who changed their occupation after HIV diagnosis are 70% less likely to use condoms. FSWs who are currently cohabiting are more likely to consistently use condoms with repeat clients and are 3.22 times more likely to do so if they have felt stigma associated with being HIV-positive. FSWs who have multiple repeat clients, and who do not know the sexual behavior of these clients, are more likely to use condoms consistently. Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile.

  20. Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme by child beneficiaries in Coastal Karnataka, India

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    Saranya Sivanesan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s main early childhood development intervention the ICDS Scheme has been sustained for 40 years and has been successful in some ways. However, nearly half of the children under six years are still under nourished. The program in reducing the proportion of undernourished children over the past decade has been modest and slower in India than what has been achieved in other countries with comparable socio-economic indicators. Aims & Objectives: 1. To study the utilization of services offered to children under ICDS, 2. To assess the perception about the services. Materials & Methods: A community based cross sectional study was done among mothers of 271 children in the age group three to six years registered in anganwadis. Results: Median duration of absenteeism to anganwadi was five months during the last six months enquired. About 95.9% of registered child beneficiaries utilized supplementary nutrition services and only 48.7% mothers of child beneficiaries were attending nutrition and health education sessions. Among mothers who were aware of growth monitoring, only 73.6% of their children’s weight was checked regularly.  About 60% of mothers were not happy with the quality of food served to their children in the anganwadi. Among children adherent to anganwadi, 72.5% children’s weight remained normal. Conclusion: Only 75% children were regularly attending. Median duration of adherence to anganwadi services was only 12 months and the most common reason for not adhering to the services is due to their simultaneous enrollment in other private nursery school.

  1. Pattern of seizure cases in tertiary care hospitals in Karnataka state of India

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    Nitin Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and incidence of epilepsy is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Understanding pattern and risk factors of seizure cases will help in suggesting appropriate preventive measures. Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of seizure, its management and compliance with treatment. Materials and Methods: Data from medical records of seizure cases in three tertiary care hospitals of Mangalore city in south India admitted from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected and analyzed. Results: Nearly half (44.4% of the 196 cases belonged to productive age group (15-45 years and 2/3 rd (60.7% were males. Majority (>80% cases were unskilled workers and of low socio-economic status groups. Family history of seizures was present in 8.4% cases. Mean age of onset of seizure was found to be 19.9 years. Proportion of generalized tonic clonic seizure cases was 78.1%. Secondary seizures were seen in 66 (33.7% cases with the most common cause being trauma to the head (24.2%. Refractory seizures were present in 2.7% cases. Monotherapy was the most commonly followed treatment regimen and phenytoin was the most popular anti-epileptic drug (AED used. Non-compliance with AEDs was seen in 18.1% cases and was more among patients on polytherapy (P = 0.032. Conclusion: Seizure manifestations and treatment compliance vary widely in the studied population. In depth analysis of each seizure type will give more information about the factors associated with it.

  2. Iodine deficiency in children: A comparative study in two districts of south-interior Karnataka, India

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    Mansoor Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are essential for mammalian life. Although goiter is the most visible sequelae of iodine deficiency, the major impact of hypothyroidism as a result of iodine deficiency is impaired neurodevelopment, particularly early in life. According to the World Health Organization, it is the single most preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. The simplest, most effective and inexpensive preventive method is the consumption of iodized salt. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of goiter in children in the rural areas of Mysore and Coorg districts in India and estimate iodine levels in salt samples. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in the age group of 6-12 years, using population proportionate to size systematic sampling method. The total sample size was 10,082: out of which 5337 was from Mysore and the rest from Coorg district. Clinical examination of the thyroid gland was done and salt samples collected for the estimation of Iodine. Results: The total prevalence of goiter was 19.01% in children of 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district and it was more in females than in males. Conclusions: It was observed that iodine deficiency disorders is endemic in both districts, with a prevalence of 19.01% in children aged 6-12 years in Coorg district and 8.77% in Mysore district. Analysis of salt samples suggested that most of the samples were inadequately iodised (73.92% in Coorg and 45.92% in Mysore.

  3. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

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    Krishnakumar, P K; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G S; Asokan, D P K

    2006-05-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals.

  4. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

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    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI =  2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  5. Environmental arsenic contamination and its health effects in a historic gold mining area of the Mangalur greenstone belt of Northeastern Karnataka, India.

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    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Reshmi; Siddayya; Patil, S G; Sarkar, Atanu; Dadapeer, H J; Yendigeri, Saeed; Ahmed, Rishad; Das, Kusal K

    2013-11-15

    This report summarizes recent findings of environmental arsenic (As) contamination and the consequent health effects in a community located near historic gold mining activities in the Mangalur greenstone belt of Karnataka, India. Arsenic contents in water, hair, nail, soil and food were measured by FI-HG-AAS. Elemental analyses of soils were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). Of 59 tube-well water samples, 79% had As above 10 μg L(-1) (maximum 303 μg L(-1)). Of 12 topsoil samples, six were found to contain As greater than 2000 mg kg(-1) possibly indicating the impact of mine tailings on the area. All hair and nail samples collected from 171 residents contained elevated As. Arsenical skin lesions were observed among 58.6% of a total 181 screened individuals. Histopathological analysis of puncture biopsies of suspected arsenical dermatological symptoms confirmed the diagnosis in three out of four patients. Based on the time-course of As-like symptoms reported by the community as well as the presence of overt arsenicosis, it is hypothesized that the primary route of exposure in the study area was via contaminated groundwater; however, the identified high As content in residential soil could also be a significant source of As exposure via ingestion. Additional studies are required to determine the extent as well as the relative contribution of geologic and anthropogenic factors in environmental As contamination in the region. This study report is to our knowledge one of the first to describe overt arsenicosis in this region of Karnataka, India as well as more broadly an area with underlying greenstone geology and historic mining activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal and Newborn Health in Karnataka State, India: The Community Level Interventions for Pre-Eclampsia (CLIP) Trial’s Baseline Study Results

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    Bellad, Mrutynjaya B.; Vidler, Marianne; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Mallapur, Ashalata; Ramadurg, Umesh; Charanthimath, Umesh; Katageri, Geetanjali; Bannale, Shashidhar; Kavi, Avinash; Karadiguddi, Chandrashekhar; Lee, Tang; Li, Jing; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura; von Dadelszen, Peter; Derman, Richard; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.

    2017-01-01

    Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)–Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India. The prospective population-based survey was conducted in eight clusters in Belgaum and Bagalkot districts in Karnataka State from 2013–2014. Data collection was undertaken by adapting the Maternal and Newborn Health registry platform, developed by the Global Network for Women’s and Child Health Studies. Descriptive statistics were completed using SAS and R. During the period of 2013–2014, prospective data was collected on 5,469 pregnant women with an average age of 23.2 (+/-3.3) years. Delivery outcomes were collected from 5,448 completed pregnancies. A majority of the women reported institutional deliveries (96.0%), largely attended by skilled birth attendants. The maternal mortality ratio of 103 (per 100,000 livebirths) was observed during this study, neonatal mortality ratio was 25 per 1,000 livebirths, and perinatal mortality ratio was 50 per 1,000 livebirths. Despite a high number of institutional deliveries, rates of stillbirth were 2.86%. Early enrollment and close follow-up and monitoring procedures established by the Maternal and Newborn Health registry allowed for negligible lost to follow-up. This population-level study provides regional rates of maternal and newborn

  7. Strategies for reducing police arrest in the context of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers: evidence from structural interventions in Karnataka, South India.

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    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; McClarty, Leigh M; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Maddur, Srinath; Jagannath, Sunitha B; Venkataramaiah, Balasubramanya K; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F; Gurnani, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) frequently experience violence in their work environments, violating their basic rights and increasing their vulnerability to HIV infection. Structural interventions addressing such violence are critical components of comprehensive HIV prevention programmes. We describe structural interventions developed to address violence against FSWs in the form of police arrest, in the context of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's India AIDS Initiative (Avahan) in Karnataka, South India. We examine changes in FSW arrest between two consecutive time points during the intervention and identify characteristics that may increase FSW vulnerability to arrest in Karnataka. Structural interventions with police involved advocacy work with senior police officials, sensitization workshops, and integration of HIV and human rights topics in pre-service curricula. Programmes for FSWs aimed to enhance collectivization, empowerment and awareness about human rights and to introduce crisis response mechanisms. Three rounds of integrated behavioural and biological assessment surveys were conducted among FSWs from 2004 to 2011. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses using data from the second (R2) and third (R3) survey rounds to examine changes in arrests among FSWs over time and to assess associations between police arrest, and the sociodemographic and sex work-related characteristics of FSWs. Among 4110 FSWs surveyed, rates of ever being arrested by the police significantly decreased over time, from 9.9% in R2 to 6.1% in R3 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% CI]=0.63 [0.48 to 0.83]). Arrests in the preceding year significantly decreased, from 5.5% in R2 to 2.8% in R3 (AOR [95% CI]=0.59 [0.41 to 0.86]). FSWs arrested as part of arbitrary police raids also decreased from 49.6 to 19.5% (AOR [95% CI]=0.21 [0.11 to 0.42]). Certain characteristics, including financial dependency on sex work, street- or brothel-based solicitation and high client volumes, were found

  8. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

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    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  9. Distribution, den characteristics and diet of the Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis (Mammalia: Canidae in Karnataka, India: preliminary observations

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    H.N. Kumara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis inhabits relatively dry areas with scrub thorn forests, deciduous forests, short grasslands and marginal croplands. Since it is a widely distributed species, especially in the dry tracts, very little attention has been paid to it by researchers and wildlife managers. We conducted an extensive survey in the south Indian state of Karnataka to determine the conservation status of the Indian Fox. We also carried out a more detailed observation in a small region called “Jayamangali Blackbuck Block” (JBB and surrounding private lands to study the den site characteristics of the species. Except for a few districts in the Western Ghats and the west coastal region, the fox was present throughout Karnataka. Relatively higher encounter rates were observed in regions with extensive grasslands. We located 52 dens during the study in JBB which provide a minimum of 12dens/km2 with 1.33/km2 active dens. Circumference of den sites were smaller in JBB than in the adjoining private lands indicating that foxes frequently shifted dens in this area. The number of openings and active openings increased as the circumference of the den site increased. Fecal analysis revealed remains of certain species of plants, vertebrates and invertebrates, with arthropods as the major food items of the fox.

  10. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India.

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    Travers, Mark J; Nayak, Nayanatara S; Annigeri, Vinod B; Billava, N Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5) in smoking and nonsmoking venues. The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required "No Smoking" signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5 in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m(3) and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR). The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  11. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India

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    Mark J Travers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA, 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5 in smoking and nonsmoking venues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. RESULTS: In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required “No Smoking” signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m3 and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR. CONCLUSIONS: The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  12. STUDY ON RADON CONCENTRATION AT THE WORK PLACES OF MYSURU, BENGALURU AND KOLAR DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA STATE, SOUTH INDIA.

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    Ningappa, C; Hamsa, K S; Reddy, K Umesha; Niranjan, R S; Rangaswamy, D R; Sannappa, J

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny inside the working place depend on the activity of radionuclides in the soil, building materials, atmospheric conditions, construction of the building, type of work and ventilation condition. Radon is a radioactive noble gas, and it is emanated from (226)Ra present in earth crest and building material. Based on the type of work, construction of the building and ventilation condition, concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny have been measured in 60 workplaces at 10 locations of Mysuru, Bengaluru and Kolar districts of Karnataka state using Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector technique. From the study, variations of radon, thoron and their progeny have been observed with the nature of work. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The burden of headache disorders in India: methodology and questionnaire validation for a community-based survey in Karnataka State.

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    Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Rajesh, Kavita; Subbakrishna, D Kumaraswamy; Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars J

    2012-10-01

    Primary headache disorders are a major public-health problem globally and, possibly more so, in low- and middle-income countries. No methodologically sound studies of prevalence and burden of headache in the adult Indian population have been published previously. The present study was a door-to-door cold-calling survey in urban and rural areas in and around Bangalore, Karnataka State. From 2,714 households contacted, 2,514 biologically unrelated individuals were eligible for the survey and 2,329 (92.9 %) participated (1,103 [48 %] rural; 1,226 [52 %] urban; 1,141 [49 %] male; 1,188 [51 %] female; mean age 38.0 years). The focus was on primary headache (migraine and tension-type headache [TTH]) and medication-overuse headache. A structured questionnaire administered by trained lay interviewers was the instrument both for diagnosis (algorithmically determined from responses) and burden estimation. The screening question enquired into headache in the last year. The validation study compared questionnaire-based diagnoses with those obtained soon after through personal interview by a neurologist in a random sub-sample of participants (n = 381; 16 %). It showed high values (> 80 %) for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for any headache, and for specificity and negative predictive value for migraine and TTH. Kappa values for diagnostic agreement were good for any headache (0.69 [95 % CI 0.61-0.76]), moderate (0.46 [0.35-0.56]) for migraine and fair (0.39 [0.29-0.49]) for TTH. The survey methodology, including identification of and access to participants, proved feasible. The questionnaire proved effective in the survey population. The study will give reliable estimates of the prevalence and burden of headache, and of migraine and TTH specifically, in urban and rural Karnataka.

  14. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

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    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  15. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: A community survey

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    Amitesh Narayan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India, where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41 subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  16. Provocative poliomyelitis causing postpolio residual paralysis among select communities of two remote villages of North Karnataka in India: a community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Amitesh; Ganesan, Sailakshmi; Shenoy, U V; Narayanan, E

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular injections can provoke muscular paralysis especially, if the child has had exposure to polio virus. The purpose of the study was to determine the association with known risk factors for motor disabilities in two remote villages of North Karnataka (India), where an increased number of disabled people among select communities had been reported. A community based survey was conducted. The selection of study subjects was done through screening, history related with occurrence of musculoskeletal disability, screening and general examination of the affected joints and muscles. Data analysis was done by estimation of percentages. Among the physical disabilities identified, the most common was post-polio residual paralysis. 35.65% (n = 41) subjects had developed paralysis following the administration of an intramuscular injection when they had acute viremia in childhood, indicating that (probably) muscle paralysis would have been provoked by intramuscular injections, resulting in provocative poliomyelitis. Unnecessary injection must be avoided in children during acute viremia state and use of oral polio vaccine should be encouraged.

  17. Pursuing Authenticity From Process to Outcome in a Community-Based Participatory Research Study of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Vulnerability in North Karnataka, India.

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    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Sangha, Chaitanya Aids Tadegattuva Mahila; Nair, Sapna G; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Srikantamurthy, H S; Ramanaik, Satyanaryana; Javalkar, Prakash; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Collumbien, Martine; Heise, Lori; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Bruce, Sharon Gail

    2017-01-01

    Community-based participatory research has been seen to hold great promise by researchers aiming to bridge research and action in global health programs and practice. However, there is still much debate around whether achieving authenticity in terms of in-depth collaboration between community and academic partners is possible while pursuing academic expectations for quality. This article describes the community-based methodology for a qualitative study to explore intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS among women in sex work, or female sex workers, and their male partners in Karnataka, South India. Developed through collaborative processes, the study methodology followed an interpretive approach to qualitative inquiry, with three key components including long-term partnerships, knowledge exchange, and orientation toward action. We then discuss lessons learned on how to pursue authenticity in terms of truly collaborative processes with inherent value that also contribute to, rather than hinder, the instrumental goal of enhancing the quality and relevance of the research outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Higher education and the reproductive life course : A cross-cultural study of women in Karnataka (India) and the Netherlands

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    Banerjee, Sarbani

    2006-01-01

    ‘Here cometh the new age woman’ luidde de titel van een artikel in de dagelijks krant de Times of India in2004 waarin aandacht wordt besteed aan de ontwikkeling van de vrouw in India: een hoger opgeleidewerkende vrouw die zich in het publieke domein beweegt welke eerst alleen aan mannen leek te zijn

  19. Risk factors for under-nutrition among children aged one to five years in Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India: A case control study

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    A Basit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite her apparent economic success, India is plagued by a high burden of under-nutrition among children under five. This study was aimed at understanding some of the risk factors for under-nutrition in a region with favourable maternal and child health indicators.MethodA case control study was carried out among children aged one to five years attending the paediatric outpatient department in six rural health care centres in Udupi taluk of Karnataka in Southern India. A total of 162 children were included in the study, of which 56 were cases. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the caregivers of the children and the nutritional status was graded according to the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP grading of protein-energy malnutrition.ResultsUnder-nutrition was associated with illness in the last one month [OR- 4.78 (CI: 1.83 -12.45], feeding diluted milk [OR- 14.26 (CI: 4.65 – 43.68] and having more than two children with a birth interval < 2 years [OR- 4.93 (CI: 1.78 – 13.61]. Lack of exclusive breast feeding, level of education of the caregiver and environmental factors like source of water did not have an association.ConclusionChildhood illness, short birth interval and consumption of diluted milk were some of the significant contributory factors noted among this population. Information, Education, Communication (IEC campaigns alleviating food fads and promoting birth spacing is needed.

  20. Development of weather based rice yellow stem borer prediction model for the Cauvery command rice areas, Karnataka, India

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    N.R. Prasannakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship of weather parameters viz., maximum temperature (Tmax, °C, minimum temperature (Tmin, °C, rainfall (RF, mm, morning relative humidity (RH1, %, evening humidity (RH2, %, and sunshine hours (SSH, during seven years at Mandya (Karnataka was individually explored with peaks of rice yellow stem borer (YSB Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker light trap catches. The peaks of YSB trap catches exhibited significant correlation with Tmax of October 3rd week, Tmin of November 1st week, RF of October 2nd week, RH1 of November 4th and RH2 of November 1st week, and SSH of October 4th week. Weather-based prediction model for YSB was developed by regressing peaks of YSB light trap catches on mean values of different weather parameters of aforesaid weeks. Of the weather parameters, only Tmin, RF, and RH1 were found to be relevant through stepwise regression. The model was validated satisfactorily through 8-year independent data on weather parameters and YSB light trap catch peaks (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.0002.

  1. Detoxifying enzyme studies on cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida, resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in field populations in Karnataka, India

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    Halappa Banakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida is considered to be an alarming insect pest causing both quantitative and qualitative loss in cotton. In situ bioassay studies were done and the role of detoxifying enzymes in conferring resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides in low (MUD, medium (DVG, high (HVR and very high (GLB pesticide usage areas of Karnataka were determined. Bioassay studies showed that imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin registered varying levels of resistance for all the locations studied. The resistance ratio was high in imidacloprid (3.35, 8.57, 9.15 and 12.27 fold respectively and the lowest in dinoferuran (1.86, 5.13, 6.71 and 9.88 fold respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme activity ratio (glutathione-S-transferase was relatively greater, and corresponded to the higher LC50 values of neonicotinoids for very high, high, medium and low pesticide usage areas. Our study suggested that the higher activity of the detoxifying enzyme in the resistance population of cotton leafhopper apparently has a significant role in endowing resistance to neonicotinoid groups of insecticides. However, this study recommends using neonicotinoids in cotton growing areas with caution.

  2. Structural and functional diversity of rhizobacteria associated with Rauwolfia spp. across the Western Ghat regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Kumar, S P; Hariprasad, P; Brijesh Singh, S; Gowtham, H G; Niranjana, S R

    2014-01-01

    The present study carried out with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of DNA extracted from rhizosphere soils of Rauwolfia spp. collected from Western Ghat (WG) regions of Karnataka indicated that Pseudomonas sp. was prevalently found followed by Methylobacterium sp., Bacillus sp. and uncultured bacteria. A total of 200 rhizobacteria were isolated from 58 rhizosphere soil samples comprising of 15 different bacterial genera. The Shannon Weaver diversity index (H') and Simpson's diversity index (D) were found to be 2.57 and 0.91 for cultivable bacteria, respectively. The total species richness of cultivable rhizobacteria was high in Coorg district comprising 15 bacterial genera while in Mysore district, four bacterial genera were recorded. Rarefaction curve analysis also indicated the presence of higher species richness in samples of Shimoga and Coorg. All the rhizobacteria were screened for their multiple plant growth promotion and disease suppression traits. The results revealed that 70% of the isolates colonized tomato roots, 42% produced indole acetic acid, 55% solubilized phosphorus, while 43, 22, 27, 19, 40, 15 and 44% produced siderophore, salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide, chitinase, phytase, cellulase and protease, respectively. Rhizobacterial isolates showing antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus were 53 and 33%, respectively. Plant growth promotion studies revealed that most of the isolates increased percent germination with significantly higher vigour index as compared to untreated control. Most predominant rhizobacteria found in the rhizospheres of Rauwolfia spp. of WG regions are potential PGPR which can serve as biofertilizers and biopesticides.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries among 3–6-year-old Anganwadi children in Mudhol town, Karnataka, India

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    Meena V Kashetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease among childhood. Dental caries in primary dentition is often neglected since they exfoliate, and its treatment is considered as economic burden among lower socioeconomic families. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in the primary teeth of 3–6–year-old preschool Anganwadi children in Mudhol town of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 758 children, aged 3–6 years studying in 15 Anganwadis of Mudhol. Type III WHO method of examination was followed, and decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft index was recorded according to the WHO criteria. The data were analyzed by Z-test and Chi-square test using SPSS version 17 software. Results: Among the study population, 62.14% were found to be affected by dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries increased with increase in age. No significant difference was found with respect to gender. The mean dmft was 2.34. The filled component was nonexistent among these children. Second primary molars were the teeth most affected by caries followed by first molars and central incisors. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence of 62.14% and mean dmft of 2.34 among Anganwadi children of Mudhol town is a cause for concern. The nonexisting filled component among these children indicates high unmet restorative treatment needs. Dental health services should be made available in the peripheral areas to meet the needs of young children.

  4. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

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    Gurpur Prakash Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord′s periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II, while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  5. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

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    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  6. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in organophosphorus poisoning: A case study in rural hospital in Karnataka, India

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    Tanveer Hassan Banday

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates.

  7. An extended distribution of recently described Natesh’s Cape-pondweed (Aponogetonaceae: Aponogeton nateshii to the state of Karnataka, India

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    Sharad Suresh Kambale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aponogeton nateshii, a recently described endemic species from coastal plains of Konkan region of Maharashtra is recorded from the Western Ghats of Karnataka. Notes on its habitat and variations are provided. 

  8. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study

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    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for

  9. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

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    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  10. Girl, woman, lover, mother: towards a new understanding of child prostitution among young Devadasis in rural Karnataka, India.

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    Orchard, Treena Rae

    2007-06-01

    The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.

  11. Sickness Absenteeism, Morbidity and Workplace Injuries among Iron and Steel workers – A Cross Sectional Study from Karnataka, Southern India

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    Manjunatha R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe study of illnesses causing absence of workers from workin industries is a practical method to study the health statusof industrial workers and to identify occupational healthhazards. The iron and steel industries are particularlyhazardous places of work. Published data from India onhealth status of iron and steel workers is limited, thereforethis study was undertaken to investigate the sicknessabsenteeism, morbidity and workplace injuries among thispopulation.MethodWorkers were selected using stratified random sampling. Astructured pre-tested interview schedule was used tocollect the data. A p value of < 0.05 was considered forstatistical significance.ResultsFrom a total of 2525 workers, 353 (mean age 55.1 yrs, male69.4% participated in the study. The overall proportion ofsickness absenteeism was 66.9% (95% CI: 0.62 – 0.71.Overall 16.4 days were lost per worker per year (male = 16.5& female = 16.2 due to sickness absence. A blue collarworker lost 21.5 days compared to 11.9 days by a whitecollar worker (p < 0.01. Among workers, health ailmentsrelated to the musculoskeletal system (31.4%,gastrointestinal system (25.8%, hypertension (24.4%,respiratory system (18.1% and other minor ailments(19.3% were found to be high.ConclusionSickness absenteeism is significantly higher among iron andsteel workers when compared to other occupations in India.Blue collar workers and shift workers loose higher numberof days due to sickness absence, and they face problemsrelated to musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal systemand hypertension in higher proportions compared to theircounterparts. Women experienced hypertension as thecommon health problem and higher proportions of injuriesoutside the work environment.

  12. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence

  13. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

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    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma

  14. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Vandana; Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Maddur, Srinath; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-10-02

    Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs) in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media) and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves). The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination) contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are

  15. The scope and limitations of insecticide spraying in rural vector control programmes in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, D; Hyma, B; Ramesh, A

    1982-01-01

    The resurgence of malaria in India began in 1966 and the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu were no exception to this phenomenon. In both states the peak occurrence came in 1976. Malaria was largely confined to highly vulnerable and receptive areas. The problem of increased incidence was particularly associated with the development of several irrigation and hydro-electric schemes. Improperly maintained irrigation systems and reservoirs provided ideal breeding grounds. The present paper examines the scope and limitations of a major anti-malaria activity, namely residual insecticide spraying as adopted and practised in rural vector control programmes in irrigation development project areas. Past experiences (as during the National Malaria Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. Eradication programme, 1958-1965) and current practices are reviewed on the basis of selected examples. In view of the current re-emergence of the disease, the states are faced with new obstacles to residual insecticide spraying such as (a) the development of resistance of malaria vectors to DDT and other alternative compounds like BHC (benzene hexachloride), changing vector behaviour with avoidance of contact with indoor insecticide deposits on walls, (c) environmental contamination (risks of chemicals), (d) extensive use of insecticides and pesticides for crop protection under an expanding green revolution agricultural technology, particularly in irrigated areas and (e) the existence of outdoor resting populations of the major vector Anopheles culicifacies and their role in extra-domiciliary transmission, making residual insecticide spray less effective. Spraying operations are also hindered by the persistence of certain social and cultural factors. The custom of mud plastering, white-washing and rethatching rural houses, for example, results in the loss of insecticide-treated surfaces. Other outdoor rural activities persist as

  16. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of invader tilapia fishes from water bodies of West Bengal and Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Ramdas, Leena; Chakrabarti, Ramananda

    2015-11-01

    The otoliths (N = 12) of freshwater invasive species tilapia (Tilapia mossambicus) collected from two water bodies located at Kolkata and Bangalore, India, were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O, δ14C) and major and trace elements in order to assess the suitability of using otoliths as a tracer of aquatic environmental changes. The stable isotope analysis was done using the dual inlet system of a Finnigan-MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Bremen, Germany). Concentrations of major and trace elements were determined using a Thermo X-Series II quadrupole mass spectrometer. The stable isotope composition in tilapia otolith samples from Bangalore and Kolkata water bodies are quite good agreeing with that of the respective lake/pond and rain water. Elemental composition revealed in a pattern of Ca>Fe>Na>Sr>K>Ba>Cr>Mg>As>Mn>Zn>Co>Cu>Cd>Pb. The otoliths from Kolkata pond water are more enriched in Ba, Zn, Pb, Mn, Se, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni whereas Cr and As were found to be higher in otolith samples from Bangalore lake. The enrichment factor (EF) values of Cr were higher for both the sampling location in comparison with other metals, although all the studied metals exhibited EF values>1. The PCA shows clustering of metals in the otolith which are related either with the metabolic and physiological attributes or waterborne source. The study demonstrated the potential of stable isotope techniques to distinguish otolith specimens from varied climatic zone, while elemental composition recorded the quality of water at both the locations. The role of climate driving the quality of water can be understood by detailed and continuous monitoring of otolith specimens in the future. Future method allows reconstruction of climate and water quality from old specimens from field exposures or museum collection.

  17. Quantifying aquifer properties and freshwater resource in coastal barriers: a hydrogeophysical approach applied at Sasihithlu (Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vouillamoz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many human communities living in coastal areas in Africa and Asia rely on thin freshwater lenses for their domestic supply. Population growth together with change in rainfall patterns and sea level will probably impact these vulnerable groundwater resources. Spatial knowledge of the aquifer properties and creation of a groundwater model are required for achieving a sustainable management of the resource. This paper presents a ready-to-use methodology for estimating the key aquifer properties and the freshwater resource based on the joint use of two non-invasive geophysical tools together with common hydrological measurements.

    We applied the proposed methodology in an unconfined aquifer of a coastal sandy barrier in South-Western India. We jointly used magnetic resonance and transient electromagnetic soundings and we monitored rainfall, groundwater level and groundwater electrical conductivity. The combined interpretation of geophysical and hydrological results allowed estimating the aquifer properties and mapping the freshwater lens. Depending on the location and season, we estimate the freshwater reserve to range between 400 and 700 L m−2 of surface area (± 50%. We also estimate the recharge using time lapse geophysical measurements with hydrological monitoring. After a rainy event close to 100% of the rain is reaching the water table, but the net recharge at the end of the monsoon is less than 10% of the rain. Thus, we conclude that a change in rainfall patterns will probably not impact the groundwater resource since most of the rain water recharging the aquifer is flowing towards the sea and the river. However, a change in sea level will impact both the groundwater reserve and net recharge.

  18. Comorbidities and related factors in rheumatoid arthritis patients of south India- Karnataka Rheumatoid Arthritis Comorbidity (KRAC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chandrashekara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the prevalence of comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients in everyday clinical practice and their association with disease-specific and demographic factors. The multi-center study recruited 3,247 (at 14 centers, and 265 were excluded due to incomplete data. The number of subjects considered for the analysis was 2982. The mean (±standard deviation age was 48.98±12.64 years and the male-to-female ratio was 1:5. The data was collected based on a pre-structured pro forma by trained clinical research associates through interview and verification of charts and reports available in the patient records. The following comorbidities were studied: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, thyroid disease, psychiatric diseases like depression, and pulmonary disease. Hypertension (20.7%, diabetes mellitus (14.4% and thyroid disease (18.3% were the most prevalent comorbidities. Hypercholesterolemia (5.3%, pulmonary diseases (2.1%, cardiovascular diseases (0.2% and depression (0.03% were prevalent in ≤5% of the study population. The overall presence of comorbidity increased with age and reduced with the duration of illness prior (DOIP. The age, gender, and DOIP differed significantly between groups with and without hypercholesterolemia. Females had a statistically increased prevalence of thyroid disease. The prevalence of comorbidities in RA patients from south India is around 40% and the incidence of comorbidity increased with age. As per the literature evidence, the prevalence in the current study subjects was higher when compared to prevalence of similar diseases occurring in the general south Indian population.

  19. Effectiveness of Onsite Nurse Mentoring in Improving Quality of Institutional Births in the Primary Health Centres of High Priority Districts of Karnataka, South India: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Mony, Prem; Cunningham, Troy; Washington, Maryann; Bhat, Swarnarekha; Rao, Suman; Thomas, Annamma; S, Rajaram; Kar, Arin; N, Swaroop; B M, Ramesh; H L, Mohan; Fischer, Elizabeth; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background In India, although the proportion of institutional births is increasing, there are concerns regarding quality of care. We assessed the effectiveness of a nurse-led onsite mentoring program in improving quality of care of institutional births in 24/7 primary health centres (PHCs that are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week) of two high priority districts in Karnataka state, South India. Primary outcomes were improved facility readiness and provider preparedness in managing institutional births and associated complications during child birth. Methods All functional 24/7 PHCs in the two districts were included in the study. We used a parallel, cluster randomized trial design in which 54 of 108 facilities received six onsite mentoring visits, along with an initial training update and specially designed case sheets for providers; the control arm received just the initial training update and the case sheets. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were administered in April-2012 and August-2013 using facility audits, provider interviews and case sheet audits. The provider interviews were administered to all staff nurses available at the PHCs and audits were done of all the filled case sheets during the month prior to data collection. In addition, a cost analysis of the intervention was undertaken. Results Between the surveys, we achieved coverage of 100% of facilities and 91.2% of staff nurse interviews. Since the case sheets were newly designed, case-sheet audit data were available only from the end line survey for about 80.2% of all women in the intervention facilities and 57.3% in the control facilities. A higher number of facilities in the intervention arm had all appropriate drugs, equipment and supplies to deal with gestational hypertension (19 vs.3, OR (odds ratio) 9.2, 95% C.I 2.5 to33.6), postpartum haemorrhage (29 vs. 12, OR 3.7, 95% C.I 1.6 to8.3); and obstructed labour (25 vs.9, OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.6 to8.3). The providers in the intervention arm had better

  20. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  1. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  2. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media), and primary stakeholders (FSWs), as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously) and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face). Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3 to 0.5, p violence compared with baseline (IBBA 13.0% vs. 9.0%, AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9 p = 0.01; PBS 27.3% vs. 18.9%, crude OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.5, p violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights. PMID:20701791

  3. Violence against female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India: impact on health, and reductions in violence following an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beattie Tara SH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs can impede HIV prevention efforts and contravenes their human rights. We developed a multi-layered violence intervention targeting policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, lawyers, media, and primary stakeholders (FSWs, as part of wider HIV prevention programming involving >60,000 FSWs in Karnataka state. This study examined if violence against FSWs is associated with reduced condom use and increased STI/HIV risk, and if addressing violence against FSWs within a large-scale HIV prevention program can reduce levels of violence against them. Methods FSWs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth surveys (PBS 2006-2008; short behavioural questionnaires administered anonymously and integrated behavioural-biological assessments (IBBAs 2005-2009; administered face-to-face. Results 3,852 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 7,638 FSWs participated in the PBS. Overall, 11.0% of FSWs in the IBBAs and 26.4% of FSWs in the PBS reported being beaten or raped in the past year. FSWs who reported violence in the past year were significantly less likely to report condom use with clients (zero unprotected sex acts in previous month, 55.4% vs. 75.5%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.3 to 0.5, p Conclusions This program demonstrates that a structural approach to addressing violence can be effectively delivered at scale. Addressing violence against FSWs is important for the success of HIV prevention programs, and for protecting their basic human rights.

  4. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T G Sitharam; Naveen James; K S Vipin; K Ganesha Raj

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  5. Does litterfall from native trees support rainfed agriculture? Analysis of Ficus trees in agroforestry systems of southern dry agroclimatic zone of Karnataka, southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Dhanya; Syam Viswanath; Seema Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Trees of the genus Ficus,integral components of indigenous rainfed agro-ecosystems of the southern dry agro-climatic zone of Kamataka,southern India,have traditionally been associated with the ecological service of soil quality enhancement in addition to various direct use benefits.We assessed the soil enrichment service of Ficus benghalensis L.a common Ficus species in these agroforestry systems,by quantifying nutrient return via litter fall.Litterfall estimation and chemical analysis of litter showed that F.benghalensis trees produce 3,512 kg·ha-1 of litter annually which,on decomposition,can satisfy up to 76.70 % of N,20.24% of P and 67.76% of K requirements of dryland crops annually per hectare.This can lead to an avoided cost of compost of US $ 36.46ha-1·a-1 in dryland farming systems.The slow rate of decay of Ficus litter,as revealed in litter decomposition studies indicates its potential as ideal mulch for dryland soils.We discuss the complementarity between Ficus litterfall and cropping patterns in Mandya,and its implications for rainfed agricultural systems.

  6. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants.

  7. Implementing blended learning into the academic programs of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Ahmed R; Prem, Kumar D

    2014-06-01

    Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, India, is established by an Act of Karnataka State Legislature in the year 1996. Its mandate is to provide training and development in health sciences sector. This University has done pioneering work in the field of curriculum designing for all the health sciences courses offered by the affiliated institutions. In this regard, it has taken lead among all the health sciences universities in India. With student strength of more than one lakh, it has now become a necessity to explore all the possible technological options, so as to provide a comprehensive education to the students. In this context, a proposal has been submitted to the executive head of the University to implement the Blended Learning Program.

  8. Trend of human brucellosis over a decade at tertiary care centre in North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease. India having a major agrarian population is expected to have a higher prevalence. However, due to lack of laboratory facility or awareness among clinicians, the disease is largely underreported. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence and trend of human brucellosis over a decade, in patients attending a teaching hospital in North Karnataka, and to understand their geographical distribution. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2015 at a tertiary care teaching hospital in North Karnataka. A total of 3610 serum samples were evaluated from suspected cases of brucellosis. All serum samples were initially screened by Rose Bengal plate test, and positive samples were further analysed by Serum agglutination test (SAT using standard Brucella abortus antigen from Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A titre above or equal to 1:80 IU/ml was considered as positive. Demographic data such as age, sex and native place of these patients were also analysed. Results: We observed that human brucellosis is present in North Karnataka. The overall seropositivity of brucellosis in suspected cases was 5.1%. The positive titres ranged from 1:80 to 163,840 IU/ml. The majority of the patients were from Gadag, Koppal and Haveri districts of North Karnataka. Conclusion: Our study confirms the presence of human brucellosis in the northern part of Karnataka. Further studies to understand the prevalence of animal brucellosis in these areas will help in implementing prevention measures.

  9. The astronomical significance of megalithic stone alignments at Vibhuthihalli in northern Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya

    2010-03-01

    A megalithic site at Vibhuthihalli in Karnataka, India, contains alignments of stones that are arranged in a square pattern with rows and columns showing a diagonal arrangement. Such structures are non-sepulchral, and although their purpose is not clear it has been suggested that they have astronomical significance. We investigated this possibility and our observations showed that the rows of stones point to the direction of equinoctial sunrise and sunset. lt is likely that calendrical events were monitored at this site.

  10. Adoption of Electronic Health Records: A Roadmap for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to create a roadmap for the adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) in India based an analysis of the strategies of other countries and national scenarios of ICT use in India. Methods The strategies for adoption of EHR in other countries were analyzed to find the crucial steps taken. Apart from reports collected from stakeholders in the country, the study relied on the experience of the author in handling several e-health projects. Results It was found that there are four major areas where the countries considered have made substantial efforts: ICT infrastructure, Policy & regulations, Standards & interoperability, and Research, development & education. A set of crucial activities were identified in each area. Based on the analysis, a roadmap is suggested. It includes the creation of a secure health network; health information exchange; and the use of open-source software, a national health policy, privacy laws, an agency for health IT standards, R&D, human resource development, etc. Conclusions Although some steps have been initiated, several new steps need to be taken up for the successful adoption of EHR. It requires a coordinated effort from all the stakeholders. PMID:27895957

  11. Prevalence of Genital Prolapse among Married Women in Southern Karnataka

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    Sahana A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.

  12. From policy to practice: lessons from Karnataka about implementation of tobacco control laws

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    Pragati B Hebbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use accounts for eight to nine lakh adult deaths annually in India. India enacted a national legislation “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003” (COTPA to protect health of non-smokers and reduce tobacco consumption. However, even a decade after enacting this law, its implementation remains suboptimal and variable across the Indian states. Karnataka has shown leadership on this front by enacting a state law and implementing COTPA at (sub- district levels. We, therefore, aim to analyze COTPA implementation processes in Karnataka to understand how COTPA can be effectively implemented. Methods: We developed a case study of COTPA implementation in Karnataka using reports from health, police, education, and transport departments as well as government orders and media reports related to COTPA. We analyzed these data to map and understand the role played by the government agencies in COTPA implementation. We used the proportion of the districts reporting COTPA violations, the number of COTPA violations cases reported, and the proportion of schools reporting compliance with COTPA as proxy measures for COTPA implementation. Results: We found that five government agencies (police, education, health, transport, and urban development played a major role in COTPA implementation. All the police districts reported COTPA violations with 59,594 cases in a year (April 2013–March 2014. Three of the district anti-tobacco cells and two of the transport divisions reported 1130 and 14,543 cases of COTPA violations, respectively, in the same year. In addition, 84.7% of schools complied with signage requirements of COTPA. COTPA reporting was made part of the reporting systems within health, police, and education departments. The health department created awareness on tobacco harms and COTPA. Conclusions: COTPA implementation in Karnataka was made possible through integrating COTPA implementation within structure/functions of five

  13. Reducing violence and increasing condom use in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers: study protocol for Samvedana Plus, a cluster randomised controlled trial in Karnataka state, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Isac, Shajy; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Javalkar, Prakash; Davey, Calum; Raghavendra, T; Nair, Sapna; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Kavitha, D L; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2016-07-29

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk of HIV and STIs compared to women in the general population, and frequently experience violence in their working and domestic lives from a variety of perpetrators, which can enhance this risk. While progress has been made in addressing violence by police and clients, little work has been done to understand and prevent violence by intimate partners (IPs) among FSW populations. Samvedana Plus is a multi-level intervention programme that works with FSWs, their IPs, the sex worker community, and the general population, and aims to reduce violence and increase consistent condom use within these 'intimate' relationships. The programme involves shifting norms around the acceptability of beating as a form of discipline, challenging gender roles that give men authority over women, and working with men and women to encourage new relationship models based on gender equity and respect. The programme will aim to cover 800 FSWs and their IPs living in 47 villages in Bagalkot district, northern Karnataka. The study is designed to assess two primary outcomes: the proportion of FSWs who report: (i) physical or sexual partner violence; and (ii) consistent condom use in their intimate relationship, within the past 6 months. The evaluation will employ a cluster-randomised controlled trial design, with 50 % of the village clusters (n = 24) randomly selected to receive the intervention for the first 24 months and the remaining 50 % (n = 23) receiving the intervention thereafter. Statisticians will be blinded to treatment arm allocation. The evaluation will use an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at midline (12 months) and endline (24 months). The evaluation design will involve quantitative and qualitative assessments with (i) all FSWs who report an IP (ii) IPs; and process/ implementation monitoring. Baseline data collection was completed in April

  14. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  15. Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sudhir Kumar; Naveen Ramesh; Srinand Sreevatsan; Bobby Joseph; Prashanth Alle; Kumar Belani; Michael Osterholm

    2013-01-01

    .... Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in Karnataka in South India to collect data...

  16. Health seeking behavior in karnataka: does micro-health insurance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, S; Kiran, Kb

    2013-10-01

    Health seeking behaviour in the event of illness is influenced by the availability of good health care facilities and health care financing mechanisms. Micro health insurance not only promotes formal health care utilization at private providers but also reduces the cost of care by providing the insurance coverage. This paper explores the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Programme, a micro health insurance scheme on the health seeking behaviour of households during illness in Karnataka, India. The study was conducted in three randomly selected districts in Karnataka, India in the first half of the year 2011. The hypothesis was tested using binary logistic regression analysis on the data collected from randomly selected 1146 households consisting of 4961 individuals. Insured individuals were seeking care at private hospitals than public hospitals due to the reduction in financial barrier. Moreover, equity in health seeking behaviour among insured individuals was observed. Our finding does represent a desirable result for health policy makers and micro finance institutions to advocate for the inclusion of health insurance in their portfolio, at least from the HSB perspective.

  17. Electronic Waste Management in India: A Stakeholder’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Borthakur, Anwesha; Sinha, Kunal

    2013-01-01

    E-waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) illustrate discarded appliances that utilize electricity for their functioning. Today, the Indian market is engrossed with massive volumes of electrical and electronic goods and gadgets, having tremendously high domestic demand. Consequently, the amount of E-waste being generated in the country is flourishing at an alarming rate, although the management practices and policy initiatives of the same are still in an elementary stage. Th...

  18. Electronic Waste Management in India: A Stakeholder’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Borthakur, Anwesha; Sinha, Kunal

    2013-01-01

    E-waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) illustrate discarded appliances that utilize electricity for their functioning. Today, the Indian market is engrossed with massive volumes of electrical and electronic goods and gadgets, having tremendously high domestic demand. Consequently, the amount of E-waste being generated in the country is flourishing at an alarming rate, although the management practices and policy initiatives of the same are still in an elementary stage. Th...

  19. Information, education and communication on family planning and maternal and child health care: an evaluation of a special action programme in northern Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaretnam, T; Deshpande, R V

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation undertaken by the Population Research Centre of the India Population Project-III in two districts of Karnataka state in late 1990. "The evaluation study revealed that mass media type...programmes such as...films...were carried out satisfactorily. But inter-[personal] communication type...programmes such as group meetings...were rarely conducted and people's participation was not sufficiently ensured." Recommendations for improvements are included. excerpt

  20. An Investigative Study on School Drop-outs in Tribal Settings. A Case of Three selected Tribes in South Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha B.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The NPE, 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA, 1992, recognized the heterogeneity and diversity of the tribal areas while underlining the importance of instruction through the mother tongue and the need for preparing teaching/learning materials in the tribal languages. A working group on Elementary and Adult Education for the Xth Five Year Plan (2002-07 emphasized the need to improve the quality of education of tribal children and to ensure equity as well as further improving access. In general, the tribes that remain geographically isolated are able to retain their traditional cultures and religions longer. On the other hand communities that are either nomadic or live in the periphery of civilized life are prone for drastic changes. Karnataka has a sizable population of tribal people. There are 34.64 lakhs tribals distributed in various regions of Karnataka as per 2001 census. Their education level still min pathetic condition. This paper is based on study conducted on three important tribes viz; Soliga, Jenukuruba and Betta Kurubas Tribes of chamartjangar district of Karnataka state India

  1. Can Electronic Procurement Improve Infrastructure Provision? Evidence From Public Works in India and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Lewis-Faupel; Yusuf Neggers; Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2014-01-01

    Poorly functioning, and often corrupt, public procurement procedures are widely faulted for the low quality of infrastructure provision in developing countries. Can electronic procurement (e-procurement), which reduces both the cost of acquiring tender information and personal interaction between bidders and procurement officials, ameliorate these problems? In this paper we develop a unique micro-dataset on public works procurement from two fast-growing economies, India and Indonesia, and use...

  2. PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2012-04-01

    The 'India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation' (IJWBME 2011) will be held on 7-10 December 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan. This workshop was held for the first time on 17-19 December 2009 at NPL, New Delhi. Keeping in mind the importance of organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation and their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world, IJWBME 2009 was jointly organized by the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, the Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science & Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Much progress in the field of biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation is expected for the 21st Century. Organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic electroluminescent devices, organic thin-film transistors, organic sensors, biological systems and so on have especially attracted much attention. The main purpose of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for researchers interested in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation, to come together in an informal and friendly atmosphere and exchange technical knowledge and experience. We are sure that this workshop will be very useful and fruitful for all participants in summarizing the recent progress in biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environmental preservation and preparing new ground for the next generation. Many papers have been submitted from India and Japan and more than 30 papers have been accepted for presentation. The main topics of interest are as follows: Bioelectronics Biomolecular Electronics Fabrication Techniques Self-assembled Monolayers Nano-sensors Environmental Monitoring Organic Devices

  3. Microhealth insurance and the risk coping strategies for the management of illness in Karnataka: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, B; K B, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Risk coping strategies adopted by the households in the event of illness depends on the accessibility to healthcare financing mechanisms including health insurance. The empirical evidence on the effect of microhealth insurance (MHI) on the risk coping strategies of the households is scarce. This paper evaluates the impact of Sampoorna Suraksha Program, a nongovernmental organization-initiated MHI scheme and the risk coping strategies of households faced with medical illness in Karnataka state, India. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we collected data from 416 insured households, 366 newly insured households and 364 uninsured households in randomly selected 10 taluks in three districts of Karnataka state, India. We hypothesized that insured individuals rely less on ex post risk coping strategies (borrowing, use of savings and sale of assets) compared with uninsured and newly insured individuals. Our hypothesis was tested using logistic and linear regression analysis. A significant difference among insured, uninsured and newly insured individuals was found for borrowing but not in the use of savings or sale of assets. A positive impact of MHI on illness-induced borrowing (both incidence and amount) was evident. The evidence from this study reinforces the role of MHI as a pivotal financing alternative to out-of-pocket expenditure in India.

  4. Electronics and data acquisition system for the ICAL prototype detector of India-based neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behere, A. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhuyan, M. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chandratre, V.B. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, S., E-mail: sudeshnadasgupta@tifr.res.in [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Datar, V.M. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kalmani, S.D.; Lahamge, S.M.; Mondal, N.K. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mukhopadhyay, P.K. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Nagaraj, P.; Nagesh, B.K.; Pal, S.; Rao, Shobha K.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M.N.; Satyanarayana, B. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Shastrakar, R.S. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, R.R. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sudheer, K.M. [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Upadhya, S.S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); and others

    2013-02-11

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector with the primary goal to study neutrino oscillations, employing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements. A prototype of the ICAL detector has been built in order to develop and characterize the intrinsic sub-systems, like RPCs, gas system, electronics and data acquisition system, etc. This paper describes in detail the readout electronics as well as the VME-based data acquisition system for the prototype detector.

  5. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Chempalayil, S.P.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.

    the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions...

  6. Electronic waste - an emerging threat to the environment of urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needhidasan, Santhanam; Samuel, Melvin; Chidambaram, Ramalingam

    2014-01-20

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the emerging problems in developed and developing countries worldwide. It comprises of a multitude of components with valuable materials, some containing toxic substances, that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. Previous studies show that India has generated 0.4 million tons of e-waste in 2010 which may increase to 0.5 to 0.6 million tons by 2013-2014. Coupled with lack of appropriate infrastructural facilities and procedures for its disposal and recycling have posed significant importance for e-waste management in India. In general, e-waste is generated through recycling of e-waste and also from dumping of these wastes from other countries. More of these wastes are ending up in dumping yards and recycling centers, posing a new challenge to the environment and policy makers as well. In general electronic gadgets are meant to make our lives happier and simpler, but the toxicity it contains, their disposal and recycling becomes a health nightmare. Most of the users are unaware of the potential negative impact of rapidly increasing use of computers, monitors, and televisions. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal, recycling operations and mechanisms to improve the condition for better environment.

  7. On the waterfront: water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a south India canal irrigation system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests

  8. Enhancing biodiversity management and utilization to improve livelihoods : a case study of 'kokum' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, F.; Sudha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia indica, commonly known as 'kokum', is an underutilized fruit tree, native of the Western Ghats in India and Malaysia. In India it mainly grows in the western parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa. The fruit is used as a medicinal plant against obesity; the rind as souring and food

  9. Enhancing biodiversity management and utilization to improve livelihoods : a case study of 'kokum' in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, F.; Sudha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Garcinia indica, commonly known as 'kokum', is an underutilized fruit tree, native of the Western Ghats in India and Malaysia. In India it mainly grows in the western parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa. The fruit is used as a medicinal plant against obesity; the rind as souring and food

  10. An Empirical Investigation on Mobile Banking Service Adoption in Rural Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Krishna Kishore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government of India (GOI initialized financial inclusion campaign to quell exclusion. The campaign did not gain expected progress. Government employed technologies to speed up the process. Among banking technologies, mobile banking appeared as a possible solution for financial exclusion with wide mobile phone coverage. Inputs on rural people’s intention toward technologies for effective financial inclusion were essential. Technology adoption factors, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, attitude, perceived risk, and behavioral intention (BI, were short listed after literature review. Factors were subjected to reliability, exploratory factor analysis (EFA, multiple regression, and interaction analysis. Rural provinces in Karnataka state were surveyed. We used mixed sampling technique to reach 959 samples. Multiple regression–interaction analysis revealed age and gender moderated attitude’s path toward BI.

  11. Neonatal care in rural Karnataka: healthy and harmful practices, the potential for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleland John

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year four million babies die in the first month of life and a quarter of these take place in India. A package of essential newborn care practices exists, which has a proven impact on reducing mortality, and can be implemented in low resource settings. However, childbirth and the neonatal period are culturally important times, during which there is strong adherence to traditional practices. Successful implementation of the package therefore requires in-depth knowledge of the local context and tailored behaviour change communication. Methods This study was carried out in rural Karnataka, India. It uses quantitative data from a prospective survey following mothers through their experience of pregnancy and the postnatal period; and qualitative data from in depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted with mothers, grandmothers and birth attendants. It explores local newborn care practices and beliefs, analyses their harmful or beneficial characteristics and elucidates areas of potential resistance to behaviour change and implementation of the essential newborn care package. Results Findings show that many potentially harmful newborn care practices are being carried out in the study area, such as unhygienic cord cutting, delayed breastfeeding and early bathing. Some are more amenable to change than others, depending on the strength of the underlying beliefs, and acceptability of alternative care. However, movement away from traditional practices is already taking place, particularly amongst the more educated and better off, and there is a clear opportunity to broaden, direct and accelerate this process. Conclusion Community education should be a focus of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI program being implemented in Karnataka. The added capacity of the new Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs could enable more women to be reached. With

  12. Electronic waste – an emerging threat to the environment of urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Needhidasan, Santhanam; Samuel, Melvin; Chidambaram, Ramalingam

    2014-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the emerging problems in developed and developing countries worldwide. It comprises of a multitude of components with valuable materials, some containing toxic substances, that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. Previous studies show that India has generated 0.4 million tons of e-waste in 2010 which may increase to 0.5 to 0.6 million tons by 2013–2014. Coupled with lack of appropriate infrastructural facilities and procedures ...

  13. Electronic waste – an emerging threat to the environment of urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the emerging problems in developed and developing countries worldwide. It comprises of a multitude of components with valuable materials, some containing toxic substances, that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. Previous studies show that India has generated 0.4 million tons of e-waste in 2010 which may increase to 0.5 to 0.6 million tons by 2013–2014. Coupled with lack of appropriate infrastructural facilities and procedures for its disposal and recycling have posed significant importance for e-waste management in India. In general, e-waste is generated through recycling of e-waste and also from dumping of these wastes from other countries. More of these wastes are ending up in dumping yards and recycling centers, posing a new challenge to the environment and policy makers as well. In general electronic gadgets are meant to make our lives happier and simpler, but the toxicity it contains, their disposal and recycling becomes a health nightmare. Most of the users are unaware of the potential negative impact of rapidly increasing use of computers, monitors, and televisions. This review article provides a concise overview of India’s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal, recycling operations and mechanisms to improve the condition for better environment. PMID:24444377

  14. Ancient ports of Karnataka and their contacts with Arab countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    , Udyavara and Mangalore played an active role in establishing the trade contacts with outside countries. The sea trade of Karnataka constituted a significant part of her economic activities and secured for her a niche in the oceanic trade of the western...

  15. Good governance and corruption in the health sector: lessons from the Karnataka experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, R; Green, A; Sudarshan, H; Karpagam, Ss; Ramani, Kv; Tomson, G; Gerein, N

    2011-11-01

    Strengthening good governance and preventing corruption in health care are universal challenges. The Karnataka Lokayukta (KLA), a public complaints agency in Karnataka state (India), was created in 1986 but played a prominent role controlling systemic corruption only after a change of leadership in 2001 with a new Lokayukta (ombudsman) and Vigilance Director for Health (VDH). This case study of the KLA (2001-06) analysed the:Scope and level of poor governance in the health sector; KLA objectives and its strategy; Factors which affected public health sector governance and the operation of the KLA. We used a participatory and opportunistic evaluation design, examined documents about KLA activities, conducted three site visits, two key informant and 44 semi-structured interviews and used a force field model to analyse the governance findings. The Lokayukta and his VDH were both proactive and economically independent with an extended social network, technical expertise in both jurisdiction and health care, and were widely perceived to be acting for the common good. They mobilized media and the public about governance issues which were affected by factors at the individual, organizational and societal levels. Their investigations revealed systemic corruption within the public health sector at all levels as well as in public/private collaborations and the political and justice systems. However, wider contextual issues limited their effectiveness in intervening. The departure of the Lokayukta, upon completing his term, was due to a lack of continued political support for controlling corruption. Governance in the health sector is affected by positive and negative forces. A key positive factor was the combined social, cultural and symbolic capital of the two leaders which empowered them to challenge corrupt behaviour and promote good governance. Although change was possible, it was precarious and requires continuous political support to be sustained.

  16. Scrub typhus in adults in a teaching hospital in north Karnataka, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh G Rajoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scrub typhus is grossly under-diagnosed in India due to its non specific clinical presentation, limited awareness and low index of suspicion among clinicians, and lack of diagnostic facilities. As there is a resurgence of scrub typhus in this part of north Karnataka, an attempt is made to study the clinical prolife and complications of scrub typhus in adult patients. Materials and Methods: All cases of febrile illness diagnosed as scrub typhus over a period of 1 year were analysed. Diagnosis was based on the presence of the eschar and /or positive Weil Felix test with a titre of > 1:80. Results: 50 patients diagnosed to have scrub typhus during study period of one year were included in the study. Headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting and dry cough were common symptoms. More than half of the patients had fever of 7-14 days duration (54%. Eschar was seen only in six patients. Transaminitis was noted in 86.67% patients. Weil Felix test was positive in 48/50 patients with titers of 1:160 in 13 patients, 1:320 in 31 patients and 1:640 in 4 patients. In our study complications noted were acute renal failure (07cases, ARDS and encephalitis 04 cases each and septic shock 01 case. Conclusion: There is a resurgence of scrub typhus in this part of north Karnataka, as one of the important cause of acute febrile illness. Weil Felix test serves as a useful and cheap test for the laboratory diagnosis of Rickettsial disease.

  17. Prevalence of goitre and its associated factors in a coastal district of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena G Kamath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Iodine deficiency Disorders (IDDs are a major public health problem globally. In India more than 200 million are at risk for this disorder. It affects people of all ages and both sexes. The mental impairment caused by IDD especially in children is an important consequence of IDD. Aim: To find the prevalence of IDDs and the associated factors with it. Settings and Design: A school based cross – sectional study. Methods and Material: The study was done in Udupi district of Karnataka using a pretested, semistructured questionnaire. The villages of the three talukas (Udupi, Kundapur and Karkala of Udupi district were sampled according to Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS.One school was chosen for the study from each of the 30 selected villages. Minimum of 90 students were selected from each school. Salt and urine samples were collected for Iodine estimation from a sub sample. Goitre was graded according to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD criteria. Results: A total of 3023 children were examined (M = 49.1%, F = 50.9%. The prevalence of goitre in Udupi district was 19.8%. The prevalence of goitre was found to be more amongst females compared to males (p = 0.021 and also was found to be increasing with the increasing age (p = 0.003. Of the 539 salt samples analyzed 23.7 % were inadequately iodized. Education of the father, fish consumption and occupation of the mother were found to be significant predictors of goitre. Conclusions: Goitre is a public health problem in Udupi district of Karnataka. The adequately Iodized salt coverage which should have been more than 90 % is not fulfilled. More awareness is required amongst the people about IDDs and its predictors.

  18. ATS-6 radio beacon electron content measurements at Ootacamund, India, October 1975-July 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwer, S.D.; Davies, K.; Donnelly, R.F.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    An atlas of total slant-path columnar electron content data measured between the ATS-6 satellite and Ootacamund, India, a site near the magnetic Equator is presented. Although these measurements were taken during a solar minimum, the general level of flare and geomagnetic activity that occurred during the observation period is summarized. These total content (N(T)) data were derived from the modulation phase (group delay) of a carrier signal transmitted from the geostationary satellite's Radio Beacon Experiment. This atlas contains two data sets: (1) N(T) as 2-min subsamples digitally recorded between 2 October 1975 and 28 January 1976 corrected for ATS-6 pitch maneuvers and (2) N(T) as 15-min subsamples chart recorded between 21 October 1975 and 22 July 1976 but uncorrected for changes in satellite orientation.

  19. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  20. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  1. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  2. Cytological studies in Four Endemic Genera of Apiaceae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vinod C. Gosavi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Apiaceae comprises 428 genera worldwide, of which 68 are represented in India. Karnataka P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Pinda P.K. Mukh. & Constance, Polyzygus Dalzell, Sivadasania N. Mohanan & Pimenov and Vanasushava P.K. Mukh. & Constance are endemic genera to the country. The present communication is an attempt to provide chromosome counts and basic karyomorphology of Karnataka, Pinda, Polyzygus and Vanasushava. Somatic chromosome counts 2n = 22 and meiotic chromosome counts n = 11 are reported for the first time in Karnataka and Pinda while in Polyzygus 2n = 36 and in Vanasushava 2n = 44 are reported as new cytotypes in present investigation. Karyomophologically Pinda and Vanasushava showed affinities with Heracleum L. while Polyzygus showed advanced karyotype symmetry.

  3. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ELECTRONIC MEDIA LEARNING MATERIALS OF INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, INDIA: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Roy. V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in 1985 has been a milestone in the growth of higher education in India. A very special feature of the University is that a composite of several instructional methods in practice are aimed at giving effective support to distance learners. Self-instructional print materials are the mainstay of the courseware. Besides this, at the support centres, the learners attend a few face-to-face counselling sessions and get access to audio-video materials stocked in the library. Gyandarshan and Gyanvani, the educational television and radio channels broadcast programmes with academic content. The curriculum-based audio-video programmes developed by the University are supplementary in nature. This blending of traditional printed self-learning materials with electronic courseware is a conscious decision of the University which is intended to enhance the quality and effectiveness of learning. Over the years, audio and video cassettes have made way for digital compact discs. Resultant development in information and communication technology heralded virtual campus initiatives of IGNOU, conspicuous among them being the creation of eGyanKosh, the digital repository of the learning materials of IGNOU. Nevertheless, majority of the academic programmes are not being provided audio video supports. The paper analyses the application of electronic media in IGNOU’s course delivery platform.

  5. Government Policies with respect to an Information Technology Cluster in Bangalore, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe southern states in India have developed a strong reputation as a source of software development services, with Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka, having the strongest reputation of all. This article focuses on the following issue: what determines the competitiveness of an informati

  6. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka for IPCC SRES scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aavudai Anandhi

    2010-08-01

    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, due to the choice of scenarios, season type and number of seasons. Based on the type of season, the monthly sequences of variables (predictors) were selected from datasets of NCEP and Canadian General Circulation Model (CGCM3). Seasonal stratifications were carried out on the selected predictors using K-means clustering technique. The results of cluster analysis revealed increase in average, wet season length in A2, A1B and B1 scenarios towards the end of 21st century. The increase in season length was higher for A2 scenario whereas it was the least for B1 scenario. COMMIT scenario did not show any change in season length. However, no change in average warm and cold season length was observed across the four scenarios considered. The number of seasons was increased from 2 to 5. The results of the analysis revealed that no distinct cluster could be obtained when the number of seasons was increased beyond three.

  7. Dermatological and respiratory problems in migrant construction workers of Udupi, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuri Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India being a developing country has tremendous demand of physical infrastructure and construction work as a result there is a raising demand of construction workers. Workers in construction industry are mainly migratory and employed on contract or subcontract basis. These workers face temporary relationship between employer and employee, uncertainty in working hours, contracting and subcontracting system, lack of basic continuous employment, lack basic amenities, and inadequacy in welfare schemes. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms among migratory construction workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Manipal, Karnataka, among 340 male migratory construction workers. A standard modified questionnaire was used as a tool by the interviewer and the physical examination of the workers was done by a physician. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0. Result: Eighty percent of the workers belong to the age group of 18–30 years. The mean age of the workers was 26 ± 8.2 years. Most (43.8% of the workers are from West Bengal followed by those from Bihar and Jharkhand. The rates of prevalence of respiratory and dermatological symptoms were 33.2% and 36.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The migrant construction workers suffer from a high proportion of respiratory and dermatological problems.

  8. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson Paul; Kumar Bhavana N; Madhivanan Purnima; Krupp Karl

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karn...

  9. Metasediments of the deep crustal section of Southern Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, T. C.; Laajoki, K.; Wodeyar, B. K.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the rocks of supracrustal origin in the amphibolite and granulite facies terrane in southern Karnataka was presented. In addition to introducing the metasediments in the field area of the workshop, a review was presented of the common occurrence of metasediments in amphibolite and granulite facies rocks worldwide. Models of granulite metamorphism must include a mechanism for the burial of these sediments to the depths recorded by the geobarometers in granulite metamorphism in addition to their reexposure at the surface. Unfortunately, the common occurrence of supracrustals in granulite facies rocks, sometimes with remarkably little deformation was deemed significant.

  10. Privatisation Policies and Postprivatisation Control Devices in India's Higher Education: Evidence from a Regional Study and Implications for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on economic analysis of privatisation policies and postprivatisation control devices in India's higher education. As a case study, the experiences of Karnataka State in collegiate education under general higher education are emphasised. A change in public financing, rather than a shift of public ownership and management to…

  11. Observations on an unusual behaviour in the Carpenter Bee Xylocopa aestuans (Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apidae of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Punekar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carpenter Bee Xylocopa aestuans is a known pollen and nectar feeder. However, at Anshi National Park of Karnataka (India, the bee happens to be switching over to facultative carnivorous habit as they are found to feed on Red Tree Ants Oecophylla smaragdina. Such a kind of carnivorous feeding habit must have existed which is yet to be reported.

  12. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthayya, S.; Thankachan, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Andersson, M.; Eilander, A.; Misquith, D.; Hurrell, R.F.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Anemia is a serious public health problem in Indian school children. Since 2003, simple health intervention programs such as antihelminthic treatment and vitamin A supplementation have been implemented in primary schools in the Bangalore region, Karnataka, India. This study examines the p

  13. Instilling fear makes good business sense: unwarranted hysterectomies in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Teena; Vasan, Akhila; S, Vijayakumar

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses data from two fact-finding exercises in two districts of Karnataka to trace how government and private doctors alike pushed women to undergo hysterectomies. The doctors provided grossly unscientific information to poor Dalit women to instil a fear of "cancer" in their minds to wilfully mislead them to undergo hysterectomies, following which many suffered complications and died. The paper examines a review, made by two separate panels of experts, of women's medical records from private hospitals to illustrate that a large proportion of the hysterectomies performed were medically unwarranted; that private doctors were using highly suspect diagnostic criteria, based on a single ultrasound scan, to perform the hysterectomies and had not sent even a single sample for histopathology; and that the medical records were incomplete, erroneous and, in several instances, manipulated. The paper describes how a combination of patriarchal bias, professional unscrupulousness and pro-private healthcare policies posed a serious threat to the survival and well-being of women in Karnataka.

  14. THIRD TROCANTER OF HUMAN FEMORA IN NORTH KARNATAKA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Sylvia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthopaedic surgery, trochanteric region is an important as it’s an entry point, usually lateral side of the great trochanter, although anterior and posterior approaches have variable interest. For implants such as plates and DHS (dynamic hip screw, lateral approach is standard. After skin, fat tissue and fascia lata, vastuslateralis muscle is reached and elevated to approach lateral surface of subtrochanteric area. For implants as intra-medullar nail, minimally invasive approach is in routine use. Despite abundant research of general femoral morphology, especially its specific morphological parts (femoral head, neck, shaft, and its distal part involved in knee joint. Materials and methods: Study on 158 dry adult human femur of unknown age & sex collected from the department of anatomy and phase I students of KBNIMS, Kalaburagi, Karnataka. The broken or non-dried specimens were excluded from the study. Results: The third trochanter was present in 4.43% of the femora. Although the incidence was higher on the right side it was not statistically significant. Discussion: Another study which reported the side variations in Whites and Negroes, documented higher incidence on right side in White and on left side in Negro population; it also reported the trait to be more common in females in both Whites and Negroes. Conclusion: The presence of third trochanter at the proximal part of the femur has been found to alter the break lines in the pertrochanteric fracture patients. This study dealt with the incidence of third trochanter in north Karnataka region.

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 was Responsible for a Cholera Outbreak in 2013 in Bagalkot, North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Roy, Subarna; Parande, Mahantesh V; Telsang, M; Seema, M H; Parande, Aisha V; Mantur, Basappa G

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a major cause of illness in the developing world. During the monsoon season, small sporadic clusters of cholera cases are reported on an annual basis in Karnataka, India. During the monsoons of 2013, there was a cholera outbreak in Badami, a remote area of Bagalkot district in Karnataka. The multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was found to be responsible for this outbreak. On 5 August 2013, a 30-year-old woman presented with severe dehydration and watery diarrhea at the Aganwadi Health Centre in Badami. A total of 49 suspected cholera cases were reported, with an attack rate of 3.5%. The V. cholerae isolates exhibited resistance to a wide range of drugs, including ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, carbenicillin, and third generation cephalosporins, and showed reduced susceptibility to third generation fluoroquinolones. All of the cephalosporin-resistant V. cholerae strains produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. All V. cholerae O1 isolates harbored virulent genes (ctxA, ctxB, tcpA El Tor, Tox S, VPI, ToxT, ToxR, ToxRS, ace, zot, and tcpP) and were found to be genetically similar as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting assay. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cholera outbreak in the district of Bagalkot. The resistance of V. cholerae to commonly used antimicrobial drugs is becoming a major public health concern in the region as clinicians are left with a limited choice of antibiotics for the treatment of cholera.

  16. Electronic Media Learning Materials of Indira Gandhi National Open University, India: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V. Manoj; Ghosh, Chinmoy Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1985 has been a milestone in the growth of higher education in India. A very special feature of the University is that a composite of several instructional methods in practice are aimed at giving effective support to distance learners. Self-instructional print materials are…

  17. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  18. Periodontal health status and treatment needs of the rural population of India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhon, Tegbir Singh; Grewal, Simran; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease is of public health concern and hence data on its prevalence rate are necessary. We have documented the prevalence pattern of periodontal disease in a rural population of Belgaum district, India, and identify the optimal treatment needs (TNs). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried on 1680 dentate adult subjects, examined from 12 villages in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India for prevalence of periodontal status and their TNs (using Communit...

  19. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research.

  20. Socio-cultural factors and marriage among Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutharayappa, R

    1993-03-01

    This study examines the differences in marriage, multiple marriage, and mate selection and factors influencing divorce, separation, and remarriage among the Jenukuruba and Kadukuruba tribes of Karnataka state, India. The sample includes 600 tribal households for each tribe. 1133 ever married women are included in in-depth interviews. Findings indicate that both tribes have a low age at marriage for males and females, and both sanction divorce, separation, and remarriage with the consent of spouses. Virginity is not valued among tribals. Marriage age is dependent upon the age at puberty. The tribes exhibit sociocultural differences. Elopement marriages are common among the Jenukuruba, and arranged marriage is prevalent among the Kadukuruba. There are more nuclear families among the Jenukuruba. 83% of the Kadukuruba and 97% of the Jenukuruba belong to nuclear families. The custom that men and women must not eat cooked food at the house of their married sister or brother and other taboos reinforce the formation of families separate from Jenukuruba kin. Consanguineous groups have a higher incidence of divorce, separation, and remarriage than nonconsanguineous groups. Separation is more common among the Jenukuruba. Divorce is more common among the Kadukuruba. 25% of ever married Jenukuruba women and 16% of ever married Kadukuruba women are married twice. Second marriages are common among women who eloped the first time. 77.3% of Jenukuruba tribes have consanguineous marriages, while only 22.83% of Kadukuruba do so. The Kadukuruba identify descent through the male line and have many clan or patri-sib groups. Cross cousin marriages are preferred among both tribes. The Jenukuruba avoid parallel cousin marriages, unless on the maternal side and with the blessings of the gods. The Jenukuruba do not have much, if any clan organization. Knowledge of blood relatives, if known at all, does not go back more than one or two generations. The conclusion is drawn that tribes living

  1. AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS OF EYE DONATION AMONG ATTENDANTS OF PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients ( n = 200 visiting various outpatient departments of the Hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered a questionnaire (Kannada and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, pledging and willingness to donate eyes. RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 182 (91% participants. Analysis showed that awareness was equal among males and females. Of the 182 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 108 (59.34% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the males (55.55%. 142 (71% participants wou ld recommend eye donation. Main reasons for not pledging eyes were: lack of information regarding pledging eyes (39.18%, objection by family members (33.78% and religious belief (17.56%. Educational status was associated with willingness to donate eyes (P=0.0001. Media was the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation only 9.34% have pledged their eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations, we need to develop more innovative strategies to target young rural population to make them pledge their eyes. Awareness has to be created through the curriculum. Training of anganawadi, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel in spreading awareness, pledging and ben efits of eye donation at community level.

  2. Electronic Media Learning Materials Of Indira Gandhi National Open University, India: An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Roy. V.; Chinmoy Kumar GHOSH

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1985 has been a milestone in the growth of higher education in India. A very special feature of the University is that a composite of several instructional methods in practice are aimed at giving effective support to distance learners. Self-instructional print materials are the mainstay of the courseware. Besides this, at the support centres, the learners attend a few face-to-face counselling sessions and get access to...

  3. Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD): Intiatives to Provide Open Access to Public Funded Research in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gireesh Kumar, T K.; Jayapradeep, M

    2012-01-01

    ETD Initiatives in India are examined in the background of shifting paradigm from Information Management to Knowledge Management (KM). Examines the importance of KM and highlights major national digital repositories of PhD theses. ETDs of national importance such as Shodganga of INFLIBNET etc and institutional initiatives such as MGU Theses Archive, KrishiPrabha, Vidyanidhi of Mysore University etc are comparatively evaluated based on their major characteristics. ETDs and repositories enable ...

  4. Electronic Media Learning Materials Of Indira Gandhi National Open University, India: An Analytical Study

    OpenAIRE

    V, Manoj Roy.; Chinmoy Kumar GHOSH

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1985 has been a milestone in the growth of higher education in India. A very special feature of the University is that a composite of several instructional methods in practice are aimed at giving effective support to distance learners. Self-instructional print materials are the mainstay of the courseware. Besides this, at the support centres, the learners attend a few face-to-face counselling sessions and get access to...

  5. First host record of the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea along with the first description of a male from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Gupta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Euthalia aconthea meridionalis Fruhstorfer (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae is documented as the first host record for the eulophid wasp Tetrastichus bilgiricus Narendran (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea from Karnataka, India. The male of this species is recorded for the first time and described. Illustrations of both the female and male, and host details are given.

  6. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  7. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  8. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  9. Management of electronic waste by bulk consumers: The case of India's IT service sector

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Logakanthi

    2014-01-01

    The global ICT revolution is adding a new stream of waste, known as electronic waste or ‘e-waste’: electrical and electronic equipment that has ceased to be of value to its owners. The recyclability of e-waste together with the presence of pollutants poses a waste management challenge. Developed countries have systems in place to address this challenge, but developing countries have only recently recognised the need to develop appropriate systems for e-waste management.ICT consumers are key s...

  10. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar B.; Srinivas; Pandu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60) type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D ...

  11. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  12. Bureaucrats in Business: State Trading in Foodgrains in Karnataka and Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. In the light of the World Bank's critical analysis of state owned enterprises, this paper discusses the functioning of two such organisations: the Karnataka Food and Civil Supplies Corporation and the Kerala State Civil Supplies Corporation. Both are state trading corporations

  13. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Shah, Naman; Dhariwal, Akshay C; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Pradhan, Madan Mohan; Ghosh, Susanta K; Valecha, Neena

    2016-12-28

    Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas. Urban malaria is predominantly caused by P. vivax and is subject to outbreaks, often associated with increased mortality, and triggered by bursts of migration and construction. The epidemiology of P. vivax varies substantially within India, including multiple relapse phenotypes with varying latencies between primary infection and relapse. Moreover, the hypnozoite reservoir maintains transmission potential and enables reestablishment of the parasite in areas in which it was thought eradicated. The burden of malaria in India is complex because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors. This review of P. vivax malaria in India describes epidemiological trends with particular attention to four states: Gujarat, Karnataka, Haryana, and Odisha.

  14. Species diversity of birds in mangroves of Kundapura, Udupi District, Karnataka, Southwest Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijaya Kumar K.M; Vijaya Kumara

    2014-01-01

    We quantified species diversity of birds in mangroves at Kundapura from April-2010 to March-2013. We recorded 79 species of 36 families and 14 orders. Of these 71% are resident species, 22% are residential migrants and 8% are migratory. One endangered species, three near threatened species, and a few occasional visitors were re-corded. Species diversity and abundance of birds were greater during from October through May as there was availability of food, increased vegetation and the arrival of migratory birds. Minimum diversity was recorded from June through September owing to heavy rains, increased flow of water, limited availability of food and return of migratory birds.

  15. Sediment transport along the Goa-north Karnataka Coast, western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    of sediment transport. Although sediment-transport direction is bi-directional, net major sediment transport is southward. The geomorphic study identified possible sediment sources and sinks. Contributions of sources and losses due to sinks are assessed...

  16. Empowerment and engagement of SHGs against RTI/STI in Karnataka, India: an interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs including Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs are and lsquo;silent' epidemics and are recognized as public health problem and rank second as the cause of healthy life lost among women of reproductive age after maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Development and use of IEC material along with active participation by the community ensures delivery of appropriate information and knowledge to people which in turn empowers them to make informed decisions about their health. Methods: This was a and lsquo;Multi-centric action research demonstration study' to empower and engage the Self Help Groups (SHGs women by creating awareness and sustaining interest through lesson plans in the IEC material regarding prioritized problem, required interventions and their access for syndromic recognition of the RTI/STIs. As an intervention, series of workshops were conducted with the help of pre-developed IEC material. 400 households (200 from each intervention and control sites of SHG women were interviewed for baseline and endline each. Results: Intervention was found effective in the form of a significant improvement in the level of awareness about RTI/STI, correct knowledge about white discharge, capability to identify the symptoms of RTI/STI and health seeking behavior of the respondents. Conclusion: This study provides experience of the feasibility, efficacy and impact of health education interventions and point out that cost-effective strategies for prevention of RTI/STI are needed through information, education, and behavior change. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 680-687

  17. Primary productivity in the Karwar Bay, Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, U.G.; Naik, R.K.; Nayak, V.N.

    The measurement of primary production is of great importance because of its significance to the problems of aquatic ecology and fishery management. The interaction of light intensity, temperature and nutrient levels determines the photosynthetic...

  18. Violence against Educated Women by Intimate Partners in Urban Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundapur, Rashmi; Shetty, Shruthi M; Kempaller, Vinayak J; Kumar, Ashwini; Anurupa, M

    2017-01-01

    Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30-50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10-20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  19. Violence against educated women by intimate partners in Urban Karnataka, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rashmi Kundapur; Shruthi Shetty; Vinayak Kempaller; Ashwini Kumar; M Anurupa

    2017-01-01

    ...: To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married...

  20. Impact of port structures on the shoreline of Karnataka, west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deepa, N.; Kunte, P.D.

    nearer to the port region were specially studied for the quantification of erosion and accretion. Dredging for port development normally lead to noteworthy changes in the configuration of the seabed. These changes can meaning fully modify the currents...

  1. Index of opportunity for natural selection among the Gowdas of Kodagahalli village, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohkhlet, Bhaboklang

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand how selection is operating in the Gowda population, the index of opportunity for selection was calculated and the present findings were compared with some related findings from other South Indian (SI) populations. Crow (1958) and the modified method by Johnston and Kensinger (1971) were used for the present purpose. The index of total selection intensity (I) was found to be moderate taking into consideration the range for many Indian populations. Considering certain differences in fertility and mortality heritable, it appears that natural selection play an important role in shaping the genetic constitution of the Gowda population. Analysis of data indicates that the index due to fertility seems to contribute more towards selection than mortality. This trend might be because of better living condition and health-care system among the Gowdas which have a positive impact on the lower contribution of mortality for the evolution mechanism of the Gowda population through natural selection.

  2. Studies on diversity of lichen, Pyxine cocoes to air pollution in Bhadravathi town, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Naveen; Puttaiah, E T; Basavarajappa, B E

    2013-05-01

    Air pollution induced climate change affecting the pigmentation and diversity of lichen, Pyxine cocoes were monitored around the industrial area and traffic area of Bhadravthi using European guidelines. The obtained data has been discussed and results compared with data from that of Kuvempu University campus (control). From the present study, it was evident that the air pollutants emitted from the two major industries and other small scale industries affected the total chlorophyll (0.16 mg g(-1)) and carotene pigments (0.11 mg g(-1)) in Pyxine cocoes, as well as their diversity (approx 13) on two plants (M. indica and P. pinnata) in the vicinity of the industrial area. Further, as a result of vehicular pollution at traffic area resulted in the deterioration of total chlorophyll (0.11 mg g(-1)), carotene pigments (0.07 mg g(-1)) and diversity (approx. 17) of Pyxine cocoes compared to control site. The present study has thrown light on lichens sensitivity to the air pollution.

  3. On the Basket Stinkhorn Mushroom Phallus merulinus (Phallaceae in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Sridhar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basket Stinkhorm Mushroom Phallus merulinus is reported from the monocot debris of Mangalore University Arbortum. Its occurrence, growth and characteristics are compared with other Phallus spp.

  4. Spit evolution and shore drift direction along south Karnataka coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Giornale_Geol_53_71.pdf.txt stream_source_info Giornale_Geol_53_71.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Measurement of 222Rn concentration in drinking water in the environs of Thirthahalli taluk, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shilpa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved radon concentration in water samples collected from various aquifers in and around Thirthahalli taluk was measured by employing active technique through Scintillation Radon Monitoring system. The measured radon concentration lies in the range of 0.37 ± 0.05 Bq/l to 87.02 ± 2.11 Bq/l. The resulting annual effective radiation dose to the public, who consume this water, lies in the range of 1.01μSvy−1 to 237.56 μSvy−1. However, no significant change in the radon concentration with respect to seasonal variation was observed in majority of the sample. Few samples show higher radon concentration during summer season and lower concentration in rainy season. All these results are presented in this paper.

  6. Determinants of Post - partum contraception practices in urban slums of central Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Davalagi B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The largest proportion of women with an unmet need for contraception is found among those in their first year after childbirth; concentrating efforts to reduce unmet need among these women could have additionally bigger impact on increasing contraceptive use than concentrating on any other group. Aims & Objectives: To know the knowledge & practices of post – partum contraception among mothers in urban slums. Material & Methods: Cross sectional study conducted in urban slums for duration of six months. Study population included mothers in extended post – partum period residing in urban slums. Mothers were interviewed using pre – tested, semi – structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS v 22.0 and, chi square test and logistic regression analysis was employed. P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the mothers in our study were in the age group of 20-24 years (46%. Mean age was 21.6 ± 3.1years. Majority of the mothers (56% were Hindus. Mean age of marriage observed was 18.2±2.1years. In the present study, majority (76% had knowledge of post – partum contraceptive methods, but only 17% of the mothers were using contraception. Unmet need for post – partum contraception was found among 49% of mothers. Conclusions: Inspite of being aware, the practice of family planning was very low among post-partum mothers. The study highlights the impact of socio cultural factors like religion, caste, number of living children, duration of marriage and ANC service utilization on post – partum contraception usage among mothers.

  7. Coastal changes along the coast of Tadri River, Karnataka West coast of India and its implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tirodkar, G.M.; Pathak, K.C.; Vaz, S.C.

    embankments results in breaching and due to this flood are occurring in the adjacent area, and an accretion is noticed at the mouth result in narrowing the shape, due to sediments brought from upper reaches of Tadri river The present studies give a scenario...

  8. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km2 landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.

  9. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  10. A study on physicochemical parameters of an aquaculture body in Mysore city, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachidanandamurthy, K L; Yajurvedi, H N

    2006-10-01

    Monthly changes in water quality parameters (physicochemical) of a rain fed lake (Bilikere) in Mysore city, were investigated for two calendar years (2002 and 2003) to assess the suitability of this lake for pisciculture. Although there were monthly fluctuations in water temperature, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite and ammonia, they were within the desirable limits. On the other hand, total alkalinity and hydrogen sulphide throughout the study period and pH for a major part, were higher than the desirable limits. Other parameters viz; turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate, and nitrate in a few months were higher than the desirable limits for waters used for fish culture. The high levels of these factors are due to the entry of agricultural run off and occasional flow of sewage into the lake. In addition dense algal growth was noticed at times of the year which is caused by surge in nutrients level whenever there was a rainfall. Since, the lake has a great aquacultural potential, it is suggested that control of nutrient load that enters the lake occasionally, might help the lake to continue its mesotrophic status.

  11. Violence against educated women by intimate partners in Urban Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Initially viewed as a human rights issue, partner violence is increasingly seen as an important public health problem of international concern. Objectives: To assess the extent of physical, sexual, psychological, and controlling behavior of intimate partners against women in an educated society and find the association with age, age of marriage, married years, educational status of the women and that of partner. Materials and Methods: A prevalence of 15% was taken and final sample was 200, after considering loss of follow-up. Statistical Methods: Proportion, Z-test, Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of violence against intimate partner in educated society was found to be 40.5% in a South Indian city. Physical assault was high in 30–50 years and increased with duration of marriage from 5.5% at 5 years to 33.3% in 10–20 years of married life. Sexual and psychological assault also increased in <5 years of married life to 35% and 47.6% in 10–20 years duration of marriage, which was statistically significant. Sexual and psychological assault showed a bimodal presentation. Less educated women and their partners were found to report more violence, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Violence against women is not uncommon in the educated society.

  12. Histopathology of lupus nephritis: A single-center, cross-sectional study from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Shobha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of SLE patients over a period of two years is reported. Renal biopsy of 32 selected patients revealed histopathological abnormalities and deposits of immune complexes, and were classified according to the WHO classification of LN (lupus nephritis. The clinical and laboratory parameters assessed were also in line with this classification, indicating the adequacy of these parameters for routine follow-up, and the biopsy was reserved for advanced cases of LN.

  13. Phosphate-solubilizing microbes and their occurrence in the rhizospheres of Piper betel in Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    TALLAPRAGADA, Padmavathi; SESHACHALA, Usha

    2012-01-01

    Low phosphate solubility is one of the most important factors limiting the plant growth in Indian soils. Many microorganisms can enhance phosphate solubility, but little is known about the magnitude of their phosphorus-solubilizing ability. The native populations of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and fungi were studied in different rhizospheric soil samples obtained from betel vine plants (Piper betel L.) in order to compare the results. The present study focuses on the phosphate-solubilizin...

  14. A STUDY OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KARNATAKA, SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariprakash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes, various risk factors and treatment outcomes of traumatic brain injuries in a tertiary care hospital. METHOD: A Retro-prospective study from January 2012 till August 2013 (20months was conducted at a rural medical college Hospital. Also data was retrieved from medical records on demographics, clinical, radiological and outcome status. RESULTS: A total of 788 TBI were admitted. Mean age of patients was 35.47 years, 88.83% percent were male; 72% of all the victims were in the age 15-45 years, overall fatality was 4.3 %; males were higher among fatal cases; Road traffic injuries were the commonest injury mechanism (93.65%. CONCLUSION: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disabilities worldwide, especially in children and young adults. Minor head injury constituted to about 60.4% and severe head injury constituted to about 12.18%.

  15. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Black mildews of Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jagath Thimmaiah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The systematic survey of the foliicolous fungi of Kodagu was initiated by one of the authors (VBH in the year 2002, conducted four field tours to the area and subsequently taken over by the other authors (CJT & MCJ. Of these, only black mildews are presented here. More than 400 collections of black mildews are collected from Kodagu recorded on 265 host plants belonging to 65 families of flowering plants represented three fungal groups: Meliolales, Asterinales and Schiffnerulaceae belonging to 20 fungal genera: Amazonia - 4, Appendiculella - 1, Armatella - 4, Asterdiella - 21, Asterina - 61, Asterolibertia - 2, Asterostomella - 5, Cirsosia - 2, Echidnodella - 2, Eupelte - 1, Irenopsis - 11, Ishwaramyces - 1, Lembosia - 4, Mahanteshamyces - 1, Meliola - 82, Meliolaster - 1, Prillieuxina - 2, Questieriella - 3, Sarcinella - 6, Schiffnerula - 9. Of these, Asteridiella kodavae, Meliola coorgiana, Meliola kodaguensis, Meliola madhucae, Meliola cauveriana and Meliola goniothalami are new species. The area forms type locality for several taxa. This is the first of its kind for the area and forms a base for the subsequent work.

  16. Clinical and genetic aspects of generalized aggressive periodontitis in families of Tumkur district of Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The disorder may not be segregating as an autosomal recessive trait and we could have been misled by consanguinity in the family. It could be a multifactorial trait, or it could be still segregating as an autosomal recessive trait, but the region of homozygosity could be small and we failed to detect it using microsatellite markers. Therefore, SNP-marker-based analysis is warranted in future.

  17. Diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among pregnant women in mangalore, karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Annie; Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas S; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-09-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload. To determine the prevalence of AB among pregnant women in a tertiary care set-up and analyse the contributory risk factors, its effects on pregnancy and the role of chromogenic media in the laboratory diagnosis of these cases. Urine samples of all pregnant women attending pre-natal check-ups with no genitourinary complaints, history of fever or antibiotic intake were collected for Gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity tests. A second urine specimen for culture and sensitivity testing was obtained from those with significant bacteriuria. The results were compared with patients showing negative urine cultures. The overall prevalence of this clinical condition in our study was 13.2%. The significant isolates were Klebsiella pneumonia and E.coli and the most common risk factor was a previous history of urinary tract infection. The isolates were easily identified by using chromogenic agar ( HiCrome ) but colonies of uncommon pathogens like Acinetobacter and Streptococcus species appeared white and needed further identification. Screening of pregnant women for AB at first prenatal checkup helps analyse the associated factors and prevents its effects on pregnancy. The use of a chromogenic media can enhance reporting accuracy and will be an effective tool to monitor these cases routinely.

  18. Diagnosis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women in Mangalore, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaratnam, Annie; Baby, Neha Maria; Kuruvilla, Thomas .S.; Machado, Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is common inwomen and increases in prevalence with age or sexual activity. Prompt detection and treatment of this condition and associated factors decreases complications like acute pyleonephritis, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm labour. Chromogenic media is a versatile tool in rapid primary screening of the causative organisms considerably reducing daily routine workload.

  19. Belekeri as traditional boat building centre in the North Kanara district, Karnataka, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_4_69.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_4_69.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. A five year study of maternal mortality in Mandya district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Musale Ramachandra

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Introduction of NRHM certainly helped to reduce MMR in our district. MMR by Anaemia, PPH and eclampsia are largely preventable on early recognition and aggressive treatment by skilled birth attendants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1585-1588

  1. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  2. Chuaria circularis from the early Mesoproterozoic Suket Shale, Vindhyan Supergroup, India: Insights from light and electron microscopy and pyrolysis–gas chromatography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryendu Dutta; Michael Steiner; Santanu Banerjee; Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann; Silambuchelvan Jeevankumar; Ulrich Mann

    2006-02-01

    Chuaria circularis (Walcott 1899) from the Suket Shale of the Vindhyan Supergroup (central India) has been reinvestigated for its morphology and chemical composition using biostatistics,electron microscopy and pyrolysis –gas chromatography.Morphology and microscopic investigations provide little clues on the specific biological affinity of Chuaria as numerous preservational artifacts seem to be incorporated.On the contrary,the predominance of -aliphatic pyrolysates of presently studied Chuaria from India rather supports an algal affinity.Moreover,the reflectance of C. circularis can be used to obtain a comparative maturity parameter of the Precambrian sediments.The review of the age and geographical distribution of C. circularis constrains that this species cannot be considered as an index fossil for the Proterozoic time.

  3. Unleashing science in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of public sector primary health care physicians of rural north karnataka towards obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somannavar, Manjunath S; Appajigol, Jayaprakash S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension (HTN). In an era of rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, it is important to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary care physicians. Study participants were medical officers (MOs) of primary health centers in three districts of North Karnataka. The questionnaire was developed by a review of literature in the field and validated with five participants for scope, length, and clarity. Of the 102 participants, only 15% were aware about the burden of obesity in India. HTN, DM, and CVD were indicated as comorbidities by 73, 78, and 60 participants, respectively. Only 25 and 12 participants indicated appropriate body mass index (BMI) cut-off values for overweight and obesity diagnosis. Of the 102 participants, 54 were not aware of the guidelines for obesity management. Practices and attitudes of the participants were encouraging. Nearly all of them felt that the adults with BMI within the healthy range should be encouraged to maintain their weight and, three-fourth of them agreed that most overweight persons should be treated for weight loss and small weight loss can achieve major medical benefit. However, nearly half of the participants' responses were stereotypical as they felt only obese and overweight with comorbidities should be treated for weight loss. Two-thirds of them use BMI to diagnose overweight/obese and nearly all of them advice their patients to increase physical activity and restrict fat. Most of the participants were advising their patients to restrict sugar intake, increase fruits and vegetable consumption, reduce red meat, and avoid alcohol consumption. Present study exposed the lack of knowledge regarding obesity. However, practices and attitudes of the participants were promising. There is a need of in-service training to MOs to further improve their knowledge and practices towards management of obesity.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of public sector primary health care physicians of rural north karnataka towards obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath S Somannavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM, and hypertension (HTN. In an era of rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, it is important to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practices of primary care physicians. Materials and Methods: Study participants were medical officers (MOs of primary health centers in three districts of North Karnataka. The questionnaire was developed by a review of literature in the field and validated with five participants for scope, length, and clarity. Results/Discussion: Of the 102 participants, only 15% were aware about the burden of obesity in India. HTN, DM, and CVD were indicated as comorbidities by 73, 78, and 60 participants, respectively. Only 25 and 12 participants indicated appropriate body mass index (BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity diagnosis. Of the 102 participants, 54 were not aware of the guidelines for obesity management. Practices and attitudes of the participants were encouraging. Nearly all of them felt that the adults with BMI within the healthy range should be encouraged to maintain their weight and, three-fourth of them agreed that most overweight persons should be treated for weight loss and small weight loss can achieve major medical benefit. However, nearly half of the participants′ responses were stereotypical as they felt only obese and overweight with comorbidities should be treated for weight loss. Two-thirds of them use BMI to diagnose overweight/obese and nearly all of them advice their patients to increase physical activity and restrict fat. Most of the participants were advising their patients to restrict sugar intake, increase fruits and vegetable consumption, reduce red meat, and avoid alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Present study exposed the lack of knowledge regarding obesity. However, practices and attitudes of the participants were promising. There is a need of in-service training to MOs to further

  6. General practitioners′ perceptions about the extended roles of the community pharmacists in the state of Karnataka: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepu R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, professional relationships between the prescribers and pharmacists are good due to the professional services offered by the pharmacists. Many researchers have found that, prescribers are in favour of the new extended roles of practising pharmacists as patient counsellors and drug information providers. In India, professional relationships between the prescribers and pharmacists require becoming strong in the interest of profession and patient care. The present study is aimed at analysing the general practitioners′ perception and expectations from practising community pharmacists in four district headquarters of Karnataka. The study was conducted through convenient sampling method using a well-designed 14-item questionnaire to collect the opinions from the respondents. Likert scale was employed to assess the responses. One hundred and fifteen general practitioners have participated in the study. The respondents opined that only qualified pharmacists should run the pharmacies (4.73. Although the present D. Pharm qualification is sufficient to run the pharmacies (3.55, to meet the present health care demands, B. Pharm or M. Pharm is a must (3.86. Pharmacists are considered as a part of health care team (3.43 and should be located within the medical practice (3.82 and accepted as professional partner (3.30. Coming to the question of extended roles, some respondents have mentioned that pharmacists should check the legality and drug interactions in the prescriptions (3.20 and provide the necessary drug information. However, the respondents were against the pharmacist-run diabetic and anticoagulant clinics and against pharmacists prescribing cost-effective suggestions. Age has shown significant influence only on few opinions, whereas experience of the respondents has shown significant influence on majority of the opinions. Many respondents expressed positive opinion about the extended roles of the pharmacists but said the

  7. Government health insurance for people below poverty line in India: quasi-experimental evaluation of insurance and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Bendavid, Eran; Mukherji, Arnab; Wagner, Zachary; Nagpal, Somil; Mullen, Patrick

    2014-09-11

    To evaluate the effects of a government insurance program covering tertiary care for people below the poverty line in Karnataka, India, on out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Geographic regression discontinuity study. 572 villages in Karnataka, India. 31,476 households (22,796 below poverty line and 8680 above poverty line) in 300 villages where the scheme was implemented and 28,633 households (21,767 below poverty line and 6866 above poverty line) in 272 neighboring matched villages ineligible for the scheme. A government insurance program (Vajpayee Arogyashree scheme) that provided free tertiary care to households below the poverty line in about half of villages in Karnataka from February 2010 to August 2012. Out-of-pocket expenditures, hospital use, and mortality. Among households below the poverty line, the mortality rate from conditions potentially responsive to services covered by the scheme (mostly cardiac conditions and cancer) was 0.32% in households eligible for the scheme compared with 0.90% among ineligible households just south of the eligibility border (difference of 0.58 percentage points, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.75; Phealth expenditures for admissions to hospitals with tertiary care facilities likely to be covered by the scheme (64% reduction, 35% to 97%; PInsuring poor households for efficacious but costly and underused health services significantly improves population health in India. © Sood et al 2014.

  8. Chikungunya Infection in India: Results of a Prospective Hospital Based Multi-Centric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Pratima; Ratagiri, Vinod H.; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Sharma, Sumit; Sharma, B. S.; Kalaivani, Mani; Wig, Naveet

    2012-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIKV) has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. Methods and Findings A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Karnataka (South); Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS) Rajasthan (West), and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) New Delhi (North) from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36%) followed by west (16.28%) and north (0.56%) India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (pchikungunya confirmed cases (pchikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate molecular diagnostic for early detection of chikungunya virus. PMID:22363413

  9. India's "Democracy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dao: After independence, India basically inherited the political system set up by British colonial rule. After half century's transformation, a "democratic" political system with "India's characteristics" has gradually taken shape in India.

  10. Development of Solar and Wind Power in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2013-01-01

    This publication analyzes the performance of two states in India— Karnataka and Tamil Nadu— in their efforts toward installing solar and wind energy. It attempts to distill thereasons for their success, albeit in two very different renewable energy programs. It covers the major initiatives taken by the country in the form of policy and regulations including the formation of a full-fledged Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. The report focuses on lessons learned from these states so that a s...

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Black mildews (Ascomycetes from southern Western Ghats of peninsular India with description of 14 new species

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    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an account of fifteen black mildew fungi collected from Kodagu in Karnataka and Kollam in Kerala state. Of these, Asterina cassiigena, A. chrysophylligena, A. hemidesmi, A. ushae, A. thevalakkaraensis, A. vitacearum, Asterostomella derridicola, A. vernoniae, Prillieuxina humboltiae, Echinodella mimusopsidis, Mahanteshamyces litseae, Sarcinella bischofiae, S. pogostemonis and S. securinegae are the new species, while Asterina antidesmatis forms a new record to India.

  12. Girl prostitution in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  13. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Karnataka cohort of the A 1 chieve study

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    Neeta Deshpande

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries, 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726 in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from Karnataka, India. Results: A total of 2243 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 1855, insulin detemir (n = 211, insulin aspart (n = 111, basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 16 and other insulin combinations (n = 40. At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2% and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.0% groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.4%, insulin users: −1.7%. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

  14. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  15. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: First record of the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae from India with description of three new species from the Western Ghats, India

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    M. Siliwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.

  16. FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and porosity measurements to determine the firing temperature of ancient megalithic period potteries excavated at Adichanallur in Tamilnadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velraj, G.; Ramya, R.; Hemamalini, R.

    2012-11-01

    Scientific examination of archaeological pottery mainly aims to determine the style of production and the techniques involved in its manufacture. Technological characterization includes the evaluation of the original firing conditions. Maximum firing temperatures may be evaluated by firing clays of compositions similar to those used for the production of the ancient objects. In the present work, some of the ancient pottery samples were collected from recently excavated site at Adichanallur, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu, India to estimate the firing temperature of the pottery samples and atmosphere prevailed at the time of manufacturing those potteries by the ancient artisans. From the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the samples the lower limit of firing temperature have been determined. The upper limit of firing temperature was evaluated by porosimetry method. The scanning electron microscopic analysis is used to narrow down the range of firing temperature and the results are consistent with the results obtained from FT-IR spectroscopic study and porosimetry method.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

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    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  18. Do structural inequalities contribute to marital violence? Ethnographic evidence from rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta

    2005-06-01

    Ethnographic research was conducted in rural communities in Karnataka State, South India, to explore the contexts in which marital violence occurs and the relationships between structural inequalities (gender, caste, and class inequalities) and marital violence. Research highlighted that (a) marital violence is intimately linked to experiences of gender, caste, and class inequalities; (b) women's ability to resist violence hinges on access to economic and social resources; and (c) health care providers need to be actively involved in responding to violence. This study demonstrates the urgent need for violence prevention initiatives, particularly those that address the contribution of structural inequalities.

  19. Religion, Spirituality, or Existentiality in Bad News Interactions: The Perspectives and Practices of Physicians in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Lawrence; Westhues, Anne

    2015-08-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to identify the role of religion, spirituality, or existentiality in clinical interactions. Grounded theory design was used to generate narrative data from 27 physicians working in four teaching hospitals in Karnataka, India, using a semi-structured interview schedule. Physicians reported that they explored religious, spiritual, and existential beliefs and practices of patients, along with other psychosocial and disease aspects, to assess their tolerance to bad news, to make decisions about delivering it, and to address the distress that might emerge from receiving bad news. They also reported taking recourse to religious or spiritual practices to cope with their own stress and feelings of failure.

  20. Enrichment and vertical profiles of 210Po and 210Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Y; Prakash, V

    2010-06-01

    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of (210)Po and (210)Pb, important daughter products of (238)U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for (210)Po and (210)Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of (210)Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg(-1) and that of (210)Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg(-1). The mean (210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 193 nGy h(-1).

  1. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, psoap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  2. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Wright

    Full Text Available We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36=2.92, p<0.01 and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36=3.51, p = 0.001. We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  3. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard L.; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, p<0.01) and 172% greater use within 2 minutes of the use of the water vessel (t(36)=3.51, p = 0.001). We conclude that the loggers were capable of detecting changes in the rates of hand washing with soap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments. PMID:26101886

  4. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  5. Use and Awareness of Electronic Information Sources at IIT Roorkee, India: A Case Study Consapevolezza d'uso delle risorse elettroniche presso IIT Roorkee, India: un caso di studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Attraverso un questionario si studia il livello di conoscenza, da parte di soggetti quali insegnanti, ricercatori e studenti, degli Electronic Information Services (EIS della biblioteca dell'Indian Institute of Technology di Rookee. L'India ha infatti visto un crescente interesse verso le risorse elettroniche in biblioteca, culminato nella creazione nel 2002 dell'Indian National Digital Library in Science and Technology (INDEST Consortium. I questionari si occupano del tipo di risorse elettroniche usate dagli utenti, dell'impatto di esse sul materiale a stampa, del tipo di uso, del metodo utilizzato per la loro ricerca, degli ostacoli incontrati e della frequenza di consultazione. I risultati della ricerca mostrano un forte incremento nell'uso delle riviste online e una generale soddisfazione degli utenti verso l'offerta della biblioteca. Inoltre, le risposte ai questionari hanno evidenziato nella percezione degli utenti un incremento della considerazione delle risorse elettroniche rispetto a quelle a stampa. Le raccomandazioni per il futuro suggeriscono: politiche di abbonamento a risorse elettroniche che tengano conto delle priorità degli utenti, sviluppo di programmi didattici e di orientamento, aumento della qualità dei mezzi (Software e Hardware per l'utilizzo delle risorse elettroniche e un incremento di strumenti del Web 2.0 (Blog, RSS feed, ecc. ai fini della promozione di quest'ambito della biblioteca. Lo studio dovrebbe inoltre essere esteso ad un campione più vasto e ad altre Università e organizzazioni, al fine di identificare più specificamente gli ostacoli al consapevole utilizzo delle risorse elettroniche e i possibili mezzi per incoraggiare gli utenti a sfruttare le piene potenzialità del sistema.

    While a large number of studies have measured the use of electronic journals and databases and have surveyed users, few studies have involved IIT Roorkee in their study. The present study tried to know the user awareness and

  6. Perception of staff nurses regarding quality audit process in hospitals of Mangalore District, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Radhika K; Alva, Janet; Sudhakar, Christopher; Lhamo, Nyima; Jose, Dona Mary; Mathew, Jestymol; Paul, Dinsa; Netto, Nimil; Sunny, Geethu Ann

    2012-01-01

    As in other fields, auditing in clinical nursing can go a long way in enhancing the productivity of nurses. Nursing audit is helpful in ascertaining the extent to which the organisation complies with the relevant quality norms and can involve in procedural or assessment criteria. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study which involved 255 staff nurses from two hospitals of Karnataka. The study tools included demographic proforma and audit scale (arbitrarily classified as unfavourable and favourable perception) to evaluate the impact of hospital and community-based clinical audit programme. It was shown that in selected hospitals, staff nurses had positive perception about the audit process; they also reported improvement in their levels of knowledge, skill and patient care though frequent audit hindered them in discharge of their duties.

  7. Emerging extra-intestinal infections with Aeromonas hydrophila in coastal region of southern Karnataka

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    Mukhopadhyay C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. They have been occasionally reported as a cause of extra-intestinal infections such as cellulitis, cholangitis, necrotizing fascitis, meningitis, bacteremia, or peritonitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients . Aim: To determine the role and possible pathogenesis of Aeromonas in extra-intestinal infections.Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis carried out at Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka in the months of January and February 2007. Materials and Methods: Clinical manifestations and management of eight cases of extra-intestinal infections caused by A. hydrophila , from the south Karnataka coastal region were reviewed. The isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests using standard guidelines.Results: All patients acquired Aeromonas infections in the community. Five (62.5% had underlying illnesses, such as liver disease, diabetes mellitus or malignancy. Five (62.5% had polymicrobial infections, and three (37.5% were complicated with bacteremia. These included three patients with ulcers or abscess over the lower leg, two with cellulitis due to snake bite and one each with pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia. A. hydrophila was found to be a causative agent of pelvic inflammatory disease or cellulitis following sea snake bite, and such a clinical scenario has not been previously described. Seven patients survived the illness. Conclusions: Isolation of A. hydrophila from extra-intestinal specimens demands utmost clinical and microbiological vigilance in diagnosis, since the organism can cause serious infections among immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.

  8. My contribution to the fungal knowledge of India

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    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is mainly based on the Western Ghats fungi but very a are from coolingtowers, Eastern Ghats, northeastern India and Andaman Islands. The work includes the fungi from Satara in Maharashtra; Nilgiris, Anamalai, Seithur hills, Godheyar, etc. from Tamil Nadu; mainly from Kodagu in Karnataka; most of the places in the Western Ghats of Kerala state have been covered. Since my work is distributed in 391 reprints (save the subsequent ones, an effort has been made here to bring all the taxa and information in one place. It comprises 6059 entries from the reprints giving an account of 2084 fungal taxa belonging to 259 genera on 2969 hosts/substrates. This is presented here as: Introduction, List of publications, Entries from the reprints, List of fungi, Fungal genera, Host/Substratum-fungus Index and Host Plants.

  9. Toward a Comprehensive Cure: Digital information and communication technology is helping to meet health care challenges in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Debdoot

    2016-01-01

    How would you provide effective and affordable health care in a country of more than 1.25 billion where there are only 0.7 physicians for every 1,000 people [1]? The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) and the Karnataka Internet-Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP) service are two notable efforts designed to deliver care across India, in both urban and rural areas and from the country?s flat plains to its rugged mountainous and desert regions.

  10. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension amongst school children and adolescents in North Karnataka: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar V Baradol; SV Patil; Anand Ranagol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of...

  11. Management Regimes, Property Rights, and Forest Biodiversity in Nepal and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Gokhale, Yogesh

    2008-05-01

    This article compares a range of initiatives aimed at involving people in the management of forest resources in Nepal and India. In Nepal, we focus on three categories of state-initiated programs: community forestry, the parks’ buffer zone program, and leasehold forestry. In the southern Indian state of Karnataka, we study the state-initiated Joint Forest Planning and Management program along with older institutions of leaf manure forests ( Soppina betta) and historical sacred forests ( Kans). We conclude that state-initiated approaches to involving communities have been limited, at best, promote standardized and relatively inflexible management practices, and lead to partial improvement in biodiversity and people’s livelihoods. When management is initiated and owned by the community, as in the case of sacred groves in India, and when other conditions are appropriate, communities can have the opportunity to demonstrate their capacity for putting effective and adaptive conservation practices in place.

  12. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

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    Vinekar A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anand Vinekar,1 Chaitra Jayadev,1 Siddesh Kumar,2 Shwetha Mangalesh,1,3 Mangat Ram Dogra,4 Noel J Bauer,5 Bhujang Shetty6 1Department of Pediatric Retina, Narayana Nethralaya Eye Hospital, Bangalore, 2Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Advanced Eye Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Maastricht University of Health Sciences, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Narayana Nethralaya Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Bangalore, India Purpose: To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods: The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP, is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012 and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015. Results: During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001. The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from

  13. Assessment of accident risk among elderly in domestic environment: A cross-sectional study in rural south Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Y Aras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geriatric population is vulnerable to domestic accidents. Safety-related provisions/behavior in domestic environment can reduce the risk of accidents. Aim and Objective: To know the safety practices followed at home by people above 60 years age and to assess few epidemiological factors associated with their risk of domestic accident. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Using Lot Quality Technique, 135 elderly (out of 196; at 7% desired level of accuracy, 95% desired confidence level, willing to participate, were interviewed for their practices towards accident prevention. Observations were made regarding safety provisions within homes. The data was recorded in predesigned, pre-tested, semi-structured proformas, based on Home Safety Checklist Tool. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS package version 17. Fisher′s Exact test applied for statistical significance of factors related to accident risk in domestic environment. Results: Elderly from joint families significantly keep passage of bedroom to bathroom free from obstacles, telephone cords away from walking area and use stool to reach high cupboard (P < 0.0005. In nuclear families, stairway was kept adequately lighted (P < 0.05. Literate elderly put away things back to its place after using, walk in room without obstacles, keep soap reachable during bath, keep stairways in good condition, use doormats to wipe feet (P < 0.05. Habit of not cleaning up spills (85.2%, walking on wet floor (60.7%, and no grab bars in bathrooms (53.3% were observed. Conclusion: Provision and use of home safety measures/practices with needful awareness and attitude are important to prevent domestic accidents amongst elderly.

  14. Evaluation of metal accumulation in soil and tomatoes irrigated with sewage water from Mysore city, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alghobar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results have indicated that application of sewage water for irrigation led to a significant difference in pH and EC of soil. The concentrations of K, Na and Cl did not show any significant difference in all the sewage irrigation sites. But there are significant differences on mean values in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO4 for sewage applied sites. There was significant increase in the total nitrogen in the soil for sewage water (SW and treated sewage water (TSW applied sites as compared to the groundwater (GW irrigation site. Effect of irrigation with different qualities of sewage on the concentration of heavy metals. It is apparent that the concentrations of heavy metals in soils with different kinds of irrigation water were lower in background values and non-significant; all the other heavy metals exhibit values below background concentrations for heavy metals in soils taken from FAO. The heavy metal concentrations (SW applied site was, however, below the safe limits of Indian (Awashthi, 2000 and EU standard (European Union, 2002. The results of statistical analysis of total N, total P, Ca, K, Na, and Zn mg/kg−1 in tomatoes crop were significantly higher than the groundwater treated plants.

  15. Maternal and fetal outcome among abruptio placentae cases at a rural tertiary hospital in Karnataka, India: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Shrivastava

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In our setup, frequency of abruptio placenta is comparable with local and international literature. Abruptio placenta is associated with high rate of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, Because of this association, the conditions predisposing it should be carefully evaluated in order to reduce the occurrence of placental abruption. Unfortunately neither accurate prediction nor prevention of abruption is possible at the present time. Despite advances in medical technology, the diagnosis of abruption is still a clinical one. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1655-1658

  16. Soil loss estimation and prioritization of sub-watersheds of Kali River basin, Karnataka, India, using RUSLE and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markose, Vipin Joseph; Jayappa, K S

    2016-04-01

    Most of the mountainous regions in tropical humid climatic zone experience severe soil loss due to natural factors. In the absence of measured data, modeling techniques play a crucial role for quantitative estimation of soil loss in such regions. The objective of this research work is to estimate soil loss and prioritize the sub-watersheds of Kali River basin using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. Various thematic layers of RUSLE factors such as rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), topographic factor (LS), crop management factor (C), and support practice factor (P) have been prepared by using multiple spatial and non-spatial data sets. These layers are integrated in geographic information system (GIS) environment and estimated the soil loss. The results show that ∼42 % of the study area falls under low erosion risk and only 6.97 % area suffer from very high erosion risk. Based on the rate of soil loss, 165 sub-watersheds have been prioritized into four categories-very high, high, moderate, and low erosion risk. Anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, construction of dams, and rapid urbanization are the main reasons for high rate of soil loss in the study area. The soil erosion rate and prioritization maps help in implementation of a proper watershed management plan for the river basin.

  17. An Assesment of Groundwater Quality Index in Bommasandra Area,Bengaluru city,Karnataka State,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprasad H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a natural resource for drinking water .In addition to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization also extend the demand of water. Providing safe drinking water supply to the ever growing urban and sub-urban population is going to be a challenge to the civil authorities, city planners, policy makers and environmentalists. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in both urban and rural areas of Bommasandra. Bommasandra city is rapidly raising population, changing lifestyle and intense competition among users- agriculture, industry and domestic sectors is driving the groundwater table lower. Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminate groundwater, thereby reducing quality of fresh water resources.

  18. Variability in wave refraction and resultant nearshore current patterns: Exposed versus sheltered beaches along north Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Pankajakshan, T.

    For predominant waves approaching from directions varying between SW and WNW and periods varying from 6 to 11 sec, the refraction function (Kd) shows amplification of wave heights resulting in concentration of wave energy on headlands and reduction...

  19. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata

    1991-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  20. A comparative study on self-esteem among tribal and non-tribal students in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka, India

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    Uday Narayan Yadav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Self esteem is defined as the positive or negative attitude about self, the degree of liking or satisfaction within self, and owns feeling of perceived worth as compared with others. Healthy self-esteem is important to be successful and happy throughout one’s life. The aim of this study was to compare the self esteem among tribal and non-tribal student in Udupi Taluk. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in November 2012 in government school of Brahmavar, Udupi Taluk. Study participants were students of class eight, nine and ten. One school was randomly selected from the list of government schools in Brahmavar. The size of the sample was 76 which includes 38 from tribal category and 38 from general category and the sampling design was purposive sampling. Rosenberg’s scale was used to assess the self esteem of students. Questionnaires were self administered. Permission was taken from the principle of school. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results are reported as frequency and proportion. Independent t test was used to compare the self esteem of tribal and non tribal student. Study found that more than two third of the tribal student had low self esteem. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.001 in self esteem between tribal and non tribal students.

  1. Determinants of postnatal maternity care service utilization in rural Belgaum of Karnataka, India: A community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The postnatal period is critical to the health and survival of a mother and her newborn. Lack of care in this period may result in death or disability as well as missed opportunities to promote healthy behaviors, affecting women and newborn children. Hence, the study was carried out to explore determinants of postnatal maternity service utilization in the rural area of Belgaum. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from August 2012 to January 2013 in rural Belgaum. Total 630 mothers with less than 1 year child were interviewed using pretested questionnaire with her written consent. Analysis was done in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20 applying appropriate statistics. Results were presented in tabular and narrative forms. Results: Among 630 mothers, 54.6% were 20-24 years of age, 61.6% were having secondary level of education, 89.8% house wives and 91.6% Hindus. About 69.7% were from joint family with low economic status. Regarding postnatal service use; 79.0% use properly. Almost; three-fifth met with nurse/health workers at least three times, four-fifth got advice about breast/nipple care, 92.5% about breast-feeding, 67.9% about post-natal exercise, 89.0% on nutrition education, and 85% got the advice of uterus care. About 29.8% perceived some health problems. Education, income, awareness, and delivery places were found most significant determinants (P < 0.01 of postnatal services use. Conclusion: More than three quarters of mothers had used the proper postnatal maternity services. Education, family income, awareness, and delivery place were found as most significant factors. Sustainable maternal and child healthcare (MCH programs and awareness will support to achieve furthermore better results.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SEROPREVALANCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN AND AROUND BELLARY, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the blood among healthy voluntary blood donors in and around Bellary. SAMPLE SIZE: 51,144 blood donors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. DURATION OF THE STUDY: Jan-2006 to Dec-2013. RESULTS: In the 8-year study period, 51,144 units of blood were collected. The Seroprevalence of HIV was found to be 0.38%. Also, the Seroprevalence of HIV in Voluntary Blood Donors and Replacement Blood Donors was found to be 0.35% and 0.81%. In males and female blood donors, the Seroprevalence was fond to be 0.38% and 0.39%. CONCLUSION: The 8 year study reveals that the Seroprevalence of HIV in replacement donors is nearly twice as that of voluntary donors and nearly equal in male and female donors. Screening the blood donors for IV infection has to be made mandatory and the tests should be of the highest quality. Education and awareness among people should be encouraged and imparted.

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus mollis (Lamiaceae) from Western Ghats Region, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-06-01

    Plectranthus is a large and widespread genus with a diversity of ethnobotanical uses. In traditional medicine P. mollis has been used against snakebites, respiratory stimulant and vasoconstrictor, cardiac depressant, cure for haemorrahage, treatment of mental retardation and rheumatism. P. mollis is reported to exhibit relaxant activity on smooth and skeletal muscles, and has cytotoxic and anti-tumour promoting activity, and can be used in the treatment of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify chemical composition of the essential oil of P. mollis and to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of the oil. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of P. mollis was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds were identified, which comprised 98.6% of the total constituents. The main compound was identified as fenchone (32.3%), followed by alpha-humulene (17.3%), piperitenone oxide (8.5%), cis-piperitone oxide (6.0%) and E-beta-farnesene (5.9%). The oil was found rich in oxygenated monoterpenes type constituents (52.0%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.2%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.9%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (1.5%). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of P. mollis was tested against six Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi, by using the tube dilution method. The oil was active against the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi at a concentration range of 0.065 +/- 0.008-0.937 +/- 0.139 mg/mL, 0.468 +/- 0.069-3.333 +/- 0.527 mg/mL and 0.117 +/- 0.017-0.338 +/- 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. The present study revealed that the oil constituents somehow were qualitatively similar and quantitatively different than earlier reports from different parts of the world. The essential oil of P. mollis has found to be antimicrobial activity which can be usefulness in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi.

  4. Estimating soil fertility status in physically degraded land using GIS and remote sensing techniques in Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.E. AbdelRahman

    2016-06-01

    Soil compaction is a form of physical degradation resulting in densification and distortion of the soil where biological activity, porosity and permeability are reduced, strength is increased and soil structure partly destroyed. Compaction can reduce water infiltration capacity and increase erosion risk by accelerating run-off. The compaction process can be initiated by wheels, tracks, rollers or by the passage of animals. Some soils are naturally compacted, strongly cemented or have a thin topsoil layer on rock subsoil. Soils can vary from being sufficiently strong to resist all likely applied loads to being so weak that they are compacted by even light loads.

  5. Principal component analysis and hydrochemical facies characterization to evaluate groundwater quality in Varahi river basin, Karnataka state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, P.; Somashekar, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    The present study envisages the importance of graphical representations like Piper trilinear diagram and Chadha's plot, respectively to determine variation in hydrochemical facies and understand the evolution of hydrochemical processes in the Varahi river basin. The analytical values obtained from the groundwater samples when plotted on Piper's and Chadha's plots revealed that the alkaline earth metals (Ca2+, Mg2+) are significantly dominant over the alkalis (Na+, K+), and the strong acidic anions (Cl-, SO4 2-) dominant over the weak acidic anions (CO3 2-, HCO3 -). Further, Piper trilinear diagram classified 93.48 % of the samples from the study area under Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl--SO4 2- type and only 6.52 % samples under Ca2+-Mg2+-HCO3 - type. Interestingly, Chadha's plot also demonstrated the dominance of reverse ion exchange water having permanent hardness (viz., Ca-Mg-Cl type) in majority of the samples over recharging water with temporary hardness (i.e., Ca-Mg-HCO3 type). Thus, evaluation of hydrochemical facies from both the plots highlighted the contribution from the reverse ion exchange processes in controlling geochemistry of groundwater in the study area. Further, PCA analysis yielded four principal components (PC1, PC2, PC3 and PC4) with higher eigen values of 1.0 or more, accounting for 65.55, 10.17, 6.88 and 6.52 % of the total variance, respectively. Consequently, majority of the physico-chemical parameters (87.5 %) loaded under PC1 and PC2 were having strong positive loading (>0.75) and these are mainly responsible for regulating the hydrochemistry of groundwater in the study area.

  6. Menopause versus aging: The predictor of obesity and metabolic aberrations among menopausal women of Karnataka, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Menopausal transition brings about anomalies in total body composition characterized by an increased body fat mass and central adiposity. This creates a compatible atmosphere for abnormal metabolism and aggravated cardio metabolic risk factors. Thus, menopausal status and associated obesity is the major predictor of metabolic aberrations over age in menopausal women.

  7. Quantitative Estimation of Coastal Changes along Selected Locations of Karnataka, India: A GIS and Remote Sensing Approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayaraj, P.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Gowthaman, R.

    station are presented by overlaying to- gether. Quantification of erosion/accretion rate is done by digitization as polygon features using ArcGIS. Coastal process are not uniform with respect to time and it is difficult to compare two scenes taken... at differ- ent time because of the non-uniform tides of coastal area i.e., if it is low tide in one scene, it may be high tide in other one. So there is chance of error in estimation of erosion/accretion [10]. For minimizing the error, the data during...

  8. Environmental tritium (³H) and hydrochemical investigations to evaluate groundwater in Varahi and Markandeya river basins, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K

    2011-02-01

    The present study aimed at assessing the activity of natural radionuclides ((3)H) and hydrochemical parameters (viz., pH, EC, F(-), NO(3)(-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) in the groundwater used for domestic and irrigation purposes in the Varahi and Markandeya river basins to understand the levels of hydrochemical parameters in terms of the relative age(s) of the groundwater contained within the study area. The recorded environmental (3)H content in Varahi and Markandeya river basins varied from 1.95 ± 0.25T.U. to 11.35 ± 0.44T.U. and 1.49 ± 0.75T.U. to 9.17 ± 1.13T.U. respectively. Majority of the samples in Varahi (93.34%) and Markandeya (93.75%) river basins being pre-modern water with modern recharge, significantly influenced by precipitation and river inflowing/sea water intrusion. The EC-Tritium and Tritium-Fluoride plots confirmed the existence of higher total dissolved solids (SEC > 500 μS/cm) and high fluoride (MAC > 1.5 mg/L) in groundwater of Markandeya river basin, attributed to relatively longer residence time of groundwater interacting with rock formations and vice versa in case of Varahi river basin. The tritium-EC and tritium-chloride plots indicated shallow and deep circulating groundwater types in Markandeya river basin and only shallow circulating groundwater type in Varahi river basin. Increasing Mg relative to Ca with decreasing tritium indicated the influence of incongruent dissolution of a dolomite phase. The samples with high nitrate (MAC > 45 mg/L) are waters that are actually mixtures of fresh water (containing very high nitrate, possibly from agricultural fertilizers) and older 'unpolluted' waters (containing low nitrate levels), strongly influenced by surface source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploratory Study on the Ayurvedic Therapeutic Management of Cerebral Palsy in Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Shailaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting cognitive function and developments in approximately 1.5 to 3 cases per 1000 live births. Based on Ayurvedic therapeutic principles, CP patients were subjected to Abhyanga (massage with Moorchita Tila Taila (processed sesame oil and Svedana (fomentation with Shastikashali Pinda Sveda (fomentation with bolus of drugs prepared with boiled rice. Study group received Mustadi Rajayapana Basti (enema with herbal decoction and Baladi Yoga (a poly-herbo-mineral formulation, while the placebo group received Godhuma Vati (tablet prepared with wheat powder and saline water as enema. Treatment with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga improved the activities of daily life by 8.79%, gross motor functions by 19.76%, and fine motor functions 15.05%, and mental functions like memory retention got improved by 15.43%. The placebo group showed an improvement of 0.21% in daily life activities, 2.8% in gross motor, and 2.4% in fine motor functions. Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga proved to be more supportive in improving the motor activities and gross behavioral pattern. Further clinical trials are required to evaluate and validate the maximum effect of the combination therapy in a large sample with repetition of the courses for longer duration.

  10. Exploratory Study on the Ayurvedic Therapeutic Management of Cerebral Palsy in Children at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja, U.; Prasanna N Rao; Parikshit Debnath; Anjan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting cognitive function and developments in approximately 1.5 to 3 cases per 1000 live births. Based on Ayurvedic therapeutic principles, CP patients were subjected to Abhyanga (massage) with Moorchita Tila Taila (processed sesame oil) and Svedana (fomentation) with Shastikashali Pinda Sveda (fomentation with bolus of drugs prepared with boiled rice). Study group received Mustadi Rajayapana Basti (enema with herbal decoctio...

  11. Exploratory study on the ayurvedic therapeutic management of cerebral palsy in children at a tertiary care hospital of karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailaja, U; Rao, Prasanna N; Debnath, Parikshit; Adhikari, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood disability affecting cognitive function and developments in approximately 1.5 to 3 cases per 1000 live births. Based on Ayurvedic therapeutic principles, CP patients were subjected to Abhyanga (massage) with Moorchita Tila Taila (processed sesame oil) and Svedana (fomentation) with Shastikashali Pinda Sveda (fomentation with bolus of drugs prepared with boiled rice). Study group received Mustadi Rajayapana Basti (enema with herbal decoction) and Baladi Yoga (a poly-herbo-mineral formulation), while the placebo group received Godhuma Vati (tablet prepared with wheat powder) and saline water as enema. Treatment with Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga improved the activities of daily life by 8.79%, gross motor functions by 19.76%, and fine motor functions 15.05%, and mental functions like memory retention got improved by 15.43%. The placebo group showed an improvement of 0.21% in daily life activities, 2.8% in gross motor, and 2.4% in fine motor functions. Mustadi Rajayapana Basti and Baladi Yoga proved to be more supportive in improving the motor activities and gross behavioral pattern. Further clinical trials are required to evaluate and validate the maximum effect of the combination therapy in a large sample with repetition of the courses for longer duration.

  12. SWOT Analysis of Dental Health Workforce in India: A Dental alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halappa, Mythri; B H, Naveen; Kumar, Santhosh; H, Sreenivasa

    2014-11-01

    India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, dental health workers also become a part contributing to it impeding the progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. To assess dental health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in dental health-workers provision and report the impact of this mal distribution in India. Situational analysis done by using the primary data from the records of Dental Council of India. In India, 0.088% of dental health worker per 1000 population exists. Inequalities in the distribution of dentists exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of dental health personnel whereas certain cities are over fledged with dentists like Karnataka, Maharastra, Tamilnadu being states with high concentration & Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal being the least. Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years by increase in number of dental colleges the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. In the race of increasing dentist population ratio in total, inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported dentists gives a mere feel of saturation in jobs making youngsters to not to choose dentistry as a career giving an alarm.

  13. BLOOD PRESSURE VALUES AMONG PRIMI AND MULTIGRAVIDA WOMEN IN A RURAL POPULATION OF KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Pregnancy is usually a serene time of unparalleled joy and expectation in a women's life. However , sometimes it can be complicated by illnesses or medical conditions. Although only 10 - 30% of the mothers seen in antenatal period can be classified as high ri sk they account for 70 - 80% of perinatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES : To determine casual blood pressure recordings among primi and multigravida women in a rural block of Karnataka state. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present cross - sectional study was carried out in all the sub - centers under Primary Health Centre (PHC , the rural field practice area of Bangarpet taluk of Kolar district during April 2013 to September 2013. Blood pressure was recorded with sphygmoman ometer by auscultatory method in 200 registered pregnant women attending the particular sub - center at that point of time. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following conclusions were drawn after statistical analysi s . 1. There was statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure as age advanced among the pregnant women . 2. There was statistically significant increase in diastolic blood pressure among primigravida as compared to multigravida . But nonethel ess no cases of pregnancy induced hypertension was detected in our study group .

  14. Hydrological feasibility of gravity diversion of the west flowing Nethravathi in Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mysooru R Yadupathi Putty; N M Thipperudrappa; P N Chandramouli

    2014-12-01

    The concept of collecting surface runoff on the slopes in canals cut across the western slopes of the Western Ghats, in order to divert part of a flow in the west flowing rivers to the east by gravity, is being promoted in Karnataka. This paper presents a study of the hydrological feasibility of such canals, termed ‘garland canals’ and claimed to be an environmental friendly alternative to the conventional technologies for inter-basin transfer of water, by their promoters. The paper presents a methodology for disaggregating normal annual rainfall into 15-min magnitudes and its application for simulating surface runoff, using a knowledge of infiltration rates on the slopes. The study has been carried out considering a part of a garland canal proposed for diverting the river Netravathi in the state. The results from the study reveal that significant amounts of flow can be collected in the proposed canal only if streams are also tapped and that because of the arrangements necessary for the purpose, garland canals cannot be considered a means superior to the conventional methods for diverting west flowing rivers.

  15. A coverage evaluation survey of JE vaccination in two districts of Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Ravi; Basha, Riyaz; Harish, B R; Sanjay, T V; Vinay, M; Prabhu, Suresh; Babu, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    A coverage evaluation survey was conducted in Mandya and Koppal districts of Karnataka state following the Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccination campaign. The purposes of the survey were to assess coverage of children in target age group by JE vaccination and to assess adverse events following immunisation against JE, the knowledge of health care providers and community about JE & mass vaccination for JE. The study design consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative data was used to know the coverage levels for children. The qualitative data collected through interviews of head of the family in the sample households, selected health care workers using a structured pretested questionnaire. The standard cluster sampling method was used for selecting the sample of children to be evaluated. In Mandya district the evaluation showed 92% coverage in the selected sample of 313 children against the reported 83.85%. In Koppal district the evaluation showed 70% coverage, among the selected sample of 251 children, against the reported coverage of 69.8%. The incidence of adverse events was 4% in Mandya sample and 6.37% in Koppal sample. In Mandya district, about 42% of households had knowledge of JE. About 68% of households had prior knowledge of the immunization day. In Koppal district, the survey has revealed that only 19.85% of the heads of household had the knowledge of JE and 48.53% had the knowledge of JE vaccination before the day of vaccination campaign.

  16. Seed bank estimation and regeneration studies of Calophyllum apetalum Willd., from Western Ghats of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Prasanna Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the seed production, modes of dispersal and regeneration patterns of threatened tree species are crucial for the management of their genetic diversity. The seed bank estimation of Calophyllum apetalum was assessed from three different locations of Western Ghats of Karnataka, using two factorial completely randomized design. The results revealed the seeds are dispersed by hydrochory and mammalochory. The post seed dispersal, seed bank estimation studies yielded a high seed density near the base of tree trunks, but it was varied between the distances and locations. The results revealed seed densities are insignificant among the forest ranges and significant with the distances. The in-situ regeneration studies revealed an insignificant relationship between the mean regeneration among the forest ranges and the distances. Also, the ex-situ regeneration studies resulted an insignificant relationship among forest ranges and the distances from which the seeds were collected. The highest seed germination through ex-situ regeneration suggested it, as a best suitable method of conservation of this species.

  17. Identification of homogeneous rainfall regimes in parts of Western Ghats region of Karnataka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Venkatesh; Mathew K Jose

    2007-08-01

    In view of the ongoing environmental and ecological changes in the Western Ghats, it is important to understand the environmental parameters pertaining to the sustenance of the region. Rainfall is one such parameter governing the hydrological processes crucial to agriculture planning, afforestation and eco-system management. Therefore, it is essential to understand rainfall distribution and its variation in relevance to such activities. The present study is an attempt to gain in-depth understanding in this direction. The study area comprises of one coastal district and its adjoining areas in Karnataka State. Mean annual rainfall data of 93 rain gauge stations distributed over the study area for a period of 10–50 years are used for the study. In order to assess the variation of rainfall across the ghats, several bands were constructed parallel to the latitudes to facilitate the analysis. The statistical analyses conducted included cluster analysis and analysis of variance. The study revealed that there exist three distinct zones of rainfall regimes in the study area, namely, Coastal zone, Transition zone and Malanad zone. It is observed that, the maximum rainfall occurs on the windward side ahead of the geographical peak. Further, mean monthly rainfall distribution over the zones has been depicted to enable agricultural planning in the study area.

  18. Evaluation of bone mineral density among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in South Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Athulya G.; Jaganathan, Jayakumar; Philip, Rajeev; Soman, Rino Roopak; Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Pullishery, Fawaz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the world's biggest health problems and the disease affects almost all organ systems. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bone mineral density (BMD) has been controversial. Early identification of reduction in bone mass in a diabetic patient may be helpful in preventing the bone loss and future fracture risks. Objective: The aim is to study the effect of T2DM on BMD among patients in South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients between 40 and 70 years of age which included 75 diabetic and 75 nondiabetic subjects. BMD was measured using qualitative ultrasound and the data were compared among age-matched subjects of both the groups. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test and test of equality of proportions. Results: No significant difference was observed in bone density of both the groups. On further analyzing the data, incidence of osteoporosis was higher among diabetic subjects, whereas incidence of osteopenia was higher among nondiabetic subjects. Conclusion: Although significant difference in bone mineral density was not observed in both the groups, the incidence of osteoporosis was higher among type 2 diabetics. Hence, all type 2 diabetics should be evaluated for the risk of osteoporosis and should be offered appropriate preventive measures. PMID:28250682

  19. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

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    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  20. Factors Influencing Receipt of Iron Supplementation by Young Children and their Mothers in Rural India: Local and National Cross-Sectional Studies

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    Moodie Rob

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, 55% of women and 69.5% of preschool children are anaemic despite national policies recommending routine iron supplementation. Understanding factors associated with receipt of iron in the field could help optimise implementation of anaemia control policies. Thus, we undertook 1 a cross-sectional study to evaluate iron supplementation to children (and mothers in rural Karnataka, India, and 2 an analysis of all-India rural data from the National Family Health Study 2005-6 (NFHS-3. Methods All children aged 12-23 months and their mothers served by 6 of 8 randomly selected sub-centres managed by 2 rural Primary Health Centres of rural Karnataka were eligible for the Karnataka Study, conducted between August and October 2008. Socioeconomic and demographic data, access to health services and iron receipt were recorded. Secondly, NFHS-3 rural data were analysed. For both studies, logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with receipt of iron. Results The Karnataka Study recruited 405 children and 377 of their mothers. 41.5% of children had received iron, and 11.5% received iron through the public system. By multiple logistic regression, factors associated with children's receipt of iron included: wealth (Odds Ratio (OR 2.63 [95% CI 1.11, 6.24] for top vs bottom wealth quintile, male sex (OR 2.45 [1.47, 4.10], mother receiving postnatal iron (OR 2.31 [1.25, 4.28], mother having undergone antenatal blood test (OR 2.10 [1.09, 4.03]; Muslim religion (OR 0.02 [0.00, 0.27], attendance at Anganwadi centre (OR 0.23 [0.11, 0.49], fully vaccinated (OR 0.33 [0.15, 0.75], or children of mothers with more antenatal health visits (8-9 visits OR 0.25 [0.11, 0.55] were less likely to receive iron. Nationally, 3.7% of rural children were receiving iron; this was associated with wealth (OR 1.12 [1.02, 1.23] per quintile, maternal education (compared with no education: completed secondary education OR 2.15 [1.17, 3

  1. School environment and sanitation in rural India

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    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  2. MENTAL HEALTH MORBIDITY IN INDUSTRIAL POPULATION OF SOUTH INDIA

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    Kiran Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The existing literature on mental health in an ind ustrial population is very limited. This study will certainly add to the existing information on planning preventive and promotive measures in industrial populat ion thereby safeguarding their health. AIM: This cross sectional study was undertaken during the November and December mon th of 2001 in industrial population of a iron ore processin g unit of Karnataka, India to study the epidemiology of mental health in industrial population and the associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in an Iron Ore processing c ompany located in Chickamagalore District of Karnataka in the year 20 01 (November and December using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and Occupational Stress Index. 252 employees from 1537 population of Kuduremukh Township w ere selected as the study sample, which represents 16.4% of the total population of ind ustrial workers. 235 were responders (93.3% and 17 were non-responders (6.7%. Following a detailed interview with the selected industrial workers, diagnosis was made based on Int ernational Classification of Diseases-10, Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. RESULTS: Majority of the study sample consists of males (95. 7%, Hindus (85.5%, married persons (96.2%, and originally from the state in wh ich industry is located, i.e., Karnataka (96.2%. In the present study current prevalence of depressive disorder is 6.8%, dysthymia being 5.5%. Lifetime prevalence of mood disorder is 17.8% major depression in 7.6%. In the present study there were 59 cases without comorbid d iagnoses Vs 26 cases with two or more comorbid diagnosis. Overall 31% cases had comorbid diagnosis. In the present study however no significant difference emerged between those wit h and without lifetimes or current psychiatric illness in variables such as sociodemogr aphic characteristics, type of

  3. The One Laptop School: Equipping Rural Elementary Schools in South India Through Public Private Partnerships

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    Erik Jon Byker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.

  4. Internet India.

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    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  5. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

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    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  6. Clinico-microbiological study of dermatophytosis in a tertiary-care hospital in North Karnataka

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    Tonita M Noronha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dermatophytoses constitute a group of superficial fungal infections of keratinized tissues, namely, the epidermis, hair, and nails. The distribution and frequency of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents vary according to the geographic region studied, the socio-economic level of the population, the time of study, the climatic variations, the presence of domestic animals, and age. Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the clinical profile of dermatophytic infections and to identify the causative fungal species in the various clinical presentations. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were included in the study. History was taken, general physical and cutaneous examination was done and details of skin lesions noted. Direct microscopy in 10% KOH (40% KOH for nail and fungal culture on SDA with 0.05% chloramphenicol and 0.5% cycloheximide was done in every case. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Chi-square test and contingency coefficient test were used as significant tests for analysis. Results: Out of 150 patients studied, majority belonged to the age group of 21–30 years (22.7%. Male-to-female ratio was 1.63:1. Tinea corporis (24.7% was the most common clinical type observed. The overall positivity by culture was 40% and by direct microscopy was 59.3%. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the predominant species isolated (48.3%. Conclusions: The present study reveals the changing trend in the prevalence of dermatophyte species in this part of Karnataka.

  7. Sociodemographic and health profile of inmates of old age homes in and around Belgaum city, Karnataka.

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    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Joshi, A V; Pujar, Kirankumar; Patil, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    A new trend of admitting more and more senior citizens hailing from the Indian middle class background to old age homes is being observed in recent times. The objectives of this study were to study sociodemographic dimensions and common health problems of inmates of old age homes and to know various reasons for their admissions and their leisure time activities in old age homes. The present cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April 2010 in 4 different old age homes in and around Belgaum city, North Karnataka, by interviewing the inmates of old age homes using predesigned, pretested, structured questionnaire followed by thorough clinical examination and haemoglobin estimation by Sahli's method. The collected data was compiled and analysed using SPSS software version 14. Out of 73 elderly, 54 were females (74.0%). Majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (50.7%) and 56 were belonging to nuclear family (76.7%). Thirty-nine inmates were widow/widower (53.4%) and 42 were having no children (57.5%). Forty-seven inmates were admitted as there was nobody to take care of them (64.4%). Common health problems observed were locomotive/joint and muscle disorders (35.6%), hypertension (34.2%), diabetes mellitus (26.0%), respiratory disorders (23.3%), hearing loss (21.9%) etc. Forty-nine were having normal body mass index (67.1%) while 19.2% were underweight. Majority were having haemoglobin levels between 10-12 g/dl (58.9%). Old age homes definitely will enable the elderly to remain sociopsychologically healthy and lead active lives if effective medical and emotional support is given.

  8. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

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    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  9. Developing a dynamic growth model for teak plantations in India

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    Vindhya Prasad Tewari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tectona grandis (teak is one of the most important tropical timber speciesoccurring naturally in India. Appropriate growth models, based on advanced modeling techniques,are not available but are necessary for the successful management of teak stands in the country.Long-term forest planning requires mathematical models, and the principles of Dynamical SystemTheory provide a solid foundation for these. Methods The state-space approach makes it possible to accommodate disturbances and avarying environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a dynamic growthmodel based on the limited data, consisting of three annual measurements, collected from 22 teak sample plots in Karnataka, Southern India. Results A biologically consistent whole-stand growth model has been presented which uses thestate-space approach for modelling rates of change of three state-variables viz., dominant height,stems per hectare and stand basal area. Moreover, the model includes a stand volume equationas an output function to estimate this variable at any point in time. Transition functions werefitted separately and simultaneously. Moreover, a continuous autoregressive error structure isalso included in the modelling process. For fitting volume equation, generalized method of moments was used to get efficient parameter estimates under heteroscedastic conditions. Conclusions A simple model containing few free parameters performed well and is particularlywell suited to situations where available data is scarce.

  10. Enrichment and vertical profiles of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in monazite areas of coastal Karnataka

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    Narayana, Y. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199 (India)], E-mail: narayanay@yahoo.com; Prakash, V. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574199 (India)

    2010-06-15

    A study on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnataka has revealed the presence of low-level monazite deposit in the Ullal beach area. The paper presents systematic studies on the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, important daughter products of {sup 238}U, in Ombattu Kere, Summer Sand and the Bhagavathi Temple region of the Ullal beach area of coastal Karnataka. Sand samples collected at different depths from these locations were analyzed for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities to understand the distribution, enrichment and vertical profiles of these radionuclides in monazite area. The activity of {sup 210}Po in the Ullal region is found to vary from 1.7 to 43.2 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 11.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and that of {sup 210}Pb varies from 1.0 to 66.7 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 19.1 Bq kg{sup -1}. The mean {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratio was observed to be 0.6. The absorbed gamma dose rate in the region varies in the range 39-460 nGy h{sup -1} with a mean value of 193 nGy h{sup -1}.

  11. Impact of Chronic Drought on Nutritional Status of the Community in Drought affected areas in India

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    Venkaiah Kodavalla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communities affected by chronic drought conditions face a wide variety of challenges including an adverse effect on their nutritional status. The Government of India, during the year 2002-03, declared nine States viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh and Orissa as drought affected. Material and Methods: At the request of Department of Agriculture, Government of India, a rapid community based cross-sectional study was carried out adopting multistage random sampling procedure with the objective to assess the nutritional status of community in these nine chronic drought affected states in India. Results: In general, the intakes of all the nutrients were grossly deficit as against their RDAs. The nutrition intervention programmes initiated by the Government of India, in general, contributed to meet the daily requirement of staples like cereals & millets in most of the States. Conclusion: In drought-affected areas, where the level of famine impact is unknown, an early rapid assessment of the nutritional status and the health needs of the population are critical to estimate the degree of impact to plan timely and appropriate interventions.

  12. Comparative analysis of three prehospital emergency medical services organizations in India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, V; Gururaj, G; Razzak, J A; Naseer, R; Hyder, A A

    2016-08-01

    Strengthened emergency medical services (EMS) are urgently required in South Asia to reduce needless death and disability. Several EMS models have been introduced in India and Pakistan, and research on these models can facilitate improvements to EMS in the region. Our objective was to conduct a cross-case comparative analysis of three EMS organizations in India and Pakistan - GVK EMRI, Aman Foundation and Rescue 1122 - in order to draw out similarities and differences in their models. Case study methodology was used to systematically explore the organizational models of GVK EMRI (Karnataka, India), Aman Foundation (Karachi, Pakistan), and Rescue 1122 (Punjab, Pakistan). Qualitative methods - interviews, document review and non-participant observation - were utilized, and using a process of constant comparison, data were analysed across cases according to the WHO health system 'building blocks'. Emergent themes under each health system 'building block' of service delivery, health workforce, medical products and technology, health information systems, leadership and governance, and financing were described. Cross-cutting issues not applicable to any single building block were further identified. This cross-case comparison, the first of its kind in low- and middle-income countries, highlights key innovations and lessons, and areas of further research across EMS organizations in India, Pakistan and other resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

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    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

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    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  15. A STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF EAR DISEASES IN SCHOOL CHILDREN OF RURAL TUMKUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

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    Shankar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prevalence of ear diseases is more common in rural school going children. Most commonly observed ear diseases include chronic otits media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media, otitis externa and impact ed wax. The causes of ear diseases are due to lack of health education, poor socio - economic status and unhygienic practices. These diseases cause decrease in hearing in children which leads to decrease in learning abilities and also leading to more number of school dropouts. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of ear diseases among rural school going children and to identify the causes for the occurrence, there by suggesting measures to reduce the occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This is a non - randomized, cross - sectional study. The study was conducted in schools located in and around the Rural health training C entre, Nagavalli attached to Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur district Karnataka. The study period was 14 months from December 2010 to February 2012; the study was conducted on students from 18 schools within the age group of 6 years to 15 years. The students less than 6 years were excluded from the study. The total student population was 741 and all of them were examine d for ear pathologies. The method of examination was done by using otoscopy, tuning forks tests and pure tone audiometry. RESULTS: Out of 741 students examined, 43 students had ear pathologies. Hence, the percentage of students with ear pathologies was fou nd to be 5.8%. The common ear pathologies observed was impacted wax, acute otitis media, otitis externa and chronic otitis media and these students were of low socio - economic status. CONCLUSION: Ear diseases are common in rural children due to lack of heal th education, low socio - economic status and unhygienic practices followed. Hence this survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of ear diseases among rural school going children and to find out the causes

  16. Palatoscopy: An adjunct to forensic odontology: A comparative study among five different populations of India.

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    Byatnal, Amit; Byatnal, Aditi; Kiran, A Ravi; Samata, Y; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Telagi, Neethu

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze and identify differences in the palatal rugae patterns and to identify gender wise changes in the palatal rugae shapes in populations of five different states of India. Study was conducted in five different Indian states. 500 sample subjects from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were included. Rugae patterns with predominant shapes were analyzed and categorized according to different states and both genders, data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 15.0 and the results were obtained by Chi-square analysis. "Wavy" type of palatal rugae pattern is the most predominant variant in five different study groups in both the genders. This study could identify variations in distribution of various palatal rugae pattern in five different states and confirmed the "wavy" type of palatal rugae patterns to be the most predominant variant in five different study groups.

  17. All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012

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    Bhatele, Mukta

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles presented by researchers and practitioners, including engineers, biologists, health professionals and informatics/computer scientists, interested in both theoretical advances and applications of information systems, artificial intelligence, signal processing, electronics and other engineering tools in areas related to biology and medicine in the All India Seminar on Biomedical Engineering 2012 (AISOBE 2012), organized by The Institution of Engineers (India), Jabalpur Local Centre, Jabalpur, India during November 3-4, 2012. The content of the book is useful to doctors, engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  18. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  19. Chikungunya infection in India: results of a prospective hospital based multi-centric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Ray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIKV has recently seen a re-emergence in India with high morbidity. However, the epidemiology and disease burden remain largely undetermined. A prospective multi-centric study was conducted to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and virological features of chikugunya infection in patients with acute febrile illness from various geographical regions of India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 540 patients with fever of up to 7 days duration were enrolled at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Karnataka (South; Sawai Man Singh Medical College (SMS Rajasthan (West, and All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS New Delhi (North from June 2008 to May 2009. Serum specimens were screened for chikungunya infection concurrently through RT-PCR and serology (IgM. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bioedit and Mega2 programs. Chikungunya infection was detected in 25.37% patients by RT-PCR and/or IgM-ELISA. Highest cases were detected in south (49.36% followed by west (16.28% and north (0.56% India. A difference in proportion of positives by RT-PCR/ELISA with regard to duration of fever was observed (p<0.05. Rashes, joint pain/swelling, abdominal pain and vomiting was frequently observed among chikungunya confirmed cases (p<0.05. Adults were affected more than children. Anti-CHIK antibodies (IgM were detected for more than 60 days of fever onset. Phylogenetic analysis based on E1 gene from KIMS patients (n = 15 revealed ∼99% homology clustering with Central/East African genotype. An amino acid change from lysine to glutamine at position 132 of E1 gene was frequently observed among strains infecting children. CONCLUSIONS: The study documented re-emergence of chikungunya in high frequencies and severe morbidity in south and west India but rare in north. The study emphasizes the need for continuous surveillance for disease burden using multiple diagnostic tests and also warrants the need for an appropriate

  20. Genomic characterization of coxsackievirus type B3 strains associated with acute flaccid paralysis in south-western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmivandana, Rongala; Cherian, Sarah S; Yergolkar, Prasanna; Chitambar, Shobha D

    2016-03-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with coxsackievirus type B3 (CV-B3) of the species Enterovirus B is an emerging concern worldwide. Although CV-B3-associated AFP in India has been demonstrated previously, the genomic characterization of these strains is unreported. Here, CV-B3 strains detected on the basis of the partial VP1 gene in 10 AFP cases and five asymptomatic contacts identified from different regions of south-western India during 2009-2010 through the Polio Surveillance Project were considered for complete genome sequencing and characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene sequences of global CV-B3 strains classified Indian CV-B3 strains into genogroup GVI, along with strains from Uzbekistan and Bangladesh, and into a new genogroup, GVII. Genomic divergence between genogroups of the study strains was 14.4 % with significantly lower divergence (1.8 %) within GVI (n = 12) than that within GVII (8.5 %) (n = 3). The strains from both AFP cases and asymptomatic contacts, identified mainly in coastal Karnataka and Kerala, belonged to the dominant genogroup GVI, while the GVII strains were recovered from AFP cases in north interior Karnataka. All study strains carried inter-genotypic recombination with the structural region similar to reference CV-B3 strains, and 5' non-coding regions and non-structural regions closer to other enterovirus B types. Domain II structures of 5' non-coding regions, described to modulate virus replication, were predicted to have varied structural folds in the two genogroups and were attributed to differing recombination patterns. The results indicate two distinct genomic compositions of CV-B3 strains circulating in India and suggest the need for concurrent analysis of viral and host factors to further understand the varied manifestations of their infections.

  1. Evaluating Birth Preparedness and Pregnancy Complications Readiness Knowledge and Skills of Accredited Social Health Activists in India

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    Smitha Kochukuttan, BDS, MPH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM in India relies on Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs to act as a link between pregnant women and health facilities. All ASHAs are required to have a birth preparedness plan and be aware of danger signs of complications to initiate appropriate and timely referral to obstetric care. Objectives: To examine the extent to which Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills and the adequacy of support they get from supervisors to carry out their assigned tasks in a rural district in Karnataka, (South India. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 225 ASHAs between June -July 2011. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square test was used to determine associations between categorical variables. Results: The response rate was 207(92%. In terms of knowledge of all key danger signs (Complication Readiness, 2(1%, 10(4.8%, and 15(7.2% ASHAs were aware of key danger signs for labor and child birth, postpartum period and pregnancy period, respectively. Knowledge of key danger signs was associated with repeated, recent and practical training (p <0.05. A majority (71% scored 4-7 of the maximum score out of 8 for knowledge regarding Birth Preparedness. Conclusion and Public health implications: ASHAs in rural Karnataka, India, are poorly equipped to identify obstetric complications and to help expectant mothers prepare a birth preparedness plan. There is critical need for the implementation of appropriate training and follow-up supervision of ASHAs within a supportive, functioning and responsive health care system.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and poultry-handling practices of poultry workers in relation to avian influenza in India

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    Sudhir C Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The recent pandemics caused by highly pathogenic AIA (H5N1 in domestic poultry is currently rated phase 3 by the World Health Organization on the pandemic alert scale. Materials and Methods: A pretested and semistructured survey instrument was administered to both live bird market and poultry farm workers in two most populous cities in Karnataka in South India to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practices among them. Results: The mean age was similar among both population groups (31.5 years. There was a higher level of biosecurity practices adopted in poultry farms compared with those adopted in live bird market. Knowledge regarding AI was acceptable but poorly correlated with actual biosecurity practices. Discussion: Live bird market and poultry farm workers have been identified as the weakest link in the prevention and control of the spread of AI in the two most populous cities studied in Karnataka. Conclusion: Risk reduction models of behavior change targeting these groups are important toward the control and prevention of AI spread.

  3. A study of maternal mortality at the teaching hospital, Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sahaja Kittur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality continues to be a major public health problem in the developing world. Maternal mortality is a vital index of the effectiveness of obstetric services prevailing in a country. The present study was conducted at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, which caters to 250 PHC’s/CHC’s and is a major referral centre for 4 districts with an average of 800-1000 deliveries per month. Methods: Data on the maternal deaths at KIMS, Hubli from October 2010 to March 20011 during pregnancy and within 42 days of delivery of any cause, irrespective of the duration and site of pregnancy were collected. Results: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was per 1,00,000 live births. Among the 40 maternal deaths, 7 deaths (17.5% occurred in primigravida, 14 deaths (35% had occurred in primipara, 4 deaths (10% in gravida 2 and above, 7 deaths (17.5% in para 2, 5 deaths (12.5% in para 3 and 3 deaths (7.5% had occurred in para 4 and above. During the study period, 8 deaths (20% occurred within 1 hour of admission, 5 deaths (12.5% within 1-6 hours of admission, 7 deaths (17.5% between 7-12 hours of admission, 6 deaths (15% between 13-24 hours, 8 deaths (20% between 1-2 days and 6 deaths occurred after 2 days of admission. Maternal deaths had occurred mostly in delivered women (75% compared to undelivered women (25%. During the study period, among the 40 maternal deaths, 34 deaths (85% occurred due to direct obstetric causes and 6 deaths (15% due to indirect causes. Among the direct obstetric causes, haemorrhage (30% and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (30% were the leading causes. Pulmonary embolism (10%, rupture uterus (5%, chorioamnionitis (5%, septic abortion (2.5% and acute inversion of uterus (2.5% were the other direct causes of maternal deaths. Among the indirect obstetric causes, 4 deaths (10% occurred due to anaemia which was the leading cause. One death (2.5% occurred due to cardiac disease and 1 death

  4. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Bajaj, Sarita; Rajput, Rajesh; Subramaniam, K A V; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Bhandari, Rajendra; Dharmalingam, Mala; Sahay, Rakesh; Ganie, Ashraf; Kotwal, Narendra; Shriram, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh), Bengaluru (Karnataka), Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Kolkata (West Bengal), Hyderabad (Telangana), Nasik (Maharashtra), Rohtak (Haryana), Pune (Maharashtra), New Delhi (Delhi), Srinagar (Kashmir), and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh) enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388), using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613), whereas 40% (n = 155) of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%), majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  5. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

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    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  6. Quantitative Estimation of Fungicide, Pesticide Residues from Pepper (Piper Nigrum L. as Obtained in the Selected Area of Kodagu District, Karnataka.

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    Venkatesh R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kodagu is the one of the major pepper cultivated district in Karnataka state. The present study was carried out in the different villages such as Tuchumaleri, Chikkamandur, Mattur, Nallur, Kunda, Balaji, Kottur, and MallanakereetcofPonnempet, Kodagu district Karnataka. During the pepper cultivation the farmers are used the pesticides in each steps, for high yielding purpose. This study was revealed that to measure the amount of pesticides present in the final product. Aflatoxin is produced by the fungi aspergillusflavus and it having properties of nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, and immunosuppressive. It can be determined by the reliable method like HPLC (column symmetry C-18; 4.6X250 mm used with detection by florescence (excitation 364 nm, emission 465 nm. Like that the organo phosphors also determined by GC (column summery RTX-5; 30m the level can be indicated in ppb and ppm respectively.

  7. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  8. The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project: Development and Testing of Electronic Decision Support System and Formative Research to Understand Perceptions about Mental Health in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Tewari, Abha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Patel, Anushka

    2016-01-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) such as depression, suicidal risk and emotional/medically unexplained complaints affect a large number of people in India, but few receive appropriate care. Key reasons for this include few trained mental health professionals and stigma associated with mental health. A potential approach to address poor access to care is by training village healthcare workers in providing basic mental health care, and harnessing India's vast mobile network to support such workers using mobile-based applications. We propose an intervention to implement such an approach that incorporates the use of mobile-based electronic decision support systems (EDSS) to provide mental health services for CMD, combined with a community-based anti-stigma campaign. This will be implemented and evaluated across 42 villages in Andhra Pradesh, a south Indian state. This paper discusses the development and testing of the EDSS, and the formative research that informed the anti-stigma campaign. The development of the EDSS used an iterative process that was validated against clinical diagnosis. A mixed methods approach tested the user acceptability of the EDSS. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews provided community-level perceptions about mental health. This study involved 3 villages and one primary health centre. The EDSS application was found to be acceptable, but some modifications were needed. The community lacked adequate knowledge about CMD and its treatment and there was stigma associated with mental illness. Faith and traditional healers were considered to be important mental health service providers. A number of barriers and facilitators were identified in implementing the intervention analysed in a framework using Andersen's behavioural model of health services use. The findings assisted with refining the intervention prior to large-scale implementation and evaluation.

  9. Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2014-11-01

    Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.

  10. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India

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    Adamson Paul

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7% had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1% had up to 7 years and 5 (1% had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12% reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72% correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74% identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51% correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44% knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2% did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61% said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13% felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and

  11. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Kumar, Bhavana N; Adamson, Paul; Krupp, Karl

    2010-09-22

    There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in

  12. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India: e0131187

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard L Wright; Ruediger Zillmer; Adam Biran; Peter Hall; Myriam Sidibe

    2015-01-01

      We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low...

  13. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low...

  14. Role of ICT Initiatives in Sustainable Progress of Rural Women in India

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    M. Hilaria Soundari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lower status, lost dignity, and denied rights of women across the rural India comes out with a clarion call to promote sustainable progress in their lives.  Information and Communication Technology (ICT has emerged as one of a dynamic tool in their lives. It has been successful in connecting the rural and remote population to the wider world. These tools are initiated for gender equality and women’s sustainable progress. Its success largely depends on the availability and accessibility for the rural women. The main objectives of the study was to present the successful elements of ICT initiatives in the significant process of sustainable development, to trace out the barriers and bottlenecks of ICT initiatives in rural India and to identify the areas of further strengthening the effectiveness of ICT initiatives  in sustainable progress of rural women. Of the four sample ICT initiatives, two of the initiatives were situated in southern India i.e. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and the other two were in the northern part of India i.e. Gujarat and Rajasthan. The study also identified the requirement for basic education, technical skills, tailored training for women and above all engendering of ICT policies.Women are one of the wonderful creations and co-creators of the universe. However, the history of human civilization testified to the changing status of women all through the history. In 19th and 20th centuries, reform movements led by great social reformers provided better avenues to women’s legal status. Nevertheless, independent India continued to witness upheavals against women oppression despite its Constitution providing equality.  

  15. Prevalence of β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in India: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, D; Colah, R B; Gorakshakar, A C; Patel, R Z; Master, D C; Mahanta, J; Sharma, S K; Chaudhari, U; Ghosh, M; Das, S; Britt, R P; Singh, S; Ross, C; Jagannathan, L; Kaul, R; Shukla, D K; Muthuswamy, V

    2013-01-01

    The population of India is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of β-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of India is scarce. Therefore the present multicentre study was undertaken in six cities of six states of India (Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka and Punjab) to determine the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups using uniform methodology. Fifty-six thousand seven hundred eighty individuals (college students and pregnant women) from different caste/ethnic groups were screened. RBC indices were measured on an automated haematology counter while the percentage of HbA(2), HbF and other abnormal Hb variants were estimated by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System. The overall prevalence of β-thalassemia trait was 2.78 % and varied from 1.48 to 3.64 % in different states, while the prevalence of β-thalassemia trait in 59 ethnic groups varied from 0 to 9.3 %. HbE trait was mainly seen in Dibrugarh in Assam (23.9 %) and Kolkata in West Bengal (3.92 %). In six ethnic groups from Assam, the prevalence of HbE trait varied from 41.1 to 66.7 %. Few subjects with δβ-thalassemia, HPFH, HbS trait, HbD trait, HbE homozygous and HbE β-thalassemia as well as HbS homozygous and HbS-β-thalassemia (India.

  16. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  17. The India Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  18. Mapping disaster vulnerability in India using analytical hierarchy process

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    Anusheema Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are the coincidences between hazardous events, elements at risk, and conditions of vulnerability. Vulnerability integrates social and environmental systems to reduce the intensity and frequency of these risks. By categorizing regions according to their level of vulnerability, one can examine and assess the possible impacts of developmental and environmental degradation processes. This study is an attempt to map the sub-national areas (districts in India that are vulnerable to natural and climate-induced disasters. The assessment is considered under the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change definition of vulnerability. Using analytical hierarchy process as a multi-criteria decision-mapping method, vulnerability is measured in terms of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Based on this mapping assessment, districts in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal are the most vulnerable regions; while districts in the state of Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka are among the least vulnerable regions. The results of this study can serve as the basis for targeting prioritization efforts, emergency response measures, and policy interventions at district level for mitigating disaster vulnerability in the country.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)Electronic waste recycling workshops engaged in metal recovery were found with maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQs) for dl-PCBs and potential cancer risk (10(-6)-10(-4)) for both adult and children.

  20. Microbial flora in chronic periodontitis: Study at a tertiary health care center from North Karnataka

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    Kirtilaxmi K Benachinmardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Periodontitis is a major public health problem in India with a prevalence of 60-80%. If untreated it acts as a risk factor for systemic diseases. Data on anaerobic periodontal microflora in the Indian population is very scarce. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the nature of oral microbiota in chronic periodontitis in this region of India and also the semiquantitative study in pre- and post-treatment group and to determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern for aerobic isolates. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 cases. Material was collected from the subgingival pockets in patients with chronic periodontitis attending the Periodontology, Outpatient Department. Clinical samples were transported to the laboratory in fluid thioglycollate medium. Initially Gram′s stain and Fontana stains were done. Aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerophilic culture were put up. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done for aerobic isolates. Results: Sixty samples yielded 121 isolates of which 78.34% were polymicrobial, 11.66% were monomicrobial and oral commensals were grown in 10% cases. Out of 121 isolates 91.74% were anaerobic, 7.43% were aerobic and 0.83% were microaerophilic. Fusobacterium species was the most common isolate among anaerobes. Using "paired t-test" "P" value was significant indicating significant reduction in colony count after phase-I periodontal therapy. Conclusion: This study has shown that anaerobic bacteria are important cause of chronic periodontitis, along with aerobes and microaerophilic organisms. Fusobacterium spp, Bacteroides fragilis, Porphyromonas spp and Prevotella intermedia are the most common anaerobic pathogens. Bacterial culture methods are still economical and gold standard.

  1. Will adoption of the 2010 WHO ART guidelines for HIV-infected TB patients increase the demand for ART services in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay M V Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, WHO expanded previously-recommended indications for anti-retroviral treatment to include all HIV-infected TB patients irrespective of CD4 count. India, however, still limits ART to those TB patients with CD4 counts <350/mm(3 or with extrapulmonary TB manifestations. We sought to evaluate the additional number of patients that would be initiated on ART if India adopted the current 2010 WHO ART guidelines for HIV-infected TB patients. METHODS: We evaluated all TB patients recorded in treatment registers of the Revised National TB Control Programme in June 2010 in the high-HIV prevalence state of Karnataka, and cross-matched HIV-infected TB patients with ART programme records. RESULTS: Of 6182 TB patients registered, HIV status was ascertained for 5761(93% and 710(12% were HIV-infected. 146(21% HIV-infected TB patients were on ART prior to TB diagnosis. Of the remaining 564, 497(88% were assessed for ART eligibility; of these, 436(88% were eligible for ART according to 2006 WHO ART guidelines. Altogether, 487(69% HIV-infected TB patients received ART during TB treatment. About 80% started ART within 8 weeks of TB treatment and 95% received an efavirenz based regimen. CONCLUSION: In Karnataka, India, about nine out of ten HIV-infected TB patients were eligible for ART according to 2006 WHO ART guidelines. The efficiency of HIV case finding, ART evaluation, and ART initiation was relatively high, with 78% of eligible HIV-infected patients actually initiated on ART, and 80% within 8 weeks of diagnosis. ART could be extended to all HIV-infected TB patients irrespective of CD4 count with relatively little additional burden on the national ART programme.

  2. Effectiveness of reproductive health education among rural adolescent girls: a school based intervention study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R S P; Lena, A; Nair, N S; Kamath, V; Kamath, A

    2008-11-01

    Adolescence is the most important and sensitive period of one's life [1] . According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee, adolescence is defined as the period between 10 and 19 years, the second decade of life. To determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention program on knowledge of reproductive health among adolescent girls. This educational intervention study was carried out over a period of one year. A total of 791 rural girls in the age group 16-19 years were randomly selected from coastal villages in Udupi District, Karnataka. Adolescent girls were educated regarding reproductive health and their awareness levels were evaluated immediately following intervention. Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 11.0 for Windows. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages. Chi square test was used to test the effect of the intervention. A significant increase in overall knowledge after the intervention (from 14.4 to 68%, P educational intervention program can bring about a desirable change in knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

  3. China's India Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qian

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, with the improvement of relationship between India and China, the scope of India studies in China's IR research has been broadened and the new areas of studies are being explored. The research agenda of India studies has already extended to the areas like economy, society, culture, security, national strategy and their impact on both bilateral and international relations. In this situation, the focuses of India studies in China's IR research can be mainly identified as follows: reviews on India's social, political and economic systems; analysis on the national strategy and foreign policy; Sino-Indian relations; India's relations with some international organizations. However, even though many fresh progresses have been made in India studies, the India studies in China's IR research still lag far behind the study of other important countries like the U.S., UK, Russia and Japan, and more problems and challenges will face in the coming future. The paper believes that a fuller understanding of India probably will not make China and India close friends, but it definitely will help to prevent them from becoming fierce enemies.

  4. Evaluation of nutrient index using organic carbon, available P and available K concentrations as a measure of soil fertility in Varahi River basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravikumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Varahi River basin is in the midst of Udupi district in the western part of Karnataka state, covering parts of Kundapura and Udupi taluks in Udupi District, Karnataka, India. Spatial distributions for twenty physical and chemical properties were examined in the soil samples of selected agricultural fields in 28 different locations in Varahi River basin. The present study revealed that there is not much variation in soil fertility status of soils developed on various landforms in the area as the soils were having low to medium in organic carbon (0.06 to 1.20 % and available nitrogen (6.27 to 25.09 Kg/ha content; low to medium in available P (2.24 to 94.08 Kg/ha and deficient to doubtful in available K (20.10 - 412.3 Kg/ha contents. The soils of Varahi River basin were characterized as low-medium-low (LML category based on the nutrient index calculated w.r.t. available organic carbon, available P and available K. Further, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR and Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP indicated that the soils were excellent for irrigation.

  5. Oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers of Raichur City, Karnataka

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    B Vengal Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is a vital part of general health and is a valuable asset of every individual. The working population in India usually belong to the lower socioeconomic group. Aim: This study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of Gunj marketing yard laborers. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 550 laborers of Gunj marketing yard of Raichur city. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. Oral health status was assessed using the WHO assessment form 1997. Simplified oral hygiene index (1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.1 (± 8.02 years and the mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decayed, missing, filled teeth was 2.06 (± 1.49, 0.76 (± 2.53, 0.13 (± 0.39, and 2.95 (± 3.02, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was 85.7% and 93.5%, respectively. The oral hygiene status was poor in 45.9% of the study participants. Conclusion: This study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases and dental caries as well as a large proportion of unmet dental needs among these laborers.

  6. Chest physiotherapy techniques in neurological intensive care units of India: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anup; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Rao, Bhamini K

    2014-06-01

    Neurological intensive care units (ICUs) are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs. The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India. Descriptive statistics. The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82); 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC) techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists. Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the devices available for AC.

  7. Chest physiotherapy techniques in neurological intensive care units of India: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Anup; Chakravarthy, Kalyana; Rao, Bhamini K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Neurological intensive care units (ICUs) are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. Settings and Design: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82); 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC) techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists. Conclusions: Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the devices available for

  8. Chest physiotherapy techniques in neurological intensive care units of India: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Neurological intensive care units (ICUs are a rapidly developing sub-specialty of neurosciences. Chest physiotherapy techniques are of great value in neurological ICUs in preventing, halting, or reversing the impairments caused due to neurological disorder and ICU stay. However, chest physiotherapy techniques should be modified to a greater extent in the neurological ICU as compared with general ICUs. Aim: The aim of this study is to obtain data on current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. Settings and Design: A tertiary care hospital in Karnataka, India, and cross-sectional survey. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was formulated and content validated to assess the current chest physiotherapy practices in neurological ICUs of India. The questionnaire was constructed online and a link was distributed via E-mail to 185 physiotherapists working in neurological ICUs across India. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The response rate was 44.3% (n = 82; 31% of the physiotherapists were specialized in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy and 30% were specialized in neurological physiotherapy. Clapping, vibration, postural drainage, aerosol therapy, humidification, and suctioning were used commonly used airway clearance (AC techniques by the majority of physiotherapists. However, devices for AC techniques such as Flutter, Acapella, and standard positive expiratory pressure devices were used less frequently for AC. Techniques such as autogenic drainage and active cycle of breathing technique are also frequently used when appropriate for the patients. Lung expansion therapy techniques such as breathing exercises, incentive spirometry exercises, and positioning, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation of breathing are used by majority of physiotherapists. Conclusions: Physiotherapists in this study were using conventional chest physiotherapy techniques more frequently in comparison to the

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009: temporal and spatial trends

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    Partap S. Narwal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e. horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s. The virus (H3N8 was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka, Ahmedabad (Gujarat, Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740 of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1 074 (22.65% samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8.

  10. An Intervention to Enhance Obstetric and Newborn Care in India: A cluster randomized-trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Derman, Richard J.; Honnungar, Narayan V.; Patil, Kamal P.; Swamy, Mallaiah K.; Moore, Janet; Wallace, Dennis D.; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Kodkany, Bhalchandra S.; Pasha, Omrana; Sloan, Nancy L.; Wright, Linda L.; Goldenberg, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed whether community mobilization and interventions to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) reduced perinatal mortality (PMR) and neonatal mortality rates (NMR) in Belgaum, India. Methods The cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in Belgaum District, Karnataka State, India. Twenty geographic clusters were randomized to control or the intervention. The intervention engaged and mobilized community and health authorities to leverage support; strengthened community-based stabilization, referral, and transportation; and aimed to improve quality of care at facilities. Results 17,754 intervention births and 15,954 control births weighing ≥1000 g, respectively, were enrolled and analysed. Comparing the baseline period to the last 6 months period, the NMR was lower in the intervention vs. control clusters (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.34–1.06, p=.076) as was the PMR (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.46–1.19, p=.20) although neither reached statistical significance. Rates of facility birth and caesarean section increased among both groups. There was limited influence on quality of care measures. Conclusions The intervention had large but not statistically significant effects on neonatal and perinatal mortality. Community mobilization and increased facility care may ultimately improve neonatal and perinatal survival, and are important in the context of the global transition towards institutional delivery. PMID:26205277

  11. India-based Neutrino Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naba K Mondal; for the INO Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The current status of the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is summarized. The main physics goals are described followed by the motivation for building a magnetized iron calorimetric (ICAL) detector. The charge identification capability of ICAL would make it complementary to large water Cerenkov and other detectors worldwide. The status of the design of the 50 kt magnet, the construction of a prototype ICAL detector, the experience with resistive plate chambers which will be the active elements in ICAL and the status of the associated electronics and data acquisition system are discussed.

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension amongst school children and adolescents in North Karnataka: A cross sectional study

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    Ravikumar V Baradol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity& hypertension are global health problems as they caused increase in morbidity & mortality. Objective: To find out the prevalence of obesity, overweight in school going children and adolescents of north Karnataka. Also to study obesity related morbidities like Prehypertension and Hypertension and associated risk factors for sustained hypertension. Materials and Methods: Total 2800 children in age group from 10-16 years from 3 schools of Urban and rural region of Bijapur district were screened. Weight, height, BMI and Blood pressure were recorded. These values were compared with WHO child growth standards. Children then classified as overweight (OW and obesity (OB. Blood pressure values were compared with reference charts given by American heart association guidelinesand grouped as prehypertensive (PHTN and Hypertension (HTN. Results: This study revealed that 3.6% rural school children were overweight (OW in age group of 13 years, 1.4% children were obese (OB in age group of 15 years. In urban school children, 3.3% OB in age group of 12 years and 11.1% OW in age group of 10 years. In Rural school children, prevalence of systolic HTN was 21% in OW children and 25% in OB children. Among urban schoolchildren prevalence of systolic PHTN was 5.1% among OW and in OB group it was 16.6%. Conclusions: This study revealed that prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in overweight and obese compared to children with Normal BMI. Also the prevalence of overweight and obesity is more in urban school children than rural children population. We need further large scale studies to study obesity and associated morbidities like hypertension school children and adolescents.

  13. A Qualitative Research on the Experience of Haemodialysis in South Karnataka: Lived Experience of Persons undergoing Haemodialysis

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    Blessy Prabha Valsaraj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any chronic illness puts a person and family at risk of long term suffering, financial depletion and burden on the caregiver. When it comes to chronic kidney disease (CKD, the sufferers have to be dependent on maintenance dialysis weekly twice or thrice that demands a lot of time and finances. Apart from that, they face physical symptoms of fatigue, anaemia, nausea, muscle cramps, fluctuating blood pressure and many other symptoms. They are asked to maintain a strict dietary, fluid and medication regimen in order to support the kidneys. Aims and Objectives: The current study aimed at exploring the lived experience of persons undergoing haemodialysis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among ten patients undergoing maintenance dialysis who were diagnosed as having chronic kidney failure from the dialysis unit of Kasturba Hospital, which is a tertiary health care centre in South Karnataka. A qualitative approach with phenomenological research design was adopted. Data was obtained through interviews using a background proforma and semi-structured interview schedule. The data was analysed using Husserl's method. The transcripts were coded and analysed for common categories and themes were derived out of them. Results: The themes emerged at the end of the study were mental agony, physical limitations, coping, financial burden, lack of support, feelings towards the machine and dialysis, search for hope and betterment, spiritual coping, marital relationship and sexuality and uncertainty and fear of tomorrow. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the individual's life is centred on negatively oriented cognitions that can be modified with theoretically oriented interventions like cognitive behaviour therapy.

  14. Psychosocial perspective of first year medical students entered in a professional course – a cross sectional study from Davangere, Karnataka

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    Prasad Budri Kallingappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The perception of stress is frequently influenced by socio cultural factors; the results of studies on one region cannot be generalized to the other. This study is an attempt to explore the perception of stress and allied stressors among Indian medical students who have just entered into professional course. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on medical students of SSIMSRC, Davangere, Karnataka. Depression, anxiety and stress scores were noted using DASS questionnaire and sleep quality assessed using PIRS questionnaire. Attributable factors for negative emotional state in students were also noted. Pearson’s correlation used to note correlation between the negative emotional states scores and sleep parameters score. Results Mean depression, anxiety and stress scores were 8.88±7.31, 8.29±6.41 and 10.46±6.67 respectively. Significant positive correlation between these scores and sleep parameters score was observed. Common attributable factors for negative emotional states were greater academic demands (36%, being in one’s own environment with new responsibilities (35%, being away from home(31%, exposure to new people, ideas and time (27%, facing new and difficult college work (47%, missing family or friends, feeling alone or isolated, experiencing conflict in relationships (34%,worrying about finances (13%. change in food habit (35%, change in living arrangements (26%, personality factors (30%. Conclusion Negative emotional states affect sleep quality and play a contributory factor for stressed situation, so early intervention of these states are required for the improvement of mental health and academic career.

  15. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  16. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  17. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  18. Evaluation of morphometric parameters derived from Cartosat-1 DEM using remote sensing and GIS techniques for Budigere Amanikere watershed, Dakshina Pinakini Basin, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikpal, Ramesh L.; Renuka Prasad, T. J.; Satish, K.

    2017-07-01

    The quantitative analysis of drainage system is an important aspect of characterization of watersheds. Using watershed as a basin unit in morphometric analysis is the most logical choice because all hydrological and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed. The Budigere Amanikere watershed a tributary of Dakshina Pinakini River has been selected for case illustration. Geoinformatics module consisting of ArcGIS 10.3v and Cartosat-1 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) version 1 of resolution 1 arc Sec ( 32 m) data obtained from Bhuvan is effectively used. Sheet and gully erosion are identified in parts of the study area. Slope in the watershed indicating moderate to least runoff and negligible soil loss condition. Third and fourth-order sub-watershed analysis is carried out. Mean bifurcation ratio (R b) 3.6 specify there is no dominant influence of geology and structures, low drainage density (D d) 1.12 and low stream frequency (F s) 1.17 implies highly infiltration subsoil material and low runoff, infiltration number (I f)1.3 implies higher infiltration capacity, coarse drainage texture (T) 3.40 shows high permeable subsoil, length of overland flow (L g) 0.45 indicates under very less structural disturbances, less runoff conditions, constant of channel maintenance (C) 0.9 indicates higher permeability of subsoil, elongation ratio (R e) 0.58, circularity ratio (R c) 0.75 and form factor (R f) 0.26 signifies sub-circular to more elongated basin with high infiltration with low runoff. It was observed from the hypsometric curves and hypsometric integral values of the watershed along with their sub basins that the drainage system is attaining a mature stage of geomorphic development. Additionally, Hypsometric curve and hypsometric integral value proves that the infiltration capacity is high as well as runoff is low in the watershed. Thus, these mormometric analyses can be used as an estimator of erosion status of watersheds leading to prioritization for taking up soil and water conservation measures.

  19. A clinical study of prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors at a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, India

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    Shridevi A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of GDM was found to be 11.5 % and its association with risk factors found to be significant. DIPSI diagnostic procedure is a simple, cost effective and evidence based test. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1840-1845

  20. Perceptions regarding menstruation and Practices during menstrual cycles among high school going adolescent girls in resource limited settings around Bangalore city, Karnataka, India

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    Shanbhag D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hygiene-related practices of adolescents during menstruation are of importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI. Therefore, increased knowledge about menstruation right from childhood may escalate safe practices and may help in mitigating the suffering of women.Objectives: To assess the perceptions and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among selected high school girls in a resource limited settings in area around Bangalore city. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study done in four selected Government High Schools in rural areas around Bangalore City. A pre-designed, pre-tested and structured questionnaire was administered. Results: A total of 506 girls were interviewed. The average age was 14.08 with Standard deviation of 1.06 and range between 12-16yrs. 99.6% of the students had heard of menstruation and 57.9% had acquired this even knowledge before attaining menarche. 73.7% knew that menstruation was a normal phenomenon but only 28.7% had knowledge regarding menstruation. 48.1% did not know that menstruation was related to pregnancy. Only 44.1% used sanitary pad during the menstrual cycles. Among those who used cloth, only 31.3% used soap and water to clean them. 56.8% used soap and water to clean their genital organs and 88.8% of the girls took bath daily during menstruation

  1. Perceptions regarding menstruation and Practices during menstrual cycles among high school going adolescent girls in resource limited settings around Bangalore city, Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag D; Shilpa R; D’Souza N; Josephine P; Singh J; Goud BR

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Hygiene-related practices of adolescents during menstruation are of importance, as it has a health impact in terms of increased vulnerability to reproductive tract infections (RTI). Therefore, increased knowledge about menstruation right from childhood may escalate safe practices and may help in mitigating the suffering of women.Objectives: To assess the perceptions and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among selected high school girls in a resource limited settings in area ...

  2. Comparison of CDC, WHO and IOTF growth references in relation to overweight and obesity in college adolescents of North Karnataka, India

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    Bijendra Banjade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: obesity has become a serious public health concern and is a key risk factor for the chronic and non-communicable disease. The objective of the study is to compare the various growth references in relation to overweight and obesity. Materaial &Methods: Weights and heights were measured on 330 adolescents and Body Mass Index (BMI calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined and statistical comparisons conducted among the three growth references; Centres for Disease Control (CDC, World Health Organization (WHO and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF. Results: CDC and IOTF produced almost similar estimates of the prevalence of overweight, 9.1% versus 10.9% while WHO reported a higher prevalence 12.7%. In our study CDC and WHO classified twice as many as obese adolescents as compared to IOTF. There was a variable level of agreement between the references. Conclusions: The WHO reported a much higher prevalence of obesity compared to the other references. The prevalence of adolescent’s obesity is dependent on the growth reference used.

  3. A sporadic outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteremia in pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in coastal Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Beena; Cherian, Elizabeth Varkey; Boloor, Rekha; Shenoy, K Varadraj

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is a significant opportunistic pathogen in hospitalized and immunocompromised patients, particularly in cystic fibrosis. It is widely distributed in natural habitats such as soil and water and frequently encountered in nosocomial outbreaks due to contaminated disinfectants and medical devices. However reports on outbreaks due to this organism are lacking from the Indian subcontinent. We report here a sporadic outbreak due to BCC which occurred in the pediatric Intensive Care Unit of our institute, the probable source being contaminated distilled water. The isolate from three babies and environmental sources including distilled water were identical and confirmed as BCC. Strict infection control measures were instituted to prevent the spread of infection. This report highlights the potential role of B.cepacia in causing sporadic outbreaks especially in ICUs, associated with water.

  4. Comparison of Ground Water Bacterial Cell Sizes from the Agricultural,Domestic and Industrial Areas of Mysore District,Karnataka State,India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wadie Ahmed Mokbel; Sadanand M Yamakanamardi

    2008-01-01

    A two-year study on temporal variations in the ground water heterotrophic bacterial cell sizes of free living bacteria(FLB)and particle bound bacteria(PBB)from the agricultural,domestic and industrial areas was carried out from Februar y2005 to January 2007.The overall mean cell length of FLB and PBB was similar in all the ground water studied.However,the season wise grouped data revealed significant seasonal changes in cell length of FLB and PBB,as smaller bacteria were noticed during rainy season in the ground water in agricultural area in both the years,and only in the second year of study in domestic and industrial areas.Generally,it was noticed that there were summer maximum and rainy minimum values of the cell length of PBB in the ground water in agricultural,domestic and industrial areas in the second year of study.The Pearson's correlations showed the presence of 8(in agricultural area),5(in domestic)and 3(in industrial) significant correlations with environmental(Physico-chemical)parameters,respectively.The regression analysis revealed that as much as 12%of variation in the mean length of FL Bwas due to NO3(+)in agricultural area and 9%due to total solids(+)indomestic area.However,the 8% variation in bacterial cell size of FLB was due to Mg(+)in industrial area.Whereas,13%variation in mean length of PBB was due to S04(+)in agncultural area and 10%due to total anions of strong acid(TASA)(+)in domestic area.Furthermore,10% of variation Was due to PO4(+)in industrial area.Thus,the statistical analysis revealed that several environmental variables were potentially responsible for some of the temporal variations in aquatic heterotrophic bacterial cell size,suggesting probably the stressed environment in these ecosystems.

  5. Ophthalmic surgical training in Karnataka and Southern India: Present status and future interests from a survey of final-year residents

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    K Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Settings and Design: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduates on the subject of their surgical training and their future plans after residency. Purpose: This survey aimed to answer the question, "What is the present status of surgical training in ophthalmic training centers?" by obtaining information from students about (1 various methods used in surgical training (2 numbers and types of surgeries performed by them in the training centers (3 their plans after residency. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 21 questions was distributed to 155 students attending an intensive 4-day teaching program. The questions related to orientation training, wet lab training, facilities for training, free surgical camps and detailed information about numbers and types of surgeries observed and performed. Completed questionnaires were collected, and responses analyzed. Results: One hundred and seven completed responses were analyzed. The majority had not received formal orientation training. More than half had undergone wet lab training. Most residents performed their first ophthalmic surgery during the 1 st year of residency and went to the operation theatre multiple times a week. Most of the students planned to undergo further training after residency. More than half of the students found their surgical training to be fair or satisfactory. Conclusions: The number and frequency of ophthalmic surgeries done by residents appear satisfactory, but further efforts from trainers on enhancing the quality and range of surgical training would benefit students and improve their satisfaction.

  6. ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN MANI RESERVOIR OF WESTERN GHATS, REGION, HOSANAGAR TALUK, SHIVAMOGA DISTRICT KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Veerendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on relationship between zooplankton abundance and water quality parameter in Mani reservoir were made between January 2008 and December 2008. In the current investigation, impact of different physico-chemical parameters on zooplankton population was found. Ten genera of zooplankton were identified. The relationship between zooplankton and water quality parameters was varied from place to place depending upon the condition of the reservoir water.

  7. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral manifestation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Neelkant; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Babaji, Prashant; Ramesh, Dnsv; Jhamb, Kshitij; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a highly lethal, progressively epidemic viral infection characterized by profound impairment of the immune system. Oral manifestations are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected AIDS patients, and are usually the first indicator of symptom and disease progression. The main objective of the current study was to compare the prevalence of oral manifestations in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) with those, not on HAART therapies. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 patients diagnosed as human immune virus sero-positive. These patients were divided equally into two groups (50 each); Group I patients on HAART and Group II patients who were not on HAART. Information regarding age, sex and cluster of differentiation 4 cell count was obtained from the medical records. Oral examination was done, and findings were recorded by using internationally accepted presumptive clinical criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square statistical test. Results: The presence of oral manifestations was significantly decreased in subjects on HAART (32%) compared to those who are not on HAART (56%). The most common oral lesions detected in patients on HAART were increased oral hyper-pigmentation (14%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (8%), non-specific ulcerations (4%), pseudo-membranous candidiasis (2%), periodontitis (2%) and xerostomia (2%), whereas in non HAART oral hyperpigmentation (10%), pseudo-membranous candidiasis (8%), angular cheilitis (4%), and erythematous candidiasis (4%) and Periodontitis (14%) were more prevalent. Conclusion: The number and severity of oral manifestation decreased, and even there was a change in the type of oral manifestations on HAART, which may be because of the improvement in immunity gained by the therapy. PMID:25713484

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Non-Fermenters in Human Infections with Special Reference to Acinetobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital from North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Parandekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-fermenters are a group of aerobic non-spore forming gram negative bacilli that are either incapable of utilizingcarbohydrates as a source of energy or degrade them via oxidative rather than fermentative pathway. These are increasingly been reported from the cases of nosocomial infections. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken aiming to identify, characterize all nonfermenters and further study of Acinetobacterisolates. Materials and Methods: A total 116 non-fermenters isolated from various specimens obtained from the patients in tertiarycare hospital. Gram negative bacilli which failed to produce acid on Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI were identified by employing battery oftests. The Acinetobacter isolates were further speciated and antimicrobial susceptibility testing done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Non-fermenters isolated were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (69.8%, Acinetobacter species (18.9%,Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.3%, Burkholderia cepacia (3.4%, Alcaligenes fecalis (1.7% and Pseudomonas fluorescens (1.7%. Most of the isolates showed susceptibility to imipenem (86.3% whereasnone of the isolates were sensitive to cephalexin and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: This study highlights that, after Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species is the most common non-fermenter. Majority of the isolates of Acinetobacter Species were ofnosocomial origin and were multidrug resistant, which underlines the importance of proper vigilance of these infections in hospital setting.

  9. Gasification and combustion technologies of agro-residues and their application to rural electric power systems in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anshu

    Biomass based power generation has the potential to add up to 20,000 MW of distributed capacity in India close to the rural load centers. However, the present production of biomass-based electricity is modest, contributing a mere 300 MW of installed capacity. In this thesis, we shall examine some of the scientific, technological and policy issues concerned with the generation and commercial viability of biomass-based electric power. We first consider the present status of biomass-based power in India and make an attempt to understand the reasons for low utilization. Our analysis suggests that the small-scale biomass power plants (Factor (PLF) that adversely affects their economic viability. Medium Scale units (0.5 MW--5 MW) do not appear attractive because of the costs involved in the biomass transportation. There is thus a merit in considering power plants that use biomass available in large quantities in agro-processing centers such as rice or sugar mills where power plants of capacities in excess of 5 MW are possible without biomass transportation. We then simulate a biomass gasification combustion cycle using a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine since it can run totally on biomass gas. The gasifier and engine are modeled using the chemical equilibrium approach. The simulation is used to study the impact of fuel moisture and the performance of different biomass feedstock. Biomass power plants when used for decentralized power generation; close to the rural load centers can solve some of the problems of rural power supply: provide voltage support, reactive power and peak shaving. We consider an innovative option of setting up a rural electricity micro-grid using a decentralized biomass power plant and selected a rural feeder in Tumkur district, Karnataka for three-phase AC load flow studies. Our results suggest that this option significantly reduces the distribution losses and improves the voltage profiles. We examine a few innovative policy options for

  10. Implications of private sector participation in power generation-a case study from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandra, P. [Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)]. E-mail: patilb@mgmt.iisc.ernet.in

    2006-11-15

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs.

  11. Implications of private sector participation in power generation - a case study from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandra, P. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Management Studies

    2006-11-15

    India suffers from widespread shortages of electricity supply. These shortages, among others, are detrimental to the economic growth. The prospects for the next decade do not seem to be much brighter. Efforts in expanding generation capacity by the state-owned electric utilities are hampered by severe resource constraints. Against this backdrop, to mobilize additional resources to help bridge the gap in demand and supply, the Government of India formulated a policy in 1991 with the objective to encourage greater investment by private enterprises in the electricity sector. To study the implications of such an initiative on various stakeholders, viz., public utilities, consumers and private sector, the present paper tries to analyse issues like planned rationing, guarantees to private sector, backing down of existing capacity. Using the state of Karnataka (in Southern India) as a case study, the paper develops multiple scenarios using an integrated mixed integer-programming model. The results show the advantage of marginal non-supply (rationing) of electricity in terms of achieving overall effective supply demand matching as well as providing economic benefits to the state that could be generated through cost savings. The results also show the negative impacts of high guarantees offered to the private sector in terms of the opportunity costs of reduced utilization of both the existing and the new public capacity. The estimated generation losses and the associated economic impacts of backing down of existing and new public capacity on account of guarantees are found to be significantly high. For 2011-12, depending on the type of scenarios, the estimated generation and economic losses are likely to be in the range of 3200-10,000 GWh and Rs. 4200-13,600 million respectively. The impact of these losses on the consumers could be in terms of significant increase in energy bills (in the range of 19-40% for different scenarios) due to rise in tariffs. (author)

  12. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  13. India: sterilization is common; women know little about other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Results and policy recommendations are reported from a recent study of contraceptive use dynamics among 4000 women in 50 villages of Karnataka, India. The study also included a 4-village anthropological component and provider observation, and specifically sought determinant factors of contraceptive use, non-use, method choice, and use patterns. The most common reason for non-use of contraceptives was the desire to have more children, followed by fear of side-effects, lack of knowledge, and familial opposition. Among users, almost 90% chose sterilization. 86% of respondents interested in future contraceptive control also chosen sterilization. Of concern, however, was the finding that a very high percentage of already sterilized women had little or no knowledge of other contraceptive methods. Overall, a strong desire for future contraceptive practice methods. Overall, a strong desire for future contraceptive practice was observed among women in the study. Most all respondents knew about sterilization, while only 60%, 42%, and 18% knew of the IUD, pill, and condom, respectively. Moreover, only few women were able to correctly describe the workings of these methods. Doctors, health workers, neighbors, relatives, and radio and television were finally cited as important sources of family planning information. The paper, therefore, urges greater emphasis of alternative family planning program. Health services and the mass media should be engaged in promoting these alternative methods, with efforts also made to allay illfound fears of method use and side effects. On a more broad scale, greater education and economic advancement will help to change attitudes and norms of birth spacing and family size.

  14. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  15. Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT program data in India: an emerging data set for appraising the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema K Sgaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence based resource allocation and decentralized planning of an effective HIV/AIDS response requires reliable information on levels and trends of HIV at national and sub-national geographic levels. HIV sentinel surveillance data from antenatal clinics (HSS-ANC has been an important data source to assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, but has a number of limitations. We assess the value of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT programme data to appraise the HIV epidemic in India. METHODS/FINDINGS: HIV data from PPTCT sites were compared to HSS-ANC and general population level surveys at various geographic levels in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Chi-square tests were used to ascertain statistical significance. PPTCT HIV prevalence was significantly lower than HSS-ANC HIV prevalence (0.92% vs. 1.22% in Andhra Pradesh, 0.65% vs. 0.89% in Karnataka, 0.52% vs. 0.60% in Maharashtra, p<0.001 for all three states. In all three states, HIV prevalence from PPTCT centres that were part of the sentinel surveillance was comparable to HSS-ANC prevalence but significantly higher than PPTCT centres that were not part of the sentinel surveillance. HIV prevalence from PPTCT data was comparable to that from general population surveys. In all three states, significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2007 and 2010 were observed with the PPTCT data set. District level analyses of HIV trends and sub-district level analysis of HIV prevalence were possible using the PPTCT and not the HSS-ANC data sets. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence from PPTCT may be a better proxy for general population prevalence than HSS-ANC. PPTCT data allow for analysis of HIV prevalence and trends at smaller geographic units, which is important for decentralized planning of HIV/AIDS programming. With further improvements to the system, India could replace its HSS-ANC with PPTCT programme data for surveillance.

  16. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  17. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    India is still the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement in its ranking in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates is seemingly totally absent in the case of India....... Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From this stylized fact follows the hypothesis that 'above/below average' growth rates lead to relative improvements....../deterioration of elite sport results (with a time lag)’. However, this has not previously been tested, and the contingencies explaining the seemingly widely different developments in countries such as China and India have not been explored. This paper tests the above hypothesis by means of a study of the correlation...

  18. Is India the Exception?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Storm, Rasmus K.

    2013-01-01

    India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance in internati......India is the extreme under-achiever in international sport competitions. This has only marginally changed with the recent promotion of the Indian economy into the league of BRIC nations. Whereas in China high growth rates have been accompanied by a huge improvement of its performance...... in international sport events a similar impact of extraordinary growth rates has been almost totally absent in the case of India. Is India an exception? Several econometric studies have shown that income per capita is a significant variable explaining elite sport results such as results in the Olympic Games. From...

  19. Looking ahead in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, P

    1986-03-01

    India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raised the urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradation of the environmel condition. For India besides land and soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibility of water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestion are the major environmental issues of priority. The industries that generate huge quantities of waste are thermal power station, Iron and Steel Plants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES FACING INDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.J.P.Semwal

    2004-01-01

    India is among one of the ten most industrialized nations in the world. Increase in population has raisedthe urbar industrial, transport and agriculture demands which are major reasons for the degradationof the environmel condition. For India besides landand soil degradation, deforestation, low accessibilityof water, ,industrial pollution and urban congestionare the major environmental issues of priority. Theindustries that generate huge quantities ofwaste are thermal power station, Iron and SteelPlants, Sugar, Paper and Fertilizer Industries.

  2. My Relations With India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Cheng Youshu was born in 1924. She worked for newspapers between 1946 and 1952. In 1953 she was transferred to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and worked twice at the Chinese Embassy to India and undertook work involving India, in particular many significant events involving the Sino-Indian frontier dispute. She has also worked with the Chinese permanent delegation to the United Nations and Chinese embassies to Denmark and Iceland.

  3. Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Mark; Garthwaite, Craig; Goyal, Aparajita

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, as the result of a World Trade Organization mandate, India began to implement product patents for pharmaceuticals that were compliant with the 1995 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). We combine pharmaceutical product sales data for India with a newly gathered dataset of molecule-linked patents issued by the Indian patent office. Exploiting variation in the timing of patent decisions, we estimate that a molecule receiving a patent experienced an average pri...

  4. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  5. Intimate relationships of Devadasi sex workers in South India: An exploration of risks of HIV/STI transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in India.

  6. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12 years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5, 0.03 (0.17, 0.04 (0.27, and 2.13 (2.54, respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27. Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India.

  7. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritu; Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India.

  8. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  9. Coral reef research in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    exploration programme. These indicate the scientific competence and self-reliance which the country has achieved during the 40th Anniversary of India's Independence. India is the only developing country to have qualified for the Pioneer Status...

  10. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human

  11. Fiscal Discipline in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhita SUCHARITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study broadly attempts to analyze the role of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act in restoring fiscal balance in India. It analyses the need for fiscal rules and constraints in India. The study aims at finding out the major factor behind rising fiscal imbalance in India and to examine whether there is an electoral motive towards high fiscal deficit to GDP ratio or not. It also analyzes the effectiveness of various measures undertaken at the central and state level to inculcate fiscal discipline in the fiscal management. The study also makes an attempt to do a critical in depth reviews of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act and make an attempt at examining effectiveness and suitability of FRBM Act through a quantitative analysis. It also makes an attempt to suggest improvements in the fiscal monitoring mechanism in India. We employ Ordinary Least Square (OLS method to examine the impact of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act on fiscal deficit in India using the data for the period 1980-81 to 2008-09. The regression results indicates that FRBM Act does not have a significant effect on the Gross Fiscal Deficit (GFD to GDP ratio where as GDP (at factor cost growth rate has a significant negative effect on the GFD to GDP ratio.

  12. Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Kanikaram; Srivastava, Sadhana

    2010-01-19

    The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibotec. Beginning with zidovidine in 1987, all the drugs are available in the developed countries. In India, about 30 ARVs are available as generics manufactured by Aurobindo, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Cipla Limited, Goa; Emcure Pharmaceuticals, Pune, Maharashtra; Hetero Drugs, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh; Macleods Pharmaceuticals, Daman; Matrix Laboratories, Nashik, Maharashtra; Ranbaxy, Sirmour, Himachal Pradesh; and Strides Arcolab, Bangalore, Karnataka. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) set up in 1992 by the Govt. of India provides free ARVs to HIV positive patients in India since 2004. The drugs available in India include both single drugs and FDCs covering both first line and second line ARVs. Even while there are claims of stabilization of the disease load, there is still huge gap of those who require ARVs as only about 150,000 PLHA receive the ARVs from the Govt. and other sources. Access to ARVs therefore is still a cause of serious concern ever since India became fully Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)-complaint in 2005. Therefore, the Indian pharmaceutical companies cannot make generics for those for drugs introduced post-2005 due to product patent regime. Other concerns include heat stable

  13. Georgenia soli sp. nov., isolated from iron-ore-contaminated soil in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, P; Arun, A B; Busse, H-J; Langer, S; Young, C-C; Chen, W-M; Schumann, P; Syed, A A; Rekha, P D

    2010-05-01

    A Gram-positive actinobacterium (CC-NMPT-T3(T)) was isolated from iron-ore-contaminated soil near New Mangalore Port, Karnataka, India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain CC-NMPT-T3(T) belongs to the genus Georgenia and is most closely related to Georgenia muralis (98.6 %), Georgenia ruanii (97.4 %) and Georgenia thermotolerans (97.4 %). The peptidoglycan is of the type A4alpha l-Lys<--l-Glu. The predominant isoprenoid quinone is menaquinone MK-8(H(4)) and the polar lipid profile is composed of the predominant compound diphosphatidylglycerol, moderate amounts of a phosphatidylinositol-mannoside, phosphatidylinositol and minor amounts of another phosphatidylmannoside and phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids of strain CC-NMPT-T3(T) are anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed a clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-NMPT-T3(T) from all other Georgenia species. Strain CC-NMPT-T3(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Georgenia soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-NMPT-T3(T) (=DSM 21838(T)=CCM 7658(T)).

  14. How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV.

  15. Tree Diversity and Their Regeneration in the Sacred Groves of Virajpet, Central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi A.G. PRASAD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are one of the finest examples of informal way of conserving the forest wealth. Baseline data collection of their diversity, distribution and regeneration capacity becomes necessary for the management and conservation of these undisturbed forest patches. In this context, the present investigation was carried out using random quadrat method in the sacred groves of Virajpet, Karnataka, India. A total of 132 tree species belonging to 113 genera and 45 families were identified within five sacred groves. Higher basal area (51.73-85.65 m2/ha and tree density (453.33-515.9 individuals/ha were observed as compared to other forests of Western Ghats region. The present investigation has revealed a healthy regeneration of tree species. Seedling and sapling composition differed to some extent from the mature tree species composition which could be used in predicting the future possibilities. Protection and conservation of such sacred groves should be of interest, for better regeneration of the rich diversity they harbour.

  16. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in patients visiting a dental school in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Anuna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in Manipal, Karnataka State, India. A total of 1190 subjects who visited the department of oral medicine and radiology for diagnosis of various oral complaints over a period of 3 months were interviewed and clinically examined for oral mucosal lesions. The result showed the presence of one or more mucosal lesions in (41.2% of the population. Fordyce′s condition was observed most frequently (6.55% followed by frictional keratosis (5.79%, fissured tongue (5.71%, leukoedema (3.78%, smoker′s palate (2.77%, recurrent aphthae, oral submucous fibrosis (2.01%, oral malignancies (1.76%, leukoplakia (1.59%, median rhomboid glossitis (1.50%, candidiasis (1.3%, lichen planus (1.20%, varices (1.17%, traumatic ulcer and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.008%, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, betel chewer′s mucosa and irritational fibroma (0.84%, herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (0.58%, and mucocele (0.16%. Mucosal lesions like tobacco-related lesions (leukoplakia, smoker′s palate, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral malignancies were more prevalent among men than among women. Denture stomatitis, herpes labialis, and angular cheilitis occurred more frequently in the female population.

  17. How Does Sex Trafficking Increase the Risk of HIV Infection? An Observational Study From Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Murray, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  18. Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 in Belgaum, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subarna; Parande, M V; Mantur, B G; Bhat, S; Shinde, R; Parande, A M; Meti, Rajanish S; Chandrasekhar, M R; Kholkute, S D; Saini, A; Joshi, M; Gaonkar, A

    2012-11-01

    An outbreak of acute diarrhoea occurred in the Belgundi area (population 3896) of Belgaum Taluka (population 815 581) in Karnataka, South India, in June 2010. An estimated 16.22 % of people were affected and 0.16 % deaths were reported. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor was isolated from 18 of the 147 stool samples cultured. Seven out of eight drinking water samples collected from different sources were found to be grossly contaminated with faecal coliforms. All isolates were multidrug resistant, with some showing resistance to quinolones, gentamicin and cephalosporins in addition to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline, the drugs that were being used by the state health authorities for empirical treatment. Two serotypes and at least eight genotypes of V. cholerae were observed among the isolates. Cholera was confirmed as one, if not the only, cause of the outbreak, which, to our belief, is the first report of cholera from this region. It might have occurred due to a 'flare up' in the number of endemic strains triggered by shortage of portable water, onset of monsoon rains and breakdown of sanitation systems, rather than being a de novo outbreak arising out of new exogenous infectious sources. A change in the empirical treatment, coupled with chlorination, improvement in sanitation measures and extensive Information Education Communication activities, resulted in decline of the outbreak and prevention of further deaths.

  19. Wind Energy Development in India and a Methodology for Evaluating Performance of Wind Farm Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev H. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With maturity of advanced technologies and urgent requirement for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable price, India is moving towards a trend of generating electricity from renewable resources. Wind energy production, with its relatively safer and positive environmental characteristics, has evolved from a marginal activity into a multibillion dollar industry today. Wind energy power plants, also known as wind farms, comprise multiple wind turbines. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations across the world, evaluating their performance is a complex task and is an important focus for stakeholders. In this work an attempt is made to estimate the performance of wind clusters employing a multicriteria approach. Multiple factors that affect wind farm operations are analyzed by taking experts opinions, and a performance ranking of the wind farms is generated. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by pairwise comparison matrices of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The proposed methodology evaluates wind farm performance based on technical, economic, environmental, and sociological indicators. Both qualitative and quantitative parameters were considered. Empirical data were collected through questionnaire from the selected wind farms of Belagavi district in the Indian State of Karnataka. This proposed methodology is a useful tool for cluster analysis.

  20. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  1. The paleoposition of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  2. Woman's lot in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S K

    1980-01-26

    I read Dr. Rao's article on attitudes to women and nutrition programmes in India (Dec. 22/29, p. 1357) with considerable interest. In India parents have to save a lot of money to be able to give a dowry when a daughter marries. In addition they are expected to spend considerable sums when their daughters' children are born and when the grandchildren in turn marry. The task of looking after elderly parents--and of discharging their responsibilities if they themselves are unable to do so--falls upon the sons. In India daughters rarely help out their parents in this way, and the parents will not usually agree to accept help from daughters if they have a son who is prepared to discharge the sacred duty of helping parents in time of need. Once she marries, a daughter's obligations to her parents cease while their obligations to her extend even further to include her husband, children, and in-laws. No wonder the birth of a girl is rarely a cause of celebration in India. The main cause for the plight of women in India is poverty. In most Indian families, the woman of the house will consume less than anyone of nutritious items such as milk, cheese, meat, fish, and butter. Whenever the family's meagre resources are shared out, whether for food, for education, for medical care, it is the males who are given preference. This unequal distribution takes place with the full approval of the woman of the house. Food is normally allocated by the woman, and when food is scarce they tend to favour sons over daughters. Readers in the West may feel that women get the worst possible deal in India. However, although parents do not normally spend as much on the education of their daughters as they do on their sons, in the long run daughters very often get more than their fair share of the family's fortunes because of the dowry system and other social customs.

  3. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  4. India's African Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    was addressed. This kicked off a quest among donor agencies, think tanks and researchers alike to identify and establish the doings of these ‘emerging’ donors. To date, however, China has received most attention while the doings of other donors like India, Brazil and South Africa have remained virtually......The exceptionally fast growth of big economies like China and India has resulted in a new-found interest in the economic and political consequences of this growth for the developed economies. Recently, traditional donors’ concern that ‘emerging’ donors were re-emerging on the development scene...

  5. PV opportunities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  6. SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano Rubeena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of substance abuse in young generation has assumed alarming dimensions in India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds are leading to initiation into substance use. Cannabis, heroin, and Indian-produced pharmaceutical drugs are the most frequently abused drugs in India. Drug use, misuse or abuse is also primarily due to the nature of the drug abused, the personality of the individual and the addict’s immediate environment. The processes of industrialization, urbanization and migration have led to loosening of the traditional methods of social control rendering an individual vulnerable to the stresses and strains of modern life.

  7. CPAFFC Delegation Visits India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A CPAFFC delegation headed by Wang Wenyuan,former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese Peo-ple’s Political Consultative Conference and adviser to the CPAFFC,paid a goodwill visit to India from December 19 to 28,2007 at the invitation of the Indian Council for Cultural Relations(ICCR).Also on the delegation were CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and Vice President Feng Zuoku.It was the highest-level delegation the CPAFFC has sent to India over the last decade.

  8. From Hair in India to Hair India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  9. Work-related musculoskeletal disorder: An occupational disorder of the goldsmiths in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Tirthankar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gold ornament making industries are one of the widespread small-scale industries of India. These industries belong to the unorganized sector of the state. A large number of goldsmiths are working there for prolonged period in cross leg posture at semi-confined workstation. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify Occupational Disorder of the Goldsmiths in India. Materials and Methods: In the spresent study, 120 male goldsmiths were randomly selected from the Davangere district of Karnataka. A detailed questionnaire study on discomfort feeling was done by the modified Nordic questionnaire, which considering the information about work nature, job stress and discomfort feeling. The existing workstations were assessed by the measurement of work areas. Analysis of body posture by rapid upper limb assessment was done to evaluate the work stress during their job. Results: From the analysis, it was revealed that MSDs were the major problem of the goldsmiths. The activities of the goldsmiths were also highly repetitive. Moreover, the questionnaire study revealed that most of the workers were affected by occupational disorder like pain at neck (80%, shoulder (20%, wrist (45%, and low back (75% and also eye problem like irritation (30% and burning sensation (70%. They also perform their job in hazardous postures. It was recorded that the workstations were poorly illuminated (19 Lux in respect to precision work. Accidents like cut and burn occurred frequently due to the unsafe condition of the workstation. Conclusions: From the observation and analysis of the result it was concluded that health of the goldsmiths were highly affected improper body posture and workload. Twisting, bending, and over-reaching are the resultant of poorly designed workstation. These actions force them into a non-neutral position that increases the overall discomfort and pain at the lower back, neck, and shoulders. Moreover, lack of proper illumination at work

  10. Mobile phones: the next step towards healthcare delivery in rural India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin I DeSouza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian

  11. Dental caries experience in high risk soft drinks factory workers of South India: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Acharya, Shashidhar; Vasthare, Ramprasad; Singh, Siddharth Kumar; Gupta, Anjali; Debnath, Nitai

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of soft-drinks has been associated with dental caries development. The aim was to evaluate dental caries experience amongst the workers working in soft-drink industries located in South India and compare it with other factory workers. To evaluate the validity of specific caries index (SCI), which is newer index for caries diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 420 workers (210 in soft-drinks factory and 210 in other factories), in the age group of 20-45 years of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. Index used for clinical examination was decayed, missing, filled surfaces (DMFS) index and SCI. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of decayed surface (5.8 ± 1.8), missing surface (4.3 ± 2) and filled surface (1.94 ± 1.95) and total DMFS score (12.11 ± 3.8) in soft-drinks factory workers were found to be significantly higher than the other factory workers. The total SCI score (mean and SD) was found to be significantly higher in soft-drinks factory workers (5.83 ± 1.80) compared with other factory workers (4.56 ± 1.45). There was a high correlation obtained between SCI score and DMFS score. The regression equation given by DMFS = 1.178 + 1.866 (SCI scores). The caries experience was higher in workers working in soft-drinks factory and this study also showed that specific caries index can be used as a valid index for assessing dental caries experience.

  12. Hematology of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) from two locations in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2008-04-01

    Standard hematology parameters were determined for 122 sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) at the Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India (27 degrees 0'N; 77 degrees 45'E), and the Bannerghatta Biological Park, Karnataka, India (12 degrees 48'N; 77 degrees 34'E) from March 2003 to July 2006. These two native sloth bear habitats have different climatic conditions and provided an opportunity to examine the effect of climate on the physiologic hematology values of these bears. We primarily analyzed the influence of age, sex, season, and body weight on the different hematology parameters. Several values were significantly different in sloth bear cubs (1 yr). The cubs had a lower erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCV) values when compared to adult and subadult bears. The cubs also had higher leukocyte counts, due to higher circulating neutrophils, as compared to adult and subadult bears. Within subadult and adult bears, we also identified a sexual dimorphic difference in leukocyte count in adult and subadult bears, wherein female bears had higher counts than males. This difference was the result of a significantly higher number of circulating neutrophils in female bears. Platelet counts were also higher in females as compared to males. On comparing different seasons, leukocyte counts were higher in winter as compared to the summer and monsoon seasons. When compared based on location, erythrocyte counts were higher in subadult and adult bears at Bannerghatta, which was at a higher altitude than Sur Sarovar. Within subadult and adult bears, we did not find any significant influence of age or body weight on the different hematologic parameters. In this study we have obtained mean hematologic values for sloth bears in their native habitat to serve as a reference for this species. This report will be useful to develop and evaluate health profiles of sloth bears under various ecological conditions.

  13. Physiotherapy Practice Patterns for Management of Patients Undergoing Thoracic Surgeries in India: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagarika Sultanpuram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the current study is to determine the practice patterns of physiotherapists for patients undergoing thoracic surgeries in India. Materials and Methodology. A cross-sectional survey was conducted across India in which 600 questionnaires were sent in emails to physiotherapists. The questionnaire addressed assessment and treatment techniques of thoracic surgery. Results. A total of 234 completed questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 39%, with the majority of responses received from Telangana, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. More than 90% of the responders practiced physical examination, chest expansion, chest X-ray, ABG analysis, pulmonary function test, and SpO2 (oxygen saturation as the assessment measures in both the pre- and the postoperative phase. Breathing exercises, incentive spirometry, thoracic expansion exercises, coughing and huffing, positioning, and modified postural drainage are found to be commonly used physiotherapy interventions, both pre- and postoperatively, with a response rate of more than 90%. A response rate of more than 84.6% indicated that patients are made to dangle their lower limbs over the edge of the bed on the 1st postoperative day. Mobilization, such as walking up to a chair, sit to stand exercises, and perambulation within the patient’s room, was started on the 2nd postoperative day, as stated by more than 65% of the physiotherapists. Staircase climbing was started on the 5th postoperative day. The most commonly used functional evaluation prior to discharge was 6-minute walk test. This was, in fact, practiced by 77.4% of the physiotherapists in their clinical settings. Conclusion. The most predominantly employed assessment measures included were physical examination, chest expansion, ABG analysis, pulmonary function test, chest X-ray, SpO2 (oxygen saturation, peripheral muscle strength, and cardiopulmonary exercise. The physiotherapy interventions most commonly used were breathing

  14. Homi Jehangir Bhabha : Architect of Modern Science and Technology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra

    2009-01-01

    After describing Bhabha's early life at Bombay, now Mumbai, we discuss his research career at Cambridge, where he made many distinguished contributions to positron physics, cosmic rays and the meson theory. These include theory of positron-electron scattering (Bhabha scattering), Bhabha-Heitler theory of cosmic ray showers and prediction of heavier electrons (ie. muons). Later in his life, after 1945, Bhabha worked in India at Bangalore and Mumbai. In India Bhabha laid foundations of modern n...

  15. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  16. Fellowships in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to encourage stronger research ties between India and the United States, the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture is offering 12 long-term and 9 short-term research fellowships in India in 1985 and 1986. The only requirement is that the applicants be U.S. citizens at the postdoctoral or equivalent postdoctoral level. The awards have no restrictions as to field of study, and because the program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the two countries, those who have had little or no experience in India are especially encouraged to apply.The long-term fellowships are for 6 to 10 months, with a monthly allowance of $1500. Long-term fellows will also receive travel money and allowances for dependents. The short-term awards, for periods of 2 to 3 months, also offer a monthly payment of $1500. Funding for these fellowships is provided by the U.S. Information Agency, the National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Government of India.

  17. The Impact of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  18. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  19. POLLUTION OF DRINKING WATER DUE TO FLUORIDE AND DENTAL FLUOROSIS AT HUNAGUND TALUK OF BAGALKOT DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.Kugali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground water quality in Hunagund taluk of Bagalkot district has been studied with special reference to the presence of fluoride. The main purpose is to draw attention to the presence and the severity of dental fluorosis. Out of 3000 people aged 8-50 years 1275 (42.5% had dental fluorosis of some degree. The well being of humans depends on quality of drinking water. Consumption of water containing excess fluoride over over long period results in fluorosis. Currently, fifteen states of India are endemic for fluorosis. The presence of fluoride in exceeding limits and its related problems of drinking water prevailing in many parts of India is well documented. Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. Many solutions to these problems were also suggested. Fluoride from water or waste water can be removed by an ion exchange/ adsorption process or by coagulation. Precipitation process. The paper presents the current information on defluoridation

  20. Terrestrial Macrofungal Diversity from the Tropical Dry Evergreen Biome of Southern India and Its Potential Role in Aerobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyamvada, Hema; Akila, M.; Singh, Raj Kamal; Ravikrishna, R.; Verma, R. S.; Philip, Ligy; Marathe, R. R.; Sahu, L. K.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Macrofungi have long been investigated for various scientific purposes including their food and medicinal characteristics. Their role in aerobiology as a fraction of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), however, has been poorly studied. In this study, we present a source of macrofungi with two different but interdependent objectives: (i) to characterize the macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome in southern India using advanced molecular techniques to enrich the database from this region, and (ii) to assess whether identified species of macrofungi are a potential source of atmospheric PBAPs. From the DNA analysis, we report the diversity of the terrestrial macrofungi from a tropical dry evergreen biome robustly supported by the statistical analyses for diversity conclusions. A total of 113 macrofungal species belonging to 54 genera and 23 families were recorded, with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota constituting 96% and 4% of the species, respectively. The highest species richness was found in the family Agaricaceae (25.3%) followed by Polyporaceae (15.3%) and Marasmiaceae (10.8%). The difference in the distribution of commonly observed macrofungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India (Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal) using two statistical tests. The distributions of the terrestrial macrofungi were distinctly different in each ecosystem. We further attempted to demonstrate the potential role of terrestrial macrofungi as a source of PBAPs in ambient air. In our opinion, the findings from this ecosystem of India will enhance our understanding of the distribution, diversity, ecology, and biological prospects of terrestrial macrofungi as well as their potential to contribute to airborne fungal aerosols. PMID:28072853

  1. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  2. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  3. Measurement and modeling of CO2 exchange over forested landscapes in India: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S.; Dadhwal, V.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its potential impact on global climate change is the subject of worldwide studies, political debates and international discussions. The concern led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol to curtail emissions and mitigate the possible global warming. The studies so far suggest that terrestrial biological sinks might be the low cost options for carbon sequestration, which can be used to partially offset the industrial CO2 emissions globally. In past, the effectiveness of terrestrial sink and the quantitative estimates of their sink strengths have relied mainly on the measurements of changes in carbon stocks across the world. Recent developments in flux tower based measurement techniques such as Eddy Covariance for assessing the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes provide tools for quantifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 on a continuous basis. These near real time measurements, when integrated with remote sensing, enable the up-scaling of the carbon fluxes to regional scale. More than 470 towers exist worldwide as of now. Indian subcontinent was not having any tower-based CO2 flux measurement system so far. The Indian Space Research Organization under its Geosphere Biosphere Programme is funding five eddy covariance towers for terrestrial CO2 flux measurements in different ecological regions of the country. The tower sites already planned are: (i) a mixed forest plantation (Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia) at Haldwani in collaboration with DISAFRI, University of Tuscia, Italy and the Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, (ii) a sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Doon valley Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in northern India, (ii) a teak (Tectona grandis) mixed forest at Betul in Madhya Pradesh in central India, (iv) an old teak plantation at Dandeli, and (v) a semi-evergreen forest at Nagarhole in Karnataka state in southern India. The three towers have been

  4. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  5. India dokfilmide paremik jõuab taaralinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Tartus täna algavatest India dokumentaalfilmide päevadest, mida korraldavad Maailmafilmi festival, Eesti Rahva Muuseum ja organisatsioon Films For Freedom India. Lisatud nimekiri "India dokfilmi päevad"

  6. Dental public health in India: An insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Arshdeep; Sandhu, Anmol Rattan Singh; Dhaliwal, Angad Prakash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major public health problem, and their burden is on increase in many low- and middle-income countries. Dental public health (DPH) aims to improve the oral health of the population through preventive and curative services. However, its achievements in India are being questioned probably because of lack of proficiency and skill among DPH personnel. The literature search for the present study was conducted utilizing various search engines and electronic databases such as PubMed and MEDLINE. Documents related to the Central and State Governments of India were also considered. Finally, 26 articles were selected for the present study from which relevant information can be extracted. The present study focuses on some of the important aspects relating to DPH in India such as priority for oral health, DPH workforce and curriculum, utilization of DPH personnel in providing primary oral health care, role of mobile dental vans, and research in DPH. It was concluded that more attention should be given toward preventive oral health care by employing more number of public health dentists in public sector, strengthening DPH education and research, and combining oral health programs with general health-care programs.

  7. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus onnon-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study,reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth andestablishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identifiedgenotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  8. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus on non-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study, reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth and establishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identified genotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  9. Safety, efficacy and population pharmacokinetics of fixed-dose combination of artesunate-mefloquine in the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valecha, Neena; Srivastava, Bina; Dubhashi, N G; Rao, B H Krishnamoorthy; Kumar, Ashwani; Ghosh, S K; Singh, Jai Prakash Narayan; Kiechel, J R; Sharma, Bhawna; Jullien, V; Dash, A P; Taylor, W R J; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2013-12-01

    India has switched over to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the ACT used in the national programme is artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Since the efficacy of ACT is dependent also on the partner drug, there is a need to evaluate and deploy multiple ACTs. This multicentre, single-arm, open-label clinical trial was carried out to assess the efficacy, safety and population pharmacokinetics of a fixed dose combination (FDC) artesunate mefloquine (ASMQ) in P. falciparum infected, Indian adults at Panjim, Goa, and Mangalore, Karnataka between December 2007 and November 2008. A total of 77 patients (males 74) were screened and enrolled: 42 at Goa and 35 at Mangalore with a median age of 25 yr (range 18-55 yr). One patient failed in treatment on D53, a PCR proven new infection, seven developed recurrent vivax parasitaemia and 11 did not have a parasitological endpoint. By per protocol analysis, the D63 cure rate was 58/59 (98.3; 95% C.I. 90.9-99.9%), and 58/58, with PCR correction. ASMQ was well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. The study showed that the ASMQ FDC was efficacious and well-tolerated for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in highly endemic, chloroquine resistant areas of Goa and Mangalore. It is a viable option for India.

  10. Improving Security Ties with India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah , with it being split between East (today’s Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. India, although predominantly Hindu, has a large Muslim...population. At partition , most Muslims elected to live in East and West Pakistan. India wanted to grow as an independent state and Nehru did not want...bilateral relations between these states. 19 Pakistan is the greatest immediate concern to India in South Asia. Ever since partition , the two have been

  11. Hemovigilance Program-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI, which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC. All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform.

  12. Cartagena de Indias (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Quintero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza la diversificación de la oferta turística de Cartagena de Indias como destino turístico a partir de sus recursos culturales, dada su condición como Patrimonio Histórico y Cultural de la Humanidad (UNESCO, 1985, y se estudia hasta qué punto las propuestas de diversificación de la oferta y de inclusión de la cultura se reflejan en la promoción y en el producto que ofrece Cartagena de Indias y algunos de sus competidores internacionales. A su vez se presenta la situación actual de Cartagena en cuanto al uso turístico y la comercialización de los bienes patrimoniales inmuebles Finalmente, se identifican las dificultades que enfrenta el destino en el proceso de valorización turística de los recursos patrimoniales inmuebles.

  13. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  14. Educational Radio in India

    OpenAIRE

    VYAS, R. V.; R. C. Sharma; Kumar, Ashwini

    2002-01-01

    There are a good number of research studies, which indicate that radio has been a good medium of education delivery. Many experiments have been conducted in different countries on the use of radio in education. Radio has been used in conventional education, non-formal education, for agricultural education, for community development, in distance education, so on and so forth. This paper explains various educational radio projects undertaken in India

  15. El Archivo de Indias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Ortíz

    1961-05-01

    Full Text Available De todos es sabido, y no por ello es inoportuno recordarlo, que el Archivo General de Indias figura entre los tres más grandes depositarios de papeles del mundo y como el primero en su clase para la documentación histórica de lo que constituyó el imperio español entre fines del siglo XV y primer tercio del XIX.

  16. Medical tourism in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  17. Strategic Estimate: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-16

    est.): 26% urban, 74% rural. Annual growth (1989): 2.2% Official language: Hindi. Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism , Buddhism...as part of India’s goal of developing a modern defense structure. IMET builds on the Indian armed forces’ tradition of respect for democracy and...least as low as the base force, if not lower. * Traditional national and intrastate rivalries, previously held in check by the Cold War superpowers

  18. The seagrasses of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.; Rodrigues, R.

    kinds of biota, and produce a considerable amount of organic matter, a major energy source in the coastal marine food web; they playa significant role in nutrient regeneration and shore stabilization processes. The major seagrass meadows in India exist... of awareness, limited distribution and rising anthropo genic pressures, it is imperative to deveLop a national educationaL and conservation management pLan for the seagrass ecosystem with the following objectives: a quantification, mapping and regular...

  19. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-08-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

  20. Carbon taxes and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  1. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  2. India Co2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  3. Knowledge and self-care practices regarding diabetes among patients with Type 2 diabetes in Rural Sullia, Karnataka: A community-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peraje Vasu Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease which requires a multipronged approach for its management, wherein patient has an important role to play in terms of self-care practices, which can be taught to them by educational programs. To develop such an educational program, a baseline assessment of knowledge and self-care practices of patients, needs to be made. The two objectives of the study were to estimate the knowledge of diabetic patients regarding the disease and its complications, and to estimate the knowledge and adherence to self-care practices concerned with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The study was conducted in rural Sullia, Karnataka, from January 2014 to May 2015. The sample size was calculated to be 400, and the sampling method was probability proportionate to sampling size. Result: Majority of them were married males of Hindu religion and belonged to upper middle class. Only 24.25% of them had good knowledge. Among the self-care practices, foot care was the most neglected area. Conclusion: Only one-fourth of the study population had a good knowledge toward diabetes. Adherence to some of the self-care practices was also poor. Government policies may help in creating guidelines on diabetes management, funding community programs for public awareness, availability of medicines, and diagnostic services to all sections of the community. Continuing education programs for health-care providers and utilization of mass media to the fullest potential may also help in creating awareness.

  4. Global positioning system & Google Earth in the investigation of an outbreak of cholera in a village of Bengaluru Urban district, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masthi, N R Ramesh; Madhusudan, M; Puthussery, Yannick P

    2015-11-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) technology along with Google Earth is used to measure (spatial map) the accurate distribution of morbidity, mortality and planning of interventions in the community. We used this technology to find out its role in the investigation of a cholera outbreak, and also to identify the cause of the outbreak. This study was conducted in a village near Bengaluru, Karnataka in June 2013 during a cholera outbreak. House-to-house survey was done to identify acute watery diarrhoea cases. A hand held GPS receiver was used to record north and east coordinates of the households of cases and these values were subsequently plotted on Google Earth map. Water samples were collected from suspected sources for microbiological analysis. A total of 27 cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported. Fifty per cent of cases were in the age group of 14-44 yr and one death was reported. GPS technology and Google Earth described the accurate location of household of cases and spot map generated showed clustering of cases around the suspected water sources. The attack rate was 6.92 per cent and case fatality rate was 3.7 per cent. Water samples collected from suspected sources showed the presence of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa. GPS technology and Google Earth were easy to use, helpful to accurately pinpoint the location of household of cases, construction of spot map and follow up of cases. Outbreak was found to be due to contamination of drinking water sources.

  5. A STUDY OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFESTATIONS AMONG SCHOOL CHILD R EN IN BAGEPALLI TALUK, CHIKKABALLAPUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA- A C R OSS- SECTIONAL SCHOOL SU R VEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A school survey was conducted to study the epidemiol ogy of intestinal parasitic infestations. Among school children in Bagepalli Taluk, Chikkaball apur District, Karnataka, a total of 438 stool samples were collected from school childre n selected from 5 rural and 3 urban schools. The stool samples collected were examined f or presence of parasitic infections by direct microscopic examination. Prevalence of intest inal parasites was 19.8%. There was a significant difference in prevalence between urban (16.3% and rural (23.0% school samples. Giardia lamblia (12.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (4.3% and Entamoeba histolytica (1.8% were the commonest parasites isolated. The results indica te that intestinal parasitic infestations among school children are mainly water-borne. The b urden of parasitic infestations among the school children, and poor sanitary conditions in the schools, should be taken seriously by public health and school authorities. Our survey results s how the need for school periodic deworming, health education and improvement of school sanitati on under school health program.

  6. Geospatial analysis of forest fragmentation in Uttara Kannada District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra T V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Landscapes consist of heterogeneous interacting dynamic elements with complex ecological, economic and cultural attributes. These complex interactions help in the sustenance of natural resources through bio-geochemical and hydrological cycling. The ecosystem functions are altered with changes in the landscape structure. Fragmentation of large contiguous forests to small and isolated forest patches either by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities leads to drastic changes in forest patch sizes, shape, connectivity and internal heterogeneity, which restrict the movement leading to inbreeding among Meta populations with extirpation of species. Methods: Landscape dynamics are assessed through land use analysis by way of remote sensing data acquired at different time periods. Forest fragmentation is assessed at the pixel level through computation of two indicators, i.e., Pf (the ratio of pixels that are forested to the total non-water pixels in the window and Pff (the proportion of all adjacent (cardinal directions only pixel pairs that include at least one forest pixel, for which both pixels are forested. Results: Uttara Kannada District has the distinction of having the highest forest cover in Karnataka State, India. This region has been experiencing changes in its forest cover and consequent alterations in functional abilities of its ecosystem. Temporal land use analyses show the trend of deforestation, evident from the reduction of evergreen - semi evergreen forest cover from 57.31 % (1979 to 32.08 % (2013 Forest fragmentation at the landscape level shows a decline of interior forests 64.42 % (1979 to 25.62 % (2013 and transition of non-forest categories such as crop land, plantations and built-up areas, amounting now to 47.29 %. PCA prioritized geophysical and socio variables responsible for changes in the landscape structure at local levels. Conclusion: Terrestrial forest ecosystems in Uttara Kannada District of Central

  7. The association between dental health locus of control and sociodemographic factors among urban and rural people in Davangere, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranati Eswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Oral diseases have underlying socio-behavioral determinants. Oral health promotion programs aimed at behavior modification will be effective if the factors that motivate health behaviors are known. One of the constructs widely used to predict and analyze health behaviors is the health locus of control scale (HLOC. Aim: To determine the association between sociodemographic factors and dental HLOC among a selected sample of urban and rural people in Davangere district, Karnataka state, India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 300 people, 150 each from urban and rural area, aged 18 years and above. Sociodemographic data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Dental HLOC was assessed by a questionnaire prepared by the author in local language. The association between sociodemographic variables and dental HLOC was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Significantly more number of people in urban area had internal LOC when compared to rural people (P = 0.00. There was significant association between gender in rural areas (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001 and socioeconomic status (P < 0.001 with dental HLOC. There was no significant association between age, gender in urban areas and marital status with dental HLOC. Conclusions: Gender, education level and socioeconomic status were associated with dental HLOC beliefs. The findings can be useful in planning effective oral health promotion programs aimed at positive oral health behavior modification for people from varying sociodemographic backgrounds by modifying their health control beliefs.

  8. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  9. Modelling soil moisture under different land covers in a sub-humid environment of Western Ghats, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Venkatesh; Lakshman Nandagiri; B K Purandara; V B Reddy

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study is to apply and test a simple parametric water balance model for prediction of soil moisture regime in the presence of vegetation. The intention was to evaluate the differences in model parameterization and performance when applied to small watersheds under three different types of land covers (Acacia, degraded forest and natural forest). The watersheds selected for this purpose are located in the sub-humid climate within the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. Model calibration and validation were performed using a dataset comprising depth-averaged soil moisture content measurements made at weekly time steps from October 2004 to December 2008. In addition to this, a sensitivity analysis was carried out with respect to the water-holding capacity of the soils with the aim of explaining the suitability and adaptation of exotic vegetation types under the prevailing climatic conditions. Results indicated reasonably good performance of the model in simulating the pattern and magnitude of weekly average soil moisture content in 150 cm deep soil layer under all three land covers. This study demonstrates that a simple, robust and parametrically parsimonious model is capable of simulating the temporal dynamics of soil moisture content under distinctly different land covers. Also, results of sensitivity analysis revealed that exotic plant species such as Acacia have adapted themselves effectively to the local climate.

  10. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  11. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  12. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  13. Environment and Culture in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  14. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  15. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  16. Teledermatology in India: Practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Kaliyadan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Teledermatology is considered to be one of the solutions to the problem of inadequate number of dermatologists in remote parts of India. We present a brief account of the technological components involved in teledermatology in India, and an evaluation of the advantages and limitations of the use of teledermatology as a clinical tool.

  17. A Tale of Two Indias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  18. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  19. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  20. Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sathyanarayana Bhat; Kumaraswamy Udupa

    2013-01-01

    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

  1. Taxonomical outlines of bio-diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana; Udupa, Kumaraswamy

    2013-08-01

    Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, the basic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD) is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

  2. A Study to Identify, Assess & Analyze the Incidence of Poisoning Cases in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital at Davangere, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishnab S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Poison is any substance that causes harmful effect when administered either accidently or intentionally. In India, as agriculture is the main occupation, pesticides are used to a greater extent and the poisoning with such products is far more common. The objective was to identify and assess the incidence of accidental or intentional poisoning and also to assess the relation between socio economic factors and poisoning. This prospective cohort study was conducted in the departments of medicine, paediatric, emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital for a period of 6 months. A total number of 150 cases were collected and categorized into different classes based on type of poisoning agents. In that organophosphate accounts more 31.3% (n=47, followed by snake bite 20% (n= 30. Male predominance were seen 58.7% (n=88, while comparing to female 41.3% (n= 62. Based on economic study, low socio economic peoples were more prone to poisoning i.e., 54.7% (n= 82. Rural people were far front in poisoning54.7% (n= 82 than urban and sub- urban. The literature status showed that 78.7% (n=118 was literate. Poisoning incidence are more in married subjects i.e., 50.7% (n=76. While considering occupation, farmers were most 30.7% (n= 46. The study highlighted the lacunae of poisoning information services in hospitals. Clinical pharmacist’s involvement can improve the identification of poison and toxicity rating.

  3. POST-PLACENTAL INTRAUTERINE CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICE (PPIUCD INSERTION -2 YEAR EXPERIENCE AT A GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE, VIMS, BELLARY, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Rani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-partum period is one of the critical times when both woman and new-born need a special and integrated package of health services as morbidity and mortality rates are quite high during this period and also the women are vulnerable to unintended pregnancy. Studies show that pregnancies taking place within 24 months of a previous birth have a higher risk of adverse outcomes like abortions, premature labor, post-partum haemorrhage, low birth weight babies, fetal loss and maternal death. In India, 65 percent of women in the first year post-partum have an unmet need for family planning. Hence, contraception needs to be practiced in this critical period.1 Intrauterine contraceptive device is the most commonly used reversible method of contraception worldwide with about 127 million current users.2 Insertion of an IUD immediately after delivery is appealing for several reasons. The woman is not pregnant and is motivated for contraception and the setting is convenient for both woman and provider. For women with limited access to medical care, the delivery affords a unique opportunity to address the need for contraception. The evidence for post-partum IUD insertion was weak when this study was undertaken. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy (In terms of pain, expulsion, excessive bleeding, foul smelling vaginal discharge of insertion of immediate post-partum IUD in women delivering vaginally or by caesarean section.

  4. Taxonomical outlines of bio–diversity of Karnataka in a 14th century Kannada toxicology text Khagendra Mani Darpana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana Bhat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Origin of ancient Indian toxicology can be dated back to vedic literature. Toxins of both animate and inanimate world were very well understood during the era. Rig and Atharva vedic texts describe such details. After classifying such toxins, Charaka Samhitha, thebasic literature of Indian Medicine used gold and ghee as panaceas to counter act them. Ayurveda considers toxicology as one among the eight specialized branches of medical wisdom. Unfortunately, the available literature on this is very limited. Moreover, they have been discussed briefly in Charaka and Sushrutha Samhitha. Mangarasa I, a Jain scholar who lived on the foothills of the Western Ghats, in Southern India in 1350 A.D., felt this vacuum and composed an independent, elaborate Kannada text on toxicology. His less known text Khagendra Mani Darpana (KMD is the first ever documented complete text on toxicology in the world. Medieval Indian wisdom on plant and animal diversities are very well reflected in this unique toxicological text. Centuries past to Linnean era, KMD gives vivid descriptions on zoological and botanical diversities of the time. This astonishing fact is an evidence of our ancestor's curiosities about the nature around them. A critical overview of the bio-diversity described in KMD text is discussed in this paper.

  5. Prevalence and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization in children aged 11-16 years of a city in Karnataka, Davangere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kirthiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH describes the clinical picture of hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molar. There is a rarity of prevalence studies in Indian population. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MIH in a population of South Indian children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey, included 2000 children aged 11-16 years chosen by stratified random sampling from government and private schools of Davangere, a city in South India. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of MIH and decayed, missing and filled teeth was carried out in these children by a calibrated examiner. The severity of hypomineralization was recorded according to the Wetzel and Reckel scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: About 8.9% of all examined children showed at least one ill-structured first permanent molar in terms of MIH. The male and female ratio was found to be 1:1.1. The decreasing order of occurrence of MIH affected teeth were permanent maxillary molars, maxillaryincisors, mandibular molars and the mandibular incisors. Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in the permanent dentition of south Indian children was 8.9%. There is a need for a proper planned preventive and restorative program with regard to the increasing prevalence of MIH.

  6. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20–30 Years) in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Veena G.; Kulkarni, Muralidhar M.; Kamath, Asha; Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7) guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal. Objective To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years) in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages), Udupi District, Karnataka state, India. Design Community based cross sectional study Setting 6 (out of total 14) coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India. Sample 1,152 young adults (age group: 20–30 years) selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India Method A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Main Outcome Measures Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted (adj) OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20–30 years). Results The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4–48). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25–30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99–6.05), white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08–4.85) and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64–6.42), students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22–4.95), using refined cooking oil

  7. Pre-Hypertension among Young Adults (20-30 Years in Coastal Villages of Udupi District in Southern India: An Alarming Scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kini

    Full Text Available According to Joint National Committee-7 (JNC-7 guidelines, a systolic blood pressure (SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 80 to 89 mm Hg is considered as pre-hypertension. Existing evidence suggest that the cardiovascular morbidities are increasing among pre-hypertensive individuals compared to normal.To assess the magnitude and factors associated with pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years in coastal villages of Udupi Taluk (an area of land with a city or town that serves as its administrative centre and usually a number of villages, Udupi District, Karnataka state, India.Community based cross sectional study.6 (out of total 14 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.1,152 young adults (age group: 20-30 years selected by stratified random sampling in 6 coastal villages of Udupi Taluk, Karnataka state, India.A semi structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the details on socio-demographic variables, dietary habits, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension and stress levels. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were recorded according to standard protocols. Serum cholesterol was measured in a sub sample of the study population. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the independent correlates of pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.Prevalence, Odds ratio (OR and adjusted (adj OR for pre-hypertension among young adults (20-30 years.The prevalence of pre-hypertension in the study population was 45.2% (95%CI: 42.4-48. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age group of 25-30 years (adj OR: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.99-6.05, white collared (adj OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.08-4.85 and skilled occupation (adj OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.64-6.42, students (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.95, using refined cooking oil (adj OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, extra salt in meals (adj OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99, salty food

  8. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  9. Status of women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  10. Clinical management practices adopted by physiotherapists in India for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aripta Jingar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Evidence supports the use of pulmonary rehabilitation in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients both during acute exacerbation and at later stages. It is used in India; but, to date, there has been no study that has investigated the structure of pulmonary rehabilitation programs for COPD patients in India. The recent study aims to determine the current practice patterns of Indian Physiotherapists for COPD patients admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs and wards in terms of assessment and treatment. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted across India. Questionnaires were distributed to around 800 physiotherapists via E-mail. Physiotherapists with a Master Degree and a specialization in cardiopulmonary science or a minimum of 1 year of experience in treating cardiopulmonary patients were included. The questionnaires addressed assessment measures and treatment techniques given to COPD patients. Results: A total of 342 completed questionnaires were received, yielding a response rate of 43.8%, with a majority of responses from Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. The assessment and treatment techniques used were almost similar between ICUs and wards. More than 80% of the responders carried out the assessment of certain respiratory impairments in both ICUs and wards. An objective measure of dyspnea was taken by less than 40% of the responders, with little attention given to functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life. Eighty-five percent of the responders used Dyspnea-relieving strategies and traditional airway clearance techniques in both ICUs and wards. Eighty-three percent of the responders were giving patients in the wards training for upper and lower extremity. Fifty percent were giving strength training in the wards. Conclusion: Whether patients are admitted in ICUs or Wards, the practice pattern adopted by Physiotherapists to treat them vary

  11. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 2006, chikungunya emerged as a major ever known epidemic in India. Disability adjusted life years (DALY is an appropriate summary measure of population health to express epidemiological burden of diseases. We estimated the burden due to suspected chikungunya using DALYs for the first time and compared between the states and also with the burden due to other vector-borne diseases in India. The economic burden was also assessed in terms of productivity loss.Methods: Data on the reported cases of fever/suspected cases of chikungunya from different states during 2006 in India were used. Years lived with disability (YLD were calculated for non-fatal cases to estimate DALY. Since the disability weight for chikungunya is not available, the weights available for rheumatic arthritis, comparable to the disease outcome of chikungunya were used for the estimation. The burden was estimated for both acute and chronic cases. It is considered that about 11.5% of cases were reported to have extended morbidity with persisting arthralgia. For acute disease, the average duration of illness was considered to be nine days and for chronic cases it was six months on an average. The productivity loss due to income foregone by the working class was calculated using minimum official wage.Results: National burden of chikungunya was estimated to be 25,588 DALYs lost during 2006 epidemic, with an overall burden of 45.26 DALYs per million. It varied from 0.01 to 265.62 per million in different states. Karnataka alone contributed as high as 55% of the national burden. Persistent arthralgia was found to impose heavy burden, accounting for 69% of the total DALYs. The productivity loss in terms of income foregone was estimated to be a minimum of Rs. 391 million. Interpretation & conclusion: The chikungunya epidemic in the year 2006 imposed heavy epidemiological burden and productivity loss to the community. The burden of chikungunya in terms of

  12. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.

  13. Benthic foraminifera as pollution indices in the marine environment of west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.

    Two ecosystems affected by acidic pollutants (Thana Creek, Bombay and inshore area of Trivandrum, Kerala) and two other ecosystems affected by alkaline pollutants (Cola Bay, Goa and inshore area of Karwar, Karnataka) were studied for pollution...

  14. Mathematics in India

    CERN Document Server

    Plofker, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Based on extensive research in Sanskrit sources, Mathematics in India chronicles the development of mathematical techniques and texts in South Asia from antiquity to the early modern period. Kim Plofker reexamines the few facts about Indian mathematics that have become common knowledge--such as the Indian origin of Arabic numerals--and she sets them in a larger textual and cultural framework. The book details aspects of the subject that have been largely passed over in the past, including the relationships between Indian mathematics and astronomy, and their cross-fertilizations with Islamic sc

  15. A Passage to India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    theoretical model that combines resource-based theory and international business network theory. It aims to investigate how determinants of the offshore outsourcing process contribute to the resource stocks of client firms. Based on two longitudinal case studies of offshore outsourcing to India, the study...... are lacking. This paper suggests a detailed, activity-based approach to the study of the process of offshore outsourcing of high-value, advanced service activities. While earlier research has considered either firm-internal or firm-external sources of resource building, this study offers a more comprehensive...

  16. Distribution and Biology of Mallada desjardinsi (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in India and Its Predatory Potential Against Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, T; Singh, S B; Ravi, M; Manju, T

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we report the prevalence of Mallada desjardinsi (Navas) in seven geographical regions of India and provide the first report of its kind outlining the preying of all stages of the spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, by M. desjardinsi Sampling was conducted in seven regions of two provinces in India, Bengaluru (Karnataka) and Tiruppur (Tamil Nadu), which demonstrated that M. desjardinsi populations were most dense at the former and least at the later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind outlining observations regarding the biology and feeding potential of M. desjardinsi on A. dispersus under laboratory conditions. It was observed that the second nymphal stadium of A. dispersus was most preferred prey for M. desjardinsi and the least preferred was the A. dispersus adult. It was also seen that the third stadium of M. desjardinsi consumed more A. dispersus individuals than any other life stages. The longevity of female and the total developmental period of M. desjardinsi were computed as 27.6 ± 1.69 and 24.1 ± 0.99 d, respectively. The average total number of eggs laid by the M. desjardinsi female was 211.1 ± 6.35 eggs. M. desjardinsi was observed to be extremely efficient in terms of prey searching and predatory potential with respect to A. dispersus The results of this study indicate strongly that M. desjardinsi has the potential to be used for the control of A. dispersus. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Non-disclosure of violence among female sex workers: evidence from a large scale cross-sectional survey in India.

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    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. RESULTS: About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3-2.4. Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9. CONCLUSIONS: Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward.

  18. Non-disclosure of violence among female sex workers: evidence from a large scale cross-sectional survey in India.

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    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Battala, Madhusudana; Porwal, Akash; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    One of the indicators critical to the success of violence reduction programmes among female sex workers (FSWs) is the pattern of disclosure of violence. This study examines the rate of non-disclosure of violence among FSWs in India by perpetrators of violence and programme exposure. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study conducted among FSWs in 2009 across four states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The analytical sample included 1341 FSWs who experienced physical violence in past six months. Multilevel logistic regression stratified by state was conducted to examine predictors of non-disclosure. About 54% of FSWs did not disclose their experience of violence to anyone with considerable variations in the pattern of disclosure across states. Another 36% of FSWs shared the experience with NGO worker/peer. Compared to violence perpetrated by paying partners/stranger, that by non-paying partner were twice more likely to report non-disclosure (53% vs. 68%, Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3-2.4). Similarly, FSWs who were not registered with an NGO/sex worker collective were 40% more likely to report non-disclosure of violence against those registered (58% vs. 53%, AOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.9). Non-disclosure of physical violence is quite high among FSWs which can be a barrier to the success of violence reduction efforts. Immediate efforts are required to understand the reasons behind non-disclosure based on which interventions can be developed. Community collectivisation and designing gender-based interventions with the involvement of non-paying partners should be the way forward.

  19. Keeping up with Dental Literature: A Study on Continuing Professional Development among Dental Practitioners in Hubli-Dharwad, India

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    Rao, Nandita Subba; Ali, Anzil K S; Thadeethra, Mathews Jude

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Continuing Professional Development (CPD) refers to skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement. In India, very few studies have been documented to discover the patterns of information update by dental practitioners. Aim To discover the educational tools that dentists of Hubli - Dharwad, Karnataka, India, prefer for updating their knowledge on new therapeutic methods and to assess the perceived usefulness of these CPD activities. Materials and Methods Face to face interview was carried out using questionnaire comprising questions on various CPD activities among all the practicing dentists. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to evaluate any association between the frequency of information update and perceived usefulness with gender, qualification, practice types and academic attachments. Results Out of 112 practicing dentists in Hubli-Dharwad, 104 consented for the study. Mean age group of the study population was 32.3±7.56 (SD) years. Discussion with colleagues and discussion with medical sales representatives were the most frequently utilized information sources. On the other hand, attending dental fairs was found to be the most rarely utilized method of information access. Discussion with colleagues, reading textbooks and accessing internet were rated as most useful CPD activities and discussion with sales representatives and attending dental fairs were rated as least useful CPD activities. Conclusion Both conventional methods of information sources like discussions with colleagues and textbook reading as well as contemporary information sources like accessing internet were the preferred methods of information update by dental practitioners of Hubli-Dharwad. PMID:28571256

  20. Study in India

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    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In newly HIV-diagnosed patients, the CD4+ lymphocyte count is measured to determine the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa have shown that patients who are ART ineligible at the first assessment have poor retention in care, but data from other low- or middle-income countries are scarce. In this study we describe the retention in pre-ART care of 1696 patients who were ineligible for ART after being diagnosed with HIV in a cohort study in India. More than one-third of ART ineligible patients had poor retention in care, and the attrition was higher in those with longer follow-up periods. Of those patients with poor retention, only 10% came back to the clinics, and their CD4 cell counts were lower than the ones of patients retained in care. After 4.5 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up was 50%. Factors associated with attrition were being homeless, being illiterate, belonging to a disadvantaged community, being symptomatic at the time of the HIV diagnosis, male gender, and not living near a town. Widows were given nutritional support and, therefore, had better retention in care. The results of this study highlight the need to improve the retention in care of ART ineligible patients in India.

  1. Neuropsychology in India.

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    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  2. Cancer notification in India.

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    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  3. Cancer notification in India

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    K C Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  4. Holocene aridification of India

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    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Holocene aridification of India

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    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  6. Characterization of the non-polio enterovirus infections associated with acute flaccid paralysis in South-Western India.

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    Rongala Laxmivandana

    Full Text Available Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs have been reported frequently in association with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases during Polio Surveillance Programs (PSPs worldwide. However, there is limited understanding on the attributes of their infections. This study reports characteristics of NPEVs isolated from AFP cases, investigated during PSPs held in 2009-2010, in Karnataka and Kerala states of south-western India having varied climatic conditions. NPEV cell culture isolates derived from stool specimens that were collected from 422 of 2186 AFP cases (<1-14 years age and 17 of 41 asymptomatic contacts; and details of all AFP cases/contacts were obtained from National Polio Laboratory, Bangalore. The distribution of NPEV infections among AFP cases and circulation pattern of NPEV strains were determined by statistical analysis of the data. Genotyping of all NPEV isolates was carried out by partial VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. NPEV positive AFP cases were significantly higher in children aged <2 years; with residual paralysis; in summer months; and in regions with relatively hot climate. Genotyping of NPEVs identified predominance of human enteroviruses (HEV-B species [81.9%-Echoviruses (E: 57.3%; coxsackieviruses (CV B: 15%; numbered EVs: 8.9%; CVA9: 0.7%] and low levels of HEV-A [14.5%-CVA: 6%; numbered EVs: 8.5%] and HEV-C [3.6%-CVA: 2.6%; numbered EVs: 1%] species, encompassing 63 genotypes. EV76 (6.3% and each of E3, CVB3 and E9 (4.97% were found frequently during 2009 while E11 (6.7%, CVB1 (6.1%, E7 (5.1% and E20 (5.1% were detected commonly in 2010. A marked proportion of AFP cases from children aged <2 years; presenting with fever; and from north and south interior parts of Karnataka state was detected with E/numbered EVs than that found with CVA/CVB. This study highlights the extensive genetic diversity and diverse circulation patterns of NPEV strains in AFP cases from different populations and climatic conditions.

  7. Ethical Conventions: A Study on Dental Practitioner’s Knowledge and Practice of Ethics in their Line of Work in Bangalore, India

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    Raju, Vamsee Krishnam; Nanjundaiah, Vanishree; Laksmikantha, Ramesh; Nayak, Sushma Shankar; Kshetrimayum, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry, being one of the healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical standards of conduct. In India, studies done to assess whether the dental practitioners adhere to ethics in their line of work are very meager. Aim The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of ethics in their line of work among practicing dentists from various dental colleges in Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 258 practicing dentists attached to various dental colleges in Bangalore city of Karnataka, India. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the knowledge and practice scores according to gender and qualification. One way ANOVA was used to compare knowledge and practice score according to practice type and practice period. Results Mean knowledge score among males is 8.9 as compared to 9.43 among females and mean practice scores among males was 8.25 as compared to 8.29 in females. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean knowledge and practice scores among graduate dentists and specialists. Mean knowledge score among graduate dentists was 8.44 as compared to 9.36 among specialists and mean practice scores among graduate dentists was 7.7 as compared to 8.53 in specialists. Conclusion A significant association between the knowledge and practice scores was observed, implying that with an increase in knowledge, there was also an increase in the practices of ethics among study population. PMID:27656570

  8. Women's empowerment and domestic violence: the role of sociocultural determinants in maternal and child undernutrition in tribal and rural communities in South India.

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    Sethuraman, Kavita; Lansdown, Richard; Sullivan, Keith

    2006-06-01

    Moderate malnutrition continues to affect 46% of children under five years of age and 47% of rural women in India. Women's lack of empowerment is believed to be an important factor in the persistent prevalence of malnutrition. In India, women's empowerment often varies by community, with tribes sometimes being the most progressive. To explore the relationship between women's empowerment, maternal nutritional status, and the nutritional status of their children aged 6 to 24 months in rural and tribal communities. This study in rural Karnataka, India, included tribal and rural subjects and used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. Structured interviews with mothers were performed and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 820 mother-child pairs. The data were analyzed by multivariate and logistic regression. Some degree of malnutrition was seen in 83.5% of children and 72.4% of mothers in the sample. Biological variables explained most of the variance in nutritional status, followed by health-care seeking and women's empowerment variables; socioeconomic variables explained the least amount of variance. Women's empowerment variables were significantly associated with child nutrition and explained 5.6% of the variance in the sample. Maternal experience of psychological abuse and sexual coercion increased the risk of malnutrition in mothers and children. Domestic violence was experienced by 34% of mothers in the sample. In addition to the known investments needed to reduce malnutrition, improving women's nutrition, promoting gender equality, empowering women, and ending violence against women could further reduce the prevalence of malnutrition in this segment of the Indian population.

  9. Second China-India Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Second China-India Forum sponsored by the CPAFFC and the China-India Friendship Association(CIFA) was held in Beijing May 15-16.CIFA President Jiang Zheng-hua,CIFA Advisor Wang Maolin,CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku,and Indian Ambassador to China S.Jaishankar attended the opening ceremony.Over 200 officials,scholars,businessmen from the political,economic,cultural and environmental sectors of China,India and some other countries as well as reporters were present at the forum.

  10. Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka

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    Sangeetha S Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.

  11. Global positioning system & Google Earth in the investigation of an outbreak of cholera in a village of Bengaluru Urban district, Karnataka

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    Masthi, N.R. Ramesh; Madhusudan, M.; Puthussery, Yannick P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The global positioning system (GPS) technology along with Google Earth is used to measure (spatial map) the accurate distribution of morbidity, mortality and planning of interventions in the community. We used this technology to find out its role in the investigation of a cholera outbreak, and also to identify the cause of the outbreak. Methods: This study was conducted in a village near Bengaluru, Karnataka in June 2013 during a cholera outbreak. House-to-house survey was done to identify acute watery diarrhoea cases. A hand held GPS receiver was used to record north and east coordinates of the households of cases and these values were subsequently plotted on Google Earth map. Water samples were collected from suspected sources for microbiological analysis. Results: A total of 27 cases of acute watery diarrhoea were reported. Fifty per cent of cases were in the age group of 14-44 yr and one death was reported. GPS technology and Google Earth described the accurate location of household of cases and spot map generated showed clustering of cases around the suspected water sources. The attack rate was 6.92 per cent and case fatality rate was 3.7 per cent. Water samples collected from suspected sources showed the presence of Vibrio cholera O1 Ogawa. Interpretation & conclusions: GPS technology and Google Earth were easy to use, helpful to accurately pinpoint the location of household of cases, construction of spot map and follow up of cases. Outbreak was found to be due to contamination of drinking water sources. PMID:26658586

  12. The KIDROP model of combining strategies for providing retinopathy of prematurity screening in underserved areas in India using wide-field imaging, tele-medicine, non-physician graders and smart phone reporting

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    Anand Vinekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the Karnataka Internet Assisted Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (KIDROP program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP screening in underserved rural areas using an indigenously developed tele-ROP model. Materials and Methods: KIDROP currently provides ROP screening and treatment services in three zones and 81 neonatal units in Karnataka, India. Technicians were trained to use a portable Retcam Shuttle (Clarity, USA and validated against ROP experts performing indirect ophthalmoscopy. An indigenously developed 20-point score (STAT score graded their ability (Level I to III to image and decide follow-up based on a three-way algorithm. Images were also uploaded on a secure tele-ROP platform and accessed and reported by remote experts on their smart phones (iPhone, Apple. Results: 6339 imaging sessions of 1601 infants were analyzed. A level III technician agreed with 94.3% of all expert decisions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for treatment grade disease were 95.7, 93.2, 81.5 and 98.6 respectively. The kappa for technicians to decide discharge of babies was 0.94 (P < 0.001. Only 0.4% of infants needing treatment were missed.The kappa agreement of experts reporting on the iPhone vs Retcam for treatment requiring and mild ROP were 0.96 and 0.94 (P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: This is the first and largest real-world program to employ accredited non-physicians to grade and report ROP. The KIDROP tele-ROP model demonstrates that ROP services can be delivered to the outreach despite lack of specialists and may be useful in other middle-income countries with similar demographics.

  13. Heavy metal distribution in mangrove sediment cores from selected sites along western coast of India

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    P. Vidya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sediment cores were collected from four different mangrove areas of northern Kerala and southern Karnataka, western coast of India.  The cores were analysed for the concentration of five heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu Fe using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.  The levels of heavy metals in the present study from all the four sediment cores were in the order Fe > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu and the mean concentrations of each elements in different cores were comparable.  According to Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG, the mangrove sediments analysed here were moderately contaminated with Ni and heavily contaminated with Pb.  The increased concentration of Ni and Pb in the sediments might be due to their atmospheric deposition or water discharge from different far away sources since the areas selected for study were not disturbed by direct anthropogenic impacts.  Elevated levels of Fe which is considered to be a common phenomenon in mangrove sediments have also been found in the present study.  Heavy metal levels in sediments showed statistically significant correlations with pH, calcium carbonate and organic matter.  This suggests the influence of physico-chemical parameters on the adsorption, deposition and persistence of heavy metals in mangrove sediments.  The heavy metal concentration and the pollution status of the mangroves of west coast, especially the areas selected in this work are less studied before. Hence the data provide from the present baseline study would be further helpful in remediation and management of mangrove ecosystem. 

  14. Violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in Southern India.

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    Deering, Kathleen N; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Mohan, H L; Bradley, Janet; Shannon, Kate; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James

    2013-02-01

    This study characterized the type and frequency of violence against female sex workers (FSWs) perpetrated by their clients and their main intimate or other nonpaying partner (NPP) and examined the relationship between violence and inconsistent condom use (ICU, G100%). The factors associated with client violence were also assessed. Data were analyzed from cross-sectional surveys of FSWs in Karnataka state (2007-2008), India. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the following: (1) relationship between client or NPP violence (physical and/or sexual) and ICU by occasional/repeat clients or the NPP and (2) relationship between social and environmental factors and client violence. Of 1219 FSWs, 9.6% (111) and 3.7% (42) reported experiencing violence by clients and the NPP, respectively. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for social and environmental factors, the odds of ICU by occasional clients were significantly higher for women who had experienced client violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-4.4). Similar results were found with repeat clients (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.4). Nonpaying partner violence was not significantly associated with ICU by the NPP. In multivariable analysis, only being recently arrested remained significantly associated with experiencing client violence (AOR, 1.8; 95% CIs, 1.0-3.3). The findings from this study provide evidence of a relationship between experiencing client violence and ICU by occasional and repeat clients, and a relationship between being arrested and client violence. Comprehensive structural/policy programming for FSWs, including within HIV-focused prevention programs, is urgently needed to help reduce FSWs' vulnerability to violence

  15. A STUDY OF DEPRESSION LEVEL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE IN THE RURAL AREA OF BIJAPUR, INDIA

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    Santosh D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: “Population ageing” was one of the most distinctive demographic events of the twentieth century. Growth in the elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression affecting quality of life. Depression in old age is an emerging public health problem leading to morbidity and disability worldwide. In India there is acute scarcity of adequately trained mental health professionals. In this context , there is need to study the level of depression in old age and an effective screening tool which can be used to detect and treat depression. OBJECTIVES: 1 To assess the prevalence of depression in elderly using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. 2 To examine the socio - demographic fac tors associated with depression among elderly people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross - sectional , community based study was conducted in Shivanagi village of Bijapur District , Karnataka. A random sample of 388 elderly people was taken for the study. GDS was used to assess depression. Those with any psychiatric morbidity and without consent were excluded. Data was analyzed using Chi Square test of association , tests of difference between mean , and standard deviation with SPSS software. RESULTS: The magnitude o f mild or severe depression was 34 percent on GDS scale. The prevalence of depression was found to be more among women , and it was statistically significantly positively associated with increasing age , illiteracy , a low socio - economic status , those who wer e living alone , those who were economically partially dependent and those who were totally dependent for the activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: These findings could guide community - based program managers to devise and implement effective and timely me ntal health interventions for older adults in order to prevent geriatric depression and develop comprehensive strategy for its early diagnosis

  16. Popular perceptions of tobacco products and patterns of use among male college students in India.

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    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Van Sickle, David

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines popular perceptions of tobacco products and describes patterns of use among college youth in Karnataka, India. Data are drawn from 25 key informant interviews and six focus groups with male and female college students, interviews with shopkeepers, observational data on youth tobacco consumption, and a college-based survey. The survey was administered to 1587 males attending eleven colleges. Forty-five percent (n = 716) of college students surveyed had used tobacco products. Thirty-six percent (n = 573) had tried cigarettes, 10% (n = 157) had tried bidis, and 18% (n = 290) had tried gutkha. Tobacco consumption among smokers was low; for daily smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked was 6 per day. Students attending professional colleges, including engineering, medicine, and law were significantly more likely to have ever smoked and to be daily smokers when compared to students enrolled in other courses of study. In interviews, male students noted that smoking a cigarette enhanced one's manliness, relieved boredom, and eased tension. Although female students interviewed were non-smokers, several suggested that in the future, smoking might be an acceptable behavior among college-going females. When asked about their perceptions of smoking among youth in Western countries, the majority of students believed that three-quarters of male and female youth in the West smoked. This perception has been largely formed through media images, including satellite television and films. With regard to addiction, it was widely believed that filter-tipped cigarettes were one of the most addictive products because they are made of better quality tobacco, and are milder and smoother to smoke. Therefore, a person could easily smoke more of them, which would lead to addiction. Another widely held belief was that the more expensive the cigarette, the less harmful it was for one's health.

  17. Estimation of biological half-life of tritium in coastal region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Pai, R K; Veerender, D D; Vishnu, M S; Vijayan, P; Managanvi, S S; Badiger, N M; Bhat, H R

    2010-12-01

    The present study estimates biological half-life (BHL) of tritium by analysing routine bioassay samples of radiation workers. During 2007-2009 year, 72,100 urine bioassay samples of the workers were analysed by liquid scintillation counting technique for internal dose monitoring for tritium. Two hundred and two subjects were taken for study with minimum 3 μCiL(-1) tritium uptake in their body fluid. The BHL of tritium of subjects ranges from 1 to 16 d with an average of 8.19 d. Human data indicate that the biological retention time ranges from 4 to 18 d with an average of 10 d. The seasonal variations of the BHL of tritium are 3.09 ± 1.48, 6.87 ± 0.58 and 5.73 ± 0.76 d (mean ± SD) for summer, winter and rainy seasons, respectively, for free water tritium in the coastal region of Karnataka, India, which shows that the BHL in summer is twice that of the winter season. Also three subjects showed the BHL of 101.73-121.09 d, which reveals that organically bound tritium is present with low tritium uptake also. The BHL of tritium for all age group of workers is observed independent of age and is shorter during April to May. The distribution of cumulative probability vs. BHL of tritium shows lognormal distribution with a geometric mean of 9.11 d and geometric standard deviation of 1.77 d. The study of the subjects is fit for two-compartment model and also an average BHL of tritium is found similar to earlier studies.

  18. Evaluation of Cold Chain Practices in Urban Health Centers of a Metro City in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Krishnappa, Arvind B Anniappan, Narayana H Voderhobli, Shantha Kumar Krishna, Sudarshana Yathiraj, Pruthvish Sreekantaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: National Family Health Survey report (NFHS-3 reports revealed that immunization coverage in India among children between 12-23 months was low at 43.5%. In lieu of strengthening Routine Immu-nization (RI, Government of Karnataka undertook state-wide training of Medical officers and Health workers on RI with concurrent efforts of strengthening cold chain system in health centers. With this background, this study was undertaken to assess the cold chain practices in urban health centers of Bangalore city. Methodology: This Cross-sectional study was conducted during Octo-ber-December 2008 in three-zones of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP covering 35 units. Physical verification of the available cold chain equipments was done using predesigned pretested checklist and face to face interview of cold chain handlers was employed. Results: Of 35 centers, 33(94% and 32(91% of them had atleast one functional Ice-lined refrigerator(ILR and one deep freezer(DF respectively. Good storage code practice was practiced in 12 out of 33 ILRs. Functional thermometer was available in 31(91% ILRs of which 23(74% had temperature in the recommend range. With respect to knowledge of cold chain handlers on RI, 86% were trained on RI and their overall knowledge regarding cold chain practices was satisfactory except for knowledge on temperature in DF and on conditioning of ice-packs. Conclusion: Availabilit