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Sample records for karl schwarzschild 1873-1916

  1. Schwarzschild, Karl (1873-1916)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematical physicist, born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, at first worked on celestial mechanics, including POINCARÉ's theory of rotating bodies, the tidal deformation of moons and LAPLACE's origin of the solar system. He became professor at Göttingen and Potsdam. He wrote on relativity and quantum theory. He early on proposed that space was non-Euclidean, giving a lower limit for the radius of...

  2. Three Göttingen lectures by Karl Schwarzschild, 1904-1905. (German Title: Drei Göttinger Vorlesungen Karl Schwarzschilds 1904-1905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), perhaps the most eminent astronomer of his time, was professor at Göttingen University from 1901 to 1909. Three of his lectures from the years 1904 to 1906 are available in the form of copy-books written by his students Arnold Kohlschütter (1883-1969) and Max Born (1882-1970). Here, an overview of these lectures is given.

  3. Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalization of astrophysics. (German Title: Karl Schwarzschild und die Professionalisierung der Astrophysik)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Professionalization is characteristic for physics and astronomy since 1830, and forms the basis for their rapid evolution in the 20th century. Karl Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy are presented: the introduction of course lectures in a repeating cycle, a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, simulations and suggestions for astronomy at high schools and for the training of high school teachers, an interest in international organisation, and the initiative and planning of a southern observatory.

  4. 1st Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings collect the selected contributions of participants of the First Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics, held in Frankfurt, Germany to celebrate the 140th anniversary of Schwarzschild's birth. They are grouped into 4 main themes: I. The Life and Work of Karl Schwarzschild; II. Black Holes in Classical General Relativity, Numerical Relativity, Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Alternative Theories of Gravity; III. Black Holes in Quantum Gravity and String Theory; IV. Other Topics in Contemporary Gravitation. Inspired by the foundational principle ``By acknowledging the past, we open a route to the future",  the week-long meeting, envisioned as a forum for exchange between scientists from all locations and levels of education, drew participants from 15 countries across 4 continents. In addition to plenary talks from leading researchers, a special focus on young talent was provided, a feature underlined by the Springer Prize for the best student and junior presentations.

  5. Karl Schwarzschild's investigations of `out-of-focus photometry' between 1897 and 1899 at Kuffner Observatory in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1897 to 1899 Karl Schwarzschild worked at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. During these years he developed new measuring techniques in the field of photographic photometry, where he studied particularly the quantitative determination of the departure from the reciprocity law during photographic exposure. This paper concentrates on Schwarzschild's early work in this field and gives an overview of his important Viennese years.

  6. 3rd Karl Schwarzschild Meeting - Gravity and the Gauge/Gravity Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Piero; Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The Karl Schwarzschild Meeting 2017 (KSM2017) has been the third instalment of the conference dedicated to the great Frankfurter scientist, who derived the first black hole solution of Einstein's equations about 100 years ago. The event has been a 5 day meeting in the field of black holes, AdS/CFT correspondence and gravitational physics. Like the two previous instalments, the conference continued to attract a stellar ensemble of participants from the world's most renowned institutions. The core of the meeting has been a series of invited talks from eminent experts (keynote speakers) as well as the presence of plenary research talks by students and junior speakers.

  7. Curved spaces before Einstein: Karl Schwarzschild's cosmological speculations and the beginnings of relativistic cosmology (German Title: Gekrümmte Universen vor Einstein: Karl Schwarzschilds kosmologische Spekulationen und die Anfänge der relativistischen Kosmologie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemmel, Matthias

    In contrast to most of his collegues in astronomy and physics, the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild immediately recognized the significance of general relativity for physics and astronomy, and played a pioneering role in its early development. In this contribution, it is argued that the clue for understanding Schwarzschild's exceptional reaction to general relativity lies in the study of his prerelativistic work. Long before the rise of general relativity, Schwarzschild occupied himself with foundational problems on the borderline of physics, astronomy, and mathematics that, from today's perspective, belong to the field of problems of that theory. In this contribution, the example of Schwarzschild's early speculations about the non-Euclidean nature of physical space on cosmological scales is presented and their reflection in his reception of general relativity is discussed.

  8. Martin Schwarzschild (1912 - 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Werner

    The Chairman of the Astronomische Gesellschaft honored Martin Schwarzschild, who was the first to be presented with the Karl Schwarzschild Medal of the Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1957. An account of his life and work is given.

  9. Schwarzschild, Martin (1912-97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astrophysicist, born in Potsdam, Germany, the son of KARL SCHWARZSCHILD, left Germany, became professor at Princeton University. Working with John von Neumann, Schwarzschild used the powers of the newly developed electronic digital computers to work on the theory of stellar structure and evolution. He uncovered phenomena in red giant stars, including how they evolve off the main sequence in the H...

  10. Two-mirror Schwarzschild aplanats. Basic relations

    OpenAIRE

    Terebizh, V. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the theory of aplanatic two-mirror telescopes developed by Karl Schwarzschild in 1905 leads to the unified description both the prefocal and the postfocal systems. The class of surfaces in the ZEMAX optical program has been properly extended to ascertain the image quality in exact Schwarzschild aplanats. A comparison of Schwarzschild aplanats with approximate Ritchey-Chretien and Gregory-Maksutov aplanatic telescopes reveals a noticeable advantage of the former at fast focal ...

  11. Two-Mirror Schwarzschild Aplanats: Basic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebizh, V. Yu.

    2005-02-01

    The theory of aplanatic two-mirror telescopes developed by Karl Schwarzschild in 1905 is shown to lead to a unified description of both prefocal and postfocal systems. The class of surfaces in the ZEMAX optical program has been properly extended to ascertain the image quality in exact Schwarzschild aplanats. A comparison of Schwarzschild aplanats with approximate Ritchey-Chrétien and Gregory-Maksutov aplanatic telescopes reveals a noticeable advantage of the former at the system’s fast focal ratio.

  12. Schwarzschild Solution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartusiak, Marcia

    2016-03-01

    While eighteenth-century Newtonians had imagined a precursor to the black hole, the modern version has its roots in the first full solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity, derived by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild on a World War I battlefront just weeks after Einstein introduced his completed theory in November 1915. This talk will demonstrate how Schwarzschild's solution is linked to the black hole and how it took more than half a century for the physics community to accept that such a bizarre celestial object could exist in the universe.

  13. Exact optics - III. Schwarzschild's spectrograph camera revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willstrop, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Karl Schwarzschild identified a system of two mirrors, each defined by conic sections, free of third-order spherical aberration, coma and astigmatism, and with a flat focal surface. He considered it impractical, because the field was too restricted. This system was rediscovered as a quadratic approximation to one of Lynden-Bell's `exact optics' designs which have wider fields. Thus the `exact optics' version has a moderate but useful field, with excellent definition, suitable for a spectrograph camera. The mirrors are strongly aspheric in both the Schwarzschild design and the exact optics version.

  14. Centennial of General Relativity (1915-2015); The Schwarzschild Solution and Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Blinder, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (1915-2015). The first nontrivial solution of the Einstein field equations was derived by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916. This Note will focus mainly on the Schwarzschild solution and the remarkable developments which it inspired, the most dramatic being the prediction of black holes. Later extensions of Schwarzschild's spacetime structure has led to even wilder conjectures, such as white holes and passages to other ...

  15. Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Luxemburg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marx died on March 14, 1883. Exactly twenty years later, on March 14, 1903, Rosa Luxemburg’s reflections on Karl Marx were published in German in Vorwärts, the newspaper of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. tripleC publishes an English translation of Luxemburg’s essay on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary. Christian Fuchs’ postface “Karl Marx and Rosa Luxemburg” asks the question of how we can make sense of Rosa Luxemburg’s reading of Marx in 2018. Source of the German original: Luxemburg, Rosa. 1903. Karl Marx. Vorwärts 62: 1-2.

  16. Karl Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Luxemburg

    2018-01-01

    Marx died on March 14, 1883. Exactly twenty years later, on March 14, 1903, Rosa Luxemburg’s reflections on Karl Marx were published in German in Vorwärts, the newspaper of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. tripleC publishes an English translation of Luxemburg’s essay on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary. Christian Fuchs’ postface “Karl Marx and Rosa Luxemburg” asks the question of how we can make sense of Rosa Luxemburg’s reading of Marx in 2018. Source of the German original: Luxembu...

  17. [Karl Sudhoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    In 1914, from 6th May to 18th October, the International Exposition of book Industry and Graphic Arts (BUGRA) took place in Leipzig, then the world capital of books. Karl Sudhoff, director of the Leipzig Institute of the History of Medicine, was appointed by the executive committee of the BURGA to organize the special exhibition "Three Millennia of Graphic Arts in the Service of Science". The paper shows, following Sudhoff's own descriptions and new archival sources, the conceptual design and the contents of this exposition set up by Sudhoff.

  18. Einstein, Schwarzschild, the Perihelion Motion of Mercury and the Rotating Disk Story

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Galina

    2014-01-01

    On November 18, 1915 Einstein reported to the Prussian Academy that the perihelion motion of Mercury is explained by his new General Theory of Relativity: Einstein found approximate solutions to his November 11, 1915 field equations. Einstein's field equations cannot be solved in the general case, but can be solved in particular situations. The first to offer such an exact solution was Karl Schwarzschild. Schwarzschild found one line element, which satisfied the conditions imposed by Einstein...

  19. HectoMAPping the Universe. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2015-06-01

    During the last three decades progress in mapping the Universe from an age of 400 000 years to the present has been stunning. Instrument/telescope combinations have naturally determined the sampling of various redshift ranges. Here we outline the impact of the Hectospec on the MMT on exploration of the Universe in the redshift range 0.2 ⪉ z ⪉ 0.8. We focus on dense redshift surveys, SHELS and HectoMAP. SHELS is a complete magnitude limited survey covering 8 square degrees. The HectoMAP survey combines a red-selected dense redshift survey and a weak lensing map covering 50 square degrees. Combining the dense redshift survey with a Subaru HyperSuprimeCam (HSC) weak lensing map will provide a powerful probe of the way galaxies trace the distribution of dark matter on a wide range of physical scales.

  20. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Introduktion til juristen og homopioneren Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1824-1882) og hans fortælling "Manor" (1885)......Introduktion til juristen og homopioneren Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1824-1882) og hans fortælling "Manor" (1885)...

  1. Karl Marx' glemte arvtager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    1988-01-01

    For 50 år siden hyldede avisen 'Social-Demokraten' Karl Kautsky (1854-1938) som "den største Tænker inden for den socialdemokratiske Arbejderbevægelse". I perioden fra Friedrich Engels' død i 1895 til 1. Verdenskrigs udbrud i 1914 blev Karl Kautsky alment anset som Karl Marx's arvtager inden...

  2. The 100th birthday of the conic constant and Schwarzschild's revolutionary papers in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Andrew

    2005-08-01

    In 1905 Karl Schwarzschild published three papers on optics, two of which revolutionized the field of reflecting telescope optics. In his first paper he developed a full theory of the aberrations of reflecting telescopes, generalizing the Eikonal of Bruns to take into account systems with an infinite long conjugate. In the second paper Schwarzschild applied his formulation to a masterful analysis of 2 mirror anastigmatic systems, along the way discovering the so called Ritchey-Chretien aplanat, 18 years Ritchey and Chretien's announcement. Numerous other innovations are given in what must be seen as being among the most important papers on the aberrations of optical systems ever written.

  3. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar. The well-known astronomer Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) is regarded as the founder of astrophysics and as an exceptionally talented researcher whose interests spanned a remarkably broad spectrum. His work on celestial mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity theory demonstrates his great abilities as a mathematician and physicist who significantly influenced the science of his times. His investigations of photographic photometry, optics, and spectroscopy display his strengths as an observer who knew his instruments. But above all Schwarzschild pursued questions of astrophysics, addressing in particular stellar atmospheres, comets, and the structure and dynamics of stellar systems. The host of scientific works that he authored in his short life is now collected in the form of this three-volume complete works; it is supplemented by biographical material, notes from some of todays experts, and an essay by the Nobel Laureate S. Chandrasekhar.

  4. Karl Lagerfeld obidelsja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Moekunstnik Karl Lagerfeld kaebas kohtusse raamatu "The Beautiful Fall : Fashion, Genius and Glorious Excess in 1970s Paris" autori Alicia Drake'i. Raamat räägib Lagerfeldi noorusajast ja tema konkurentsist moekunstnik Yves Saint Laurent'iga 1970. aastate Pariisis

  5. Karl Ristikivi prantsuse keeles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    29. ja 30. mail Tallinna Kirjanike Majas ja 31. mail Tartu Kirjanduse Majas esinevad näitlejad Ene Rämmeld ja Claude Merlin Karl Ristikivi luulekavaga "Inimese teekond" (tõlkija Tarah Montbélialtz). Vt. ka Looming, 2003, nr. 6, lk. 953

  6. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  7. Linear waves on higher dimensional Schwarzschild black holes and Schwarzschild de Sitter spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Schlue, Volker

    2012-01-01

    I study linear waves on higher dimensional Schwarzschild black holes and Schwarzschild de Sitter spacetimes. In the first part of this thesis two decay results are proven for general finite energy solutions to the linear wave equation on higher dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. I establish uniform energy decay and improved interior first order energy decay in all dimensions with rates in accordance with the 3 + 1-dimensional case. The method of proof departs from earlier work on th...

  8. Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente

    2007-01-01

    A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not

  9. Aplanatic telescopes based on Schwarzschild optical configuration: from grazing incidence Wolter-like x-ray optics to Cherenkov two-mirror normal incidence telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of XX century Karl Schwarzschild defined a method to design large-field aplanatic telescopes based on the use of two aspheric mirrors. The approach was then refined by Couder (1926) who, in order to correct for the astigmatic aberration, introduced a curvature of the focal plane. By the way, the realization of normal-incidence telescopes implementing the Schwarzschild aplanatic configuration has been historically limited by the lack of technological solutions to manufacture and test aspheric mirrors. On the other hand, the Schwarzschild solution was recovered for the realization of coma-free X-ray grazing incidence optics. Wolter-like grazing incidence systems are indeed free of spherical aberration, but still suffer from coma and higher order aberrations degrading the imaging capability for off-axis sources. The application of the Schwarzschild's solution to X-ray optics allowed Wolter to define an optical system that exactly obeys the Abbe sine condition, eliminating coma completely. Therefore these systems are named Wolter-Schwarzschild telescopes and have been used to implement wide-field X-ray telescopes like the ROSAT WFC and the SOHO X-ray telescope. Starting from this approach, a new class of X-ray optical system was proposed by Burrows, Burg and Giacconi assuming polynomials numerically optimized to get a flat field of view response and applied by Conconi to the wide field x-ray telescope (WFXT) design. The Schwarzschild-Couder solution has been recently re-discovered for the application to normal-incidence Cherenkov telescopes, thanks to the suggestion by Vassiliev and collaborators. The Italian Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) realized the first Cherenkov telescope based on the polynomial variation of the Schwarzschild configuration (the so-called ASTRI telescope). Its optical qualification was successfully completed in 2016, demonstrating the suitability of the Schwarzschild-like configuration for the Cherenkov astronomy requirements

  10. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  11. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Grupo de Cosmologia y Gravitacion-UBB, Concepcion (Chile); Liempi, Luis [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universidad San Sebastian, Facultad de Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Concepcion (Chile); Rodriguez, Pablo [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)

  12. Traversable Schwarzschild-like wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, Mauricio; Liempi, Luis; Rodriguez, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study relativistic static traversable wormhole solutions which are a slight generalization of Schwarzschild wormholes. In order to do this we assume a shape function with a linear dependence on the radial coordinate r. This linear shape function generates wormholes whose asymptotic spacetime is not flat: they are asymptotically locally flat, since in the asymptotic limit r → ∞ spacetimes exhibiting a solid angle deficit (or excess) are obtained. In particular, there exist wormholes which connect two asymptotically non-flat regions with a solid angle deficit. For these wormholes the size of their embeddings in a three-dimensional Euclidean space extends from the throat to infinity. A new phantom zero-tidal-force wormhole exhibiting such asymptotic is obtained. On the other hand, if a solid angle excess is present, the size of the wormhole embeddings depends on the amount of this angle excess, and the energy density is negative everywhere. We discuss the traversability conditions and study the impact of the β-parameter on the motion of a traveler when the wormhole throat is crossed. A description of the geodesic behavior for the wormholes obtained is also presented. (orig.)

  13. In memoriam : Karl R. Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tohăneanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated to Karl Popper’s memory, this essay aims at following the echo of his critical rationalism and how it has been received by Mario Bunge, one of the most prominent contemporary philosopher of science – an admirer, later a critic of Popper’s social and political philosophy. The main goal of such an endeavor is to find out where could have been Popper wrong – from Bunge’s view point – and take note of the arguments of both of them, thus hoping to get closer to the truth, as Sir Karl said.

  14. Sõrmuste isand Karl Fritsch / Merike Alber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alber, Merike

    2008-01-01

    Saksa ehtekunstniku Karl Fritschi (sünd. 1963) näitus "Metrosideros robusta. Ehted" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis kuni 29. VI. Karl Fritsch pälvis 2006. a. Francoise van den Boschi (hollandi ehtekunstnik, 1944-1977) auhinna, 1995. ja 2007. a. Herbert Hoffmanni preemia. Darling Publications kirjastas Karl Fritschist raamatud "Metrosideros Robusta" ja "Baby Brick"

  15. Mean-field dynamos: The old concept and some recent developments. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rädler, K.-H.

    This article elucidates the basic ideas of electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics of mean fields in turbulently moving conducting fluids. It is stressed that the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives is in general neither local nor instantaneous and that quite a few claims concerning pretended failures of the mean-field concept result from ignoring this aspect. In addition to the mean-field dynamo mechanisms of α2 and α Ω type several others are considered. Much progress in mean-field electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics results from the test-field method for calculating the coefficients that determine the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field. As an important example the memory effect in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is explained. In magnetohydrodynamic turbulence there is the possibility of a mean electromotive force that is primarily independent of the mean magnetic field and labeled as Yoshizawa effect. Despite of many efforts there is so far no convincing comprehensive theory of α quenching, that is, the reduction of the α effect with growing mean magnetic field, and of the saturation of mean-field dynamos. Steps toward such a theory are explained. Finally, some remarks on laboratory experiments with dynamos are made.

  16. Astronomical technology - the past and the future. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, I.

    2016-07-01

    The past fifty years have been an epoch of impressive progress in the field of astronomical technology. Practically all the technical tools, which we use today, have been developed during that time span. While the first half of this period has been dominated by advances in the detector technologies, during the past two decades innovative telescope concepts have been developed for practically all wavelength ranges where astronomical observations are possible. Further important advances can be expected in the next few decades. Based on the experience of the past, some of the main sources of technological progress can be identified.

  17. Signals from the epoch of cosmological recombination (Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyaev, R. A.; Chluba, J.

    2009-07-01

    The physical ingredients to describe the epoch of cosmological recombination are amazingly simple and well-understood. This fact allows us to take into account a very large variety of physical processes, still finding potentially measurable consequences for the energy spectrum and temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In this contribution we provide a short historical overview in connection with the cosmological recombination epoch and its connection to the CMB. Also we highlight some of the detailed physics that were studied over the past few years in the context of the cosmological recombination of hydrogen and helium. The impact of these considerations is two-fold: The associated release of photons during this epoch leads to interesting and unique deviations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) energy spectrum from a perfect blackbody, which, in particular at decimeter wavelength and the Wien part of the CMB spectrum, may become observable in the near future. Despite the fact that the abundance of helium is rather small, it still contributes a sizeable amount of photons to the full recombination spectrum, leading to additional distinct spectral features. Observing the spectral distortions from the epochs of hydrogen and helium recombination, in principle would provide an additional way to determine some of the key parameters of the Universe (e.g. the specific entropy, the CMB monopole temperature and the pre-stellar abundance of helium). Also it permits us to confront our detailed understanding of the recombination process with direct observational evidence. In this contribution we illustrate how the theoretical spectral template of the cosmological recombination spectrum may be utilized for this purpose. We also show that because hydrogen and helium recombine at very different epochs it is possible to address questions related to the thermal history of our Universe. In particular the cosmological recombination radiation may allow us to distinguish between Compton y-distortions that were created by energy release before or after the recombination of the Universe finished. With the advent of high precision CMB data, e.g. as will be available using the PLANCK Surveyor or CMBPOL, a very accurate theoretical understanding of the ionization history of the Universe becomes necessary for the interpretation of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies. Here we show that the uncertainty in the ionization history due to several processes, which until now were not taken in to account in the standard recombination code RECFAST, reaches the percent level. In particular He II->He I recombination occurs significantly faster because of the presence of a tiny fraction of neutral hydrogen at {z⪉ 2400}. Also recently it was demonstrated that in the case of H I Lyman α photons the time-dependence of the emission process and the asymmetry between the emission and absorption profile cannot be ignored. However, it is indeed surprising how inert the cosmological recombination history is even at percent-level accuracy. Observing the cosmological recombination spectrum should in principle allow us to directly check this conclusion, which until now is purely theoretical. Also it may allow to reconstruct the ionization history using observational data.

  18. Karl Schwarzschild Lecture: The Ups and Downs of the Hubble Constant (With 12 Figures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammann, G. Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A brief history of the determination of the Hubble constant H_0 is given. Early attempts following Lemaitre (1927) gave much too high values due to errors of the magnitude scale, Malmquist bias and calibration problems. By 1962 most authors agreed that 75< H_0 <130. After 1975 a dichotomy arose with values near 100 and others around 55. The former came from apparent-magnitude-limited samples and were affected by Malmquist bias. New distance indicators were introduced; they were sometimes claimed to yield high values of H_0, but the most recent data lead to H_0 in the 60's, yet with remaining difficulties as to the zero-point of the respective distance indicators. SNe Ia with their large range and very small luminosity dispersion (avoiding Malmquist bias) offer a unique opportunity to determine the large-scale value of H_0. Their maximum luminosity can be well calibrated from 10 SNe Ia in local parent galaxies whose Cepheids have been observed with HST. An unforeseen difficulty - affecting all Cepheid distances - is that their P-L relation varies from galaxy to galaxy, presumably in function of metallicity. A proposed solution is summarized here. The conclusion is that H_0 = 63.2 +/- 1.3 (random) +/- 5.3 (systematic) on all scales. The expansion age becomes then (with Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) 15.1 Gyr.

  19. Gravitational Radiation - a New Window Onto the Universe. (Karl Schwarzschild Lecture 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.

    A summary is given of the current status and plans for gravitational-wave searches at all plausible wavelengths, from the size of the observable universe to a few kilometers. The anticipated scientific payoff from these searches is described, including expectations for detailed studies of black holes and neutron stars, high-accuracy tests of general relativity, and hopes for the discovery of exotic new kinds of objects.

  20. The Schwarzschild metric: It's the coordinates, stupid!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromholz, Pierre; Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-04-01

    Every general relativity textbook emphasizes that coordinates have no physical meaning. Nevertheless, a coordinate choice must be made in order to carry out real calculations, and that choice can make the difference between a calculation that is simple and one that is a mess. We give a concrete illustration of the maxim that "coordinates matter" using the exact Schwarzschild solution for a vacuum, static spherical spacetime. We review the standard textbook derivation, Schwarzschild's original 1916 derivation, and a derivation using the Landau-Lifshitz formulation of the Einstein field equations. The last derivation is much more complicated, has one aspect for which we have been unable to find a solution, and gives an explicit illustration of the fact that the Schwarzschild geometry can be described in infinitely many coordinate systems.

  1. Karl Marx 1864 og forsigtighedsprincippet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer divergerende versioner af den tekst, som Karl Marx efter dannelsen af den 1.Internationale Arbejderassociation i London september 1864 har oversat fra sit engelske original (Inaugural Address...), der udkom i november, til en tysk version med overskriften 'Manifest an die...

  2. Karl Marx and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  3. Karl Ove Knausgaard's My Struggle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Arnaud; Kjerkegaard, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this study of Karl Ove Knausgaard’s My Struggle, the authors theorize what paratextual information does to one’s reading, especially in autobiography informed literature. Although My Struggle can be read both as memoir and novel, and even as autofiction, Knausgaard is aiming at a higher truth...

  4. Heuristic extension of the Schwarzschild metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's equations of gravitation has several singularities. It is known that the singularity at r = 2Gm/c 2 is only apparent, a result of the coordinates in which the solution was found. Paradoxical results occuring near the singularity show the system of coordinates is incomplete. We introduce a simple, two-dimensional metric with an apparent singularity that makes it incomplete. By a straightforward, heuristic procedure we extend and complete this simple metric. We then use the same procedure to give a heuristic derivation of the Kruskal system of coordinates, which is known to extend the Schwarzschild manifold past its apparent singularity and produce a complete manifold

  5. Quantum corrections to Schwarzschild black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Using effective field theory techniques, we compute quantum corrections to spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's gravity and focus in particular on the Schwarzschild black hole. Quantum modifications are covariantly encoded in a non-local effective action. We work to quadratic order in curvatures simultaneously taking local and non-local corrections into account. Looking for solutions perturbatively close to that of classical general relativity, we find that an eternal Schwarzschild black hole remains a solution and receives no quantum corrections up to this order in the curvature expansion. In contrast, the field of a massive star receives corrections which are fully determined by the effective field theory. (orig.)

  6. On quantum deformation of the Schwarzschild solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.I.; Solodukhin, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the deformation of the Schwarzschild solution in general relativity due to spherically symmetric quantum fluctuations of the metric and the matter fields. In this case, the 4 D theory of gravity with Einstein action reduces to the effective two-dimensional dilaton gravity. We have found that the Schwarzschild singularity at r=0 is shifted to the finite radius r min ∼ r PL , where the scalar curvature is finite, so that the space-time looks regular and consists of two asymptotically flat sheets glued at the hypersurface of constant radius. (author). 17 refs.; 4 figs

  7. First integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, A.G.; Dordzhiev, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Linear and quadratic velocity integrals of geodesics in the Einstein-Schwarzschild space are calculated. The Schwarzschild geodesics equations have only four independent linear integrals. Quadratic integrals are polynomials from linear ones with constant coefficients. Total separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with Schwarzschild metric is possible only in two coordinate systems: ''spherical'' and ''conic'' systems

  8. Quantitative properties of the Schwarzschild metric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 2018, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-10 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : exterior and interior Schwarzschild metric * proper radius * coordinate radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://astro.shu-bg.net/pasb/index_files/Papers/2018/SCHWARZ8.pdf

  9. Relativistic positioning in Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchades, Neus; Sáez, Diego

    2015-01-01

    In the Schwarzschild space-time created by an idealized static spherically symmetric Earth, two approaches -based on relativistic positioning- may be used to estimate the user position from the proper times broadcast by four satellites. In the first approach, satellites move in the Schwarzschild space-time and the photons emitted by the satellites follow null geodesics of the Minkowski space-time asymptotic to the Schwarzschild geometry. This assumption leads to positioning errors since the photon world lines are not geodesics of any Minkowski geometry. In the second approach -the most coherent one- satellites and photons move in the Schwarzschild space-time. This approach is a first order one in the dimensionless parameter GM/R (with the speed of light c=1). The two approaches give different inertial coordinates for a given user. The differences are estimated and appropriately represented for users located inside a great region surrounding Earth. The resulting values (errors) are small enough to justify the use of the first approach, which is the simplest and the most manageable one. The satellite evolution mimics that of the GALILEO global navigation satellite system. (paper)

  10. Statistical Entropy of Schwarzschild Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, F

    1998-01-01

    The entropy of a seven dimensional Schwarzschild black hole of arbitrary large radius is obtained by a mapping onto a near extremal self-dual three-brane whose partition function can be evaluated. The three-brane arises from duality after submitting a neutral blackbrane, from which the Schwarzschild black hole can be obtained by compactification, to an infinite boost in non compact eleven dimensional space-time and then to a Kaluza-Klein compactification. This limit can be defined in precise terms and yields the Beckenstein-Hawking value up to a factor of order one which can be set to be exactly one with the extra assumption of keeping only transverse brane excitations. The method can be generalized to five and four dimensional black holes.

  11. Classroom reconstruction of the Schwarzschild metric

    OpenAIRE

    Kassner, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A promising way to introduce general relativity in the classroom is to study the physical implications of certain given metrics, such as the Schwarzschild one. This involves lower mathematical expenditure than an approach focusing on differential geometry in its full glory and permits to emphasize physical aspects before attacking the field equations. Even so, in terms of motivation, lacking justification of the metric employed may pose an obstacle. The paper discusses how to establish the we...

  12. Quantum correlator outside a Schwarzschild black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Buss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the quantum correlator in Schwarzschild black hole space–time. We perform the calculation for a scalar field in three different quantum states: Boulware, Unruh and Hartle–Hawking, and for points along a timelike circular geodesic. The results show that the correlator presents a global fourfold singularity structure, which is state-independent. Our results also show the different correlations in the three different quantum states arising in-between the singularities.

  13. Effective Stringy Description of Schwarzschild Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnov , Kirill; Solodukhin , Sergey N.

    2004-01-01

    We start by pointing out that certain Riemann surfaces appear rather naturally in the context of wave equations in the black hole background. For a given black hole there are two closely related surfaces. One is the Riemann surface of complexified ``tortoise'' coordinate. The other Riemann surface appears when the radial wave equation is interpreted as the Fuchsian differential equation. We study these surfaces in detail for the BTZ and Schwarzschild black holes in four and higher dimensions....

  14. A Statistical Mechanical Problem in Schwarzschild Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Collas, Peter; Klein, David

    2006-01-01

    We use Fermi coordinates to calculate the canonical partition function for an ideal gas in a circular geodesic orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime. To test the validity of the results we prove theorems for limiting cases. We recover the Newtonian gas law subject only to tidal forces in the Newtonian limit. Additionally we recover the special relativistic gas law as the radius of the orbit increases to infinity. We also discuss how the method can be extended to the non ideal gas case.

  15. The Planck Vacuum and the Schwarzschild Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Planck vacuum (PV is assumed to be the source of the visible universe. So under conditions of sufficient stress, there must exist a pathway through which energy from the PV can travel into this universe. Conversely, the passage of energy from the visible universe to the PV must also exist under the same stressful conditions. The following examines two versions of the Schwarzschild metric equation for compatability with this open-pathway idea.

  16. Entanglement redistribution in the Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jieci; Pan, Qiyuan; Jing, Jiliang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Hawking radiation on the redistribution of the entanglement and mutual information in the Schwarzschild spacetime is investigated. Our analysis shows that the physically accessible correlations degrade while the unaccessible correlations increase as the Hawking temperature increases because the initial correlations described by inertial observers are redistributed between all the bipartite modes. It is interesting to note that, in the limit case that the temperature tends to infinity, the accessible mutual information equals to just half of its initial value, and the unaccessible mutual information between mode A and II also equals to the same value.

  17. Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-08-24

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.

  18. Analytic extension of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazanski, S.L.; Ferrari, V.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, co-ordinates are derived that are regular, respectively, in the neighbourhood of the two horizons which exist in the so-called Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution known in general relativity, and it is constructed a manifold that is the analytic extension of the manifold being the domain of classical Schwarzschild-de Sitter co-ordinates

  19. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points.

  20. Kirjavahetus Kaarel Robert Pustaga / Karl Ast Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2009-01-01

    Kirjavahetus Rio de Janeiros elava Karl Ast Rumori ja New Yorgis elava Kaarel Robert Pusta vahel Eesti kongressi kokkukutsumise vajalikkuse, väliseesti ühingute ja nõukogude, ajakirjanduse ning üldise poliitilise olukorra teemadel

  1. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  2. Karl Kello - elukutse olla saarlane / Aare Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Aare, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Kuressaare Kuursaalis näidati kadripäeval nelja Ruta Celma ja Karl Kello kultuuriloolist dokumentaalfilmi : "Narr Jumala kojas" (2000), "Phaetonit otsides" (1999), "Eestlased Lätis" (2004) ja Kalevipoja temaatikat arendav "Küll siis Kalev..." (2004). Filmide operaator on Arvo Vilu. Artikli autor kõneleb Karl Kellost, tema Karja kiriku ja Kaali järve problemaatika arendustest peale filmide ka kirjasõnas

  3. Geometric extension through Schwarzschild r = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.; Katz, J.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem

    1990-01-01

    Singularities in space-time are not necessarily cancers in the manifold but can herald interesting topological change in the space-time at places where there are several different tangent Minkowski spaces. Most discussions of gravitational collapse cease when space-time becomes singular. In the 'hour-glass' universe we have an example where the singularity develops in empty space; here we give a geometrical extension through the singularity in which geodesics that enter it emerge into a new space. The result extends Schwarzschild space and is periodic in 'extended' Penrose coordinates. There is a topological singularity but no mass at r = 0. The extension is mildly nonanalytic but unique. It is based on the concept that time does not stop and that empty space-times which develop singularities must still have zero Ricci tensors even where the Riemann tensor becomes infinite. (author)

  4. Canonical quantization inside the Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, U. A.; Narayan, K.

    1998-05-01

    We propose a scheme for quantizing a scalar field over the Schwarzschild manifold including the interior of the horizon. On the exterior, the timelike Killing vector and on the horizon the isometry corresponding to restricted Lorentz boosts can be used to enforce the spectral condition. For the interior we appeal to CPT invariance to construct an explicitly positive-definite operator which allows identification of positive and negative frequencies. This operator is the translation operator corresponding to the inexorable propagation to smaller radii as expected from the classical metric. We also propose an expression for the propagator in the interior and express it as a mode sum. The field theory thus obtained is meaningful for small curvatures far from the classical singularity.

  5. Hawking radiation inside a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2018-05-01

    The boundary of any observer's spacetime is the boundary that divides what the observer can see from what they cannot see. The boundary of an observer's spacetime in the presence of a black hole is not the true (future event) horizon of the black hole, but rather the illusory horizon, the dimming, redshifting surface of the star that collapsed to the black hole long ago. The illusory horizon is the source of Hawking radiation seen by observers both outside and inside the true horizon. The perceived acceleration (gravity) on the illusory horizon sets the characteristic frequency scale of Hawking radiation, even if that acceleration varies dynamically, as it must do from the perspective of an infalling observer. The acceleration seen by a non-rotating free-faller both on the illusory horizon below and in the sky above is calculated for a Schwarzschild black hole. Remarkably, as an infaller approaches the singularity, the acceleration becomes isotropic, and diverging as a power law. The isotropic, power-law character of the Hawking radiation, coupled with conservation of energy-momentum, the trace anomaly, and the familiar behavior of Hawking radiation far from the black hole, leads to a complete description of the quantum energy-momentum inside a Schwarzschild black hole. The quantum energy-momentum near the singularity diverges as r^{-6}, and consists of relativistic Hawking radiation and negative energy vacuum in the ratio 3 : - 2. The classical back reaction of the quantum energy-momentum on the geometry, calculated using the Einstein equations, serves merely to exacerbate the singularity. All the results are consistent with traditional calculations of the quantum energy-momentum in 1 + 1 spacetime dimensions.

  6. Covariant perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, Chris A; Barrett, Richard K

    2003-01-01

    We present a new covariant and gauge-invariant perturbation formalism for dealing with spacetimes having spherical symmetry (or some preferred spatial direction) in the background, and apply it to the case of gravitational wave propagation in a Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime. The 1 + 3 covariant approach is extended to a '1 + 1 + 2 covariant sheet' formalism by introducing a radial unit vector in addition to the timelike congruence, and decomposing all covariant quantities with respect to this. The background Schwarzschild solution is discussed and a covariant characterization is given. We give the full first-order system of linearized 1 + 1 + 2 covariant equations, and we show how, by introducing (time and spherical) harmonic functions, these may be reduced to a system of first-order ordinary differential equations and algebraic constraints for the 1 + 1 + 2 variables which may be solved straightforwardly. We show how both odd- and even-parity perturbations may be unified by the discovery of a covariant, frame- and gauge-invariant, transverse-traceless tensor describing gravitational waves, which satisfies a covariant wave equation equivalent to the Regge-Wheeler equation for both even- and odd-parity perturbations. We show how the Zerilli equation may be derived from this tensor, and derive a similar transverse-traceless tensor equation equivalent to this equation. The so-called special quasinormal modes with purely imaginary frequency emerge naturally. The significance of the degrees of freedom in the choice of the two frame vectors is discussed, and we demonstrate that, for a certain frame choice, the underlying dynamics is governed purely by the Regge-Wheeler tensor. The two transverse-traceless Weyl tensors which carry the curvature of gravitational waves are discussed, and we give the closed system of four first-order ordinary differential equations describing their propagation. Finally, we consider the extension of this work to the study of

  7. Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in extended Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, M. J.; Frauendiener, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of spherically symmetric hypersurfaces in the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild space-time. The hypersurfaces have constant negative scalar curvature, so they are hyperboloidal in the regions of space-time which are asymptotically flat

  8. Physics with Big Karl Brainstorming. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machner, H.; Lieb, J.

    2000-08-01

    Before summarizing details of the meeting, a short description of the spectrometer facility Big Karl is given. The facility is essentially a new instrument using refurbished dipole magnets from its predecessor. The large acceptance quadrupole magnets and the beam optics are new. Big Karl has a design very similar as the focussing spectrometers at MAMI (Mainz), AGOR (Groningen) and the high resolution spectrometer (HRS) in Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory with ΔE/E = 10 -4 but at some lower maximum momentum. The focal plane detectors consisting of multiwire drift chambers and scintillating hodoscopes are similar. Unlike HRS, Big Karl still needs Cerenkov counters and polarimeters in its focal plane; detectors which are necessary to perform some of the experiments proposed during the brainstorming. In addition, BIG KARL allows emission angle reconstruction via track measurements in its focal plane with high resolution. In the following the physics highlights, the proposed and potential experiments are summarized. During the meeting it became obvious that the physics to be explored at Big Karl can be grouped into five distinct categories, and this summary is organized accordingly. (orig.)

  9. K. Schwarzschild's problem in radiation transfer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutily, B.; Chevallier, L.; Pelkowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    We solve exactly the problem of a finite slab receiving an isotropic radiation on one side and no radiation on the other side. This problem-to be more precise the calculation of the source function within the slab-was first formulated by K. Schwarzschild in 1914. We first solve it for unspecified albedos and optical thicknesses of the atmosphere, in particular for an albedo very close to 1 and a very large optical thickness in view of some astrophysical applications. Then we focus on the conservative case (albedo=1), which is of great interest for the modeling of grey atmospheres in radiative equilibrium. Ten-figure tables of the conservative source function are given. From the analytical expression of this function, we deduce (1) a simple relation between the effective temperature of a grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium and the temperature of the black body that irradiates it (2) the temperature at any point of the atmosphere when it is in local thermodynamical equilibrium. This temperature distribution is the counterpart, for a finite slab, of Hopf's distribution in a half-space. Its graphical representation is given for various optical thicknesses of the atmosphere

  10. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (l=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (l=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that--in contrast to previous predictions in the literature--the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  11. Relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M

    2013-01-01

    A relativistic gas in a Schwarzschild metric is studied within the framework of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields, where Marle’s model for the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is employed. The transport coefficients of the bulk and shear viscosities and thermal conductivity are determined from the Chapman–Enskog method. It is shown that the transport coefficients depend on the gravitational potential. Expressions for the transport coefficients in the presence of weak gravitational fields in the non-relativistic (low temperature) and ultra-relativistic (high temperature) limiting cases are given. Apart from the temperature gradient the heat flux has two relativistic terms. The first one, proposed by Eckart, is due to the inertia of energy and represents an isothermal heat flux when matter is accelerated. The other, suggested by Tolman, is proportional to the gravitational potential gradient and indicates that—in the absence of an acceleration field—a state of equilibrium of a relativistic gas in a gravitational field can be attained only if the temperature gradient is counterbalanced by a gravitational potential gradient. (paper)

  12. Karl A. Gschneidner Jr (1930–2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2016-01-01

    Presented here is the obituary for Karl Albert Gschneidner Jr. He died on 27 April 2016. Nicknamed Mr Rare Earth, he holds an unparalleled place as the renowned authority in just about every aspect related to the science, technology and history of a very special family of elements — the rare earths.

  13. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  14. Karl Marx: Critique as Emancipatory Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celikates, R.; de Boer, K.; Sonderegger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Critique of philosophy, critique of religion, critique of politics, critique of political economy - there is almost no sphere of modern society of which Karl Marx’s theory does not offer a critique. This makes it all the more necessary to investigate whether these different critiques possess any

  15. Early German plans for southern observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  16. The Schwarzschild effect of the dosimetry film Kodak EDR 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouguela, A; Kollhoff, R; Rubach, A; Harder, D; Poppe, B

    2005-11-07

    The magnitude of the Schwarzschild effect or failure of the reciprocity law has been experimentally investigated for the dosimetry film EDR 2 from Kodak. When the dose rate applied to achieve a given dose was reduced by a factor of 12, the net optical density was reduced by up to 5%. The clinical importance of this effect is negligible as long as the films are calibrated at a value of the dose rate approximately representative of the dose rates occurring in the target volume, but in target regions of strongly reduced dose rate the Schwarzschild effect should be allowed for by a correction of the net optical density.

  17. Cardy-Verlinde Formula of Noncommutative Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Few years ago, Setare (2006 has investigated the Cardy-Verlinde formula of noncommutative black hole obtained by noncommutativity of coordinates. In this paper, we apply the same procedure to a noncommutative black hole obtained by the coordinate coherent approach. The Cardy-Verlinde formula is entropy formula of conformal field theory in an arbitrary dimension. It relates the entropy of conformal field theory to its total energy and Casimir energy. In this paper, we have calculated the total energy and Casimir energy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and have shown that entropy of noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole horizon can be expressed in terms of Cardy-Verlinde formula.

  18. Quantum field theory in Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of defining a scalar quantum field in the space-times described by the Schwarzschild and Rindler metrics is discussed. The matrix elements of the field operators are found by calculating the Green's functions for the fields. The requirement of positive frequencies for asymptotic timelike separations combined with a careful analysis of the continuity conditions at the event horizons yields a unique prescription for the Green's function. This in turn defines the vacuum state. In the Schwarzschild space the vacuum is shown to be stable and the lowest-energy state. In the Rindler space the quantization procedure yields the same results as quantization in Minkowski coordinates

  19. The golden ratio in Schwarzschild-Kottler black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we show that the golden ratio is present in the Schwarzschild-Kottler metric. For null geodesics with maximal radial acceleration, the turning points of the orbits are in the golden ratio Φ = (√(5)-1)/2. This is a general result which is independent of the value and sign of the cosmological constant Λ. (orig.)

  20. FRW cosmological model inside an isolated Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, C.; Rosales, J. J.; Socorro, J.; Tkach, V. I.

    2004-01-01

    Using the canonical quantum theory of spherically symmetric pure gravitational systems, we present a direct correspondence between the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model in the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole and the nth energy eigenstate of a linear harmonic oscillator. Such type of universe has a quantized mass of the order of the Planck mass and harmonic oscillator wave functions

  1. Taub-NUT spinless particles and Schwarzschild spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; La Sapienza Univ., Rome

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a small gravitomagnetic monopole on (accelerated) circular orbits in the equatorial plane of the Taub-NUT space-time is compared to the corresponding (accelerated) orbits pushed slightly off the equatorial plane in the absence of the monopole (Schwarzschild space-time)

  2. The scalar wave equation in a Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1978-09-01

    This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the zero rest mass scalar wave equation in the Schwarzschild spacetime in a neighbourhood of spatial infinity, which includes parts of future and past null infinity. The behaviour of such fields is essentially different from that which accurs in a flat spacetime. (orig.) [de

  3. Quasinormal Modes of a Quantum-Corrected Schwarzschild Black ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chunyan Wang

    2017-11-27

    Nov 27, 2017 ... Abstract. In this work, we investigate the electromagnetic perturbation around a quantum-corrected. Schwarzschild black hole. The complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes are evaluated by the third- order WKB approximation. The numerical results obtained showed that the complex frequencies ...

  4. A comment on the null geodesic equations in Schwarzschild geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, M.A.F.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    An integration of the null geodesic equations in the Schwarzschild geometry, which is valid to first order in GM/Rc 2 is presented. The solution is compared with others published in the literature and their range of validity is analysed. Some misunderstandings are also clarified. (Author) [pt

  5. Astronomy from Olbers to Schwarzschild. (German Title: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Wolfgang R.; Hamel, Jürgen

    This issue comprises talks presented 2000 September 18 at the colloquium ``International relations in astronomy'' it is supplemented by additional articles about this topic. The foundation of the international ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'', which took place in 1800 in Bremen, prompted us to investigate the development of astronomy in German-speaking regions, and its international relations during the 19th century. We investigate the activities of famous astronomers like W. Olbers, J.E. Bode, F.X. von Zach, J.H. Schroeter, H.C. Schumacher and K. Schwarzschild, as well as those of their less famous professional colleagues like J.G. Schrader and L. de Ball. The geographical spectrum extends from Bremen and Lilienthal over Kiel, Gotha and Dresden to Copenhagen, Vienna and Chile. Among the topics are: telescope construction, including telescopes made by Herschel, the rediscovery of the minor planet Ceres 1801/02, the Berlin ``Astronomisches Jahrbuch'', the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', the evolution from the ``Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft'' to the present-day ``Astronomische Gesellschaft'', the research at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna, the professionalization in astronomy, and the attempts of many countries to establish a southern observatory in Chile. A listing of astronomical monuments in Lilienthal and Bremen concludes the book. All papers are written in German with English abstracts.

  6. 'Doing theology as though nothing had happened' – reading Karl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Doing theology as though nothing had happened' – reading Karl Barth's confessional theology in Zimbabwe today? ... This article will attempt to argue that this theology can contribute to the Reformed theology in present day Zimbabwe. It will therefore attempt to introduce the confessional theology of Karl Barth to ...

  7. Un-graviton corrections to the Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaete, Patricio; Helayel-Neto, Jose A.; Spallucci, Euro

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an effective action smoothly extending the standard Einstein-Hilbert action to include un-gravity effects. The improved field equations are solved for the un-graviton corrected Schwarzschild geometry reproducing the Mureika result. This is an important test to confirm the original 'guess' of the form of the un-Schwarzschild metric. Instead of working in the weak field approximation and 'dressing' the Newtonian potential with un-gravitons, we solve the 'effective Einstein equations' including all order un-gravity effects. An unexpected 'bonus' of accounting un-gravity effects is the fractalisation of the event horizon. In the un-gravity dominated regime the event horizon thermodynamically behaves as fractal surface of dimensionality twice the scale dimension d U .

  8. Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole

  9. Space–time and spatial geodesic orbits in Schwarzschild geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resca, Lorenzo

    2018-05-01

    Geodesic orbit equations in the Schwarzschild geometry of general relativity reduce to ordinary conic sections of Newtonian mechanics and gravity for material particles in the non-relativistic limit. On the contrary, geodesic orbit equations for a proper spatial submanifold of Schwarzschild metric at any given coordinate-time correspond to an unphysical gravitational repulsion in the non-relativistic limit. This demonstrates at a basic level the centrality and critical role of relativistic time and its intimate pseudo-Riemannian connection with space. Correspondingly, a commonly popularised depiction of geodesic orbits of planets as resulting from the curvature of space produced by the Sun, represented as a rubber sheet dipped in the middle by the weighing of that massive body, is mistaken and misleading for the essence of relativity, even in the non-relativistic limit.

  10. Uniqueness of the electrostatic solution in Schwarzschild space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Pal G.; Elsaesser, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this Brief Report we give the proof that the solution of any static test charge distribution in Schwarzschild space is unique. In order to give the proof we derive the first Green's identity written with p-forms on (pseudo) Riemannian manifolds. Moreover, the proof of uniqueness can be shown for either any purely electric or purely magnetic field configuration. The spacetime geometry is not crucial for the proof

  11. Regular coordinate systems for Schwarzschild and other spherical spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The continuation of the Schwarzschild metric across the event horizon is almost always (in textbooks) carried out using the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates, in terms of which the areal radius r is defined only implicitly. We argue that from a pedagogical point of view, using these coordinates comes with several drawbacks, and we advocate the use of simpler, but equally effective, coordinate systems. One such system, introduced by Painleve and Gullstrand in the 1920's, is especially simple and pe...

  12. Can one increase the luminosity of a Schwarzschild black hole?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, Avraham E.

    2000-01-01

    We illustrate how Hawking's radiance from a Schwarzschild black hole is modified by the electrostatic self-interaction of the emitted charged particles. A W.K.B approximation shows that the probability for a self-interacting charged particle to propagate from the interior to the exterior of the horizon is increased relative to the corresponding probability for neutral particles. We also demonstrate how the electric potential of a charged test object in the black hole's vicinity gives rise to ...

  13. (Anti-)Evaporation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    We study the quantum evolution of black holes immersed in a de Sitter background space. For black holes whose size is comparable to that of the cosmological horizon, this process differs significantly from the evaporation of asymptotically flat black holes. Our model includes the one-loop effective action in the s-wave and large N approximation. Black holes of the maximal mass are in equilibrium. Unexpectedly, we find that nearly maximal quantum Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes anti-evapor...

  14. Karl Korsch e a Comuna de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cavini Martorano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apesar de haver escrito uma extensa obra que ainda vem sendo editada no seu país natal, o marxista alemão Karl Korsch é praticamente desconhecido no Brasil – exceção feita a alguns poucos pesquisadores. Além da recente edição brasileira de seu importante trabalho Marxismo e filosofia (Editora UFRJ, e de alguns outros textos e artigos que podem ser encontrados em diferentes sites, o acesso ao conjunto de sua obra ainda é bastante difícil.

  15. Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnica, J.

    1992-01-01

    The life's career of Werner Karl Heisenberg is described with emphasis on his creative development and cooperation with many other prominent physicists in the field of the quantum theory of atoms. In 1925, Heisenberg modified Bohr's quantum rule; in 1927 he formulated the uncertainty principle which puts some restrictions on the simultaneous determination of the position and momentum. In 1928, Heisenberg set up the quantum theory of ferromagnetism, which still underlies all theories of magnetic properties of substances. Soon after Chadwick's discovery of the neutron (1932), Heisenberg introduced the concept of the isospin - he interpreted the proton and the neutron as one particle (nucleon) in two charge states. Heisenberg's professional and pedagogical activities during and after the 2nd world war are also described. (Z.S.). 5 refs

  16. Kernaspekte van die kennissosiologie van Karl Mannheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Louw

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with certain crucial aspects of the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim in view of the fact that he finds that the increase, worldwide, of interest in ideological difficulties in South Africa can fruitfully be dealt with in terms of this form of sociology. This is justified in part by Mannheim's viewpoint that thought is a function of human existence, and this function emanates from needs based on social factors. He traces Mannheim's use of the term ideology (in Sociology, culminating With the Idea that “the birth and death of ideology depends on certain social, economic and 'ecological' factors”. Subsequently he deals with a whole line of aspects of the sociology of knowledge as expounded by Mannheim, culminating in the idea that shifts in views with regard to lifeview and underlying values take place when there is a rapid upward (vertical mobility, leading to uncertainties and a lack of trust in established values.

  17. The scalar wave equation in a Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.G.; Stewart, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper studies the asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the zero rest mass scalar wave equation in the Schwarzschild space-time in a neighbourhood of spatial infinity which includes parts of future and pass null infinity. The behaviour of such fields is essentially different from that which occurs in a flat space-time. In particular fields which have a Bondi-type expansion in powers of 'r(-1)' near past null infinity do not have such an expansion near future null infinity. Further solutions which have physically reasonable Cauchy data probably fail to have Bondi-type expansions near null infinity. (author)

  18. Drude-Schwarzschild Metric and the Electrical Conductivity of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P. R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a string with a length equal to the electron mean free path and having a unit cell equal to the Compton length of the electron, we construct a Schwarzschild-like metric. We found that this metric has a surface horizon with radius equal to the electron mean free path and its Bekenstein-like entropy is proportional to the number of squared unit cells contained in this spherical surface. The Hawking temperature is inversely proportional to the perimeter of the maximum circle of this sphere. Also, interesting analogies on some features of the particle physics are examined.

  19. QFT holography near the horizon of Schwarzschild-like spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Valter; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that free QFT can be defined on the event horizon of a Schwarzschild-like spacetime and that this theory is unitarily and algebraically equivalent to QFT in the bulk (near the horizon). Under that unitary equivalence the bulk hidden SL(2,R) symmetry found in a previous work becomes manifest on the event horizon, it being induced by a group of horizon diffeomorphisms. The class of generators of that group can be enlarged to include a full Virasoro algebra of fields which are defin...

  20. Kes oli rännumees Karl Feyerabend? / Urmas Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Urmas, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    Feyerabend, Karl. Kosmopolitische Wanderungen durch Preussen, Curland, Liefland, Litthauen, Vollhynien, Podolien und Schlesien, in der jahren 1795 bis 1798. In Briefen an einen Freund. Bd. 3. 1801. Eestile on pühendatud reisiraamatu 40. kiri

  1. Karl Timoleon v. Neff / Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vogel von Vogelstein, Carl Christian, 1788-1868

    2004-01-01

    "Ruskii Bibliofil", 1912, nr. 4, lk. 34; fotol tekst: "Piano di Sorrento, Villa Pisani, 20. Juli 1843". Neffi käega kirjutatud: "Karl Timoleon v. Neff geboren in Pühs in Estland im Jahre 1804 d. 2. October"

  2. Balti Maailmanõukogu aktsioonid Helsingis 1975 / Karl Laantee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laantee, Karl, 1927-2007

    2006-01-01

    1975. a. Helsingis peetud Euroopa Julgeoleku ja Koostöö Konverentsi Balti delegatsiooni liikme Karl Laantee tekst, mille ta esitas 4. augustil 1975 Balti Maailmanõukogu pressikonverentsil "Continental"hotellis Stockholmis Rootsi Eestlaste Esinduse pressiinfona

  3. Karl Popper at ninety: Highlights of a lifelong intellectual quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Franco; van der Merwe, Alwyn

    1991-12-01

    On the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, Karl Popper's lifelong pursuit of answers in several areas of scientific and philosophical thinking is briefly traced, mainly with reference to excerpts from his own writings.

  4. Märkmeid uusima Preisi tsensuuriinstruktsiooni kohta / Karl Marx

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marx, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Preisi uue (1841. aasta) tsensuuriinstruktsiooni tõusikliku vaimu vastuolust vana (1818. aasta) tsensuurimääruse ratsionalismiga. Moraali ja religiooni vastuolust. Vt. ka Ain Kaalepi artiklit "Veel Karl Marxist ja tsensuurist

  5. Karl Rawer’s life and scientific achievements*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This laudation is given in honor of the 90th birthday of Prof. Karl Rawer. The ionosphere was discovered during Karl Rawer’s life, and he has dedicated his life to the exploration of this part of Earth’s environment. The horrible events of world wars I and II shaped his early life, but they also launched his career as one of the eminent geophysical scientists of the twentieth century.

  6. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  7. A Conversation with Karl K. Turekian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Note Each year, the editorial board invites a distinguished member of the oceanographic community to contribute a prefatory chapter; this year, we were delighted when Karl Turekian, Sterling Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale, accepted our invitation. Over the course of a long and productive career, Dr. Turekian has pursued his interests in marine and atmospheric geochemistry by using natural radioactive and radiogenic isotopes to study Earth's evolution and the impacts of global change. He has also directed both the Center for the Study of Global Change at Yale and the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies. In this interview, conducted by his former student Kirk Cochran, Dr. Turekian tells the story of his early career and discusses some of the major scientific challenges and opportunities faced along the way. His personal account of the rise of geochemistry is a charming story of how chance events and personalities impact scientific careers. His technical insight into the future of this field is illuminating, particularly for scientific outsiders who appreciate the central role of geochemistry in discerning and understanding patterns of global change. Craig A. Carlson and Stephen J. Giovannoni, Editors [Figure: see text

  8. Information Systems Foundations - Karl Popper's third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McDonald

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The various information professions have matured separately over the years, developing different bodies of theory and practice to meet their evolving purposes and needs. A problem arises however, when different information professions address the same knowledge domain and there is no explicit correspondence between the conceptual structures embedded independently in each. In this situation, a knowledge worker involved in the domain is faced with a range of possibly incompatible structures presented in different forms by a range of information professions. This is a common problem that is being exacerbated by the explosion in information production and the widening access to information distribution technology, notably the World Wide Web. Information Systems now need to combine the best of what the information professions in a domain have to offer the domain’s knowledge workers. This paper examines the problem by exploring one of the foundations of the information disciplines - Karl Popper’s 3 Worlds theory, applying it to a case study and suggesting that the Information Systems discipline alone has a sufficiently broad agenda to integrate the various Informatics themes needed to support today’s knowledge workers.

  9. Karl Marx dan Konsep Perjuangan Kelas Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriaty Ismail

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ¬¬This article explores the history of the renowned world economic and political reformist, Karl Marx with a special focus on the social class concept. It also discusses to what extent that the Marx’s concept of social class struggle is capable to provide a way out to the proletariats, to free themselves from the chains of cruelty, violence and alienation in the capitalist system. Our main focal point is to scrutinize the relationship between the concepts of social class struggle and the need for a social revolution as a catalyst for the formation of a classless society. Along the way, we studied and analyzed the documents produced on the primary sources covering major works of Marx and the secondary sources consisting reviews of the Marx’s class concept. As a result, we found out that Marx’s concept of class fight is competent to represent the oppressed group to battle for their freedom rights. The Proletariat dictatorship attitude was used as their main shield to face the threat of the capitalist class. Marx’s ultimate success is realized through a burst of ideas and beliefs that supports the ideas of egalitarian Communism although many contradictions arise between the ideas of Marx and the 20th centuries Communism when they are translated into practice.

  10. Embeddings for the Schwarzschild metric: classification and new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paston, S A; Sheykin, A A

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a method to search the embeddings of Riemannian spaces with a high enough symmetry in a flat ambient space. It is based on a procedure of construction surfaces with a given symmetry. The method is used to classify the embeddings of the Schwarzschild metric which have the symmetry of this solution, and all such embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space (i.e. a space with a minimal possible dimension) are constructed. Four of the six possible embeddings are already known, while the two others are new. One of the new embeddings is asymptotically flat, while the other embeddings in a six-dimensional ambient space do not have this property. The asymptotically flat embedding can be of use in the analysis of the many-body problem, as well as for the development of gravity description as a theory of a surface in a flat ambient space. (paper)

  11. Accretion onto a noncommutative-inspired Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Paik, Biplab; Mandal, Rituparna

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of ordinary baryonic matter accretion onto the noncommutative (NC) geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The fundamental equations governing the spherically symmetric steady state matter accretion are deduced. These equations are seen to be modified due to the presence of noncommutativity. The matter accretion rate is computed and is found to increase rapidly with the increase in strength of the NC parameter. The sonic radius reduces while the sound speed at the sonic point increases with the increase in the strength of noncommutativity. The profile of the thermal environment is finally investigated below the sonic radius and at the event horizon and is found to be affected by noncommutativity.

  12. On the world function of the Schwarzschild field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchdahl, H.A.; Warner, N.P.

    1979-01-01

    The representation of the world function Ω of the Schwarzschild field as a power series is investigated. The initial concern is with a neighbourhood of the event horizon. The symmetries of the metric are invoked effectively to reduce the number of independent variables upon which Ω depends from eight to four, and to show that when these are sufficiently small in magnitude Ω is an analytic function of them. A fairly large number of the early terms of the power series for Ω is found explicitly. The condition that one is to remain sufficiently close to the event horizon is then relaxed, it being merely stipulated that the endpoints shall be sufficiently close to each other. Finally, using other variables, the early terms of a series for Ω are obtained for the case in which the endpoints are restricted to lie outside the event horizon and sufficiently close to each other. (author)

  13. Algebraically special perturbations of the Schwarzschild solution in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Óscar J C; Reall, Harvey S

    2013-01-01

    We study algebraically special perturbations of a generalized Schwarzschild solution in any number of dimensions. There are two motivations. First, to learn whether there exist interesting higher-dimensional algebraically special solutions beyond the known ones. Second, algebraically special perturbations present an obstruction to the unique reconstruction of general metric perturbations from gauge-invariant variables analogous to the Teukolsky scalars and it is desirable to know the extent of this non-uniqueness. In four dimensions, our results generalize those of Couch and Newman, who found infinite families of time-dependent algebraically special perturbations. In higher dimensions, we find that the only regular algebraically special perturbations are those corresponding to deformations within the Myers–Perry family. Our results are relevant for several inequivalent definitions of ‘algebraically special’. (paper)

  14. The Compton-Schwarzschild correspondence from extended de Broglie relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, “The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education,Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Carr, Bernard [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-17

    The Compton wavelength gives the minimum radius within which the mass of a particle may be localized due to quantum effects, while the Schwarzschild radius gives the maximum radius within which the mass of a black hole may be localized due to classial gravity. In a mass-radius diagram, the two lines intersect near the Planck point (l{sub P},m{sub P}), where quantum gravity effects become significant. Since canonical (non-gravitational) quantum mechanics is based on the concept of wave-particle duality, encapsulated in the de Broglie relations, these relations should break down near (l{sub P},m{sub P}). It is unclear what physical interpretation can be given to quantum particles with energy E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}, since they correspond to wavelengths λ≪l{sub P} or time periods τ≪t{sub P} in the standard theory. We therefore propose a correction to the standard de Broglie relations, which gives rise to a modified Schrödinger equation and a modified expression for the Compton wavelength, which may be extended into the region E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2}. For the proposed modification, we recover the expression for the Schwarzschild radius for E≫m{sub P}c{sup 2} and the usual Compton formula for E≪m{sub P}c{sup 2}. The sign of the inequality obtained from the uncertainty principle reverses at m≈m{sub P}, so that the Compton wavelength and event horizon size may be interpreted as minimum and maximum radii, respectively. We interpret the additional terms in the modified de Broglie relations as representing the self-gravitation of the wave packet.

  15. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  16. Constructing Marxism: Karl Kautsky and the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2009-01-01

    Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...

  17. Træk af en ung Karl Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Magnus Møller

    2018-01-01

    Det kritiske program, som var Karl Marx' bidrag til både tænkningen og den revolutionære bevægelse, tog sit udgangspunkt i det filosofiske miljø, der dominerede i Tyskland i 1840'erne.......Det kritiske program, som var Karl Marx' bidrag til både tænkningen og den revolutionære bevægelse, tog sit udgangspunkt i det filosofiske miljø, der dominerede i Tyskland i 1840'erne....

  18. Mozart, Karl Barth, og den kristne troslæren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ......En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ...

  19. A DIMENSÃO ECLESIAL DOS SACRAMENTOS SEGUNDO KARL RAHNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Francisco Taborda

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Escrever sobre Karl Rahner já deixou de ser moda. Por isso mesmo vale a pena tentá-lo. Ultrapassados o entusiasmo novidadeiro e o ardor sectário, o estudo do teólogo alemão pode ser muito mais frutuo-so à reflexão teológica. Indubitavelmente — tenha-se sobre ele a opinião que for — Karl Rahner marcou profundamente a teologia católica, de cuja renovação entre os anos 50 e 70 de nosso século foi u m dos mais importantes fautores.

  20. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  1. Circular orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime with Fermi-Walker transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.; Carvalho, A.M. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the Fermi-Walker transport of vectors along orbits in cosmic string and Schwarzschild-AdS spacetimes. We analyze the influence of acceleration on these holonomies. An effect similar to Thomas precession is observed within the process of Fermi-Walker transport along these circular orbits which are studied in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant in Schwarzschild-AdS case; also we obtain Fermi-Walker transport in a Schwarzschild background. In the case of a Schwarzschild spacetime, we analyze the quantized band holonomy invariance. In the limit of zero acceleration we recover the well-known results for holonomy matrix obtained by parallel transport in all these spacetimes. (orig.)

  2. Alternatives to Schwarzschild in the weak field limit of General Relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Postiglione, A., E-mail: valboz@sa.infn.it, E-mail: postiglione@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Università di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00149 Roma (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The metric outside an isolated object made up of ordinary matter is bound to be the classical Schwarzschild vacuum solution of General Relativity. Nevertheless, some solutions are known (e.g. Morris-Thorne wormholes) that do not match Schwarzschild asymptotically. On a phenomenological point of view, gravitational lensing in metrics falling as 1/r{sup q} has recently attracted great interest. In this work, we explore the conditions on the source matter for constructing static spherically symmetric metrics exhibiting an arbitrary power-law as Newtonian limit. For such space-times we also derive the expressions of gravitational redshift and force on probe masses, which, together with light deflection, can be used in astrophysical searches of non-Schwarzschild objects made up of exotic matter. Interestingly, we prove that even a minimally coupled scalar field with a power-law potential can support non-Schwarzschild metrics with arbitrary asymptotic behaviour.

  3. The effect of spherical shells of matter on the Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dray, T.; Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht; Hooft, G. 't

    1985-01-01

    Based on previous work we show how to join two Schwarzschild solutions, possibly with different masses along null cylinders each representing a spherical shell of infalling or outgoing massless matter. One of the Schwarzschild masses can be zero, i.e. one region can be flat. The above procedure can be repeated to produce spacetimes with a C 0 metric describing several different (possibly flat) Schwarzschild regions separated by shells of matter. An exhaustive treatment of the ways of combining four such regions is given; the extension to many regions is then straightforward. Cases of special interest are: (1) the scattering of two spherical gravitational ''shock waves'' at the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole, and (2) a configuration involving only one external universe, which may be relevant to quantization problems in general relativity. In the latter example, only an infinitesimal amount of matter is sufficient to remove the ''Wheeler wormhole'' to another universe. (orig.)

  4. Hawking radiation from four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in M theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mathur, S.D.; Ramadevi, P.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a method has been developed for relating four dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in M theory to near-extremal black holes in string theory with four charges, using suitably defined open-quotes boostsclose quotes and T dualities. We show that this method can be extended to obtain the emission rate of low energy massless scalars for the four dimensional Schwarzschild hole from the microscopic picture of radiation from the near extremal hole. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. The linear stability of the Schwarzschild solution to gravitational perturbations in the generalised wave gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In a recent seminal paper \\cite{D--H--R} of Dafermos, Holzegel and Rodnianski the linear stability of the Schwarzschild family of black hole solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations was established by imposing a double null gauge. In this paper we shall prove that the Schwarzschild family is linearly stable as solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations by imposing instead a generalised wave gauge: all sufficiently regular solutions to the system of equations that result from linearising the...

  6. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  7. The Power of Prevention: Dr. Karl Augustus Menninger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillogly, Robert R.

    1993-01-01

    This issue's "Voices of Pioneers" segment features the work of Karl Menninger, pre-eminent psychiatrist, and his contributions to prison reform, mental health, and child care systems. Notes many of Menninger's books and writings, including relevant quotes throughout the article. Also describes Menninger's concern over the plight of…

  8. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  9. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  10. The Reference Process and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to reference process: process is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. Reference interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…

  11. Kõne EV aastapäeva aktusel / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Läti kirikus peetud Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva aktusel rääkis Karl Altau Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee nimel kommunismi ohvrite mälestussamba ehitamise alustamisest Washingtoni kesklinna 2006. aastal, koostööst kõigi baltlaste vahel ja võimalusest annetada, üleskutsest toetada Valgevene rahvast teel demokraatiale

  12. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable.

  13. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  14. hts 63_4_ vanwyk natie karl barth 2007 _outeur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Karl Barth's dogmatics is a theology of the Second Article of the Creed .... his theology: • According to Barth, ethics is the teaching of God's command (Gebot). ...... Americanism in the form of religious show business is threatening to destroy our ...

  15. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  16. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karl Barth's hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth's “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth's understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of ...

  17. Spectroscopy of the Schwarzschild black hole at arbitrary frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Marc; Ottewill, Adrian

    2012-09-14

    Linear field perturbations of a black hole are described by the Green function of the wave equation that they obey. After Fourier decomposing the Green function, its two natural contributions are given by poles (quasinormal modes) and a largely unexplored branch cut in the complex frequency plane. We present new analytic methods for calculating the branch cut on a Schwarzschild black hole for arbitrary values of the frequency. The branch cut yields a power-law tail decay for late times in the response of a black hole to an initial perturbation. We determine explicitly the first three orders in the power-law and show that the branch cut also yields a new logarithmic behavior T(-2ℓ-5)lnT for late times. Before the tail sets in, the quasinormal modes dominate the black hole response. For electromagnetic perturbations, the quasinormal mode frequencies approach the branch cut at large overtone index n. We determine these frequencies up to n(-5/2) and, formally, to arbitrary order. Highly damped quasinormal modes are of particular interest in that they have been linked to quantum properties of black holes.

  18. Do static atoms outside a Schwarzschild black hole spontaneously excite?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongwei; Zhou Wenting

    2007-01-01

    The spontaneous excitation of a two-level atom held static outside a four dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and in interaction with a massless scalar field in the Boulware, Unruh, and Hartle-Hawking vacuums is investigated, and the contributions of the vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the rate of change of the mean atomic energy are calculated separately. We find that, for the Boulware vacuum, the spontaneous excitation does not occur and the ground-state atoms are stable, while the spontaneous emission rate for excited atoms in the Boulware vacuum, which is well behaved at the event horizon, is not the same as that in the usual Minkowski vacuum. However, for both the Unruh vacuum and the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, our results show that the atom would spontaneously excite, as if there were an outgoing thermal flux of radiation or as if it were in a thermal bath of radiation at a proper temperature which reduces to the Hawking temperature in the spatial asymptotic region, depending on whether the scalar field is in the Unruh or Hartle-Hawking vacuum

  19. Resolving the Schwarzschild singularity in both classic and quantum gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-fang Zeng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Schwarzschild singularity's resolution has key values in cracking the key mysteries related with black holes, the origin of their horizon entropy and the information missing puzzle involved in their evaporations. We provide in this work the general dynamic inner metric of collapsing stars with horizons and with non-trivial radial mass distributions. We find that static central singularities are not the final state of the system. Instead, the final state of the system is a periodically zero-cross breathing ball. Through 3+1 decomposed general relativity and its quantum formulation, we establish a functional Schrödinger equation controlling the micro-state of this breathing ball and show that, the system configuration with all the matter concentrating on the central point is not the unique eigen-energy-density solution. Using a Bohr–Sommerfield like “orbital” quantisation assumption, we show that for each black hole of horizon radius rh, there are about erh2/ℓpl2 allowable eigen-energy-density profiles. This naturally leads to physic interpretations for the micro-origin of horizon entropy, as well as solutions to the information missing puzzle involved in Hawking radiations.

  20. High overtones of Schwarzschild-de-Sitter quasinormal spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, R.A.; Zhidenko, A.

    2004-01-01

    We find the high overtones of gravitational and electromagnetic quasinormal spectrum of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole. The calculations show that the real parts of the electromagnetic modes asymptotically approach zero. The gravitational modes show more peculiar behavior at large n: the real part oscillates as a function of imaginary even for very high overtones and these oscillations settles to some 'profile' which just repeats itself with further increasing of the overtone number n. This lets us judge that Reω is not a constant as n →∞ but rather some oscillating function. The spacing for imaginary part Imω n+1 -Imω n for electromagnetic perturbations at high n slowly approach k e as n→∞, where k e is the surface gravity. In addition we find the lower QN modes for which the values obtained with numerical methods are in a very good agreement with those obtained through the 6th order WKB technique. (author)

  1. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Kuninganna Kristiina ning kunungas Karl XI : rootsiaegsed portreed raekojas = Queen Christina and King Karl XI : portraits of the Swedish period in the Town Hall / Pia Ehasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehasalu, Pia, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Kuninganna Kristiina portreest lapsena (1638). Arvatav autor: Rootsi tolleaegne õuekunstnik Jacob Heinrich Elbfas või tema töökoda. Rootsi kuninga Karl XI noorpõlveportreest (1670). Autor: Karl XI õuekunstnik David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl (1628-1698)

  3. Karl Raimund Popper: Problem Neopositivistik dan Teori Kritis Falsifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper once criticizes the positivistic paradigm by means of what he calls the theory of falsification. To him, the positivistic paradigm constitutes a failure simply because it cannot distinguish between science and prude science, that is, between empirical method and non-empirical method. In the scientific knowledge, empirical science, mathematics and logic must be differentiated, something that the positivistic paradigm has failed to do. This paradigm furthermore, did not have a clear picture what logic-based science is, empirical knowledge and psychology of knowledge. It also fails to properly understand knowledge that springs from tradition, emotion, authority and so forth. All positivistic paradigms such as that of Karl Max’s Historicism, Freud’s theory of Psycho Analysis, Adler’s theory of Individual Analysis and Newton’s theory of Gravitation fall into this trap of failure.

  4. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    astronomers in his days, when his working place at Altona still belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. This paper is followed by a second one by the same author and deals with the correspondence of H. C. Schumacher and H C. Oersted (1777-1851) and shows how intense and diverse their cooperation was. In a subsequent paper, Wolfgang Kokott describes the role of the Astronomisches Jahrbuch (published from 1776 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin), a ranking international publication, with Bode's modest Berlin Observatory serving as a clearinghouse of information originating from virtually all European countries. "Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalisation of Astrophysics" is the title of Theodor Schmidt-Kaler's contribution and presents Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy: establishment of course lectures and a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, stimulations and suggestions for astronomy at high school and for the formation of high school teachers, international organisation, and the planning of a southern observatory. Peter Habison describes the contribution of Leo de Ball (1853-1916, Director of the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna) to international astronomy. Internationalization in astronomy is also discussed in a following paper by Gudrun Wolfschmidt on the establishment of the Vereinigte Astronomische Gesellschaft, the international Astronomische Gesellschaft in 1863 and finally the International Astronomical Union in 1919. In the second but last paper of the book, Hilmar Duerbeck describes the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere in 1849, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht and Ristenpart, to the middle of the 20th century. The paper also includes the astronomical development at the Universidad Catolica and various international expeditions, which aimed at the observations of solar

  6. Karl Kolbenheyer (1841–1901 – teacher, naturalist, tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Witold Alexandrowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Karl Kolbenheyer was born on May 28, 1841 in Bielsko. After attending a lower secondary school in Cieszyn, he began studies in classical languages (Greek and Latin at universities in Vienna and Jena, then he worked as a teacher in lower secondary schools in Lewocza, Cieszyn, and Bielsko. The research he undertook included botanical studies, measurements of absolute elevation, and meteorological observations in the Western Beskids as well as in the Tatra Mountains. The results of the studies were printed in German, Austrian, Polish, and Hungarian publications. He found species of plants not known earlier to exist in the area of Cieszyn and Bielsko. The measurements of elevations he made of characteristic points of landscape (more than 500 were used for cartographic purposes. From 1866 on, he was a member of Physiographic Commission of Kraków Scientific Society, and later of the Academy of Arts and Sciences, which financially supported his field work. Karl Kolbenheyer was one of the founders of the Beskidenverein – a German tourist organisation – and managed its branch in Bielsko. He prepared two tourist guides: the guide to Tatra Mountains – Die hohe Tatra (ten editions, and to the Beskids – Führer durch die Beskiden… (two editions. These guides contributed to the remarkable propagation of tourism. Karl Kolbenheyer died on February 1, 1901, and was buried at the Old Evangelical Cemetery in Bielsko.

  7. Features and stability analysis of non-Schwarzschild black hole in quadratic gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Zhang, Hezi; Liu, Junyu; Cheng, Gong; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are found to exist in gravitational theories with the presence of quadratic curvature terms and behave differently from the Schwarzschild solution. We present an exhaustive analysis for determining the quasinormal modes of a test scalar field propagating in a new class of black hole backgrounds in the case of pure Einstein-Weyl gravity. Our result shows that the field decay of quasinormal modes in such a non-Schwarzschild black hole behaves similarly to the Schwarzschild one, but the decay slope becomes much smoother due to the appearance of the Weyl tensor square in the background theory. We also analyze the frequencies of the quasinormal modes in order to characterize the properties of new back holes, and thus, if these modes can be the source of gravitational waves, the underlying theories may be testable in future gravitational wave experiments. We briefly comment on the issue of quantum (in)stability in this theory at linear order.

  8. Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner–Nordström black holes with quintessence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ghaderi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner–Nordström black holes surrounded by quintessence. By using the thermodynamical laws of the black holes, we derive the thermodynamic properties of these black holes and we compare the results with each other. We investigate the mass, temperature and heat capacity as functions of entropy for these black holes. We also discuss the equation of state of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner–Nordström black holes surrounded by quintessence.

  9. Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, R.

    1975-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by a spherically symmetric nonrotating black hole is studied in the Schwarzschild background, by means of the known expansion of the modified Debye potentials in partial waves. The power reflection coefficients and the phase shifts of the partial waves are evaluated at both high and low frequencies. Then the scattering and absorption cross sections of the black hole are determined. It is shown that the black hole is almost unable to absorb electromagnetic waves when the wave length of the radiation is greater than the Schwarzschild radius

  10. Some investigations of null and time like geodesics in Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de sitter black hole with a straight string passing through it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paudel, Eak Raj

    2007-01-01

    Gravitational field of Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de-sitter Black hole with a straight string passing through it. In such space analytical and numerical solutions of null and time like geodesics are investigated. The string parameter a + is found to affect both the angle of deflection in null geodesics and the precession of perihelion on time like geodesics .It is seen that the deflection of null and time like geodesics near the gravitating mass of de-sitter space time increases with t he gravitational field of a straight string in flat space time has the property that the Newtonian potential vanishes yet there are non trivial gravitational effects. A test particle is neither attracted nor repelled by a string, yet the conical nature of space outside of string produces observable effects such as light deflection . Schwarzschild Black hole is a mathematical solution to the Einstein's field equations and corresponds to the gravitational field of massive compact spherically symmetric ob normal. References 1. Aryal, M.M, A. Vilenkin and L.H Ford, 1986, Phys.Rev. D32 ,2262 2. Moriyasu ,K ., 1980 , An introduction to gauge Invariance 3. Vilenkin A., 1985 , Physical reports , cosmic strings and Domain walls 4. Berry, M. , 1976 , Principle of cosmology and Gravitation 5. Mishner , C.W ., K.S .Throne , J.A wheeler , 1973. (Author)

  11. An absence theorem for static wave maps in the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Naqing

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, we obtain an absence theorem for static wave maps defined from the Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter spacetime into any Riemannian manifold. This work extends the results in [Chinese Ann. Math. B 5 (1984) 737, Lett. Math. Phys. 14 (1987) 343

  12. Interactive Visualization of a Thin Disc around a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a…

  13. Touching Ghosts: Observing Free Fall from an Infalling Frame of Reference into a Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augousti, A. T.; Gawelczyk, M.; Siwek, A.; Radosz, A.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of communication between observers in the vicinity of a black hole in a Schwarzschild metric is considered. The classic example of an infalling observer Alice and a static distant mother station (MS) is extended to include a second infalling observer Bob, who follows Alice in falling towards the event horizon. Kruskal coordinates are…

  14. Nonexistence theorems for Yang-Mills fields and harmonic maps in the Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Hesheng

    1987-01-01

    The nonexistence of static solutions to pure Yang-Mills equations and nonconstant harmonic maps defined on the Schwarzschild spacetime outside the black hole (r>2M) is considered. Nonexistence theorems for pure Yang-Mills equations and harmonic maps in the region r≥5M and r≥3M are obtained, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Statistical metastability of a classical ideal gas in the Schwarzschild gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Zaslavskii, O.B.

    1990-01-01

    A classical ideal gas in the Schwarzschild gravitational field is considered. The lifetime of a gas influenced by thermal fluctuations has been calculated. It is shown that thermal effects can lead to the electric charging of a black hole in a plasma containing particles with different masses. (author)

  16. On scattering of scalar waves in static space-times, particularly Schwarzschild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper aims at laying foundations of a rigorous scattering theory for scalar waves in a static space-time. The treatment includes geometries which can be thought of as representing the exterior of a black hole. Schwarzschild space-time, as a particular example, is studied in more detail. (Auth.)

  17. Cancellation of the central singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Pierre; D'Agostini, G.

    2015-03-01

    We reconsider the classical Schwarzschild solution in the context of a Janus cosmological model. We show that the central singularity can be eliminated through a simple coordinate change and that the subsequent transit from one fold to the other is accompanied by mass inversion. In such scenario matter swallowed by black holes could be ejected as invisible negative mass and dispersed in space.

  18. Kapitalismus versus Marktwirtschaft. Karl Marx und Fernand Braudel

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Malte; Petersen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Since the beginning of the finance crisis, the notion of capitalism and the adjective capitalistic are more and more employed in public discourse without making an attempt to define it. In contrast, the concept of market economy is less used. We try in this paper to differentiate both concepts by going back to the approaches by Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Fernand Braudel (1902-1985). Marx does not use the term capitalism but only capitalistic production, while Braudel argues on the basis of a w...

  19. Epistemological anarchism of Paul Karl Feyerabend and medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patrícia Gomes

    Full Text Available The thoughts of the philosopher Paul Karl Feyerabend brought important contributions to the debate on Science in the 20th century. Most recently his views about non-existence of a single method for doing science have been employed to rethink science education and propose the use of multiple methods for effective teaching-learning process. This article employs the theoretical framework of the author expressed in the book Against Method, 1977, about the epistemological anarchism and the methodological pluralism and uses it in the contemporary discussion of medical education.

  20. Karl pearson the scientific life in a statistical age

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, Theodore M

    2010-01-01

    Karl Pearson, founder of modern statistics, came to this field by way of passionate early studies of philosophy and cultural history as well as ether physics and graphical geometry. His faith in science grew out of a deeply moral quest, reflected also in his socialism and his efforts to find a new basis for relations between men and women. This biography recounts Pearson's extraordinary intellectual adventure and sheds new light on the inner life of science. Theodore Porter's intensely personal portrait of Pearson extends from religious crisis and sexual tensions to metaphysical and even m

  1. El racionalismo crítico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Delio Machado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, pretende acercar algunos de los aspectos más importantes del pensamiento de uno de los filósofos más destacados de nuestro tiempo: Sir Karl Popper. Su presencia atraviesa nuestro siglo, presentándose como una de las voces visionarias y anticipadoras que se alzaron críticamente, contra toda actitud o acción que estuviese fundada en lo dogmático y que tuviese como finalidad, el olvido o la superación del individuo, aunque dicho olvido estuviese "justificado" por oraculares "bienes o fines superiores". (... 

  2. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory.

  3. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. van Zyl

    1994-01-01

    Who is the sinner? The view of Karl Barth The previous article dealt with Barth’s view of the knowledge and real essence of sin, while this one focus on his view of the human being as sinner. In accordance with his christological approach to all theological matters, Barth presents us with a description of the image and character of the sinner as mirrored by the obedient suffering and death of Jesus Christ on the cross in the place of all sinners of all times - past, present and future. Th...

  4. Karl Nagel : Pain things = Pain things / Eha Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Eha, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Maali- ja videokunstnik Karl Nagelist kui probleemsest nüüdisaegsest kunstnikust, kes võtab provokatiivseid positsioone ideoloogiate ja poliitika küsimustes. Tema kunstnikupositsioon keerleb terrorismi, fašismi ja natsionalismi ümber, dissidendi positsioonile asununa on ta käsitlenud surma ja vägivalla teemat (Tšetšeenia sõda) ja üritanud sõna võtta ka kodanikuvabaduste laiendamise nimel. Sotsiaalse tegelikkuse ja kunsti vastandlikkuse küsimuses on ta võtnud nulltoleratsi taotleva seisukoha, võrdlemata kunsti tegelikkusega

  5. Temperature and entropy of Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the light of recent interest in quantum gravity in de Sitter space, we investigate semiclassical aspects of four-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time using the method of complex paths. The standard semiclassical techniques (such as Bogoliubov coefficients and Euclidean field theory) have been useful to study quantum effects in space-times with single horizons; however, none of these approaches seem to work for Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time or, in general, for space-times with multiple horizons. We extend the method of complex paths to space-times with multiple horizons and obtain the spectrum of particles produced in these space-times. We show that the temperature of radiation in these space-times is proportional to the effective surface gravity--the inverse harmonic sum of surface gravity of each horizon. For the Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time, we apply the method of complex paths to three different coordinate systems--spherically symmetric, Painleve, and Lemaitre. We show that the equilibrium temperature in Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time is the harmonic mean of cosmological and event horizon temperatures. We obtain Bogoliubov coefficients for space-times with multiple horizons by analyzing the mode functions of the quantum fields near the horizons. We propose a new definition of entropy for space-times with multiple horizons, analogous to the entropic definition for space-times with a single horizon. We define entropy for these space-times to be inversely proportional to the square of the effective surface gravity. We show that this definition of entropy for Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time satisfies the D-bound conjecture

  6. KARL RAHNER, UM INQUIETO TEÓLOGO ECUMÊNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario de França Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta, em grandes linhas, o pensamento ecumênico de Karl Rahner. No novo contexto aberto pelo Concílio Vaticano II, este teólogo defronta-se com as dificuldades de cunho sociocultural, doutrinário e institucional, que dividem as Igrejas cristãs. Enfatizando a centralidade da fé em Jesus Cristo, vivida com autenticidade, pleiteia uma única Igreja Católica, na qual estejam presentes, com sua rica diversidade, as demais Igrejas. Suas reflexões se revelam pertinentes para as Igrejas cristãs na América Latina. ABSTRACT: This article presents Karl Rahner’s ecumenical views. With the new context introduced by the Vatican Council II, Rahner faces the social-cultural, doctrinal and institutional difficulties dividing the Christian Churches. Rahner emphasizes the centrality of faith in Jesus Christ lived with authenticity, and proposes one Catholic Church in which the other Churches may be present with their rich diversity. His reflections are revealed as pertinent to the Christian Churches in Latin America

  7. Distortion of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes to black strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimatsu, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of black holes with various topologies in four-dimensional spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant, we study axisymmetric static solutions describing any large distortions of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes parametrized by the mass m. Under the approximation such that m is much larger than the anti-de Sitter radius, it is found that a cylindrically symmetric black string is obtained as a special limit of distorted spherical black holes. Such a prolonged distortion of the event horizon connecting a Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole to a black string is allowed without violating both the usual black hole thermodynamics and the hoop conjecture for the horizon circumference

  8. Interactive visualization of a thin disc around a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Thomas; Frauendiener, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In a first course in general relativity, the Schwarzschild spacetime is the most discussed analytic solution to Einstein's field equations. Unfortunately, there is rarely enough time to study the optical consequences of the bending of light for some advanced examples. In this paper, we present how the visual appearance of a thin disc around a Schwarzschild black hole can be determined interactively by means of an analytic solution to the geodesic equation processed on current high-performance graphical processing units. This approach can, in principle, be customized for any other thin disc in a spacetime with geodesics given in closed form. The interactive visualization discussed here can be used either in a first course in general relativity for demonstration purposes only or as a thesis for an enthusiastic student in an advanced course with some basic knowledge of OpenGL and a programming language. (paper)

  9. Scattering of Ricci scalar perturbations from Schwarzschild black holes in modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibandze, Dan B.; Goswami, Rituparno; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Nzioki, Anne Marie [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag X54001, Durban (South Africa); Dunsby, Peter K.S. [University of Cape Town, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics and ACGC, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-06-15

    It has already been shown that the gravitational waves emitted from a Schwarzschild black hole in f(R) gravity have no signatures of the modification of gravity from General Relativity, as the Regge-Wheeler equation remains invariant. In this paper we consider the perturbations of Ricci scalar in a vacuum Schwarzschild spacetime, which is unique to higher order theories of gravity and is absent in General Relativity. We show that the equation that governs these perturbations can be reduced to a Volterra integral equation. We explicitly calculate the reflection coefficients for the Ricci scalar perturbations, when they are scattered by the black hole potential barrier. Our analysis shows that a larger fraction of these Ricci scalar waves are reflected compared to the gravitational waves. This may provide a novel observational signature for fourth order gravity. (orig.)

  10. Thermodynamic stability of modified Schwarzschild-AdS black hole in rainbow gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Wan [Chonbuk National University, Research Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Seonam University, Department of Physical Therapy, Namwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Jai [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we have extended the previous study of the thermodynamics and phase transition of the Schwarzschild black hole in the rainbow gravity to the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole where metric depends on the energy of a probe. Making use of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the modified dispersion relation, we have obtained the modified local Hawking temperature and thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Moreover, we carry out the analysis of constant temperature slices of a black hole. As a result, we have shown that there also exists another Hawking-Page-like phase transition in which case a locally stable small black hole tunnels into a globally stable large black hole as well as the standard Hawking-Page phase transition from a hot flat space to a black hole. (orig.)

  11. Quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the generalized uncertainty principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z.W.; Zu, X.T. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Li, H.L. [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China); Yang, S.Z. [China West Normal University, Physics and Space Science College, Nanchong (China)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC. (orig.)

  12. Schwarzschild black hole in the background of the Einstein universe: some physical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, B S; Vishveshwara, C V

    2002-01-01

    A prototype of an asymptotically non-flat black hole spacetime is that of a Schwarzschild black hole in the background of the Einstein universe, which is a special case of the representation of a black hole in a cosmological background given by Vaidya. Recently, this spacetime has been studied in detail by Nayak et al. They constructed a composite spacetime called the Vaidya-Einstein-Schwarzschild (VES) spacetime. We investigate some of the physical effects inherent to this spacetime. We carry out a background-black hole decomposition of the spacetime in order to separate out the effects due to the background spacetime and the black hole. The physical effects we study include the classical tests - the gravitational redshift, perihelion precession and light bending - and circular geodesics. A detailed classification of geodesics, in general, is also given

  13. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: First Theorist of Erotic Age Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2017-01-01

    The nomination of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895) as the first theorist of homosexuality may be placed in the oblique light of his eligibility for the nomination as the first theorist of erotic age orientation. In Ulrichs's pamphlets, "man-manly" homosexuality emerged as a particular age orientation, with a subsequent typological breakdown that, importantly, blended gender orientation and age orientation. Into the early 20th century, erotic age orientation remained bound up with the classification and emancipation of what here was demarcated as Urningsliebe. Ulrichs's pioneering and shifting comments on age eventually fed into his legal model of consenting adults in private. They also provide a starting point for the historical understanding of the trope of "grooming pedophile" as it, arguably, crossfaded with that of the "seducing homosexual" after the latter's depsychiatricization across the Western world.

  14. KARL GOOSS AND A TEMPLE OF JUPITER IN APULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Szabó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karl Gooss (1844-1881 was one of the few intellectuals of his time who witnessed personally the building of the railway and the ditch of Alba Iulia between 1865 and 1868. The construction was the biggest project of the city since the building of the Vauban fort and destroyed the most significant part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, one of the biggest urban centers of the province. During these works, Gooss witnessed the discovery and destruction of the first Jupiter temple attested in Dacia, the biggest silver deposit ever found in Transylvania and the first coin hoard of Apulum. His German publication was ignored by the later historiography, although it is the first and only detailed account of the archaeological finds discovered in the Partoș in the end of August, 1867. His detailed account helps us to identify the context of some well known artifacts and to reconsider the topography of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis.

  15. Karl Heinz Göller (1924-2009: in memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is written in memory of Karl Heinz Göller, Professor of English literature at the Regensburg University, who died in Kelheim near Regensburg on 22nd April 2009. University of Regenburg was founded in 1967, and Göller was the first Dean of its Faculty of Philosophy. For more than 40 years he worked for the development of good contacts betwen the universities of Regensburg and Ljubljana. Since 2000 he was member of the Advisory Committee of the review Acta Neophilologica. In 1983 he founded the Society of German Mediaevalists, one of the leading societies of German scholars from the whole Germany, and was elected its first president. The study gives report on the development of Göller as a scholar, and his basic achievement in his research, pedagogical work and in university administration.

  16. The origin of art according to Karl von den Steinen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Déléage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of the custom, adopted by ethnologists in the early 20th century, of asking Amerindians of Lowland South America to do drawings in pencil in their notebooks, I explore three forgotten fragments of the history of thinking: the intense debates on the origin of ornaments, opposing an evolutionist and a materialist approach at the end of the 19th century; the theories on the origin of figuration, which I show date back to the important work of Karl von den Steinen regarding the populations of central Brazil; and the publications of ethnologists’ portraits drawn by Indians of the lowlands of South America, a little-known tradition of reverse anthropology serving as a counterpoint to the study of the reception of Amerindian art in Western ethnological literature.

  17. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  18. Psychoanalysis, science and the seductive theory of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don C; Harari, Edwin

    2005-06-01

    To present a critique of the ideas of Karl Popper, the philosopher of science, whose depiction of psychoanalysis as a pseudoscience is often used to justify attacks on psychoanalysis. Published sources are used to provide a brief intellectual biography of Popper, a summary of his concept of science and a summary of criticisms of Popper's view of science. His depiction of psychoanalysis and Freud's reply are presented. Clinical, experimental and neurobiological research which refutes Popper's view is summarized. There is a vast scholarly published work critical of Popper's falsifiability criterion of science. Less recognized is Popper's misunderstanding and misrepresentation of psychoanalysis; his argument against it is logically flawed and empirically false. Even if Popper's theory of science is accepted, there is considerable clinical, experimental and neurobiological research in psychoanalysis which meets Popper's criterion of science. Attacks on psychoanalysis based on Popper's theory of science are ill-founded and reflect inadequate scholarship.

  19. Karl Popper: antes y después de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti, Gabriel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En su último libro sobre Karl Popper, Mariano Artigas plantea una hermenéutica revolucionaria: muestra que la ética de Popper es el fundamento de su epistemología, y que el fundamento de esa ética está lejos del «conjeturalismo» que suele atribuirse a Popper. Artigas analiza qué significa en Popper la «fe irracional en la razón» y utiliza, como fuente inédita, el dramático relato que hace Popper de su relación con W. W. Bartley, por primera vez, en Kyoto, en 1992. Sea cual fuere la opinión del lector, el libro de Artigas divide la hermenéutica de Popper en un antes y un después.

  20. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  1. Karl Marx e a Revolução Russa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Segrillo

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa a visão de Karl Marx sobre a possibilidade de ocorrência da revolução na Rússia. Inicialmente concentrando suas esperanças nos países da Europa Ocidental, onde o capitalismo estava mais desenvolvido, com o fracasso das revoluções de 1948 e da Comuna de Paris, Marx se volta para as possibilidades de revolução a partir do Leste, da Rússia, até ali considerada o bastião da reação. Suas ideias são expostas em correspondência com os próprios revolucionários russos. Essa trajetória intelectual de Marx é descrita a partir de seus próprios escritos.

  2. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. van Zyl

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Who is the sinner? The view of Karl Barth The previous article dealt with Barth’s view of the knowledge and real essence of sin, while this one focus on his view of the human being as sinner. In accordance with his christological approach to all theological matters, Barth presents us with a description of the image and character of the sinner as mirrored by the obedient suffering and death of Jesus Christ on the cross in the place of all sinners of all times - past, present and future. The price that God paid in surrendering his only Son to such suffering, indicates the enormous guilt and baseness of every sinner. Every human being is utterly insolvent and can only be delivered from sin through God’s graceful remission of siru

  3. Quantum tunneling effect of Dirac particles in a Schwarzschild-Godel space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, D.-J.; Li, S.-M., E-mail: qidejiang0504@126.com [Shenyang Inst. of Engineering, Shenyang (China); Ru, H.-Q. [Northeastern Univ., Shenyang (China)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, motivated by the Kerner and Man fermion tunneling method of 4-dimensional black holes, we further improve the analysis to investigate the quantum tunneling effect of Dirac particles from the five-dimensional Schwarzschild-Godel black hole. We successfully construct a set of appropriate matrices γ{sup μ} for the general covariant Dirac equation and derive the tunneling probability and Hawking temperature, which is exactly the same as that obtained by other methods. (author)

  4. Two fluid plasmas in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzi, V.; Hines, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 3+1 split of general relativity has been used to investigate the dispersion relation for certain plasma waves, together with the two stream instability, in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole horizon. In contrast to the special relativistic results, the dispersion relations discussed here contain additional terms involving the gravitational acceleration, a, and the lapse function α. Some of these terms are imaginary and should correspond to gravitational damping effects. 5 refs

  5. Quasinormal modes of the near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact expression for the quasinormal modes of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational perturbations of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and we show that is why a previous approximation holds exactly in this near extremal regime. In particular, our results give the asymptotic behavior of the quasinormal frequencies for highly damped modes, which has recently attracted much attention due to the proposed identification of its real part with the Barbero-Immirzi parameter

  6. Perturbative calculation of quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musiri, Suphot; Ness, Scott; Siopsis, George

    2006-01-01

    We calculate analytically quasinormal modes of AdS Schwarzschild black holes including first-order corrections. We consider massive scalar, gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations. Our results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. In the case of electromagnetic perturbations, ours is the first calculation to provide an analytic expression for quasinormal frequencies, because the effective potential vanishes at zeroth order. We show that the first-order correction is logarithmic

  7. Exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations in the Schwarzschild metric with integrals of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyatsko, R.M.; Stefanishin, O.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new representation for exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations under the Mathisson-Pirani condition in the Schwarzschild gravitational field, which does not contain third-order derivatives with respect to spinning particle coordinates, has been obtained. For this purpose, the integrals of energy and angular momentum of a spinning particle, as well as a differential relation following from the Mathisson-Papapetrou equations for an arbitrary metric, are used.

  8. The Event Horizon of The Schwarzschild Black Hole in Noncommutative Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Nasseri, Forough

    2005-01-01

    The event horizon of Schwarzschild black hole is obtained in noncommutative spaces up to the second order of perturbative calculations. Because this type of black hole is non-rotating, to the first order there is no any effect on the event horizon due to the noncommutativity of space. A lower limit for the noncommutativity parameter is also obtained. As a result, the event horizon in noncommutative spaces is less than the event horizon in commutative spaces.

  9. Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Thermal stability of the Nariai black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization

  10. Thermal properties of Green's functions in Rindler, de Sitter, and Schwarzschild spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The conventional massless scalar Green's functions in the Minkowski, de Sitter, and two-dimensional Schwarzschild spaces are reinterpreted as finite-temperature Green's functions and the corresponding averages of the stress-energy operator are calculated. The renormalization adopted consists of subtracting the zero-temperature quantities. In all cases the averages give the stress tensor of a purely Planck-type perfect gas

  11. O marxismo antidogmático de Karl Korsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo Viana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tematiza o marxismo de Karl Korsch, focalizando seu caráter não dogmático. A partir de um resgate do caráter crítico e revolucionário do marxismo de Marx, Korsch realiza uma crítica radical ao revisionismo e leninismo. Para tal, ele não só resgata o verdadeiro caráter da dialética marxista e da concepção materialista da história, como exige a coerência dessa concepção ao defender o princípio de aplicação dela a si mesma. Assim ele lança as bases de um marxismo não dogmático, para o qual é o vínculo com o proletariado que mostra o caráter do marxismo e não ideologias petrificadas. Abstract: This article thematizes Marxism of Karl Korsch, focusing on its non dogmatic. From a rescue of criticality and revolutionary Marxism of Marx, Korsch performs a radical critique of revisionism and Leninism. To do so, he not only rescues the true character of Marxist dialectics and materialist conception of history, as this concept requires consistency in defending the principle of applying it to herself. So he lays the foundations of a non-dogmatic Marxism, to which is the bond with the proletariat that shows the character of Marxism and not petrified ideologies. Key words: Marxism, dogmatism, criticism, historical materialism, dialectical.

  12. An Assesment on the Three Worlds Theories of Karl Popper and Jürgen Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan İyigüngör

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to outline “three world theories” of Karl Popper and Jürgen Habermas comparatively. In this context, it is also aimed to assess Habermas’ critics as “positivist” to Karl Popper who is an opponent to positivism inside it and his abstraction on the “three world theory” under the influence of Karl Popper. The differences between their opinions stem from their main arguments about the methodology of natural and social sciences.

  13. Gauge-invariant non-spherical metric perturbations of Schwarzschild black-hole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    The theory of gauge-invariant non-spherical metric perturbations of Schwarzschild black-hole spacetimes is now well established. Yet, as different notations and conventions have been used throughout the years, the literature on the subject is often confusing and sometimes confused. The purpose of this review is to review and collect the relevant expressions related to the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations for the odd and even-parity perturbations of a Schwarzschild spacetime. Special attention is paid to the form they assume in the presence of matter-sources and, for the two most popular conventions in the literature, to the asymptotic expressions and gravitational-wave amplitudes. Besides pointing out some inconsistencies in the literature, the expressions collected here could serve as a quick reference for the calculation of the perturbations of a Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime driven by generic sources and for those approaches in which gravitational waves are extracted from numerically generated spacetimes. (topical review)

  14. Dirac perturbations on Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Generic boundary conditions and new quasinormal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Jing, Jiliang

    2017-11-01

    We study Dirac quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter (Schwarzschild-AdS) black holes, following the generic principle for allowed boundary conditions proposed in [M. Wang, C. Herdeiro, and M. O. P. Sampaio, Phys. Rev. D 92, 124006 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124006]. After deriving the equations of motion for Dirac fields on the aforementioned background, we impose vanishing energy flux boundary conditions to solve these equations. We find a set of two Robin boundary conditions are allowed. These two boundary conditions are used to calculate Dirac normal modes on empty AdS and quasinormal modes on Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. In the former case, we recover the known normal modes of empty AdS; in the latter case, the two sets of Robin boundary conditions lead to two different branches of quasinormal modes. The impact on these modes of the black hole size, the angular momentum quantum number and the overtone number are discussed. Our results show that vanishing energy flux boundary conditions are a robust principle, applicable not only to bosonic fields but also to fermionic fields.

  15. Alles Leben ist Problemlösen: Zum 100. Geburtstag von Karl Raimund Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Gebhard

    2002-01-01

    Karl Popper wäre im Juli 2002 hundert Jahre alt geworden. Prof. Dr. Gebhard Kirchgässner würdigt den politischen Philosophen, der als bedeutendster Wissenschaftstheoretiker des 20. Jahrhunderts gilt.

  16. Millisele õpetajale kingiksite imerohu? / Karl Martin Sinijärv, Vahur Keller, Kaarel Tarand ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Eesti kirjanike liidu esimees Karl Martin Sinijärv, nuku- ja noorsooteatri lavastaja Vahur Keller, Sirbi peatoimetaja Kaarel Tarand, kirjanik Andrus Kivirähk, ajakirjanik Juhani Püttsepp

  17. Karl Friedrich Zollner and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  18. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on which approach should be taken and what the role of Karl Marx’s works shall be. The paper argues that Marx’s labour theory of value is especially important for critically analysing the media, culture and communica-tion. Labour is still a blind spot of the study of culture and the media, although this situation is slowly improving. It is maintained that the turn away from Marx in Cultural and Media Studies was a profound mistake that should be reverted. Only an engagement with Marx can make Cultural and Media Studies topical, politically relevant, practical and critical, in the current times of global crisis and resurgent critique.

  19. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  20. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work.

  1. Karl Popper's Conception of Metaphysics and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n2p209 In this paper I intend to thoroughly analyse Karl Popper’s relation to metaphysics. I start with his first writings, where he states the differences between science, pseudoscience and metaphysics. I then describe how his thoughts on the subject evolved to culminate in his reflection on metaphysical research programmes and the need for a revival of natural philosophy. A major concern is Popper’s famous testability criterion to set apart science from non-science. I point at the problems of the conception of metaphysics as non-testable theories (which are similar to the problems of the conception of metaphysics as theories involving unobservables and, in order to avoid these problems, I propose to retain nothing but the traditional conception of metaphysics as the general theories about the nature of the world. This leads me to the conclusion that science is not only an empirical task but also, and in a very important sense, a speculative one.

  2. Falsifications and corroborations: Karl Popper's influence on systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G; DeSalle, Rob

    2005-04-01

    Over the last three decades, the philosophy of Karl Raimund Popper has had a strong influence on the field of systematic biology. Unequivocally, no other philosopher's work has had such an influence during this formative period in systematics. Much, but not all, of the early discourse on Popper and systematics dealt with the philosophical basis of systematics as a science. More recently Popper's work has been discussed in the systematics literature in relation to specific methodologies such as parsimony and maximum likelihood. In this paper, we provide the reader with a concise summary of Popper's ideas relevant to systematics, review the systematic literature invoking or declining Popper's importance to the field, and make a recommendation for the future course of philosophical thinking in systematics. We try to make clear various authors' interpretations of Popper's work and how those interpretations have impacted systematic thought. Although the reader may come away from this review with a clearer idea of Popper's relevance or lack thereof, our primary hope is that the reader will be compelled to question him- or herself about the philosophical basis of the systematic work that he or she does, and to delve into the literature herein cited. We begin by presenting a synopsis of Popper's philosophical views to allow those views to be placed in the context of systematics.

  3. Anomalies, effective action and Hawking temperatures of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin; Zhao Zhanyue

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the universality of Hawking radiation and that of the anomaly cancellation technique as well as the effective action method, we investigate the Hawking radiation of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates via the cancellation of gravitational anomaly. After performing a dimensional reduction from the four-dimensional isotropic Schwarzschild metric, we show that this reduction procedure will, in general, result in two classes of two-dimensional effective metrics: the conformal equivalent and the inequivalent ones. For the physically equivalent class, the two-dimensional effective metric displays such a distinct feature that the determinant is not equal to the unity √(-g)≠1, but also vanishes at the horizon, the latter of which possibly invalidates the anomaly analysis there. Nevertheless, in this paper we adopt the effective action method to prove that the consistent energy-momentum tensor T r t is divergent on the horizon but √(-g)T t r remains finite there. Meanwhile, through an explicit calculation we show that the covariant energy-momentum tensor T-tilde t r equals zero at the horizon. Therefore the validity of the covariant regularity condition that demands that T-tilde t r = 0 at the horizon has been justified, indicating that the gravitational anomaly analysis can be safely extrapolated to the case where the metric determinant vanishes at the horizon. It is then demonstrated that for the physically equivalent reduced metric, both methods can give the correct Hawking temperature of the isotropic Schwarzschild black hole, while for the inequivalent one with the determinant √(-g) = 1 it can only give half of the correct temperature. We further exclude the latter undesired result by taking into account the general covariance of the energy-momentum tensor under the isotropic coordinate transformation

  4. Geometric Description of the Thermodynamics of the Noncommutative Schwarzschild Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larrañaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamics of the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole is reformulated within the context of the recently developed formalism of geometrothermodynamics (GTD. Using a thermodynamic metric which is invariant with respect to Legendre transformations, we determine the geometry of the space of equilibrium states and show that phase transitions, which correspond to divergencies of the heat capacity, are represented geometrically as singularities of the curvature scalar. This further indicates that the curvature of the thermodynamic metric is a measure of thermodynamic interaction.

  5. The Cardy-Verlinde formula and topological AdS-Schwarzschild black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-05-01

    We consider the brane universe in the background of the topological AdS-Schwarzschild black holes. The induced geometry of the brane is that of a flat or an open radiation dominated FRW-universe. Just like the case of a closed radiation dominated FRW-universe, the temperature and entropy are simply expressed in terms of the Hubble parameter and its time derivative when the brane crosses the black hole horizon. We propose the modified Cardy-Verlinde formula which is valid for any values of the curvature parameter k in the Friedmann equations. (author)

  6. Large N phase transitions and the fate of small Schwarzschild-AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2018-01-01

    Sufficiently small Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in asymptotically global AdS5×S5 spacetime are known to become dynamically unstable toward deformation of the internal S5 geometry. The resulting evolution of such an unstable black hole is related, via holography, to the dynamics of supercooled plasma which has reached the limit of metastability in maximally supersymmetric large-N Yang-Mills theory on R ×S3. Puzzles related to the resulting dynamical evolution are discussed, with a key issue involving differences between the large-N limit in the dual field theory and typical large volume thermodynamic limits.

  7. Perturbation of a Schwarzschild Black Hole Due to a Rotating Thin Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čížek, P.; Semerák, O., E-mail: oldrich.semerak@mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-09-01

    Will, in 1974, treated the perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole due to a slowly rotating, light, concentric thin ring by solving the perturbation equations in terms of a multipole expansion of the mass-and-rotation perturbation series. In the Schwarzschild background, his approach can be generalized to perturbation by a thin disk (which is more relevant astrophysically), but, due to rather bad convergence properties, the resulting expansions are not suitable for specific (numerical) computations. However, we show that Green’s functions, represented by Will’s result, can be expressed in closed form (without multipole expansion), which is more useful. In particular, they can be integrated out over the source (a thin disk in our case) to yield good converging series both for the gravitational potential and for the dragging angular velocity. The procedure is demonstrated, in the first perturbation order, on the simplest case of a constant-density disk, including the physical interpretation of the results in terms of a one-component perfect fluid or a two-component dust in a circular orbit about the central black hole. Free parameters are chosen in such a way that the resulting black hole has zero angular momentum but non-zero angular velocity, as it is just carried along by the dragging effect of the disk.

  8. Magnetized particle motion and acceleration around a Schwarzschild black hole in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Bobomurat Ahmedov; Rahimov, Ozodbek; Salikhbaev, Umar

    2014-01-01

    The capture cross section of magnetized particles with nonvanishing magnetic moment by a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field has been studied as an extension of the approach developed in Zakharov (1994 Class. Quantum Grav. 11 1027) for neutral unmagnetized particles in the Reissner–Nordström spacetime. The magnetic moment of the particle is chosen as in de Felice and Sorge (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 469). It is shown that the spin of the particle sustains the stability of particles circularly orbiting around the black hole immersed in a magnetic field, i.e., a spinning particle's motion near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon is more stable than that of a particle with zero spin. It is shown that the magnetic parameter essentially changes the value of the critical angular momentum and affects the process of capture of the particles by the central black hole. Furthermore, the interaction between the magnetic moment of the particle and the magnetic field forces stable circular orbits to shift to the central object, and this effect should be taken into account in astrophysical scenarios related to the accretion discs and in measuring the spin of the black holes. The magnetized particle's acceleration mechanism near the black hole in an external magnetic field is studied. It is shown that due to the presence of a magnetic field, magnetized particles can accelerate to unlimited high energies. (paper)

  9. Gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild spacetime: A practical covariant and gauge-invariant formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric

    2005-01-01

    We present a formalism to study the metric perturbations of the Schwarzschild spacetime. The formalism is gauge invariant, and it is also covariant under two-dimensional coordinate transformations that leave the angular coordinates unchanged. The formalism is applied to the typical problem of calculating the gravitational waves produced by material sources moving in the Schwarzschild spacetime. We examine the radiation escaping to future null infinity as well as the radiation crossing the event horizon. The waveforms, the energy radiated, and the angular-momentum radiated can all be expressed in terms of two gauge-invariant scalar functions that satisfy one-dimensional wave equations. The first is the Zerilli-Moncrief function, which satisfies the Zerilli equation, and which represents the even-parity sector of the perturbation. The second is the Cunningham-Price-Moncrief function, which satisfies the Regge-Wheeler equation, and which represents the odd-parity sector of the perturbation. The covariant forms of these wave equations are presented here, complete with covariant source terms that are derived from the stress-energy tensor of the matter responsible for the perturbation

  10. Null geodesics and embedding diagrams of the interior Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes with uniform density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Hledik, Stanislav; Soltes, Jiri; Ostgaard, Erlend

    2001-01-01

    Null geodesics and embedding diagrams of central planes in the ordinary space geometry and the optical reference geometry of the interior Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes with uniform density are studied. For completeness, both positive and negative values of the cosmological constant are considered. The null geodesics are restricted to the central planes of these spacetimes, and their properties can be reflected by an 'effective potential.' If the interior spacetime is extremely compact, the effective potential has a local maximum corresponding to a stable circular null geodesic around which bound null geodesics are concentrated. The upper limit on the size of the interior spacetimes containing bound null geodesics is R=3M, independently of the value of the cosmological constant. The embedding diagrams of the central planes of the ordinary geometry into three-dimensional Euclidean space are well defined for the complete interior of all spacetimes with a repulsive cosmological constant, but the planes cannot be embedded into the Euclidean space in the case of spacetimes with subcritical values of an attractive cosmological constant. On the other hand, the embedding diagrams of the optical geometry are well defined for all of the spacetimes, and the turning points of these diagrams correspond to the radii of the circular null geodesics. All the embedding diagrams, for both the ordinary and optical geometry, are smoothly matched to the corresponding embedding diagrams of the external vacuum Schwarzschild--de Sitter spacetimes

  11. Effective temperatures and radiation spectra for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, P.; Pappas, T.

    2017-07-01

    The absence of a true thermodynamical equilibrium for an observer located in the causal area of a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime has repeatedly raised the question of the correct definition of its temperature. In this work, we consider five different temperatures for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: the bare T0, the normalized TBH, and three effective ones given in terms of both the black-hole and cosmological horizon temperatures. We find that these five temperatures exhibit similarities but also significant differences in their behavior as the number of extra dimensions and the value of the cosmological constant are varied. We then investigate their effect on the energy emission spectra of Hawking radiation. We demonstrate that the radiation spectra for the normalized temperature TBH—proposed by Bousso and Hawking over twenty years ago—leads to the dominant emission curve, while the other temperatures either support a significant emission rate only in a specific Λ regime or have their emission rates globally suppressed. Finally, we compute the bulk-over-brane emissivity ratio and show that the use of different temperatures may lead to different conclusions regarding the brane or bulk dominance.

  12. Characteristics of transonic spherical symmetric accretion flow in Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter backgrounds, in pseudo-general relativistic paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  14. Dalle pagine della Fackel agli Ultimi giorni dell’umanità. Karl Kraus e la guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Morello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From Fackel’s pages to The Last Days of Mankind. Karl Kraus and the War. Between 1915 and the end of the war, Karl Kraus, an Austrian intellectual who had made political satire and criticism of journalistic language, engages in a fierce battle against the inhumanity and cruelty of war. On the pages of Fackel, a magazine published by him for over thirty years, from 1899 to 1936, he gathers many texts that then come together in the tragedy of the Last Days of Mankind, a great work, dripping horror, which seeks to represent the unrepresentable.

  15. Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

  16. Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V

    2018-03-06

    We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs Cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Gravitational waveforms from a point particle orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Karl

    2004-01-01

    We numerically solve the inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations in the time domain. We obtain the gravitational waveforms produced by a point particle of mass μ traveling around a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M on arbitrary bound and unbound orbits. Fluxes of energy and angular momentum at infinity and the event horizon are also calculated. Results for circular orbits, selected cases of eccentric orbits, and parabolic orbits are presented. The numerical results from the time-domain code indicate that, for all three types of orbital motion, black hole absorption contributes less than 1% of the total flux, so long as the orbital radius r p (t) satisfies r p (t)>5M at all times

  18. Quantum gravity of Kerr-Schild spacetimes and the logarithmic correction to Schwarzschild black hole entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts,Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    In the context of effective field theory, we consider quantum gravity with minimally coupled massless particles. Fixing the background geometry to be of the Kerr-Schild type, we fully determine the one-loop effective action of the theory whose finite non-local part is induced by the long-distance portion of quantum loops. This is accomplished using the non-local expansion of the heat kernel in addition to a non-linear completion technique through which the effective action is expanded in gravitational curvatures. Via Euclidean methods, we identify a logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Schwarzschild black hole. Using dimensional transmutation the result is shown to exhibit an interesting interplay between the UV and IR properties of quantum gravity.

  19. Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime: The role of temperature in the emission of Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Thomas; Kanti, Panagiota

    2017-12-01

    We consider a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole, and focus on the emission of massless scalar fields either minimally or non-minimally coupled to gravity. We use six different temperatures, two black-hole and four effective ones for the SdS spacetime, as the question of the proper temperature for such a background is still debated in the literature. We study their profiles under the variation of the cosmological constant, and derive the corresponding Hawking radiation spectra. We demonstrate that only few of these temperatures may support significant emission of radiation. We finally compute the total emissivities for each temperature, and show that the non-minimal coupling constant of the scalar field to gravity also affects the relative magnitudes of the energy emission rates.

  20. Probing quantum entanglement in the Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Juan; Ding, Zhi-Yong; Ye, Liu

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we deduce the vacuum structure for Dirac fields in the background of Schwarzschild space-time beyond the single-mode approximation and discuss the performance of quantum entanglement between particle and antiparticle modes of a Dirac field with Hawking effect. It is shown that Hawking radiation does not always destroy the physically accessible entanglement, and entanglement amplification may happen in some cases. This striking result is different from that of the single-mode approximation, which holds that the Hawking radiation can only destroy entanglement. Lastly, we analyze the physically accessible entanglement relation outside the event horizon and demonstrate that the monogamy inequality is constantly established regardless of the choice of given parameters.

  1. Tripartite nonlocality for an open Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-Yong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the behavior of the tripartite nonlocality for a Dirac system in the background of Schwarzschild space-time is studied. It is shown that the nonlocality of the ultimate physical accessible state always decreases as the Hawking effect increases monotonically, which is independent of the number of particles located near the event horizon. Besides, the more particles there are located near the event horizon, the more difficult the violation of the Svetlichny inequality becomes. Furthermore, we investigate the property of these particles suffering from a non-Markovian environment, and derive that the nonlocality decreases quickly with the increasing decoherence time accompanied by damping revivals. To preserve tripartite nonlocality in the non-Markovian environment, we propose a scheme by means of prior weak measurement and post measurement reversal. It is worth noticing that the effect is better for larger measurement strengths, while it induces smaller success probability.

  2. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  3. Ricci solitons, Ricci flow and strongly coupled CFT in the Schwarzschild Unruh or Boulware vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Wiseman, Toby

    2011-01-01

    The elliptic Einstein-DeTurck equation may be used to numerically find Einstein metrics on Riemannian manifolds. Static Lorentzian Einstein metrics are considered by analytically continuing to Euclidean time. The Ricci-DeTurck flow is a constructive algorithm to solve this equation, and is simple to implement when the solution is a stable fixed point, the only complication being that Ricci solitons may exist which are not Einstein. Here we extend previous work to consider the Einstein-DeTurck equation for Riemannian manifolds with boundaries, and those that continue to static Lorentzian spacetimes which are asymptotically flat, Kaluza-Klein, locally AdS or have extremal horizons. Using a maximum principle, we prove that Ricci solitons do not exist in these cases and so any solution is Einstein. We also argue that the Ricci-DeTurck flow preserves these classes of manifolds. As an example, we simulate the Ricci-DeTurck flow for a manifold with asymptotics relevant for AdS 5 /CFT 4 . Our maximum principle dictates that there are no soliton solutions, and we give strong numerical evidence that there exists a stable fixed point of the flow which continues to a smooth static Lorentzian Einstein metric. Our asymptotics are such that this describes the classical gravity dual relevant for the CFT on a Schwarzschild background in either the Unruh or Boulware vacua. It determines the leading O(N 2 c ) part of the CFT stress tensor, which interestingly is regular on both the future and past Schwarzschild horizons. (paper)

  4. Rigorous construction and Hadamard property of the Unruh state in Schwarzschild spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moretti, Valter [Trento Univ., Povo (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica ' ' F. Severi' ' , GNFM, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The discovery of the radiation properties of black holes prompted the search for a natural candidate quantum ground state for a massless scalar field theory on Schwarzschild spacetime, here considered in the Eddington-Finkelstein representation. Among the several available proposals in the literature, an important physical role is played by the so-called Unruh state which is supposed to be appropriate to capture the physics of a black hole formed by spherically symmetric collapsing matter. Within this respect, we shall consider a massless Klein-Gordon field and we shall rigorously and globally construct such state, that is on the algebra of Weyl observables localised in the union of the static external region, the future event horizon and the non-static black hole region. Eventually, out of a careful use of microlocal techniques, we prove that the built state fulfils, where defined, the so-called Hadamard condition; hence, it is perturbatively stable, in other words realizing the natural candidate with which one could study purely quantum phenomena such as the role of the back reaction of Hawking's radiation. From a geometrical point of view, we shall make a profitable use of a bulk-to-boundary reconstruction technique which carefully exploits the Killing horizon structure as well as the conformal asymptotic behaviour of the underlying background. From an analytical point of view, our tools will range from Hoermander's theorem on propagation of singularities, results on the role of passive states, and a detailed use of the recently discovered peeling behaviour of the solutions of the wave equation in Schwarzschild spacetime. (orig.)

  5. Tänapäeva tantsuteatri mitu palet / Heili Einasto, Karl Toepfer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einasto, Heili

    2015-01-01

    Vestlus San Jose ülikooli professori Karl Toepferiga nüüdisaegsest Eesti tantsuteatrist - I. Tuksami "Vassilissa", E. Tubina ja M Kesleri "Kratt", T. Olleski jt. "HTK", G. Reynoldsi ja S. Stubbsi "Gatsby", N. Rota ja G. Madia "La Dolce Vita", A. Toikka "Faust"

  6. Ideal i realnost : Karl von Gershelman - poet-hudozhnik / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti päritolu kunstniku Elisabeth Rosendorff-Hoerschelmanni (1898-1984) ja Eestiga seotud kunstniku ja kirjaniku Karl von Hoerschelmanni (1899-1951) elust ja loomingust. 2004. a. augustis-oktoobris oli kunstnike tööde näitus Adamson-Ericu muuseumis

  7. Karl Ristikivi rändav Arkaadia / Janika Kronberg, Brita Melts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2012-01-01

    Artikkel jälgib Arkaadia-motiivi arengut Karl Ristikivi loomingus, toetudes nii autori poolt läbikäidud maastikele kui ka kunstikriitiku ja teoreetiku Simon Schama töödele. Käsitletakse ka Arkaadia motiivi Euroopa kultuuriloos

  8. The Psychology of Thinking, Animal Psychology, and the Young Karl Popper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. in his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it

  9. The Rejectability of Karl Popper: Why Popper's Ideas Have Had So Little Influence on Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tyrrell; Swann, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the question of why Karl Popper's work has been disregarded or rejected for educational improvement and suggests a series of impediments to an acceptance of Popper's ideas. Outlines a set of principle which if adopted as a basis for practice could lead to significant improvement. (EV)

  10. [Results of school inspections in the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J

    1978-10-01

    Within the Health Protection in Childhood and Adolescence Research Project a hygienic inspection questionnaire was designed for schools. To test this questionnaire, 248 schools in 11 districts of the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt were inspected. From the ascertainments made, several instances are cited to point out the priorities of school hygiene.

  11. Karl Marx:"Er waart een spook door Europa" door Bart Tromp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir.ing Ruud Thelosen

    2011-01-01

    In dit in 2006 verschenen boekje van prof. Sociologie Bart Tromp, die zelf in 2007 overleed, worden niet alleen belangrijke stukken van de hand van Karl Marx zelf weergegeven, maar ook een grondige biografie en een inleiding om het belang van Marx ook voor de actualiteit te benadrukken.

  12. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  13. Karl Marx and the Paris Commune of 1871: Tracing Traditions of Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 1871, citizens of the war torn arrondissements of Paris, in the face of traumatic political and military turmoil, established a new local form of government. The Paris Commune, as this government became known as in the English world, attracted attention for its alternative political-economic organization. One notable commentator was Karl Marx…

  14. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  15. USA presidendi üks peamisi nõunikke Karl Rove lahkub ametist / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    1993. aastast praeguse USA presidendi George B. Bushiga koos töötanud Karl Rove lahkub ametist perekonna huvides. K. Rove on uurimise all olnud seoses CIA agendi Valerie Plame'i paljastamisega, Senati komitee kuulas teda üle kaheksa föderaalprokuröri vallandamise uurimise raames

  16. Lidar - nesbõvshajasja estonskaja "nokia" / Karl Rebane ; interv. Julia Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Karl, 1926-2007

    2006-01-01

    Eesti NSV teadlaste poolt välja töötatud laserseade lidar, seadme ehitamisest, töötamise põhimõttest ja kasutusvaldkonnast. Akadeemik Karl Rebase sõnul ei oleks sellise ulatusega Läänemere saastamist juhtunud, kui Eestil oleks normaalne ökoloogilise kontrolli süsteem. Poliitikute suhtumisest kodumaise teaduse arengusse

  17. Karl Barth's definition of church in politics and culture: Growth points ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes briefly Karl Barth's views on church, its role in politics and how it relates to culture. This is done by identifying the way in which the church participates in the social realm through its relationship with the State. The historic religious question asks whether there is a natural mutual-determining relationship ...

  18. Accretion of new variable modified Chaplygin gas and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, Jhumpa; Debnath, Ujjal

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark energies in new variable modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG) models onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes. We find the expression of the critical four velocity component which gradually decreases for the fluid flow towards the Schwarzschild as well as the Kerr-Newman black hole. We also find the expression for the change of mass of the black hole in both cases. For the Kerr-Newman black hole, which is rotating and charged, we calculate the specific angular momentum and total angular momentum. We showed that in both cases, due to accretion of dark energy, the mass of the black hole increases and angular momentum increases in the case of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  19. Schwarzschild black holes as unipolar inductors: Expected electromagnetic power of a merger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The motion of a Schwarzschild black hole with velocity v 0 =β 0 c through a constant magnetic field B 0 in vacuum induces a component of the electric field along the magnetic field, generating a nonzero second Poincare electromagnetic invariant * F·F≠0. This will produce (e.g., via radiative effects and vacuum breakdown) an electric charge density of the order of ρ ind =B 0 β 0 /(2πeR G ), where R G =2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius and M is the mass of the black hole; the charge density ρ ind is similar to the Goldreich-Julian density. The magnetospheres of moving black holes resemble in many respects the magnetospheres of rotationally-powered pulsars, with pair formation fronts and outer gaps, where the sign of the induced charge changes. As a result, the black hole will generate bipolar electromagnetic jets each consisting of two counter-aligned current flows (four current flows total), each carrying an electric current of the order I≅eB 0 R G β 0 . The electromagnetic power of the jets is L≅(GM) 2 B 0 2 β 0 2 /c 3 ; for a particular case of merging black holes the resulting Poynting power is L≅(GM) 3 B 0 2 /(c 5 R), where R is the radius of the orbit. In addition, in limited regions near the horizon the first electromagnetic invariant changes sign, so that the induced electric field becomes larger than the magnetic field, E>B. As a result, there will be local dissipation of the magnetic field close to the horizon, within a region with the radial extent ΔR≅R G β 0 . The total energy loss from a system of merging black holes is a sum of two components with similar powers, one due to the rotation of space-time within the orbit, driven by the nonzero angular momentum in the system, and the other due to the linear motion of the black holes through the magnetic field. Since the resulting electrodynamics is in many respects similar to pulsars, merging black holes may generate coherent radio and high energy emission beamed approximately along the

  20. The initial value problem for linearized gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Gleiser, Reinaldo J [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-07

    The coupled equations for the scalar modes of the linearized Einstein equations around Schwarzschild's spacetime were reduced by Zerilli to a (1+1) wave equation partial deriv{sup 2}PSI{sub z} /partial derivt{sup 2} +HPSI{sub z} =0, where H= -partial deriv{sup 2} /partial derivx{sup 2} + V(x) is the Zerilli 'Hamiltonian' and x is the tortoise radial coordinate. From its definition, for smooth metric perturbations the field PSI{sub z} is singular at r{sub s} = -6M/(l - 1)(l +2), with l being the mode harmonic number. The equation PSI{sub z} obeys is also singular, since V has a second-order pole at r{sub s}. This is irrelevant to the black hole exterior stability problem, where r > 2M > 0, and r{sub s} < 0, but it introduces a non-trivial problem in the naked singular case where M < 0, then r{sub s} > 0, and the singularity appears in the relevant range of r (0 < r < infinity). We solve this problem by developing a new approach to the evolution of the even mode, based on a new gauge invariant function, PSI-circumflex, that is a regular function of the metric perturbation for any value of M. The relation of PSI-circumflex to PSI{sub z} is provided by an intertwiner operator. The spatial pieces of the (1 + 1) wave equations that PSI-circumflex and PSI{sub z} obey are related as a supersymmetric pair of quantum Hamiltonians H and H-circumflex. For M < 0,H-circumflex has a regular potential and a unique self-adjoint extension in a domain D defined by a physically motivated boundary condition at r = 0. This allows us to address the issue of evolution of gravitational perturbations in this non-globally hyperbolic background. This formulation is used to complete the proof of the linear instability of the Schwarzschild naked singularity, by showing that a previously found unstable mode belongs to a complete basis of H-circumflex in D, and thus is excitable by generic initial data. This is further illustrated by numerically solving the linearized equations for

  1. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time by finite difference time domain method and Green function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shouqing; La, Dongsheng; Ma, Xuelian

    2018-04-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm and Green function algorithm are implemented into the numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time. FDTD method in curved space-time is developed by filling the flat space-time with an equivalent medium. Green function in curved space-time is obtained by solving transport equations. Simulation results validate both the FDTD code and Green function code. The methods developed in this paper offer a tool to solve electromagnetic scattering problems.

  2. Karl Marx, un periodista en la Era del Capital. Apuntes para una investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Pino, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to criticize the traditional representation of Karl Marx’s journalistic works, usually forgotten by a misleading canon that assumes his articles only as a minor work. One of the problems of this traditional conception is that it dissociates his theoretical and economic contributions from the historical development of the author’s thought (and also from its material roots. We will try to point the importance of Karl Marx’s mature journalism in two areas: in the construction of the central concepts of his critic against the capitalist mode of production (surplus value, a multilineal historical perspective, a global description of the world market, etc. and in the production of political cartographies to intervene in the class conflict. This article poses several hypothesis and tentative affirmations about Karl Marx’s journalism that may serve as a point of departure for a critical research.El objetivo de este artículo es criticar la representación tradicional del trabajo periodístico de Karl Marx, habitualmente olvidado por un canon engañoso que sólo asume sus artículos al precio de convertirlos en una obra menor. Uno de los problemas de esta concepción tradicional es que disocia sus contribuciones teóricas y económicas del desarrollo histórico del pensamiento del autor (y también de sus raíces materiales. Intentaremos señalar la importancia del periodismo maduro de Karl Marx en dos áreas: en la construcción de los conceptos centrales de su crítica contra el capitalismo (plusvalor, un enfoque histórico multilineal, una descripción global del mercado mundial, etc. y en la producción de cartografías políticas para intervenir en el conflicto de clases. Este artículo plantea varias hipótesis y afirmaciones tentativas sobre el periodismo de Karl Marx que pueden servir como punto de partida de una investigación crítica.

  3. Karl Valentin’s Illogical Subversion: issues arising from Karl Valentin’s Das Aquarium and Liesl Karlstadt’s Verein der Katzenfreund

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Mike; Double, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Valentin Ludwig Fey was born on 4 June 1882 in the Munich suburb of Au, effectively the only child of an artisan-class family – his sister and two brothers all died in early childhood before Valentin Ludwig was even six months old. Valentin himself only narrowly survived a childhood encounter with diptheria (all of which, perhaps unsurprisingly, contributed to his ever-increasing hypochondria1), but he went on to become Karl Valentin, arguably the most famous German comedian and cabaret perfo...

  4. Roosna-Alliku mõisa häärber / Karl Kolopka, Nele Rohtla, Johann Schultz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolopka, Karl

    2004-01-01

    12 ill.; peahoone ehitati Johann Schultzi kavandite järgi, siseinterjööri ilmestava Louis XVI stiilis stukitöö tegi Karl Kolopka, häärber restaureeriti Nele Rohtla (OÜ Mõisaprojekt) suunamisel

  5. Development of a mid-sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Robert A.

    2012-06-28

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based observatory for very high-energy (10 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays, planned for operation starting in 2018. It will be an array of dozens of optical telescopes, known as Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACTs), of 8 m to 24 m diameter, deployed over an area of more than 1 square km, to detect flashes of Cherenkov light from showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere by gamma rays. CTA will have improved angular resolution, a wider energy range, larger fields of view and an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current ACT arrays such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. Several institutions have proposed a research and development program to eventually contribute 36 medium-sized telescopes (9 m to 12 m diameter) to CTA to enhance and optimize its science performance. The program aims to construct a prototype of an innovative, Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (SCT) design that will allow much smaller and less expensive cameras and much larger fields of view than conventional Davies-Cotton designs, and will also include design and testing of camera electronics for the necessary advances in performance, reliability and cost. We report on the progress of the mid-sized SCT development program.

  6. Quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black holes: Defined and calculated via Laplace transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nollert, H.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Quasinormal modes play a prominent role in the literature when dealing with the propagation of linearized perturbations of the Schwarzschild geometry. We show that space-time properties of the solutions of the perturbation equation imply the existence of a unique Green's function of the Laplace-transformed wave equation. This Green's function may be constructed from solutions of the homogeneous time-independent equation, which are uniquely characterized by the boundary conditions they satisfy. These boundary conditions are identified as the boundary conditions usually imposed for quasinormal-mode solutions. It turns out that solutions of the homogeneous equation exist which satisfy these boundary conditions at the horizon and at spatial infinity simultaneously, leading to poles of the Green's function. We therefore propose to define quasinormal-mode frequencies as the poles of the Green's function for the Laplace-transformed equation. On the basis of this definition a new technique for the numerical calculation of quasinormal frequencies is developed. The results agree with computations of Leaver, but not with more recent results obtained by Guinn, Will, Kojima, and Schutz

  7. Scalar-gravitational perturbations and quasi normal modes in the five dimensional Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the quasi normal modes (QNMs) for gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole in the five dimensional (5D) spacetime with a continued fraction method. For all the types of perturbations (scalar-gravitational, vector-gravitational, and tensor-gravitational perturbations), the QNMs associated with l = 2, l 3, and l = 4 are calculated. Our numerical results are summarized as follows: (i) The three types of gravitational perturbations associated with the same angular quantum number l have a different set of the quasi normal (QN) frequencies; (ii) There is no purely imaginary frequency mode; (iii) The three types of gravitational perturbations have the same asymptotic behavior of the QNMs in the limit of the large imaginary frequencies, which are given by ωT H -1 → log 3+ 2πi(n+1/2) as n → ∞, where ω, T H , and n are the oscillation frequency, the Hawking temperature of the black hole, and the mode number, respectively. (author)

  8. Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-AdS Black Hole with a Minimal Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Gang Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the mass-smeared scheme of black holes, we study the thermodynamics of black holes. Two interesting models are considered. One is the self-regular Schwarzschild-AdS black hole whose mass density is given by the analogue to probability densities of quantum hydrogen atoms. The other model is the same black hole but whose mass density is chosen to be a rational fractional function of radial coordinates. Both mass densities are in fact analytic expressions of the δ-function. We analyze the phase structures of the two models by investigating the heat capacity at constant pressure and the Gibbs free energy in an isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Both models fail to decay into the pure thermal radiation even with the positive Gibbs free energy due to the existence of a minimal length. Furthermore, we extend our analysis to a general mass-smeared form that is also associated with the δ-function and indicate the similar thermodynamic properties for various possible mass-smeared forms based on the δ-function.

  9. Weak deflection gravitational lensing for photons coupled to Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Guang; Xie, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Beyond the Einstein-Maxwell model, electromagnetic field might couple with gravitational field through the Weyl tensor. In order to provide one of the missing puzzles of the whole physical picture, we investigate weak deflection lensing for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole under a unified framework that is valid for its two possible polarizations. We obtain its coordinate-independent expressions for all observables of the geometric optics lensing up to the second order in the terms of ɛ which is the ratio of the angular gravitational radius to angular Einstein radius of the lens. These observables include bending angle, image position, magnification, centroid and time delay. The contributions of such a coupling on some astrophysical scenarios are also studied. We find that, in the cases of weak deflection lensing on a star orbiting the Galactic Center Sgr A*, Galactic microlensing on a star in the bulge and astrometric microlensing by a nearby object, these effects are beyond the current limits of technology. However, measuring the variation of the total flux of two weak deflection lensing images caused by the Sgr A* might be a promising way for testing such a coupling in the future.

  10. Geometry of deformed black holes. II. Schwarzschild hole surrounded by a Bach-Weyl ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basovník, M.; Semerák, O.

    2016-08-01

    We continue to study the response of black-hole space-times on the presence of additional strong sources of gravity. Restricting ourselves to static and axially symmetric (electro)vacuum exact solutions of Einstein's equations, we first considered the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for a binary of extreme black holes in a previous paper, while here we deal with a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a concentric thin ring described by the Bach-Weyl solution. The geometry is again revealed on the simplest invariants determined by the metric (lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), and by curvature (Kretschmann scalar). Extending the metric inside the black hole along null geodesics tangent to the horizon, we mainly focus on the black-hole interior (specifically, on its sections at constant Killing time) where the quantities behave in a way indicating a surprisingly strong influence of the external source. Being already distinct on the level of potential and acceleration, this is still more pronounced on the level of curvature: for a sufficiently massive and/or nearby (small) ring, the Kretschmann scalar even becomes negative in certain toroidal regions mostly touching the horizon from inside. Such regions have been interpreted as those where magnetic-type curvature dominates, but here we deal with space-times which do not involve rotation and the negative value is achieved due to the electric-type components of the Riemann/Weyl tensor. The Kretschmann scalar also shapes rather nontrivial landscapes outside the horizon.

  11. Schwarzschild tests of the Wahlquist-Estabrook-Buchman-Bardeen tetrad formulation for numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, L.T.; Bardeen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A first order symmetric hyperbolic tetrad formulation of the Einstein equations developed by Estabrook and Wahlquist and put into a form suitable for numerical relativity by Buchman and Bardeen (the WEBB formulation) is adapted to explicit spherical symmetry and tested for accuracy and stability in the evolution of spherically symmetric black holes (the Schwarzschild geometry). The lapse and shift, which specify the evolution of the coordinates relative to the tetrad congruence, are reset at frequent time intervals to keep the constant-time hypersurfaces nearly orthogonal to the tetrad congruence and the spatial coordinate satisfying a kind of minimal rate of strain condition. By arranging through initial conditions that the constant-time hypersurfaces are asymptotically hyperbolic, we simplify the boundary value problem and improve stability of the evolution. Results are obtained for both tetrad gauges ('Nester' and 'Lorentz') of the WEBB formalism using finite difference numerical methods. We are able to obtain stable unconstrained evolution with the Nester gauge for certain initial conditions, but not with the Lorentz gauge

  12. Accretion-induced quasinormal mode excitation of a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagar, Alessandro; Zanotti, Olindo; Font, Jose A.; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    By combining the numerical solution of the nonlinear hydrodynamics equations with the solution of the linear inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations, we investigate the properties of the gravitational radiation emitted during the axisymmetric accretion of matter onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The matter models considered include quadrupolar dust shells and thick accretion disks, permitting us to simulate situations which may be encountered at the end stages of stellar gravitational collapse or binary neutron star merger. We focus on the interference pattern appearing in the energy spectra of the emitted gravitational waves and on the amount of excitation of the quasinormal modes of the accreting black hole. We show that, quite generically in the presence of accretion, the black-hole ringdown is not a simple superposition of quasinormal modes, although the fundamental mode is usually present and often dominates the gravitational-wave signal. We interpret this as due to backscattering of waves off the nonexponentially decaying part of the black-hole potential and to the finite spatial extension of the accreting matter. Our results suggest that the black-hole QNM contributions to the full gravitational-wave signal should be extremely small and possibly not detectable in generic astrophysical scenarios involving the accretion of extended distributions of matter

  13. Bi-conformal symmetry and static Green functions in the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We study a static massless minimally coupled scalar field created by a source in a static D-dimensional spacetime. We demonstrate that the corresponding equation for this field is invariant under a special transformation of the background metric. This transformation consists of the static conformal transformation of the spatial part of the metric accompanied by a properly chosen transformation of the red-shift factor. Both transformations are determined by one function Ω of the spatial coordinates. We show that in a case of higher dimensional spherically symmetric black holes one can find such a bi-conformal transformation that the symmetry of the D-dimensional metric is enhanced after its application. Namely, the metric becomes a direct sum of the metric on a unit sphere and the metric of 2D anti-de Sitter space. The method of the heat kernels is used to find the Green function in this new space, which allows one, after dimensional reduction, to obtain a static Green function in the original space of the static black hole. The general useful representation of static Green functions is obtained in the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini spacetimes of arbitrary dimension. The exact explicit expressions for the static Green functions are obtained in such metrics for D<6. It is shown that in the four dimensional case the corresponding Green function coincides with the Copson solution.

  14. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  15. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmuck

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der kurze, nicht vollständig erhaltene Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer behandelt sehr verschiedene Themen: Politik, Kriegsgefahr, den Wissenschaftsbetrieb, Auszeichnungen und Tagungen, Embryologie und Cholera. Gemeinsam mit Briefen und Reden ergibt sich dabei ein differenziertes Bild der Beurteilung der beiden Wissenschaftler durch den jeweils anderen. Während Baer sich als Bewunderer Humboldts erweist, erscheint umgekehrt Humboldts Einschätzung Baers als ambivalent. Abstract The short, not completely preserved correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Ernst von Baer deals with a wide range of subjects: politics and the danger of war, academic activities, scientific awards and conferences, aspects of embryology and the cholera. Letters to third persons and speeches, together with the correspondence between Humboldt and Baer show a differentiated pattern of mutual appraisal: While Baer always remained an admirer of the elder naturalist, Humboldt’s estimation was characterized by ambivalence.

  16. Large-Scale Influences on the Genesis of Tropical Cyclone Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, K.; Bosart, L. F.

    2012-12-01

    The events leading up to the genesis of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Karl (2010) provides a unique opportunity to examine the continuing problem of understanding tropical cyclogenesis. The PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign allowed for detailed investigation of the tropical disturbance that served as the precursor to TC Karl as it progressed westward through the Caribbean Sea. The purpose of this presentation is to examine the evolution of the pre-Karl disturbance using both common synoptic-scale analyses as well as statistically-based equatorial wave analyses, focusing on where these analyses complement and enhance each other. One of the major factors in the initial spin-up of the pre-Karl tropical disturbance is a surge of southerly and westerly winds from northern South America on 8-10 September 2010. As the surge entered the Caribbean on 9 September, it aided in the formation of a nearly closed earth-relative cyclonic circulation near the southern Leeward Islands. This circulation weakened late on 10 September and remained weak through 13 September before increased organization led to TC genesis on 14 September. This southerly wind surge can be traced to a well-defined surge of anomalously cold air and enhanced southerly winds originating in the lee of the Argentinian Andes over a week prior. While the temperature anomalies wash out prior to reaching the equator, anomalous low-level winds progress into Colombia and Venezuela, where topography aids in turning the southerly winds eastward. An investigation of the pre-Karl environment utilizing wavenumber-frequency filtering techniques also suggests that the initial spin-up of pre-Karl can be associated with the active phase of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW). The observed formation of the nearly closed cyclonic circulation on 10 September is well timed with the passage of anomalous westerly winds along and behind the convectively active phase of a CCKW. These

  17. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tavčar; Erika Turk; Samo Kreft

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes p...

  18. Vita biografica vs. Vita biologica. la questione dell’anthropos in Karl Löwith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambardella, Fabiana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on Karl Löwith’s anthropology. Despite the great number of anthropological studies carried out at the beginning of 20th Century and aimed at describing human nature by means of natural science (biology, ethology, zoology, Löwith elaborates an anthropology based on the concept of biographical life. Man is not a simple living being, he is also an unnatural being that produces himself through the relationship with the other within a shared world.

  19. Den første Karl Gustav-krig 1657-58

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den første Karl Gustav-krig i forskellige persketiver og konkluderer, at krigen ikke bør opfattes som et dårligt forberedt og uigennemtænkt forsøg på dansk revanche inden for rammerne af en nordisk rivalisering, men snarere som  en velovervejet satsning og et led i den dansk-s...

  20. Karl Menningu (ja iseenese) päästmiseks / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Vastuseks Karin Hallas-Murula arvustusele "Maja, mis on sümbol" (Sirp, 2007, 5. X, lk. 13) ja Mait Väljase arvustusele "Iseolemise algus arhitektuuris" (Maja, 2008, nr. 1, lk. 86-87) oma 2007. a. ilmunud raamatust "Maja kui sümbol : Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi hoone Tartus" kohta. Georg Hellati ja Karl Menningu osalusest EÜS-i hoone sünniloos. Frank Lloyd Wrightist kui võimalikust eeskujuandjast

  1. "Problem of generations": Origins, content and continuing relevance of Karl Mannheim’s article

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljić Todor

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a brief history of the concept of generations. It focuses on Karl Mannheim’s article "Problems of Generations" (1928), its social origins and theoretical content. Mannheim’s role was crucial in 20th century development of the (new) concept of generation. In order to understand the problem of social (historical) generations and evaluate Mannheim’s position within the concept’s development, several points are discussed in more detail: the history of the concept of "generati...

  2. [Development of child neuropsychiatry at the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebelt, H

    1978-05-01

    The development of pedoneuropsychiatry at the University of Leipzig is marked by the opening in 1926 of the first "Department of Pedopsychiatric Observation", the establishment of the Clinic of Pedoneuropsychiatry as an independent unit of the Department of Medicine, Karl Marx University, and the setting up in 1976 of a Chair of Pedoneuropsychiatry. Paul Schröder's and R. A. Pfeifer's services to their university are particularly appreciated.

  3. Bringing the economy back in: Hannah Arendt, Karl Marx, and the politics of capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    İnce, Onur Ulaş

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the question of how to construct modern economic relations as an object of political theorizing by placing Hannah Arendt's and Karl Marx's writings in critical conversation. I contend that the political aspect of capitalism comes into sharpest relief less in relations of economic exploitation than in moments of expropriation that produce and reproduce the conditions of capitalist accumulation. To develop a theoretical handle on expropriation and thereby on the politi...

  4. Tim, Jan Lucas ja Karl Robert - vennad üheks kuuks / Maris Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri suvelavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" kaks Karli osatäitjat Jan Lucas Videvik ja Tim Leesnurm ning Joonatani osatäitja Karl Robert Saaremäe tegid Loksal Kaldmaa talus ratsasõiduproove. Üllar Saaremäe lavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" (Astrid Lindgreni samanimelise jutustuse järgi) esietendus on 11. juunil Rakvere teatri taga aias

  5. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  6. The politics of psychiatry and the vicissitudes of faith circa 1950: Karl Stern's psychiatric novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Karl Stern, MD (1906-1975) was the author of The Pillar of Fire (1951) and three nonfiction books on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and religion. His novel, Through Dooms of Love (1960), written with the assistance of his friend and admirer Graham Greene, covers a number of topics that were to psychiatric theory, treatment, and research at mid-century, and reflects several features of his own personal and professional vicissitudes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  8. Twee vroeë reaksies van Gereformeerde kant op Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Engelbrecht

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1919 het die eerste uitgawe van die epogmakende “Romerbrief” van Karl Barth verskyn. Van die tweede druk in 1922 sê hy dat “kein Stein mehr auf dem andem” gelaat is nie. So opspraakwekkend was hierdie boek dat in 1929 die 5de druk van die tweede, radikaal-hersiene uitgawe verskyn het. Intussen het nog ander werke van Barth en selfs oor Barth verskyn. 0ns noem o.a. sy Der Christ in der Gesellschaft (1920; Das Wort Gottes und die Theologie (1924; Vom Christlichen Leben (1926; Auferstehung der Toten (2. Aufl. 1927, sy preke saam met Eduard Thurneysen Komm Schopfer Geist, (Dritt Aufl., 7-9 Tausend(! 1926. Maar 1927 was veral belangrik vanweë die verskyning van Barth se eerste Dogmatiekboek: “Die Christliche Dogmatik im Entwurf. 1 Die Lehre vom Worte Gottes. Prolegomena zur Christlichen Dogmatik” . Voor dié datum het dwarsoor die wêreld, maar ook in Nederland wye reaksie op sy teologie ontstaan. In 1926 skryf Max Strauch sy “Theologie Karl Barth’s”, terwyl Haitjema in Nederland ook in 1926 sy Barth boek die lig laat sien (Prof. dr. Th. L. Haitjema, Karl Barth, Wageningen 1926. Ander Nederlanders wat gereageer het, was drr. A. H. de Hartog, V. Hepp, Ph. Kohnstamm en di. D. Tromp en 0. Noordmans.

  9. Schwarzschild black hole encircled by a rotating thin disc: Properties of perturbative solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlařík, P.; Semerák, O.; Čížek, P.

    2018-04-01

    Will [Astrophys. J. 191, 521 (1974), 10.1086/152992] solved the perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole due to a slowly rotating light concentric thin ring, using Green's functions expressed as infinite-sum expansions in multipoles and in the small mass and rotational parameters. In a previous paper [P. Čížek and O. Semerák, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 232, 14 (2017), 10.3847/1538-4365/aa876b], we expressed the Green functions in closed form containing elliptic integrals, leaving just summation over the mass expansion. Such a form is more practical for numerical evaluation, but mainly for generalizing the problem to extended sources where the Green functions have to be integrated over the source. We exemplified the method by computing explicitly the first-order perturbation due to a slowly rotating thin disc lying between two finite radii. After finding basic parameters of the system—mass and angular momentum of the black hole and of the disc—we now add further properties, namely those which reveal how the disc gravity influences geometry of the black-hole horizon and those of circular equatorial geodesics (specifically, radii of the photon, marginally bound and marginally stable orbits). We also realize that, in the linear order, no ergosphere occurs and the central singularity remains pointlike, and check the implications of natural physical requirements (energy conditions and subluminal restriction on orbital speed) for the single-stream as well as counter-rotating double-stream interpretations of the disc.

  10. THE INNERMOST COLLIMATION STRUCTURE OF THE M87 JET DOWN TO ∼10 SCHWARZSCHILD RADII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Kino, Motoki; Doi, Akihiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We investigated the detailed inner jet structure of M87 using Very Long Baseline Array data at 2, 5, 8.4, 15, 23.8, 43, and 86 GHz, especially focusing on the multi-frequency properties of the radio core at the jet base. First, we measured the size of the core region transverse to the jet axis, defined as W{sub c}, at each frequency ν, and found a relation between W{sub c} and ν: W{sub c}(ν)∝ν{sup –0.71±0.05}. Then, by combining W{sub c}(ν) and the frequency dependence of the core position r{sub c}(ν), which was obtained in our previous study, we constructed a collimation profile of the innermost jet W{sub c}(r) down to ∼10 Schwarzschild radii (R{sub s}) from the central black hole. We found that W{sub c}(r) smoothly connects with the width profile of the outer edge-brightened, parabolic jet and then follows a similar radial dependence down to several tens of R{sub s}. Closer to the black hole, the measured radial profile suggests a possible change in the jet collimation shape from the outer parabolic one, where the jet shape tends to become more radially oriented. This result could be related to a magnetic collimation process or/and interactions with surrounding materials at the jet base. The present results shed light on the importance of higher-sensitivity/resolution imaging studies of M87 at 86, 43, and 22 GHz; these studies should be examined more rigorously.

  11. A Classical Based Derivation of Time Dilation Providing First Order Accuracy to Schwarzschild's Solution of Einstein's Field Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Rickey W.

    In Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (SR), one method to derive relativistic kinetic energy is via applying the classical work-energy theorem to relativistic momentum. This approach starts with a classical based work-energy theorem and applies SR's momentum to the derivation. One outcome of this derivation is relativistic kinetic energy. From this derivation, it is rather straight forward to form a kinetic energy based time dilation function. In the derivation of General Relativity a common approach is to bypass classical laws as a starting point. Instead a rigorous development of differential geometry and Riemannian space is constructed, from which classical based laws are derived. This is in contrast to SR's approach of starting with classical laws and applying the consequences of the universal speed of light by all observers. A possible method to derive time dilation due to Newtonian gravitational potential energy (NGPE) is to apply SR's approach to deriving relativistic kinetic energy. It will be shown this method gives a first order accuracy compared to Schwarzschild's metric. The SR's kinetic energy and the newly derived NGPE derivation are combined to form a Riemannian metric based on these two energies. A geodesic is derived and calculations compared to Schwarzschild's geodesic for an orbiting test mass about a central, non-rotating, non-charged massive body. The new metric results in high accuracy calculations when compared to Einsteins General Relativity's prediction. The new method provides a candidate approach for starting with classical laws and deriving General Relativity effects. This approach mimics SR's method of starting with classical mechanics when deriving relativistic equations. As a compliment to introducing General Relativity, it provides a plausible scaffolding method from classical physics when teaching introductory General Relativity. A straight forward path from classical laws to General Relativity will be derived. This derivation

  12. A contribuição de Karl Polanyi para a sociologia do desenvolvimento rural The contribution of Karl Polanyi for the rural development sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio aborda a importância da redescoberta do pensamento de Karl Polanyi e de sua crítica à "sociedade de mercado" na retomada dos estudos e debates sobre o desenvolvimento (rural. Após uma apresentação geral do quadro teórico e analítico de Polanyi, buscamos utilizar seus conceitos para interpretar a dinâmica da mercantilização dos meios de vida e das formas sociais de trabalho e produção no espaço rural, bem como dos sistemas agroalimentares no capitalismo contemporâneo. Com base nestas proposições, refletimos sobre o papel dos atores sociais e das instituições nos processos de mudança social em geral e os de desenvolvimento rural em particular. Finalizamos, propondo algumas potencialidades dessa abordagem para os estudos sobre desenvolvimento rural no Brasil.The essay deals with the importance of the rediscovery of Karl Polanyi's thinking and of his criticism of the "market society" in resuming (rural development studies and debates. Following an overall presentation of Polanyi's theoretical and analytical framework, we look for using his concepts to interpret the commoditization dynamics of the rural livelihoods and the social forms of labor and production in the rural space, as well as the commoditization of the agri-food systems in the contemporary capitalism. Based on these statements, we reflect about the role of social actors and institutions in the processes of social change at large and of rural development in particular. And, finally, we propose some potentialities of this approach for the rural development studies in Brazil.

  13. Dirac equation for massive neutrinos in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime from a 5D vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Pablo Alejandro; Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a Dirac equation for massless neutrino in a 5D Ricci-flat background metric, we obtain the effective 4D equation for massive neutrino in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) background metric from an extended SdS 5D Ricci-flat metric. We use the fact that the spin connection is defined to an accuracy of a vector, so that the covariant derivative of the spinor field is strongly dependent of the background geometry. We show that the mass of the neutrino can be induced from the extra space-like dimension.

  14. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  15. Hawking Radiation Spectra for Scalar Fields by a Higher-Dimensional Schwarzschild-de-Sitter Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, T.; Kanti, P.; Pappas, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the propagation of scalar fields in the gravitational background of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de-Sitter black hole as well as on the projected-on-the-brane 4-dimensional background. The scalar fields have also a non-minimal coupling to the corresponding, bulk or brane, scalar curvature. We perform a comprehensive study by deriving exact numerical results for the greybody factors, and study their profile in terms of particle and spacetime properties. We then pro...

  16. Karl Poggensee - A widely unknown German rocket pioneer - The early years 1930-1934 - A chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrwild, Karlheinz

    2017-09-01

    The rediscovered estate of Karl Poggensee allows to reproduce chronologically his rocket tests of the period 1930-1934 almost completely for the first time. Thrilled by the movie ;The Woman in the Moon; for the idea of space travel, he started as a student of Hinderburg-Polytechnikum (IAO), Oldenburg, to build his first solid-fuel rocket, producing his own propellant charges. Being a coming electrical engineer his main goal was not set up new record heights, but to provide his rockets with automatic measuring instruments, camera and parachute release systems. The optimization of this sequence was his main focus.

  17. Determination of water in nuclear materials by means of the Karl Fischer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.; Rocha, S.M.R.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1987-06-01

    Karl Fischer Method was adapted for water determination in uranium coumpounds and substances of nuclear interest, by using a comercial equipment. The experimental conditions for the analysis of U 3 O 8 , UO 3 , UO 2 , UF 4 KFnHF and (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 were established. The influence of the agitation and contact time between sample and solvent, of the sample weight, of the reaction end point determination and of the sample granulometry on the precision and accuracy of results was also studied. (Author) [pt

  18. Karl Polanyi et les monnaies modernes : un réexamen

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc , Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    Karl Polanyi a établi une célèbre distinction entre "all purpose money", caractéristiques des sociétés modernes, et "special purpose money", caractéristiques des sociétés anciennes. C'est la conception polanyienne des monnaies modernes qui est critiquée dans ce texte : non seulement elle conduit à considérer que les sociétés modernes ne connaissent pas de "special purpose money", mais en plus elle ne permet pas de renouveler la conception courante de la monnaie (sous-entendu moderne) qui en f...

  19. Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisti, C.; Grigoletto, T.

    1990-08-01

    Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H 2 O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author) [pt

  20. Update on Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. We are addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) -- Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument. KArLE ablates a rock sample, determines the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relates the two by the volume of the ablated pit using laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Our goal is for the KArLE instrument to be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to address a wide range of geochronolgy problems in planetary science.

  1. A detailed analytic study of the asymptotic quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghigh, Ramin G; Green, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    We analyze analytically the asymptotic regions of the quasinormal mode frequency spectra with infinitely large overtone numbers for D-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in anti de Sitter spacetimes. In this limit, we confirm the analytic results obtained previously in the literature using different methods. In addition, we show that in certain spacetime dimensions these techniques imply the existence of other regions of the asymptotic quasinormal mode frequency spectrum which have not previously appeared in the literature. For large black holes, some of these modes have a damping rate of 1.2T H , where T H is the Hawking temperature. This is less than the damping rate of the lowest overtone quasinormal mode calculated by other authors. It is not completely clear whether these modes actually exist or are an artifact of an unknown flaw in the analytic techniques being used. We discuss the possibility of the existence of these modes and explore some of the consequences. We also examine the possible connection between the asymptotic quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti de Sitter black holes and the quantum level spacing of their horizon area spectrum.

  2. Hawking radiation spectra for scalar fields by a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, T.; Kanti, P.; Pappas, N.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we study the propagation of scalar fields in the gravitational background of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as on the projected-on-the-brane four-dimensional background. The scalar fields have also a nonminimal coupling to the corresponding, bulk or brane, scalar curvature. We perform a comprehensive study by deriving exact numerical results for the greybody factors, and study their profile in terms of particle and spacetime properties. We then proceed to derive the Hawking radiation spectra for a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole, and we study both bulk and brane channels. We demonstrate that the nonminimal field coupling, which creates an effective mass term for the fields, suppresses the energy emission rates while the cosmological constant assumes a dual role. By computing the relative energy rates and the total emissivity ratio for bulk and brane emission, we demonstrate that the combined effect of a large number of extra dimensions and value of the field coupling gives to the bulk channel the clear domination in the bulk-brane energy balance.

  3. Quadratic curvature terms and deformed Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole analogues in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. da Rocha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sound waves on a fluid stream, in a de Laval nozzle, are shown to correspond to quasinormal modes emitted by black holes that are physical solutions in a quadratic curvature gravity with cosmological constant. Sound waves patterns in transsonic regimes at a laboratory are employed here to provide experimental data regarding generalized theories of gravity, comprised by the exact de Sitter-like solution and a perturbative solution around the Schwarzschild–de Sitter standard solution as well. Using the classical tests of General Relativity to bound free parameters in these solutions, acoustic perturbations on fluid flows in nozzles are then regarded, to study quasinormal modes of these black holes solutions, providing deviations of the de Laval nozzle cross-sectional area, when compared to the Schwarzschild solution. The fluid sonic point in the nozzle, for sound waves in the fluid, is shown to implement the acoustic event horizon corresponding to quasinormal modes. Keywords: Black holes, Fluid branes, Fluid dynamics, Quadratic curvature gravity, de Laval nozzle

  4. Keim, Karl-Dieter, Das Fenster zum Raum : Traktat über die Erforschung sozialräumlicher Transformation / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Keim, Karl-Dieter: Das Fenster zum Raum : Traktat über die Erforschung sozialräumlicher Transformation / Karl-Dieter Keim. - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2003. - 171 S. : graph. Darst. - (Lehrtexte : Sozialwissenschaften) ISBN 3-8100-4050-9

  5. The psychology of thinking, animal psychology, and the young Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hark, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. In his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it is argued that Popper's early psychology has been pivotally important for the development of his philosophy. In particular, it is shown that Popper's views on psychology underwent a radical shift, one that paved the way for his characteristic deductive stance in philosophy. Popper's views shifted from an inductive and associationistic psychology toward a noninductive psychology of problem solving. Tracing the historical background of Popper's early work reveals how he integrated various parts of the psychology of Karl Groos into his analysis of the childish phenomenon of dogmatic thinking and how he shortly after appropriated various elements of the animal psychology of Hans Volkelt and Herbert Jennings in his biological approach to (dogmatic) thinking. In the monumental works of Otto Selz, however, Popper finally found the roots of a noninductive and biological approach to the growth of individual and scientific knowledge. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Karl Marx and Liberation Theology: Dialectical Materialism and Christian Spirituality in, against, and beyond Contemporary Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McLaren

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores convergences and discrepancies between liberation theology and the works of Karl Marx through the dialogue between one of the key contemporary proponents of liberation theology, Peter McLaren, and the agnostic scholar in critical pedagogy, Petar Jandrić. The paper briefly outlines liberation theology and its main convergences with the works of Karl Marx. Exposing striking similarities between the two traditions in denouncing the false God of money, it explores differences in their views towards individualism and collectivism. It rejects shallow rhetorical homologies between Marx and the Bible often found in liberation theology, and suggests a change of focus from seeking a formal or Cartesian logical consistency between Marxism and Christianity to exploring their dialectical consistency. Looking at Marxist and Christian approaches to morality, it outlines close links between historical materialism and questions of value. It concludes that the shared eschaton of Marxism and the Christianity gives meaning to human history and an opportunity to change it.

  7. KARL METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  8. Karl Polanyi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie

    2018-01-01

    What are the origins of the marketing mind? In this introductory quotation Polanyi suggests that it springs from a specifi c type of economy that diffused in nineteenth century processes of industrialization that swept the world. As such, the marketing mind is a recent historic phenomenon; this qu......What are the origins of the marketing mind? In this introductory quotation Polanyi suggests that it springs from a specifi c type of economy that diffused in nineteenth century processes of industrialization that swept the world. As such, the marketing mind is a recent historic phenomenon......; this quotation seems to tell us. Rather than representing the vanguard of history, the marketing mind, the quotation also seems to tell us, is a “formidable obstacle” that possibly inhibits us from seeing how economy and sociality – our “livelihood” – potentially might be organized differently. In this chapter I...

  9. The East German Research Landscape in Transition. Part B. Non-University Institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-02

    describe an exception: a land institute of world-wide fame, doing astronomical research. #301: Karl - Schwarzschild Astronomical Observatory Karl ...Prof.Dr.Siegfried A. Marx #301*Q30CT91* {Questionnaire filled in during visits and corrected by letter dated 10 Oct.91): KARL - SCHWARZSCHILD ...OBSERVATORIUM = KARL SCHWARZSCHILD OBSERVATORY) 1. GENERAL SURVEY 1.1. Address, Telephone etc.: {see above) 1.2. Setting, Environment, Access: north of Jena, on

  10. Naised käsu korras firmade juhatusse! Jah või ei? / Kairi Alt, Aveli Kippari, Karl Koort... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Columbus IT Partner Eesti AS personalijuht Kairi Alt, Stele ja Riveli omanik Aveli Kippari, AS Panaviatic'i turundusjuht Karl Koort, OÜ Tarkvara Tehnoloogia Arenduskeskuse tegevjuht Indrek Vainu, AS PricewaterhouseCoopers auditiosakonna direktor Eva Jansen, Kalev Chocolate Factory tootmisjuht Hardo Reinike

  11. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  12. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  13. Blank ja Jeron (sero.org) / Joachim Blank, Karl Heinz Jeron ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blank, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Nime sero.org all esinenud saksa kunstnikepaarist Joachim Blankist (sünd. 1963) ja Karl Heinz Jeronist ning nende loomingust, intervjuu kunstnikega nende Berliini ateljees 10. II 2000. Saksa võrgukunsti edendamisest rühmituste Lux Logis, Handshake ja Internationale Stadt koosseisus, jututubadest, teostest "Dump your trash", "Re-M@il", installatsioonidest "re: represent", "Scanner +++", "sign.post" ja muust

  14. Mida kujutab endast IB õppekava? / Toomas Kruusimägi, Anu Parts, Karl Hendrik Thomson ; intervjueerinud Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusimägi, Toomas, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Uuest rahvusvahelisest International Baccalaureate'i (IB) õppekavast ja selle rakendamisest Tallinna Inglise Kolledži 11. klassis alates möödunud aastast räägivad kooli direktor Toomas Kruusimägi, õppedirektor Anu Parts ning õpilane Karl Hendrik Thomson

  15. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  16. [From Paul Flechsig to the Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research. Development of brain research at the Karl Marx University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibnitz, L; Werner, L; Schober, W; Brauer, K

    1977-04-01

    A review is given on the development of the brain research institute of the Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig during the directorates of Paul Flechsig (1883-1920), Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1925-1957), and Wolfgang Wünscher (1957-1971).

  17. [Territorial differences in the occurrence of caries in Karl Marx Stadt children and adolescent after 12 years of water fluoridation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, W

    1976-01-01

    Cariostatistical comparisons made since the start of drinking-water fluoridation in Karl-Marx-Stadt suggested territorial differences in the prevalence of dental decay. In the present paper an attempt is made to analyse the problems involved, with due consideration being given to both demographic and ecological factors.

  18. Understanding the Relationships Between Lightning, Cloud Microphysics, and Airborne Radar-derived Storm Structure During Hurricane Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Brad; Fuelberg, Henry; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Andrew; Bansemer, Aaron; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Heymsfield, Gerald; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lightning, cloud microphysics, and tropical cyclone (TC) storm structure in Hurricane Karl (16 September 2010) using data collected by the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk (GH) aircraft during NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment. The research capitalizes on the unique opportunity provided by GRIP to synthesize multiple datasets from two aircraft and analyze the microphysical and kinematic properties of an electrified TC. Five coordinated flight legs through Karl by the DC-8 and GH are investigated, focusing on the inner-core region (within 50km of the storm center) where the lightning was concentrated and the aircraft were well coordinated. GRIP datasets are used to compare properties of electrified and nonelectrified inner-core regions that are related to the noninductive charging mechanism, which is widely accepted to explain the observed electric fields within thunderstorms. Three common characteristics of Karl's electrified regions are identified: 1) strong updrafts of 10-20ms21, 2) deep mixed-phase layers indicated by reflectivities.30 dBZ extending several kilometers above the freezing level, and 3) microphysical environments consisting of graupel, very small ice particles, and the inferred presence of supercooled water. These characteristics describe an environment favorable for in situ noninductive charging and, hence, TC electrification. The electrified regions in Karl's inner core are attributable to a microphysical environment that was conducive to electrification because of occasional, strong convective updrafts in the eyewall.

  19. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) Telescope Mechanical and Optical System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, Karen L.; Vassiliev, V.; AGIS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    AGIS is a concept for the next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. It will be an array of 36 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) sensitive in the energy range from 50 GeV to 200 TeV. The required improvements in sensitivity, angular resolution, and reliability of operation relative to the present generation instruments imposes demanding technological and cost requirements on the design of AGIS telescopes. In this submission, we outline the status of the development of the optical and mechanical systems for a novel Schwarzschild-Couder two-mirror aplanatic telescope. This design can provide a field of view and angular resolution significantly better to those offered by the traditional Davies-Cotton optics utilized in present-day IACTs. Other benefits of the novel design include isochronous focusing and compatibility with cost-effective, high quantum efficiency image sensors such as multi-anode PMTs, silicon PMTs (SiPMs), or image intensifiers.

  20. Schwarzschild–de Sitter spacetime: The role of temperature in the emission of Hawking radiation

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    Thomas Pappas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider a Schwarzschild–de Sitter (SdS black hole, and focus on the emission of massless scalar fields either minimally or non-minimally coupled to gravity. We use six different temperatures, two black-hole and four effective ones for the SdS spacetime, as the question of the proper temperature for such a background is still debated in the literature. We study their profiles under the variation of the cosmological constant, and derive the corresponding Hawking radiation spectra. We demonstrate that only few of these temperatures may support significant emission of radiation. We finally compute the total emissivities for each temperature, and show that the non-minimal coupling constant of the scalar field to gravity also affects the relative magnitudes of the energy emission rates.

  1. Fermion tunnels of higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black hole and its corrected entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Kai, E-mail: lk314159@126.co [Institute of Theoretical Physics, China West Normal University, NanChong, SiChuan 637002 (China); Yang Shuzheng, E-mail: szyangcwnu@126.co [Institute of Theoretical Physics, China West Normal University, NanChong, SiChuan 637002 (China)

    2009-10-12

    Applying the method beyond semiclassical approximation, fermion tunneling from higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black hole is researched. In our work, the 'tortoise' coordinate transformation is introduced to simplify Dirac equation, so that the equation proves that only the (r-t) sector is important to our research. Because we only need to study the (r-t) sector, the Dirac equation is decomposed into several pairs of equations spontaneously, and we then prove the components of wave functions are proportional to each other in every pair of equations. Therefore, the suitable action forms of the wave functions are obtained, and finally the correctional Hawking temperature and entropy can be determined via the method beyond semiclassical approximation.

  2. The self-force on a non-minimally coupled static scalar charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Demian H J; Tsokaros, Antonios A; Wiseman, Alan G

    2007-01-01

    The finite part of the self-force on a static, non-minimally coupled scalar test charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole is zero. This result is determined from the work required to slowly raise or lower the charge through an infinitesimal distance. Unlike similar force calculations for minimally-coupled scalar charges or electric charges, we find that we must account for a flux of field energy that passes through the horizon and changes the mass and area of the black hole when the charge is displaced. This occurs even for an arbitrarily slow displacement of the non-minimally coupled scalar charge. For a positive coupling constant, the area of the hole increases when the charge is lowered and decreases when the charge is raised. The fact that the self-force vanishes for a static, non-minimally coupled scalar charge in Schwarzschild spacetime agrees with a simple prediction of the Quinn-Wald axioms. However, Zel'nikov and Frolov computed a non-vanishing self-force for a non-minimally coupled charge. Our method of calculation closely parallels the derivation of Zel'nikov and Frolov, and we show that their omission of this unusual flux is responsible for their (incorrect) result. When the flux is accounted for, the self-force vanishes. This correction eliminates a potential counter example to the Quinn-Wald axioms. The fact that the area of the black hole changes when the charge is displaced brings up two interesting questions that did not arise in similar calculations for static electric charges and minimally coupled scalar charges. (1) How can we reconcile a decrease in the area of the black hole horizon with the area theorem which concludes that δArea horizon ≥ 0? The key hypothesis of the area theorem is that the stress-energy tensor must satisfy a null-energy condition T αβ l α l β ≥ 0 for any null vector l α . We explicitly show that the stress-energy associated with a non-minimally coupled field does not satisfy this condition, and this violation of

  3. Conical Stream of the Two-Sided Jets in NGC 4261 over the Range of 103–109 Schwarzschild Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Nakahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the jet width profile of of the nearby ( ∼ 30 Mpc AGN NGC 4261 for both the approaching jet and the counter jet at radial distances ranging from ∼ 10 3 – 10 9 Schwarzschild radius ( R S from the central engine. Our Very Large Array (VLA and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA observations reveal that the jets maintain a conical structure on both sides over the range 10 3 – 10 9 R S without any structural transition (i.e., parabolic to conical like in the approaching jet in M87. Thus, NGC 4261 will provide a unique opportunity to examine the conical jet hypothesis in blazars, while it may require some additional consideration on the acceleration and collimation process in AGN jets.

  4. Detection of Intrinsic Source Structure at ∼3 Schwarzschild Radii with Millimeter-VLBI Observations of SAGITTARIUS A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Roy, Alan L.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Johnson, Michael D.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Beaudoin, Christopher; Bertarini, Alessandra; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Broderick, Avery E.; Cappallo, Roger; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Dexter, Jason; Dexter, Matt; Falcke, Heino; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Greer, Christopher H.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Kim, Junhan; Lamb, James; Lindqvist, Michael; Macmahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P.; Martí-Vidal, Ivan; Menten, Karl M.; Moran, James M.; Nagar, Neil M.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Primiani, Rurik A.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Ros, Eduardo; Rottmann, Helge; SooHoo, Jason; Spilker, Justin; Stone, Jordan; Strittmatter, Peter; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Wagner, Jan; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H.; Zensus, J. Anton; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2018-05-01

    We report results from very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center, Sgr A*, at 1.3 mm (230 GHz). The observations were performed in 2013 March using six VLBI stations in Hawaii, California, Arizona, and Chile. Compared to earlier observations, the addition of the APEX telescope in Chile almost doubles the longest baseline length in the array, provides additional uv coverage in the N–S direction, and leads to a spatial resolution of ∼30 μas (∼3 Schwarzschild radii) for Sgr A*. The source is detected even at the longest baselines with visibility amplitudes of ∼4%–13% of the total flux density. We argue that such flux densities cannot result from interstellar refractive scattering alone, but indicate the presence of compact intrinsic source structure on scales of ∼3 Schwarzschild radii. The measured nonzero closure phases rule out point-symmetric emission. We discuss our results in the context of simple geometric models that capture the basic characteristics and brightness distributions of disk- and jet-dominated models and show that both can reproduce the observed data. Common to these models are the brightness asymmetry, the orientation, and characteristic sizes, which are comparable to the expected size of the black hole shadow. Future 1.3 mm VLBI observations with an expanded array and better sensitivity will allow more detailed imaging of the horizon-scale structure and bear the potential for a deep insight into the physical processes at the black hole boundary.

  5. FILSAFAT ILMU KARL R. POPPER DAN THOMAS S. KUHN SERTA IMPLIKASINYA DALAM PENGAJARAN ILMU

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    Slamet Subekti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about philosophy of science according to Karl R. Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn. There are similarities and differences between their views about how progress and what function of science.Apparently both Popper and Kuhn agree that science does not proceed by induction. However Kuhn disagrees with the view that science progresses by falsifiability through conjectures and refutations, but occurance by paradigm shift. Popper and Kuhn’s disagreement amounted to a distinction between two functions within the practice of science, one of criticism (Popper and one of puzzle solving (Kuhn.Science education implies the teaching and learning of science interesting and fruitful in one hand, and teachers should be role models to students in the other hand

  6. Study of the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL on image errors and their causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, D.

    1987-12-01

    The ionoptical aberrations of the QQDDQ spectrograph BIG KARL are measured and analyzed in order to improve resolution and transmission at large acceptance. The entrance phasespace is scanned in a cartesian grid by means of a narrow collimated beam of scattered deuterons. The distortions due to the nonlinear transformation by the system are measured in the detector plane. A model is developed which describes the measured distortions. The model allows to locate nonlinearities in the system responsible for the observed distortions. It gives a good understanding of geometrical nonlinearities up to the fifth order and chromatical nonlinearities up to the third order. To confirm the model, the magnetic field in the quadrupoles is measured including the fringe field region. Furthermore, nonlinearities appearing in ideal magnets are discussed and compared to experimental data. (orig.) [de

  7. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth’s hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.M. Pelser

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth’s “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth’s understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of the Enlightenment and its counter-movement in Romanticism. In this article Barth’s attitude to the place and role of historical criticism is explained in light of his dialectic distinction between “scientific” and “practical” interpretation. The article aims to show that Barth, with his dialectics, continues Schleiermacher’s realism. In conclusion, the positivistic traits in the Barth legacy are raised once again, in order to open the door to Jürgen Habermas and other deconstructionist thinkers of the postmodern era in hermeneutics.

  9. Paul Karl Feyerabend: The Projections of Theoretical Proliferation in the Relation Science-Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gargiulo de Vázquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Karl Feyerabend’s doctrine of theoretical proliferation has been interpreted by his experts as an attempt to preserve the ideal of scientific progress. This hermeneutics describes, in part, the intention of our philosopher. However, this reading does not explain the fundamental criticism that theoretical pluralism supposes for Feyerabend. The theoretical proliferation is itself a reductio ad absurdum of the attempts of logical positivism and critical rationalism to define science at the expense of the metaphysical. This article presents the theoretical proliferation as a vindication of the positive role that the metaphysical plays in scientific practice. We expose the Feyerabend’s defense of metaphysics inasmuch as it is constitute the possibility to overcome the conceptual conservatism, to increase empirical content of science and to recover the descriptive value of scientific theories.

  10. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R 2 = 0.997). PMID:22567558

  11. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tavčar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD=4.3%, accuracy, and linearity (2=0.997.

  12. Simple modification of karl-Fischer titration method for determination of water content in colored samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R(2) = 0.997).

  13. Natural Selection or Problem Solving. Critical Re-evaluation of Karl Popper's Evolutionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldachev Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the philosophers and the educated audience the name of Sir Karl Popper is usually associated with the critical method, evolutionary epistemology, falsification as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific knowledge, the concept of the third world and with his dislike to dialectics and contradictions. This article is aimed to show in what way all these things are connected in the evolutionary researches of the philosopher and the new conceptions, which he contributed to studying the mechanisms of evolution. Also there is an attempt to comprehend the evolutionary views of Popper, test them for falsification, relate his epistemology with his claims, which he puts forward to the theory of objective knowledge evolution and show the obvious contradiction between them.

  14. Proposal for the ion optics and for the kinematical fitting at the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberger, F.

    1986-01-01

    For the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL the installation of an additional quadrupole lens is purposed. From this the possibility of a telescopic ion optic results. For future experiments a standard focusing with a spatial dispersion of 6.6 m and vanishing angular dispersion is proposed. The D/M ratio (dispersion/magnification) extends to 14.0 m, the maximal spatial angle lies at 3 msr. The energy range extends at a focal plane length of 0.66 m to 20%. For the kinematical fitting of the spectrograph the focal plane is shifted. This shift can be simply and rapidly realized for different K values by means of a software correction, if generally two spatial spectra in the focal plane are taken up. By this additionally for each event the actual scattering angle can be determined with relatively good resolution. The dispersion fit is completely decoupled from the kinematical fitting of the magnetic spectrograph. (orig.) [de

  15. Hermeneutic and Teleology in Ethics across Denominations—Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stewart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study arises from the context of current debates in the Catholic Church on the place of rule and law in moral reasoning. I suggest that ethics may be best served by approaches that place the human subject in a teleogical context and that recognise the need for interpretation of circumstances surrounding actions to be evaluated. This is in contrast to normative rule approaches. The insights retrieved from the account of moral reasoning in Thomas Aquinas by Joseph Selling are compared with an account of the ethical implications of Karl Barth’s theology of hope as expressed in Volume Four of the Church Dogmatics. It is concluded that, in an ecumenical convergence, neither propose a normative rule approach. Rather both use a teleological context and require a hermeneutic of evaluation.

  16. Rationalism and traditionalism in politics. The correspondence between Karl R. Popper and Michael Oakeshott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Pupo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of 1948 between Karl Popper and Michael Oakeshott, translated for the first time in Italian and published in the appendix to this paper, demonstrates the existence of two different ways of thinking about politics: the rationalist approach, founded on the “argumentation” as a rational means for the non-violent solution of problems (Popper, and the traditionalist mode, inspired by the method of “conversation” as a guarantee of constant openness to the diversity of identities (Oakeshott. To rise from the letters is a mutual influence on the interpretation of the key concepts that characterize the thought of the two authors, which however does not cancel the fundamental divergence of their political orientation.

  17. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  18. Karl Popper: La explicación en la disciplina histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holbein Giraldo-Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente artículo se revisan los argumentos enunciados en la obra La miseria del historicismo, en la cual Karl Popper realiza una crítica a la concepción historicista emanada de la filosofía de autores como Platón, Hegel y Marx. Crítica que realiza aludiendo a argumentos de orden epistemológico, para demostrar que el modelo nomológico deductivo de la explicación no aplica a la disciplina histórica, y en este sentido negando una de las tesis más fuertes que él había defendido toda su vida: la del monismo metodológico o unificacionismo metodológico de la ciencia, heredada del positivismo lógico.

  19. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  20. Clever Hans and his effects: Karl Krall and the origins of experimental parapsychology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Fabio; Marazia, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, the so-called Elberfeld horses, the counting and speaking animals, were among the most debated subjects of the newborn comparative psychology. Yet, they have left little trace in the historiography of this discipline, mostly as an appendix of the more famous Clever Hans. Their story is generally told as the prelude to the triumph of reductionistic experimental psychology. By paying a more scrupulous attention than has so far being done to the second life of Hans, and to the endeavours of his second master, Karl Krall, this article explores the story of the Elberfeld horses as an important, if so far neglected, chapter in the history of experimental parapsychology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ["Homesickness and crime"--a contribution of Karl Jaspers to criminal psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Even a century after its first publication in "Archives of Criminology" (in German: Archiv für Kriminologie), the doctoral thesis of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), which was newly edited in 1996, continues to be of interest. Although the crimes described by Jaspers, which took place in a rural area, do no longer occur in this form just as the rural culture itself has disappeared, this paper nevertheless contains reflections that may also be relevant for the interpretation of modern potentials of conflict and violence and crimes rooted therein. The former homesickness has developed into novel phenomena of uprooting. In both cases, problems of maladjustment are a contributing factor to crime motivation. Thus despite all terminological and methodological change, Jaspers' thesis is an example for the continuing relevance of certain subjects in criminological discourse.

  2. "On cyclic insanity" by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum, MD: a translation and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baethge, Christopher; Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2003-01-01

    Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828-1899) spent most of his professional career as director of a private psychiatric sanatorium in Germany. He remains influential for introducing his "clinical method" (based on considering the course of an illness as well as the signs and symptoms) of differential diagnosis of specific psychiatric syndromes and urging abandonment of the more unitary views of psychotic disorders favored by the leading German academic theorists of his time. Kahlbaum's approach to nosology, detailed in an 1863 monograph and other works, strongly influenced Kraepelin's views. However, remarkably few of the important writings of this keen clinical observer are available in English translation. His seminal lecture-essay "On Cyclic Insanity" [Uber cyklisches Irresein] of 1882 is translated into English here for the first time, with comments about its place in the history of the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder, including its position as a link between Falret's folie circulaire and Kraepelin's manic-depressive insanity.

  3. El huracán Karl: concepciones sobre su origen en una comunidad de Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Marinero Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las concepciones e ideas de pobladores adultos sobre las afectaciones sufridas por el huracán Karl en 2010, en el municipio de La Antigua, Veracruz. Los datos se obtuvieron de entrevistas a informantes claves y grupos focales, además de la revisión de notas periodísticas. Se observa que las concepciones e ideas sobre el origen del desastre las adjudican a las fuerzas naturales, espirituales o religiosas sin reconocer la responsabilidad de las autoridades encargadas de elaborar políticas públicas en la materia y en la falta de previsión social y personal frente a sus devastadores efectos. Esta concepción dificulta la prevención, mantiene a la comunidad en situación de vulnerabilidad e impide o imposibilita la integración, la cohesión social y la acción colectiva.

  4. O modelo de Karl Popper sob a ótica das Ciências Sociais Aplicadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanario

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p124 Karl Popper é o principal filósofo da ciência na modernidade, disputando com Thomas Kuhn a primazia de interpretação do método científico. Claramente há diferentes visões para uma leitura desse importante autor que cunhou o método chamado de dedutivo com teste. O texto reconhece a relevância da visão de Karl Popperno desenvolvimento de trabalhos científicos das ciências exatas e biológicas, onde é amplamente aceita. No entanto, nota-se que essa formulação é pouco sistematizada na área das ciências sociais aplicadas. Este é um ensaio que busca resgatar a sua contribuição, numa tentativa de traduzir os conceitos por ele desenvolvidos de forma didática. Para tanto, será feita uma introdução aos fundamentos da ciência como forma específica de conhecimento, buscando contrastar os métodos dedutivo e indutivo e os procedimentos da ciência formal, básica e aplicada. Uma tentativa de classificar a formulação de proposições a serem testadas ou falseadas é feita com a utilização de diferentes critérios, utilizando exemplos da administração e da economia para ilustração.

  5. Readers and academic reading of Karl Marx (São Paulo, 1958-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Soares Rodrigues

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideas, books and concepts of Karl Marx and various Marxist authors was incorporated into scientific and cultural institutions. It is one of the political sphere importation into the academic implying sense of speed in relation to its origins and gave to Marxism, through the practices of the agents of this transfer, support for their preservation, dissemination and transformation. Concurrently, there is the incorporation of these lines to the required reading of the humanities and the repertoire of cultivated layers. Examination of appropriations that academic and cultured elites made of Marx, situate them (such work and such elites, institutionally. This is what this article does. Arguing that the legitimacy of the uses of a tradition result not only of their intrinsic value, but the work oriented agents interested in it, is elected an exemplary experience for research. This article looks at two university groups initially focused on the study of Karl Marx's work, made in the late 1950. It begins by proposing a collective biography, the reading program and the various uses they made of them. To refine the analysis and proof the advocated method selects for vertical take, within a group (the first one and a discipline (sociology, two contrasting trajectories (Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Octavio Ianni and various forms Marxism (theoretical and empirical / dominant and dominated. Finally, it discusses the profits propitiated to have operated with three concepts of cultural sociology: habitus, « field » and « patterns of intention » – taken from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michael Baxandall.

  6. Reflections on Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-Biography “A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx”

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    The English translation of Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-biography A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx was published two weeks before Marx’s bicentenary. This article presents reflections on Liedman’s book and asks how one should best write biographically about Marx. The paper compares Liedman’s biography to the Marx-biographies written by Jonathan Sperber (Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life) and Gareth Stedman-Jones (Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion). A biography is a way of repeat...

  7. Reflections on Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-Biography “A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The English translation of Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-biography A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx was published two weeks before Marx’s bicentenary. This article presents reflections on Liedman’s book and asks how one should best write biographically about Marx. The paper compares Liedman’s biography to the Marx-biographies written by Jonathan Sperber (Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life and Gareth Stedman-Jones (Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion. A biography is a way of repeating a person’s life, works and age in a process of reconstruction and retelling. The question that arises is how to write a biography as a dialectical text. Sven-Eric Liedman: A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx. London: Verso, London, 2018. 768 pages., £35.00 hbk. ISBN 9781786635044

  8. Comment on "Comments on `The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities and space-time voids'" [J. Math. Phys. 50, 042502 (2009)]-Schwarzschild black hole lives to fight another day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun K.

    2017-11-01

    In a comment published several years ago in this journal, Mitra [J. Math. Phys. 50, 042502 (2009)] has claimed to prove that a neutral point particle in general relativity as described by the Schwarzschild metric must have zero gravitational mass, i.e., the mass parameter M0 of a Schwarzschild black hole necessarily vanishes. It is shown that the purported proof is incorrect. The error stems from a basic misunderstanding of the mathematical description of coordinate volume element in a differentiable manifold.

  9. SURRENDER TO LIFE - A Systematic Theological Analysis of Human Kenosis in Karl Rahner’s Thoughts, with Reference to Ignatian Spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    Røsok, Ingvild

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I have investigated the transcendental theology of Karl Rahner, in order to find a theological basis for understanding the concept of kenosis as a following of Christ. Ignatian spirituality was then explored to deepen the understanding and to point to the consequences of such an understanding of kenosis. The research question was: How do the transcendental theology and the Ignatian spirituality of Karl Rahner contribute to an understanding of kenosis as a following of Christ?

  10. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Karl Kreil und Alexander von Humboldt, ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Geschichte des Erdmagnetismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Kreil was voluminous, it concerned earth magnetism. But only one letter has survived. This letter was written by Kreil on September 3, 1836; one day later Kreil wrote a letter to Carl Friedrich Gauss with nearly the same contents, some sentences are even literally corresponding. Four letters from Kreil to Humboldt were published in the „Annalen der Physik und Chemie“. Some letters were mentioned in the biographical literature dealing with Kreil. These letters show, that the correspondence covered at least the period until 1851 and give information about the intensive relationship between the two scientists. A further interesting source is the library of Humboldt which unfortunately has not survived. The catalogue mentions nine works of Kreil some of them where annotated by Humboldt. This makes it plausible that the contacts even lasted until 1856. Zusammenfassung Die Korrespondenz zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Kreil war umfangreich und betraf den Erdmagnetismus. Aber heute ist nur noch ein einziger Brief im Original bekannt. Dieser Brief, den Kreil am 3. September 1836 Alexander von Humboldt zukommen ließ, stimmt inhaltlich und teilweise wortwörtlich mit dem Brief überein, den Kreil nur einen Tag später, am 4. September 1836, an Carl Friedrich Gauß schickte. Vier Briefe von Kreil an Humboldt wurden in den „Annalen der Physik und Chemie“ publiziert, eine nicht allzu große Anzahl weiterer Briefe an Humboldt wurde in der biographischen Literatur über Kreil und in Briefen Kreils an Koller und Gauß erwähnt. Aber nicht nur die lückenhafte und bruchstückhaft bekannte Korrespondenz zwischen Humboldt und Kreil, die bis 1851 reicht, gibt Aufschluss über die Beziehungen, sondern von besonderer Bedeutung ist des Weiteren der Bestand an Kreiliana in der Bibliothek Humboldts. Es handelt sich um neun Werke Kreils, das letzte aus dem Jahr 1856. Nachweisbare

  11. [Anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism--hypotheses and thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarczyk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context.

  12. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  13. [Management of functional sterility using clomiphene and cyclophenyl at the Karl-Marx-Stadt District Hospital Gynecologic Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, S; Melzer, H

    1977-01-01

    We report on 39 barren patients suffering from anovulatory cycle disturbances or corpus luteum inadequacies. Them were given treatment in the Gynecological Hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt County at Karl-Marx-Stadt in the past few years and were administered Clomiphendihydrogencitrate or Cyclophenyl to provoke ovulation. Before and during therapy, the total of estrogenes and pregnanediol were determined in the 24h-urine every two days. The clinical data and the results of the hormone investigations were analysed, and an attempt was made to derive a forecast from the estrogene and pregnanediol secretion so as to be able to form an opinion on the positive or negative result of the treatment.

  14. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  15. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Karl Köller (1857-1944) and the discovery of local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Almiro

    2009-01-01

    The understanding, occasionally recognized, that Sigmund Freud had the intuition to use cocaine as local anesthetic for surgical procedures, or even that he played any role in the discovery of local anesthesia is not true. The objective of Freud's studies were different, and based in irrefutable evidence, Karl Köller was the real inventor of local anesthesia. In face of those facts, proper knowledge of this historically important subject is due. This report refers to the long-known properties of cocaine. It also remembers personal data, and the professional and scientific activities of Sigmund Freud and Karl Köller. It presents Freud's researches on the pathophysiological effects of cocaine. It exposes the reasons for the harsh criticism of Freud's concepts. It describes the sudden, but conscious and justified, idea of Karl Köller to study scientifically the use of cocaine as a local anesthetic in animals and humans. It indicates how those pioneering studies, that culminated with the discovery of local anesthesia by Köller and two presentations in Vienna on the subject, were done. It also reports the first ophthalmologic surgery under local anesthesia. It shows the immediate dissemination throughout the world of the discovery that marked the beginning of regional blocks. It comments several documents corroborating the role of Köller in this discovery. And, finally, it mentions the numerous homages received by Köller in different areas of the world. COCLUSIONS: Regional block was introduced by Karl Köller in 1884, when he demonstrated the feasibility of performing painless ophthalmologic surgeries by using cocaine as a local anesthetic. Sigmund Freud studied cocaine extensively, but he did not have direct participation in this important discovery.

  16. Reversed sense of the ''outward'' direction for dynamical effects of rotation close to a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.; Prasanna, A.R.

    1988-10-01

    Anderson and Lemos (1988) noticed that the direction in which viscous torque transports angular momentum changes, close to a black hole, from outwards to inwards. We find here that close to a black hole the centrifugal force attracts particles towards the hole. We argue that these are particular examples of a general reversal in sense of the inward and outward directions for all dynamical effects of rotation close to the hole. Using results from the recent paper by Abramowicz, Carter and Lasota (1988) we explain that the reversal is not connected with dragging of inertial frames or with the difference between the angular velocities of the hole and of the surrounding matter but rather, it is an effect of curvature. For a Schwarzschild black hole the reversal takes place at the circular photon orbit (r=3M-tilde) because the geodesic curvature, R-tilde=r(1-3M-tilde/r), of the circles r = const. changes its sign there. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Quasinormal frequencies of Schwarzschild black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetimes: A complete study of the overtone asymptotic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Konoplya, Roman; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a thorough analysis of the quasinormal (QN) behavior associated with the decay of scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. As is known, the AdS QN spectrum crucially depends on the relative size of the black hole to the AdS radius. There are three different types of behavior depending on whether the black hole is large, intermediate, or small. The results of previous works, concerning lower overtones for large black holes, are completed here by obtaining higher overtones for all three black hole regimes. There are two major conclusions that one can draw from this work: First, asymptotically for high overtones, all the modes are evenly spaced, and this holds for all three types of regime, large, intermediate, and small black holes, independently of l, where l is the quantum number characterizing the angular distribution; second, the spacing between modes is apparently universal in that it does not depend on the field; i.e., scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational QN modes all have the same spacing for high overtones. We are also able to prove why scalar and gravitational perturbations are isospectral, asymptotically for high overtones, by introducing appropriate superpartner potentials

  18. Bulk and brane decay of a (4+n)-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Scalar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Grain, J.; Barrau, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the idea that the spectrum of Hawking radiation can reveal valuable information on a number of parameters that characterize a particular black hole background--such as the dimensionality of spacetime and the value of coupling constants--to gain information on another important aspect: the curvature of spacetime. We investigate the emission of Hawking radiation from a D-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole emitted in the form of scalar fields, and employ both analytical and numerical techniques to calculate greybody factors and differential energy emission rates on the brane and in the bulk. The energy emission rate of the black hole is significantly enhanced in the high-energy regime with the number of spacelike dimensions. On the other hand, in the low-energy part of the spectrum, it is the cosmological constant that leaves a clear footprint, through a characteristic, constant emission rate of ultrasoft quanta determined by the values of black hole and cosmological horizons. Our results are applicable to 'small' black holes arising in theories with an arbitrary number and size of extra dimensions, as well as to pure 4-dimensional primordial black holes, embedded in a de Sitter spacetime

  19. Property of various correlation measures of open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Ye, Liu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the performance of various correlation measures for open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time. Our results indicate that the impact of Hawking effect on physical accessible entanglement is weaker than that of decoherence. For generalized amplitude damping (GAD) channel, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is analyzed in detail, and the inequivalence of quantization for Dirac particles in the black hole and Kruskal space–time is verified via quantum discord measure. In addition, as an example for interpreting Bell non-locality, we study the GAD channel with Hawking effect. It can be noticed that there is a boundary line of Bell violation for physically accessible states. That is, quantum non-locality would disappear when Hawking temperature exceeds a certain value. This critical temperature increases as a decoherence parameter decreases. In the case of phase damping (PD) channel, the interaction between the particle and noise environment does not produce bipartite system–environment entanglement. Then we discuss entanglement distributions, and find that the reduced physically accessible entanglement can be redistributed to physical inaccessible region. At last, we extend our investigation to an N-qubit system, and obtain a universal expression of the physical accessible entanglement

  20. Scalar radiation from a radially infalling source into a Schwarzschild black hole in the framework of quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Leandro A. [Campus Salinopolis, Universidade Federal do Para, Salinopolis, Para (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, Belem, Para (Brazil); Crispino, Luis C.B. [Universidade Federal do Para, Faculdade de Fisica, Belem, Para (Brazil); Higuchi, Atsushi [University of York, Department of Mathematics, Heslington, York (United Kingdom)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate the radiation to infinity of a massless scalar field from a source falling radially towards a Schwarzschild black hole using the framework of the quantum field theory at tree level. When the source falls from infinity, the monopole radiation is dominant for low initial velocities. Higher multipoles become dominant at high initial velocities. It is found that, as in the electromagnetic and gravitational cases, at high initial velocities the energy spectrum for each multipole with l ≥ 1 approximately is constant up to the fundamental quasinormal frequency and then drops to zero. We also investigate the case where the source falls from rest at a finite distance from the black hole. It is found that the monopole and dipole contributions in this case are dominant. This case needs to be carefully distinguished from the unphysical process where the source abruptly appears at rest and starts falling, which would result in radiation of an infinite amount of energy. We also investigate the radiation of a massless scalar field to the horizon of the black hole, finding some features similar to the gravitational case. (orig.)

  1. Development of a SiPM Camera for a Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Otte, A N; Dickinson, H.; Funk, S.; Jogler, T.; Johnson, C.A.; Karn, P.; Meagher, K.; Naoya, H.; Nguyen, T.; Okumura, A.; Santander, M.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Stier, A.; Tajima, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wakely, S.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a novel 11328 pixel silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) camera for use with a ground-based Cherenkov telescope with Schwarzschild-Couder optics as a possible medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The finely pixelated camera samples air-shower images with more than twice the optical resolution of cameras that are used in current Cherenkov telescopes. Advantages of the higher resolution will be a better event reconstruction yielding improved background suppression and angular resolution of the reconstructed gamma-ray events, which is crucial in morphology studies of, for example, Galactic particle accelerators and the search for gamma-ray halos around extragalactic sources. Packing such a large number of pixels into an area of only half a square meter and having a fast readout directly attached to the back of the sensors is a challenging task. For the prototype camera development, SiPMs from Hamamatsu with through silicon via (TSV) technology are used. We give ...

  2. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  3. Determination of water traces in various organic solvents using Karl Fischer method under FIA conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantan, N; Frenzel, W; Küppers, S

    2000-05-31

    Flow injection methods utilising the Karl Fischer (KF) reaction with spectrophotometric and potentiometric detection are described for the determination of the trace water content in various organic solvents. Optimisation of the methods resulted in an accessible (linear) working range of 0.01-0.2% water for many solvents studied with a typical precision of 1-2% R.S.D. Only 50 mul of organic solvent was injected and the sampling frequency was about 120 samples per h. Since the slopes of the calibration curves were different for different solvents appropriate calibration was required. Problems associated with spectrophotometric detection and caused by refractive index changes were pointed out and a nested-loop configuration was proposed to overcome this kind of interference. The potentiometric method with a novel flow-through detector cell was shown to surpass the performance of spectrophotometric detection in any respect. The characteristics of the procedures developed made them well applicable for on-line monitoring of technical solvent distillations in an industrial plant.

  4. Crisis y dignidad: un paseo con Karl Kraus por la plaza Tahrir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Escamilla Imparato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los últimos acontecimientos revolucionarios surgidos en el mundo árabe, así como los movimientos sociales de indignación frente a los abusos de poder del mercado y la degradación de la vida democrática, están promoviendo nuevas formas distribuidas y horizontales de resistencia y actuación política en defensa de lo común, mediante un uso comprometido y libertario de las mismas herramientas tecnológicas que han servido para globalizar la economía nanciera y reducir lo político a una gestión técnica del poder. En el texto se pretende recuperar la mirada crítica de Karl Kraus, entendiendo que sus diagnósticos y sus profecías -también su sátira- pueden servirnos ahora para desactivar un poder absolutamente privatizado y en crisis.

  5. A Way Forward Beyond Karl Popper's and Donald T. Campbell's Dead-End Evolutionary Epistemologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettersten, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural thought processes have traditionally served as foundations for philosophies of science. The source of all knowledge is passively received observations; these are combined to produce certain knowledge. After David Hume showed that this was not possible, deductivist alternatives, that is, theories that find a source of knowledge in ideas not derived from observations, from Immanuel Kant to William Whewell in the mid-1 9th century, were introduced. In response, traditional associationist and inductivist views were refurbished; a deductivist alternative was developed by the W6rzburg School. Much later Karl Popper in philosophy and Donald T. Campbell in psychology integrated this view with evolutionary theory. Campbell wanted thereby to find a justificationist view, which would reduce philosophy of science to cognitive psychology; Popper rejected both justificationism and the reduction of philosophy of science to psychology. Campbell thought all rational processes were innate psychological processes; Popper thought psychological processes were used to develop various rational processes. Campbell could not show that all rational thought was reducible to innate psychological processes, nor how some justification of scientific theories was possible. Popper could not show how evolutionary theory contributed to our knowledge of psychological thought processes. Both failed to observe that cognitive processes are social; people have learned how to think by learning how to interact in social groups seeking understanding. When innate thought processes are studied as social characteristics, evolutionary theory can contribute to both cognitive psychology and the theory of rationality, as both Popper and Campbell wanted it to do.

  6. Prison break: Karl Menninger's The Crime of Punishment and its reception in U.S. psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonis, David C; Triggs, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    In 1968, Karl Menninger, a highly visible and vocal U.S. psychiatrist, published a call to action on prison reform, The Crime of Punishment (Menninger, 1966/1968). This widely circulated book's central idea is that punishment as practiced in penal settings is an injustice amounting to a crime. At the outset, The Crime of Punishment quickly achieved national attention. Within mainstream psychology, its antipunishment message encountered a changed climate in which punishment, thought ineffective during the period 1930 through 1960, was redefined as an effective component in learning. It also met competition from the contemporaneous Stanford Prison Experiment (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973), which quickly rose to equivalent media presence and superior disciplinary prominence. Both the Stanford Prison Experiment and The Crime of Punishment survived in the antireform era of hyperincarceration after 1974 as parallel examples of reform activism, one secular and one religious in character, illustrating some convergences of aim between psychology and psychiatry outside of specifically clinical issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A Historical Survey of Sir Karl Popper's Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Shields

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was complete (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. Quanta 2012; 1: 1–12.

  8. Philosophy and Theology in Karl Barth’s Neo-Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pylaev Maksim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed article the author explores the concept of God’s Word in theocentric theology of K. Barth and theology of early K. Barth in times of the second edition of 'Romans’, in terms of their philosophy founding. The author compares the block of philosophical and theological topics such as the theory of temporality, dialectic concept of the beginning (Ursprung and other types in philosophical discourses used by K. Barth (platonism, neo-Kantianism, existentialism, scholasticism, phenomenological philosophy and others with theology of K. Barth. The article gives a brief reconstruction of the theology of God’s Word by K. Barth in its two complementary projections as presented in the ‘Sketch of Christian Doctrine’ and ‘Dogma of the Church’. During the presentation the reader is well acquainted with the third projection of the concept of God’s Word by K. Barth at the time of the genesis of the book ‘Fides quaerens intellectum’. The article tests the hypothesis that the second edition of the ‘Romans’, ‘Fides quaerens intellectum’ and ‘Sketch of the Christian Dogma’ with ‘Church Dogma’ explicate the form of Christian theology, which, absorbing primarily the important philosophic achievements of 19–20th centuries, yet tries to stay free of them. Using various forms of philosophical discourses Karl Barth implements his own task of building a Christian theology beyond metaphysics, history and human existence.

  9. Karl Barth’s male-female order: A kingpin of dogmatic disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s gender perspective is often analysed with reference to his so-called “theoethics” or “creational theology”. This perspective perpetuates an asymmetry in gender relations that was prevalent in Biblical times, throughout Christianity and to some extent still is visible today. He based his view on the subordination of women on an exegesis of Genesis 1:27 as “intertext” of Ephesians 5:22-23. Barth’s asymmetrical gender perspective is a product of his embedment in Western Christian tradition which in turn, is rooted in early Christian patriarchal theology. The aim of this article is to focus on Barth’s ontological reframing of the traditional understanding of the Biblical notion of human beings as created in the “image of God”. The article consists of four sections: (a Luther’s and Calvin’s gender perspectives; (b the Enlightenment failure to achieve emancipation; (c gender disparity in Reformed theology; and (d a feminist alternative.

  10. Karl Polanyi e a Nova Sociologia Económica: Notas sobre o conceito de (disembeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Miguel Cardoso Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da Nova Sociologia Económica, Karl Polanyi é quase consensualmente considerado o “pai” do conceito de incrustação (embeddedness. Todavia, este conceito foi alvo de uma apropriação selectiva por parte da disciplina, sendo negligenciada a sua relação com o restante edifício teórico construído por Polanyi. Pode, com efeito, falar‑se de uma “grande transformação” sofrida pelo conceito de incrustação: se em Polanyi ele está associado a um nível macro(económico e é utilizado para evidenciar o carácter excepcional da economia capitalista de mercado – que se encontra desincrustada da sociedade –, na NSE, por seu turno, é normalmente associado a um nível meso (e até micro, sendo preconizado que todas as economias – incluindo a capitalista – estão incrustadas.

  11. Karl Gustaf Torsten Sjögren and the Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Aboud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Karl Gustaf Torsten Sjögren (1896-1974 a Swedish psychiatrist and geneticist, was a pioneer of modern Swedish psychiatry. Sjögren studied medicine at the University of Uppsala. From 1932 to 1935, he was Head Physician and Director of Lillehagen Hospital in Gothenburg, and between 1935- 1945, he was physician-in-chief at the psychiatric department of Sahlgrenska Hospital in Gothenburg. Sjögren was professor of psychiatry at Karolinska Institutet from 1945 to 1961 and was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1951. Sjögren was an expert of psychiatry for the World Health Organization. Among his many contributions to medicine, he is credited for describing several medical conditions, which were later named after him, including Graefe- Sjögren syndrome, Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS. During his work on juvenile amaurotic idiocy, Sjögren forged a collaboration with Tage K.L. Larsson, a statistics lecturer at the University of Lund. Their study on the combination of oligophrenia, congenital ichthyosis, and spastic disorders in 1957 established the clinical and genetic profile of a new disease entity, later known as Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS.

  12. Ivan Karamazov’s rebellion in Albert Camus’ and Karl Jaspers’ interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Lisowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present Albert Camus’ and Karl Jaspers’ interpretations of Ivan Karamazov’s rebellion as the diagnoses of the weakness of the human intellect in confrontation with the world and the criticism of rationalism. Therefore, in the introduction I will present those fragments of the novel that characterize Ivan’s rebellion as highly abstract and theoretical. At the same time, this common literary context serves as the ground for reconstruction and comparison of the basic philosophical assumptions of each author. The intention of the remaining part of the paper is, firstly, to reconstruct A. Camus’ and K. Jaspers’ epistemology and, secondly, to analyse the arguments against Ivan’s attitude formulated by the writers. Their criticisms of the protagonist’s excessive trust in intellect is based on their own concepts of human epistemic capacity, which are related to the problems of the absurd in A. Camus’ and transcendence in K. Jaspers’ writings. The question of nihilism demands analysis of A. Camus’ idea of the nature of rebellion as both affirmative and negative, and of K. Jaspers’ notion of faith as pre-intellectual trust. Finally, their criticisms of the slogan “If there is no God, then anything is allowed” introduces the problem of freedom, which allows the comparison of the concepts of solidarity (A. Camus and communication (K. Jaspers. In the conclusion these two philosophical attitudes are discussed together. Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

  13. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  15. [Note on the epistemology of clinical pharmacology: comparison with the approach of Karl Popper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel, J P

    1999-01-01

    Is clinical pharmacology a science or only an application of science? Karl Popper suggested a method to identify science and to sort it out from other logical activities such as metaphysics, whereby the falsification criterion he proposed can apply to the theory in such a way that the theory could be refuted. The clinical pharmacologist's approach requires the build-up of a therapeutic model on the basis of two other models: the physiopathologic and the pharmacological. The three-model construct is a theory. Is it scientific in the Popperian sense? From the therapeutic model, one can predict the efficacy of a drug, and the corresponding statement is tested by a clinical trial. Whatever the original statement, it is modified into a refutable one because of the use of the statistical approach in clinical trials. Furthermore, the predicate represents a hypothesis of the model validity, which will then be confronted with 'reality' through clinical experiment. As the therapeutic model is refutable, clinical pharmacology is a science in the Popperian sense.

  16. Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: lições de um confronto histórico

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    Angela Ganem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: Lessons from a historical confrontation. In 1961, during the Congress of the German Society of Sociology, two great theoretical references of the XX century faced in a historical debate about the logic of the social sciences. In addition to methodological issues strict sense, the confrontation became known as a debate between positivism and dialectic. The article first deals with the theoretical trajectories of Popper and Adorno and the relation of their theories with their political and ideological certainties. On one hand, the trajectory of the Popperian epistemology is examined, its contributions and vigorous attacks on Marx in what he called 'poverty of historicism" and false predictive Marxist world, and, on the other hand, the role of Adorno in the Frankfurt School, his criticism of totalitarianism and the defense of a critical emancipatory reason. The article also deals with the confrontation itself, the exposure of Popper's twenty-seven theses that culminate with the situation logic and the method of the economy as exemplary for the social sciences and Adorno's critical perspective of sociology and society as non-separable objects. In conclusion we show how the articulation of theory with the weltanschauung of each author helps to clarify the terms of the debate and how the confrontation contributed unequivocally to the dynamics of scientific progress and for the critical history of the ideas.

  17. Tom McCarthy, Karl Marx, and the Money on the Books

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    Nicholas Huber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By way of contrast to recent work on the problematic of representation of capital and its prioritized aesthetic mode, visuality, this article addresses the problematic of mediation in financialized capitalism through an attention to the relationship between writing and contemporary money forms. To elaborate this problematic, mediation is deployed methodologically as well: selections from two bodies of work concerned with capitalist monetary phenomena—those of Karl Marx and the novelist Tom McCarthy—are analyzed in parallel. McCarthy’s 'oeuvre' is presented as preoccupied with monetary-inscriptive techniques and pockmarked by Marxian concepts and concerns. It is argued that 'Remainder', specifically, can be read as theorizing the relationship between money and writing under early 21st-century regimes of finance capital through its elaboration of retail loyalty accounts and the multivalent concept of ‘remainder’ or ‘surplus’. The article reads this theorization against neglected sections of Marx’s second volume of 'Capital' in which money is enigmatically treated from the perspective of bookkeeping.

  18. Karl Andrée (1880-1959) sedimentologist and marine geologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2017-09-01

    Karl Andrée began studying questions of sedimentology and oceanography in 1908 when working as an assistant at the University of Marburg and he remained faithful to these subjects until his death in 1959. The vast majority of his scientific contributions, however, were published during his time at the University of Königsberg (1915-1945). There he published his fundamental papers on marine geology, all of which adhered strictly to the principles of uniformitarianism, and helped improve our understanding of sedimentary processes and the stratigraphic record. His scientific work has enormous breadth. In the course of 55 years, he published 124 individual papers and books, some of which became classic textbooks. His versatility is particularly evident in his book "Geology of the Seafloor", which contains many pertinent observations and descriptions still relevant today, even if it has fallen out of fashion. This scientist and university teacher was the first to successfully present the huge field of marine geology in all its facet and to consider the deposition of marine sediments as a function of their geographical distribution.

  19. Karl Ove Knausgård’s My Struggle and the Serial Self

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    Inge van de Ven

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Karl Ove Knausgård’s six-volume autobiography My Struggle in the frame of an emerging cross-medial aesthetics of the ‘serial self’. This aesthetics is informed by the technological potentialities of digital media, and by social media practices like taking a selfie or posting a blog every single day and accumulating these self-representations, without selection. The serial self is marked by continuity, real-time effects, open-endedness, rhythm, repetition, and a thematic attention to the mundane. It can be discerned in the daily comic strip, the daily selfie, and time-lapse cinema. The article embeds My Struggle in this larger, intermedial framework. Moreover, it refers to the work of psychologist Galen Strawson to argue that the self-representations in Knausgård’s work should be understood as episodic rather than diachronic in nature. This results in a sequential and paratactic, rather than causal and hierarchical, presentation of memorial material. It is claimed that serial self-representations of this type are increasingly central to our current media ecology. They offer a valuable medium for investigating, materializing, and mapping on the page the traces left by the passage of time, as serialization lends itself to performative and cumulative representations of a ‘self’ in flux, that dramatize and perform the struggles of the episodic personality in search for continuity.

  20. Beyond the geodesic approximation: Conservative effects of the gravitational self-force in eccentric orbits around a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barack, Leor; Sago, Norichika

    2011-01-01

    We study conservative finite-mass corrections to the motion of a particle in a bound (eccentric) strong-field orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We assume the particle's mass μ is much smaller than the black hole mass M, and explore post-geodesic corrections of O(μ/M). Our analysis uses numerical data from a recently developed code that outputs the Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force (GSF) acting on the particle along the eccentric geodesic. First, we calculate the O(μ/M) conservative correction to the periastron advance of the orbit, as a function of the (gauge-dependent) semilatus rectum and eccentricity. A gauge-invariant description of the GSF precession effect is made possible in the circular-orbit limit, where we express the correction to the periastron advance as a function of the invariant azimuthal frequency. We compare this relation with results from fully nonlinear numerical-relativistic simulations. In order to obtain a gauge-invariant measure of the GSF effect for fully eccentric orbits, we introduce a suitable generalization of Detweiler's circular-orbit ''redshift'' invariant. We compute the O(μ/M) conservative correction to this invariant, expressed as a function of the two invariant frequencies that parametrize the orbit. Our results are in good agreement with results from post-Newtonian calculations in the weak-field regime, as we shall report elsewhere. The results of our study can inform the development of analytical models for the dynamics of strongly gravitating binaries. They also provide an accurate benchmark for future numerical-relativistic simulations.

  1. The effect of non-sphericity on mass and anisotropy measurements in dSph galaxies with Schwarzschild method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Klaudia; Łokas, Ewa L.; Valluri, Monica

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work we confirmed the reliability of the spherically symmetric Schwarzschild orbit-superposition method to recover the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of spherical dwarf galaxies. Here, we investigate the effect of its application to intrinsically non-spherical objects. For this purpose we use a model of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy formed in a numerical simulation of a major merger of two discy dwarfs. The shape of the stellar component of the merger remnant is axisymmetric and prolate which allows us to identify and measure the bias caused by observing the spheroidal galaxy along different directions, especially the longest and shortest principal axis. The modelling is based on mock data generated from the remnant that are observationally available for dwarfs: projected positions and line-of-sight velocities of the stars. In order to obtain a reliable tool while keeping the number of parameters low we parametrize the total mass distribution as a radius-dependent mass-to-light ratio with just two free parameters we aim to constrain. Our study shows that if the total density profile is known, the true, radially increasing anisotropy profile can be well recovered for the observations along the longest axis whereas the data along the shortest axis lead to the inference of an incorrect, isotropic model. On the other hand, if the density profile is derived from the method as well, the anisotropy is always underestimated but the total mass profile is well recovered for the data along the shortest axis whereas for the longest axis the mass content is overestimated.

  2. KARL JASPERS’ INTELLECTUAL BIOGRAPHY OR EXPERIENCE OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF PHILISOPHER’S LIFE AND WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Султана Гильмидиновна Кцоева

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a such genre of historical research as intellectual biography. In it in practice (with reference to the person of outstanding German scientist Karl Jaspers are considered the basic methods, applied during the process of preparation of the intellectual biography, the circle of research problem is defined, typical for the given direction and their specific character is explained. Special attention is given to interdisciplinary as the basic condition of a successful scientific work on the given direction of intellectual history. A number of problems is listed in the article with which the historian, making the intellectual biography, anyway faces. The necessity of overcoming highly specialized scientific frames during the preparation of the intellectual biography becomes abundantly clear as it is impossible to understand the historical determinates of foldings of the whole system of scientific outlook of the intellectual without the reference to the system analysis of its scientific views, without immersing to the sphere of his professional interests which, as is known, can be far from history. The specified fact is the main reason for criticism of the direction of intellectual history from the adherents of “pure” history. The author defines a circle of research problems, among which are: definition of a circle of the research problems, objectively rising before the historian-intellectualist, realization of the selection of methods of research, relevant to the solution of objectives, demonstration of a bright example of practical application of methods of interdisciplinary research within writing of the intellectual biography of Jaspers.

  3. Application of calcium, boron and sucrose on cut peony stems (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. cv. Karl Rosenfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOYOLA NELSON EDUARDO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

     

    In cut flowers, there must be clear guidelines for export, therefore, it is essential to proper postharvest management, to store the flowers for as long as possible in top condition, both for transit and vase life; in Chile there is very little knowledge about this operation. In order to address these questions, a study was conducted to evaluate the performance of postharvest life of the peony cultivar ‘Karl Rosenfield’, using four treatments: water, preharvest Borocal® with water, Borocal® with 100 g sucrose/L of water, and 100 g sucrose/L of water, some of which had Borocal® added preharvest and sucrose applied postharvest; evaluating four quality parameters in cut flowers: floral diameter, stem curvature, stem weight and vase life. The present study lasted 25 days, which was the total time of refrigerated storage. The results showed that peony stems with preharvest applications of Borocal® and postharvest applications of only water presented the highest values in terms of floral diameter, stem weight and particularly increased vase life, with no significant differences in stem curvature.

  4. Karl Polanyi, Athens and us: the contemporary significance of Polanyi's thought

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    Bernardo Stuhlberger Wjuniski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Karl Polanyi is considered one of the most prominent social scientists of the 20th century. In his writings, an important concern was the relationship between the markets and the society (therefore, the state as a whole; to discuss it, he introduced the concept of "embeddedness", fundamental for his study of the origins and consequences of the Industrial Revolution. An important part of his heritage is the study of the economic history of what he called "ancient societies," especially of Classical Greece. Polanyi used these studies to compare the ancient societies with his own times, in an effort to understand them all. This paper aims to relate Polanyi's work on the Athenian society with his studies about the modern times, showing that it is possible to draw lessons from Polanyi's thought on the relationship between the society, the state and the market that can help to design a political agenda for our days. In the first part, we present the most important aspects o the life and work of Polanyi, and in the second we discuss the most important aspects of his worldview. Then, in the third part, we study his view of the early Athenian economy; mainly, we focus on the coexistence of a kind of state planning and a market, showing how this understanding is crucial for the whole Polanyian legacy, with its emphasis in the comparison of different societies and times. We conclude by underlining the relevance of this interpretation advanced by Polanyi to understand the societies of our days, focusing on some proposals to extend his approach to deal with our contemporary problems.

  5. El Marx de Dussel: Notas acerca de la recepción dusseliana de la obra teórica de Karl Marx The Marx of Dussel: Notes on dusselian receipt of the theoretical work of Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Hernán Teruel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de su exilio en México, a mediados de la década del setenta del siglo pasado, Enrique Dussel se entrega a la tarea de "leer seria y directamente" la obra teórica de Karl Marx producida entre los años 1857 y 1882. Al cabo de diez semestres de arduo trabajo, el resultado es una interpretación novedosa de las cuatro redacciones de El Capital. En efecto, ante los ojos de Dussel la obra maestra de Karl Marx se revela no solo como un tratado de economía sino antes bien como uno de antropología y ética. Marx, afirma Dussel, "deconstruye la economía capitalista críticamente y la reconstruye antropológica y éticamente". Asimismo, Dussel descubre que la producción teórica de Marx quedó inconclusa y, sobre todo, abierta a futuros desarrollos. Para el filósofo mendocino es necesario, en nuestro tiempo, no solo reinterpretar la totalidad de la obra de Marx sino también continuar su labor teórica, en especial desde América Latina, para el estudio del capitalismo periférico latinoamericano. Nuestro interés es indicar aquellos elementos que constituyen lo novedoso en la interpretación dusseliana de la obra teórica de Marx.From his exile in Mexico in the mid seventies of last century, Enrique Dussel is given the task of "reading seriously and directly" the theoretical work of Karl Marx produced between 1857 and 1882. After ten semesters of hard work, the result is a novel interpretation of the four drafts of The Capital. Indeed, in the eyes of Dussel, the masterpiece of Karl Marx is revealed not only as an economic treatise but rather as an anthropology and ethics. Marx "capitalist economy critically deconstructs and reconstructs anthropological and ethically". Moreover, Dussel finds that the theoretical yield of Marx was inconclusive and, above all, open to future developments. For the philosopher is needed in our time, not only reinterpret the whole work of Marx but also to continue his theoretical work, especially from Latin

  6. “DET UFERDIGES KRAFT” SOM LITTERÆR VERDI HOS KNUT HAMSUN OG KARL OVE KNAUSGÅRD

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    Sissel Furuseth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the essay “Sjelens Amerika” [“The America of the Soul”], Karl Ove Knausgård claims that the reason why we still perceive Knut Hamsun’s novels as fresh and present is because they display our own modern world in its very creation, at a time when it was full of “the power of the unfinished” and not yet stiffened in accomplished systems. In this article, I argue that the idea of “the power of the unfinished” is an aesthetic category describing the core of a poetics common to Knausgård and Hamsun.

  7. Explanation of Rotation Curves in Galaxies and Clusters of them, by Generalization of Schwarzschild Metric and Combination with MOND, eliminating Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2017-12-01

    Schwarzschild Metric is the first and the most important solution of Einstein vacuum field equations. This is associated with Lorentz metric of flat spacetime and produces the relativistic potential (Φ) and the field strength (g) outside a spherically symmetric mass or a non-rotating black hole. It has many applications such as gravitational red shift, the precession of Mercury’s orbit, Shapiro time delay etc. However, it is inefficient to explain the rotation curves in large galaxies and clusters of them, causing the necessity for dark matter. On the other hand, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has already explained these rotation curves in many cases, using suitable interpolating function (μ) in Milgrom’s Law. In this presentation, we initially produce a Generalized Schwarzschild potential and the corresponding Metric of spacetime, in order to be in accordance with any isotropic metric of flat spacetime (including Galilean Metric of spacetime which is associated with Galilean Transformation of spacetime). From this Generalized Schwarzschild potential (Φ), we calculate the corresponding field strength (g), which is associated with the interpolating function (μ). In this way, a new relativistic potential is obtained (let us call 2nd Generalized Schwarzschild potential) which describes the gravitational interaction at any distance and for any metric of flat spacetime. Thus, not only the necessity for Dark Matter is eliminated, but also MOND becomes a pure Relativistic Theory of Gravitational Interaction. Then, we pass to the case of flat spacetime with Lorentz metric (Minkowski space), because the experimental data have been extracted using the Relativistic Doppler Shift and the gravitational red shift of Classic Relativity (CR). Thus, we Explain the Rotation Curves in Galaxies (e.g. NGC 3198) and Clusters of them as well as the Solar system, eliminating Dark Matter. This relativistic potential and the corresponding metric of spacetime have been obtained

  8. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939 e Karl Köller (1857-1944 e a descoberta da anestesia local Sigmund Freud (1856-1939 y Karl Köller (1857-1944 y el Descubrimiento de la anestesia local Sigmund Freud (1856-1939 and Karl Köller (1857-1944 and the Discovery of local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiro dos Reis Jr

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATVA E OBJETIVOS: O entendimento por vezes admitido de que Sigmund Freud teve a intuição de utilizar a cocaína como anestésico local para intervenções cirúrgicas, ou mesmo de que ele tenha tido algum papel na descoberta da anestesia local não é verídico. Os objetivos das pesquisas de Freud eram outros e o verdadeiro realizador da descoberta foi Karl Köller, sobre o que há argumentos irrefutáveis. Diante desses fatos, tem importância histórica o conhecimento correto da questão. CONTEÚDO: O texto refere-se às propriedades há muito conhecidas da cocaína. Recorda dados pessoais, atividades profissionais e científicas de Sigmund Freud e de Karl Köller. Apresenta as pesquisas de Freud sobre efeitos fisiopatológicos observados com a cocaína. Expõe as razões das duras críticas recebidas por Freud diante de conceitos por ele emitidos. Descreve a súbita, porém consciente e justificada idéia de Karl Köller de estudar cientificamente a cocaína como anestésico local em animais e seres humanos. Indica como foram realizadas as pesquisas pioneiras que culminaram com a descoberta da anestesia local por Köller e as duas exposições sobre esta, feitas em Viena. Relata a primeira intervenção cirúrgica oftalmológica sob anestesia local. Comprova a imediata difusão pelo mundo da descoberta que marcou o início da anestesia locorregional. Comenta numerosos documentos comprobatórios da prioridade de Köller na descoberta. Finalmente, menciona as numerosas homenagens recebidas por Köller em várias partes do mundo. CONCLUSÕES: A anestesia locorregional foi iniciada por Karl Köller em 1884, quando ele provou a possibilidade de praticar intervenções cirúrgicas oftalmológicas sem dor utilizando a cocaína como anestésico local. Sigmund Freud realizou muitas pesquisas sobre a cocaína, mas não participou diretamente do importantíssimo feito.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los que a veces se cree de que Sigmund Freud tuvo

  9. COLDz: KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY DISCOVERY OF A GAS-RICH GALAXY IN COSMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentati, L. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wagg, J. [Square Kilometre Array Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D.; Sharon, C. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Capak, P.; Scoville, N. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Decarli, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Hodge, J. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Smail, I. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Daddi, E. [CEA-Saclay, Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, M. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Smolčć, V., E-mail: ltl21@mrao.cam.ac.uk [University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-02-10

    The broad spectral bandwidth at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths provided by the recent upgrades to the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has made it possible to conduct unbiased searches for molecular CO line emission at redshifts, z > 1.31. We present the discovery of a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy at z = 2.48 through the detection of CO J = 1-0 line emission in the COLDz survey and through a sensitive, Ka-band (31-39 GHz) VLA survey of a 6.5 arcmin{sup 2} region of the COSMOS field. We argue that the broad line (FWHM ∼ 570 ± 80 km s{sup –1}) is most likely to be CO J = 1-0 at z = 2.48, as the integrated emission is spatially coincident with an infrared-detected galaxy with a photometric redshift estimate of z {sub phot} = 3.2 ± 0.4. The CO J = 1-0 line luminosity is L{sub CO}{sup ′}=(2.2±0.3)×10{sup 10} K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}, suggesting a cold molecular gas mass of M {sub gas} ∼ (2-8) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} depending on the assumed value of the molecular gas mass to CO luminosity ratio α{sub CO}. The estimated infrared luminosity from the (rest-frame) far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is L {sub IR} = 2.5 × 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉} and the star formation rate is ∼250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the SED shape indicating substantial dust obscuration of the stellar light. The infrared to CO line luminosity ratio is ∼114 ± 19 L {sub ☉}/(K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}), similar to galaxies with similar SFRs selected at UV/optical to radio wavelengths. This discovery confirms the potential for molecular emission line surveys as a route to study populations of gas-rich galaxies in the future.

  10. In Situ Dating Experiments of Igneous Rocks Using the KArLE Instrument: A Case Study for Approximately 380 Ma Basaltic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2018-01-01

    We report new K-Ar isochron data for two approximately 380 Ma basaltic rocks, using an updated version of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE). These basalts have K contents comparable to lunar KREEP basalts or igneous lithologies found by Mars rovers, whereas previous proof-of-concept studies focused primarily on more K-rich rocks. We continue to measure these analogue samples to show the advancing capability of in situ K-Ar geochronology. KArLE is applicable to other bodies including the Moon or asteroids.

  11. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  12. On psychodynamics of personal value-judgements - Nietzsche's theory of resentment and its reception by Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    A hundred years ago when Karl Jaspers was introducing psychological understanding to psychiatry the founder of the school of Heidelberg spoke of Friedrich Nietzsche as one of the "greatest" psychologists. Especially his theory of resentment with its core thesis unconscious prejudices were influencing our behaviour was able to illuminate the complex structure of human will. Taking into account this horizon of psychiatric history of ideas the presentation wants to persecute the following three questions: 1) Why the postulate which Nietzsche was giving on cultural prejudices of our thoughts, feelings and acts was so provocative so that many of the classical thinkers of psychological understanding were taking it up according to the needs of their disciplines sociology, psychology, psychiatry and philosophy? 2) What were the results of this inspiring theory which could be especially seen in the works of Karl Jaspers and Kurt Schneider? In other words: What were the aspects in which they agreed in their reception of Nietzsche and what were the points in which the two psychiatrists of the school of Heidelberg differed in the way they took the theory of resentment into account for their psychological understanding? 3) What could be the actual significance of the historical fact that Nietzsche and in his footsteps Max Weber were taking deep influence on psychiatric thinking around 1900?

  13. According to German Finance Minister Dr. Theodor Karl Helfferich “The Causes of of The First World War”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÇOLAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In history mankind has experienced the most devastating experience during the years of the First World War. This pre-war and war in the later stages of a decision taken individually, even thousands, even millions of lives have been directly or indirectly affected. Experiencing the process and outcome of the war rather than the causes of human history has so much more busy. Therefore, the cause of the war which works popularity continues even today. Concerning the reasons for the war period, written by the German Finance Minister Dr. Helfferich especially in England, including working with its allies in the war of public opinion in the state has led to many discussions concerning the reasons. Dr. Helfferich’s “The Beginning of Great War”; “German’s Case in The Supreme Court of Civilization”; was published under the title of The New York Times by the Fatherland company in 1915. Dr. Karl Helfferich’s study has been translated in different languages in following period. Keywords: Dr. Theodor Karl Helfferich, The First World War, Reşid Safvet Atabinen, Ottoman Empire, Germany.

  14. Fabrication of nanoscale patterns in lithium fluoride crystal using a 13.5 nm Schwarzschild objective and a laser produced plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Mu Baozhong; Jiang Li; Zhu Jingtao; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Zhanshan; He Pengfei

    2011-01-01

    Lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal is a radiation sensitive material widely used as EUV and soft x-ray detector. The LiF-based detector has high resolution, in principle limited by the point defect size, large field of view, and wide dynamic range. Using LiF crystal as an imaging detector, a resolution of 900 nm was achieved by a projection imaging of test meshes with a Schwarzschild objective operating at 13.5 nm. In addition, by imaging of a pinhole illuminated by the plasma, an EUV spot of 1.5 μm diameter in the image plane of the objective was generated, which accomplished direct writing of color centers with resolution of 800 nm. In order to avoid sample damage and contamination due to the influence of huge debris flux produced by the plasma source, a spherical normal-incidence condenser was used to collect EUV radiation. Together with a description of experimental results, the development of the Schwarzschild objective, the influence of condenser on energy density and the alignment of the imaging system are also reported.

  15. A proposal of the gauge theory description of the small Schwarzschild black hole in AdS5×S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Masanori; Maltz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Based on 4d N=4 SYM on ℝ 1 ×S 3 , a gauge theory description of a small black hole in AdS 5 ×S 5 is proposed. The change of the number of dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the emission of the scalar fields’ eigenvalues plays a crucial role in this description. By analyzing the microcanonical ensemble, the Hagedorn behavior of long strings at low energy is obtained. Modulo an assumption based on the AdS/CFT duality for a large black hole, the energy of the small ten-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole E∼1/(G 10,N T 7 ) is derived. A heuristic gauge theory argument supporting this assumption is also given. The same argument applied to the ABJM theory correctly reproduces the relation for the eleven-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. One of the consequences of our proposal is that the small and large black holes are very similar when seen from the gauge theory point of view.

  16. Thermodynamics phase transition and Hawking radiation of the Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and a deficit solid angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Kamiko Kouemeni Jean; Saleh, Mahamat; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and deficit solid angle. From the metric of the black hole, we derive the expressions of temperature and specific heat using the laws of black hole thermodynamics. Using the null geodesics method and Parikh-Wilczeck tunneling method, we derive the expressions of Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the black hole. The behaviors of the temperature, specific heat, Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein entropy versus the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter (ρ 0) were explicitly plotted. The results show that, when the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter at r=1 (ρ 0) vanish (ρ 0=ɛ =0), these four thermodynamics quantities are reduced to those obtained for the simple case of Schwarzschild black hole. For low entropies, the presence of quintessence-like matter induces a first order phase transition of the black hole and for the higher values of the entropies, we observe the second order phase transition. When increasing ρ 0, the transition points are shifted to lower entropies. The same thing is observed when increasing ɛ 2. In the absence of quintessence-like matter (ρ 0=0), these transition phenomena disappear. Moreover the rate of radiation decreases when increasing ρ 0 or (ɛ ^2).

  17. KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1985-01-01

    A collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled KARL: A Knowledge-Assisted Retrieval Language, is presented. Information is given on data retrieval, natural language database front ends, generic design objectives, processing capababilities and the query processing cycle.

  18. Natureza e liberdade: a questão ética a posição indeterminista de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the indeterministic view of the epistemology of Karl Popper. Since the unit understanding of Critical Rationalism, as epistemology and political philosophy at the same time, the article shows in what sense the Popper's proposal reveals an ethical issue of broad scope and interest in contemporary philosophy, particularly in the analysis of the crisis of modern scientism.

  19. Eripedagoogid ootavad poliitilisi otsuseid / Plado, Kaja; Karlep, Karl; Ostrat, Ain; Maila, Meelika; Binsol, Hene; Kontor, Ana; küsitlenud Martin Krõlov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eripedagoogide vestlusringis osalevad: Tartu Ülikooli eripedagoogika osakonna juhataja Kaja Plado, emeriitdotsent pedagoogikadoktor Karl Karlep, Tartu Kroonuaia Kooli direktor Ain Ostrat ja õppealajuhataja Meelike Maila, Tartu Hiie Kooli õppealajuhataja Hene Binsol ning Tartu Nõustamis- ja õpiabi keskuse juhataja Ana Kontor

  20. Rezension von: Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterverhältnisse. Einführung in die sozialwissenschaftliche Geschlechterforschung Band 1. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2010. — Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterbeziehungen. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Lenz und Marina Adler orientieren sich in ihrem zweibändigen Lehrbuch zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Geschlechterforschung an der etablierten Unterscheidung zwischen Makro- und Mikrosoziologie. Im ersten Band werden theoretische Perspektiven der Geschlechterforschung und unterschiedliche Zusammenhänge zu Kultur nachgezeichnet sowie zentrale Themenfelder einer Sozialstrukturanalyse der Geschlechterordnung fokussiert, nämlich Recht, Politik, Bildung und Arbeit. Im zweiten Band stehen neben der Sozialisation ausgewählte Erträge der mikrosoziologischen Geschlechterforschung im Zentrum, nämlich Körper, Sexualität, persönliche Beziehungen, Devianz und Gewalt. In dieser überfälligen, informativen, sorgfältig recherchierten, aber auch vergleichsweise traditionellen und empirisch orientierten Einführung wird die Geschlechterforschung zwar in einer breiteren Diversity-Forschung verortet, das Verhältnis von Diversität und Geschlecht leider aber nicht reflektiert.

  1. Genesis of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment and its resonance amongst the physics community in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Flavio

    2018-05-01

    I present the reconstruction of the involvement of Karl Popper in the community of physicists concerned with foundations of quantum mechanics, in the 1980s. At that time Popper gave active contribution to the research in physics, of which the most significant is a new version of the EPR thought experiment, alleged to test different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The genesis of such an experiment is reconstructed in detail, and an unpublished letter by Popper is reproduced in the present paper to show that he formulated his thought experiment already two years before its first publication in 1982. The debate stimulated by the proposed experiment as well as Popper's role in the physics community throughout 1980s is here analysed in detail by means of personal correspondence and publications.

  2. The Application of Karl Popper's Three Worlds Schema to Questions about Information in the Fields of Complexity, Cybernetics, and Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Nugent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available More technically leaning disciplines such as informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics often make simplifying assumptions about human beings and their causal/informational roles within larger techo-social systems. This paper employs the philosopher Karl Popper's three worlds schema to explore in depth the unique ways in which conscious human subjects process and create knowledge and information. The three worlds represent the physical world, the subjective world of the conscious subject, and the world of language, models, and schemas. The works of major philosophers are invoked to consider what makes conscious human subjects unique in the context of information systems. Context-based understandings, the expressive facet of consciousness, and experience-based valuing emerge as key themes that we believe could strengthen the fields of informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics.

  3. [The Concept of Typology in Psychiatry in the Context of Historical Contributions of Max Weber and Karl Jaspers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M; Becker, T; Wigand, M E

    2016-08-01

    Against the background of Max Weber's and Karl Jaspers' outstanding historical contributions to the conceptual development of different typologies, the importance of a psychiatric typology is examined. The term "ideal type" was introduced into social science by Weber as an analytical construct to describe and classify cultural phenomena. This concept was adopted for the psychiatric context by Jaspers who proposed to establish a typological system in the field of psychotic disturbances without an organic correlate. He emphasized the importance of the course of psychopathological symptoms for such a typological system. The concept of typology can be regarded as a promising heuristic approach in psychiatry, providing a classification system for complex psychopathological symptoms. Even though several historic typologies exist in psychopathology, their usefulness in the fields of therapy and prognosis needs to be critically assessed. Also, new typologies will have to be developed, taking into account neurobiological knowledge now available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Teología de la evolución (I): La autotrascendencia activa. Karl Rahner, 1961

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel G. Doncel

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo es el primero de una tríada en la que se presentarán tres intuiciones que creemos valiosas para elaborar hoy día una rica teología de la «creación en evolución» (las otras dos serán: 2. La llamada creativa trinitaria, según Karl Schmitz-Moormann, 1997, y 3. El Espíritu como fuente de novedad, según Denis Edwards, 2004). Quisiéramos entender, a nivel filosófico y teológico, esa «cosmo-bio-evolución» que es nuestra propia «mega historia». Comenzamos hoy por preguntarnos cómo expli...

  5. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of hematologist Karl F. Hubner, M.D., December 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl F. Hubner by representatives of the US DOE Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Hubner was selected for this interview because of his participation in the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies(ORINS)/Oak Ridge Associated Universities(ORAU) Medical Division cancer therapy research program involving total body irradiation. After a short biographical sketch Dr. Hubner discusses his research in Bone Marrow Transplants, his participation in the development of Nuclear Medicine in Oak Ridge, use of the total body irradiation machine at the University of Tennessee School of Agriculture Animal Research Laboratory (later the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory or CARL) to deliver a high enough dose rate to destroy a patients immune system, the operation of a sterile environment for recovery of patients following bone- marrow transplantation, and the closing of the ORAU Medical Division's Clinical Program following a negative review. Finally, Dr. Hubner describes his later research using PET

  6. Resenha do livro: 'Ensayos de filosofia de la ciencia en torno a la obra de Sir Karl R. Popper'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Glezer

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto Este livro é uma coletânea de trabalhos apresentados no Simpósio sobre Fílosofia da Ciência, realizado em Burgos, entre 23 e 25 de setembro de 1968, em homenagem à Karl R. Popper. A finalidade do simpósio era a de permitir a discussão das idéias de Popper, as interpretações complementares e críticas feitas por diversos autores à essas idéias. A apresentação do livro escolhida foi a de publicar um artigo e o debate gravado sobre o artigo do autor com Popper e os outros participantes.

  7. Comment on ;Acceleration of particles to high energy via gravitational repulsion in the Schwarzschild field; [Astropart. Phys. 86 (2017) 18-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Comments are due on a recent paper by McGruder III (2017) in which the author deals with the concept of gravitational repulsion in the context of the Schwarzschild-Droste solution. Repulsion (deceleration) for ingoing particles into a black hole is a concept proposed several times starting from Droste himself in 1916. It is a coordinate effect appearing to an observer at a remote distance from the black hole and when coordinate time is employed. Repulsion has no bearing and relation to the local physics of the black hole, and moreover it cannot be held responsible for accelerating outgoing particles. Thereby, the energy boost of cosmic rays cannot be produced by repulsion.

  8. 'Two-color' reflection multilayers for He-I and He-II resonance lines for micro-UPS using Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Takeo; Kondo, Yuzi; Watanabe, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    'Two-color' multilayers reflecting both He-I (58.4 nm) and He-II (30.4 nm) resonance lines have been designed and fabricated for reflection coatings of Schwarzschild objectives of micro-UPS instruments. They are designed so that their reflectances for both He-I and He-II resonance lines are more than 20%. The 'two-color' multilayers are piled double layers coated with top single layers. Fabricated are multilayers of SiC(top layer)-Mg/SiC(double layers) and SiC(top layer)-Mg/Y 2 O 3 (double layers), and their reflectances for the He-I and the He-II are 23% and 17%, and 20% and 23%, respectively

  9. Chaos in the motion of a test scalar particle coupling to the Einstein tensor in Schwarzschild-Melvin black hole spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingzhi [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Institute of Physics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan (China); Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Institute of Physics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2017-04-15

    We present firstly the equation of motion for a test scalar particle coupling to the Einstein tensor in the Schwarzschild-Melvin black hole spacetime through the short-wave approximation. Through analyzing Poincare sections, the power spectrum, the fast Lyapunov exponent indicator and the bifurcation diagram, we investigate the effects of the coupling parameter on the chaotic behavior of the particles. With the increase of the coupling strength, we find that the motion of the coupled particle for the chosen parameters becomes more regular and order for the negative couple constant. While, for the positive one, the motion of the coupled particles first undergoes a series of transitions betweens chaotic motion and regular motion and then falls into horizon or escapes to spatial infinity. Our results show that the coupling brings about richer effects for the motion of the particles. (orig.)

  10. Kaks maastikuvaadet Karl Otto Gerhard von Kügelgenilt: romantismi kaja biidermeierlikus sarmis = Two Landscape Views by Otto Gerhard von Kügelgen: Echo of Romanticism in Biedermeier Charm / Kadi Polli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polli, Kadi, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    2010. aastal Frankfurdis H. W. Fichteri kunstigaleriis müüki tulnud kümnest kunstiteosest, sh. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi poolt omandatud kahest Karl Otto Gerhard von Kügelgeni tööst. Franz Gerhard von Kügelgeni noorema poja Karl Otto Gerhard von Kügelgeni elust, loomingust ja tema akvarellidest "Perekond Vinni mõisas" ja "Rändur metsas"

  11. Mediaciones para un método de teología pastoral, a partir de la teología práctica de Karl Rahner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vigueras Cherres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una comprensión de la teología práctica de Karl Rahner como una teología pastoral en perspectiva escatológica, y teniendo como plano de fondo el problema del carácter teológico del análisis de la situación presente, presentamos algunas posibles mediaciones para un método de teología pastoral, a saber, mirar el futuro desde la "futuridad del presente", conocer desde los otros, la narratividad, la corporeidad y la "indiferencia".Based on understanding of Karl Rahner's practical theology as a pastoral theology in an eschatological perspective, and having as a background the theological problem of analyzing the present situation, we present some possible mediations for a pastoral theology method, namely, looking at the future from a "futurity of the present," knowing from others, narrative, corporeality and "indifference."

  12. Specificities of Sightseeing Foot Tour Arrangement for History Related Street with Regard to Karl Marx Street in the Town of Irkutsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, A. I.; Shishkanov, V. S.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the preparation of an innovative foot itinerary for tourists in Karl Marx Street in the town of Irkutsk. Methodology on preparation of sightseeing tours has been analysed by the authors. The analysis of the methodology has facilitated selecting the criteria to classify the excursions as well as the criteria for assessing and shortlisting the objects for excursion exposure. Some chosen criteria being used in tour arrangement and certain specificities of tour preparation have been revealed which are characteristic particularly for Karl Marx Street as a history-related one. It is also proved in the paper that the itinerary prepared for tourists is in full correspondence with the key innovation objectives in tourism.

  13. The 'Big Karl' magnetic spectrometer - studies of the 103Ru transition nucleus with (d,p) and (p,d) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerlimann, W.

    1981-04-01

    The paper describes the structure and characteristics of the spectrometer and its application in a study of the 102 Ru(d,p) 103 Ru and 104 Ru(p,d) 103 Ru reactions. The study is structured as follows: To begin with the theoretical fundamentals, ion-optical characteristics and layout of BIG KARL are described. Field measurements and analyses carried out on the magnets of the spectrometer are described as well as the functioning of the 'Ht correction coils' used here for the first time to prevent faulty imaging. Chapter IV then describes methods employed so far to optimize resolution for large aperture angles of the spectrometer. Finally, chapter V investigates the 103 Ru transition nucleons on the basis of the 102 Ru(d,p) 103 RU and 104 Ru(p,d) 103 Ru transfer reactions measured in BIG KARL. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan's work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL

  15. KARL FRIEDRICH ZOELLNER and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry A collection of papers on the History of Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  16. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  17. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Berg, G.P.A. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States); Hardt, A. [Fachhochschule Aachen Juelich (Germany); Huerlimann, W. [Power Consulting Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Meissburger, J. [Institut fuer angewandte Mathematik, Juelich (Germany); Roemer, J.G.M. [Leybold-Heraeus GmbH, Koeln (Germany)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  18. ISSUES OF LEGITIMIZING POLITICAL POWER IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: MAX WEBER AND KARL JASPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae IUGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of legitimizing political power has specific dimensions determined by the historical context. In the period following the First World War, democratic regimes dramatically collapsed due to ample protest movements against the political establishment from different countries, but also as a result of a serious political legitimation crisis, thus making way for the rise of totalitarian regimes of Fascism and Nazism. That time debates on the problem of legitimization political power are symptomatic. Due to the general perception regarding corruption in politics and to the political incapacity to deal with social problems, we can witness a decrease of trust in contemporary democratic regimes.In order to exemplify, in a brief expositive manner, my paper will present the topic of political legitimation approached by Max Weber and Karl Jaspers, in a selection of relevant texts issued by both authors during 1919-1931. The aim of this paper is to highlight the actuality, the validity of Weber’s and Jasper’s statements and also their capacity to give pertinent responses to questions such as: What role do the common values play in the legitimating of power in a democratic society? Are there any kinds of limits regarding the electoral legitimation? How can we make the difference between a legitimate appeal and an illegitimate one, between civism and terrorism?

  19. 'Tipping the Balance': Karl Friedrich Meyer, Latent Infections, and the Birth of Modern Ideas of Disease Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigsbaum, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss-born medical researcher Karl Friedrich Meyer (1884-1974) is best known as a 'microbe hunter' who pioneered investigations into diseases at the intersection of animal and human health in California in the 1920s and 1930s. In particular, historians have singled out Meyer's 1931 Ludwig Hektoen Lecture in which he described the animal kingdom as a 'reservoir of disease' as a forerunner of 'one medicine' approaches to emerging zoonoses. In so doing, however, historians risk overlooking Meyer's other intellectual contributions. Developed in a series of papers from the mid-1930s onwards, these were ordered around the concept of latent infections and sought to link microbial behavior to broader bio-ecological, environmental, and social factors that impact hostpathogen interactions. In this respect Meyer-like the comparative pathologist Theobald Smith and the immunologist Frank Macfarlane Burnet-can be seen as a pioneer of modern ideas of disease ecology. However, while Burnet's and Smith's contributions to this scientific field have been widely acknowledged, Meyer's have been largely ignored. Drawing on Meyer's published writings and private correspondence, this paper aims to correct that lacuna while contributing to a reorientation of the historiography of bacteriological epidemiology. In particular I trace Meyer's intellectual exchanges with Smith, Burnet and the animal ecologist Charles Elton, over brucellosis, psittacosis and plague-exchanges that not only showed how environmental and ecological conditions could 'tip the balance' in favor of parasites but which transformed Meyer thinking about resistance to infection and disease.

  20. Philosophy and phylogenetic inference: a comparison of likelihood and parsimony methods in the context of Karl Popper's writings on corroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, K; Poe, S

    2001-06-01

    Advocates of cladistic parsimony methods have invoked the philosophy of Karl Popper in an attempt to argue for the superiority of those methods over phylogenetic methods based on Ronald Fisher's statistical principle of likelihood. We argue that the concept of likelihood in general, and its application to problems of phylogenetic inference in particular, are highly compatible with Popper's philosophy. Examination of Popper's writings reveals that his concept of corroboration is, in fact, based on likelihood. Moreover, because probabilistic assumptions are necessary for calculating the probabilities that define Popper's corroboration, likelihood methods of phylogenetic inference--with their explicit probabilistic basis--are easily reconciled with his concept. In contrast, cladistic parsimony methods, at least as described by certain advocates of those methods, are less easily reconciled with Popper's concept of corroboration. If those methods are interpreted as lacking probabilistic assumptions, then they are incompatible with corroboration. Conversely, if parsimony methods are to be considered compatible with corroboration, then they must be interpreted as carrying implicit probabilistic assumptions. Thus, the non-probabilistic interpretation of cladistic parsimony favored by some advocates of those methods is contradicted by an attempt by the same authors to justify parsimony methods in terms of Popper's concept of corroboration. In addition to being compatible with Popperian corroboration, the likelihood approach to phylogenetic inference permits researchers to test the assumptions of their analytical methods (models) in a way that is consistent with Popper's ideas about the provisional nature of background knowledge.

  1. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rupen, Michael, E-mail: jrv@astro.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  2. First detection of thermal radio emission from solar-type stars with the Karl G. Jansky very large array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villadsen, Jackie; Hallinan, Gregg; Bourke, Stephen; Güdel, Manuel; Rupen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detections of thermal radio emission from the atmospheres of solar-type stars τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A. These stars all resemble the Sun in age and level of magnetic activity, as indicated by X-ray luminosity and chromospheric emission in Ca II H and K lines. We observed these stars with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array with sensitivities of a few μJy at combinations of 10.0, 15.0, and 34.5 GHz. τ Cet, η Cas A, and 40 Eri A are all detected at 34.5 GHz with signal-to-noise ratios of 6.5, 5.2, and 4.5, respectively. 15.0 GHz upper limits imply a rising spectral index greater than 1.0 for τ Cet and 1.6 for η Cas A, at the 95% confidence level. The measured 34.5 GHz flux densities correspond to stellar disk-averaged brightness temperatures of roughly 10,000 K, similar to the solar brightness temperature at the same frequency. We explain this emission as optically thick thermal free-free emission from the chromosphere, with possible contributions from coronal gyroresonance emission above active regions and coronal free-free emission. These and similar quality data on other nearby solar-type stars, when combined with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations, will enable the construction of temperature profiles of their chromospheres and lower transition regions.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation from collisions at almost the speed of light: An extremely relativistic charged particle falling into a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic radiation released during the high energy collision of a charged point particle with a four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. We show that the spectra is flat, and well described by a classical calculation. We also compare the total electromagnetic and gravitational energies emitted, and find that the former is suppressed in relation to the latter for very high energies. These results could apply to the astrophysical world in the case that charged stars and small charged black holes are out there colliding into large black holes, and to a very high energy collision experiment in a four-dimensional world. In this latter scenario the calculation is to be used for the moments just after black hole formation, when the collision of charged debris with the newly formed black hole is certainly expected. Since the calculation is four dimensional, it does not directly apply to TeV-scale gravity black holes, as these inhabit a world of six to eleven dimensions, although our results should qualitatively hold when extrapolated with some care to higher dimensions

  4. Probing the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles with Hawking effect in the background of Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.

  5. Phase transition and thermodynamical geometry for Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS_5×S"5 spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jia-Lin; Cai, Rong-Gen; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of a five-dimensional Schwarzschild AdS black hole in AdS_5×S"5 spacetime by treating the cosmological constant as the number of colors in the boundary gauge theory and its conjugate quantity as the associated chemical potential. It is found that the chemical potential is always negative in the stable branch of black hole thermodynamics and it has a chance to be positive, but appears in the unstable branch. We calculate the scalar curvatures of the thermodynamical Weinhold metric, Ruppeiner metric and Quevedo metric, respectively and we find that the scalar curvature in the Weinhold metric is always vanishing, while in the Ruppeiner metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential, and in the Quevedo metric the divergence of the scalar curvature is related to the divergence of the heat capacity with fixed number of colors and to the vanishing of the heat capacity with fixed chemical potential.

  6. One-parameter family of time-symmetric initial data for the radial infall of a particle into a Schwarzschild black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Karl; Poisson, Eric

    2002-01-01

    A one-parameter family of time-symmetric initial data for the radial infall of a particle into a Schwarzschild black hole is constructed within the framework of black-hole perturbation theory. The parameter measures the amount of gravitational radiation present on the initial spacelike surface. These initial data sets are then evolved by integrating the Zerilli-Moncrief wave equation in the presence of the particle. Numerical results for the gravitational waveforms and their power spectra are presented; we show that the choice of initial data strongly influences the waveforms, both in their shapes and their frequency content. We also calculate the total energy radiated by the particle-black-hole system, as a function of the initial separation between the particle and the black hole, and as a function of the choice of initial data. Our results confirm that for large initial separations, a conformally flat initial three-geometry minimizes the initial gravitational-wave content, so that the total energy radiated is also minimized. For small initial separations, however, we show that the conformally flat solution no longer minimizes the energy radiated

  7. Teología de la Evolución (II: La Llamada Creadora Trinitaria. Karl Schmitz-Moormann, 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García Doncel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuamos presentando la tríada de intuiciones valiosas para elaborar una teología de la «creación en evolución» [ver PENSAMIENTO, vol. 63 (2007, pp. 605-636]. Presentamos la intuición del biólogo y teólogo católico alemán Karl Schmitz-Moormann, publicada póstumamente en 1997. Inspirado por Teilhard y su metafísica de la unión, introduce su concepto de «uni-totalidad», y observa tales uni-totalidades a lo largo del progreso evolutivo, desde las partículas subatómicas hasta las agrupaciones humanas. Observa la diversidad de unión, explicada por interacción nuclear o por amor interpersonal. Ve por analogía nuestro Dios tri-uno como la Uni-totalidad suprema unida por amor, a la que se acercan las uni-totalidades creadas, como auténticos «vestigios trinitarios». Y en el centro de su intuición ve la creación continua evolutiva como la respuesta a una «llamada creadora», una llamada del Creador tri-uno que invita a la nada (absoluta o relativa a acercarse hacia su riqueza de ser, sin forzar a nadie, sólo invitando a unirse a los elementos próximos de cada nivel. Esta acción, no imperativa, sino amorosa por la que está llegando a ser toda la creación nos descubre un Creador que está también realizándose en suprema unión amorosa, según habría de describirse en una metafísica de lllegar-a-ser. La creación progresiva de información acerca también a la omnisciencia divina, y la de la libertad posibilita responder amorosamente a la invitación de la llamada creadora. Ofrecemos los textos más auténticos de Schmitz-Moormann e investigamos su origen. Esta intuición sobre la «llamada creadora» enriquece teológicamente la de Karl Rahner sobre la acción trascendental que sostiene la«autotrascendencia activa», y será ulteriormente enriquecida por la de Denis Edwards, que la ve como «acción propia del Espíritu» dentro de una ontología relacional.

  8. UM DEUS PARA SER AMADO ALGUMAS REFLEXÕES SOBRE A DOUTRINA TRINITÁRIA EM KARL RAHNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Lucchetti Bingemer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto procura trabalhar alguns aspectos fundamentais da teologia trinitária de Karl Rahner. Em um primeiro momento, resgata seu axioma que revolucionou esta área da Teologia: "A Trindade Econômica é a Trindade Imanente e vice-versa". Em um segundo momento, procura mostrar como toda a teologia trinitária de Rahner é baseada no entrelaçamento com a cristologia. Finalmente, a partir da obra de Rahner “O que significa amar Jesus?" (Was heibt Jesus lieben?, comentamos o fato de que Rahner, configurado pela espiritualidade inaciana, encontra no amor real a Jesus a via de acesso ao pensar sobre o Deus Pai, Filho e Espírito Santo, que se dá a partir da experiência desse Deus na palpabilidade da carne de seu Filho e chega à sua vida imanente e à sua comunhão inefável. ABSTRACTC: This texts seeks to develop some fundamental aspects of K. Rahner’s Trinitarian Theology. It begins by presenting anew his axiom which revolutionized this area of theology: “The Economic Trinity is the Immanent Trinity and vice-versa.” Then it seeks to demonstrate how all of Rahner’s Trinitarian Theology is based on its links with Christology. Finally, parting from Rahner’s “Love of Jesus, Love of Neighbor”, the article comments how Rahner, configured by Ignatian spirituality, finds in the authentic love of Jesus the way to think God as Father, Son and Holy Spirit. This way originates from the experience of a God who can be touched in the flesh of his Son, and leads to God’s immanent life and ineffable communion.

  9. [Development and status of intensive care medicine in internal medicine at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, L; Schneider, D

    1989-01-15

    Issuing from the accomplishments of Köhler for the development of the intensive medicine in internal medicine-in 1964 he performed the first long-term respiration at the then Medical Clinic of the Karl Marx University, in 1969 he institutionalized the young subdiscipline at the clinic, in 1978 he founded the department for intensive medicine and is at work by his decisions concerning the development of young scientists, by the handbook "Intensive Medicine. Internal Medicine and Adjacent Subjects" as well as a member of the presidium of the GDR Society for Internal Medicine for the development of the internal intensive medicine-a description of the development of the department, its achievements and problems is given. The promotion of the intensive medicine by Köhler results, as we think, also from the comprehension that it has the duty to perform a function integrating the subdisciplines, which the modern internal medicine oriented to organs and systems threatens to lose, which, however, makes its self-apprehension, which the patient wishes and the teaching is demanding. From this and from the charge for a highly specialized care of patients who life-threateningly fell ill with internal diseases as well as from the duty to create a scientific forerunning results the stringent necessity of the development of the non-operative, in reality internal intensive medicine in the clinics for internal medicine of the county hospitals and university institutions as well as the greater identification of the internist with the subdiscipline in the district hospitals dealing with multidisciplinary intensive medicine.

  10. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC TipTM Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demis N. Lipe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC TipTM with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods: This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit, using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results: The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54. In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70. There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion: CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. [West J Emerg Med

  11. Number 13 / Part I. Music. 6. Requiem by Karl Jenkins. An Analytical Approach to The Interweaving of Various Traditions in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iațeșen Loredana Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the diverse space of contemporary music, the fascinating and controversial personality of the Welsh composer Karl Jenkins, which is surprising from several perspectives, stands out. Open to assimilating and processing music from various sources (academic, liturgical, folk, entertainment, oriental, exotic, the all-round musician Karl Jenkins impresses the public with unexpected artistic choices, giving up the hypostasis of instrumentalist of the jazz-rock band Nucleus and of the group Softmachine in favour of the postmodern creator he has become today, synthetizing trends from musical compositions of the last decades of the 20th century. Once with the return to the functional system, either through minimalism or through neo-romanticism, the artist has successfully covered a potential sonority path of modern opposites, also evoking references to creative models of the past. We are referring to the musical valorizing of the sacred in a synthetic vision between tradition and innovation, in the works included in the Adiemus cycle, in the opus choir Missa for Peace and, more particularly, in the Requiem (2005, a significant score in the contemporaneity. The manner in which the composer, while resorting to a musical genre originating from the Roman Catholic cult and drawing on the liturgical text of the Mass for the dead, inserted Japanese poetry, written following the structure of haiku, belonging to representative authors - Gozan Koshigaya, Issho Kosughi, Hokusai Katsushika, Kaga-no-Chiyo, is highly surprising. This study aims to highlight the interweaving imagined by Karl Jenkins between the two cultures as well as to conduct a semantic analysis of an opus in which the relationships between music and words entail a highly emotional response.

  12. Repeating Marx: Introduction to the Special Issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs; Lara Monticelli

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of...

  13. [Tumors of the 4th ventricle and the craniospinal transitional zone. Review of patients of the Neurosurgical Clinic of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebeling, H G; Fried, H; Goldhahn, W E; Skrzypczak, J; Brachmann, J; Eichler, I

    1983-01-01

    From a total of 1,028 infratentorial tumours operated on at the Neurosurgical Hospital of the Section Medicine of the Karl-Marx University Leipzig in the last 30 years, 167 tumours in the region of the 4th ventrical have been selected. Their statistical processing was carried out with respect to specific localisation, average age, kind of tumour, sex, clinical findings, duration of case history, application of instrumental diagnostic procedures and radicality of operation, success and failure. Some fundamental conclussions are drawn. A subdivision in detail will be contained in the following articles based on this material.

  14. Aproximación filosófica del concepto de fe en la teología de Karl Rahner: aplicaciones y actualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynor Barrientos Amador

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende delinear los principales aportes del teólogo alemán Karl Rahner al concepto de la fe con base en una revisión de su herencia teológica y filosófica. El concepto de fe en Rahner está marcado por la influencia del pensamiento místico jesuita, el pensamiento filosófico del idealismo alemán y el trabajo revisionista de los teólogos afines a la “nueva teología”.

  15. The mechanical first law of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant and its application to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Miho; Tomimatsu, Akira; Saida, Hiromi

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical first law (MFL) of black hole spacetimes is a geometrical relation which relates variations of the mass parameter and horizon area. While it is well known that the MFL of an asymptotic flat black hole is equivalent to its thermodynamical first law, however we do not know the detail of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant which possess a black hole and cosmological event horizons. This paper aims to formulate an MFL of the two-horizon spacetimes. For this purpose, we try to include the effects of two horizons in the MFL. To do so, we make use of the Iyer-Wald formalism and extend it to regard the mass parameter and the cosmological constant as two independent variables which make it possible to treat the two horizons on the same footing. Our extended Iyer-Wald formalism preserves the existence of the conserved Noether current and its associated Noether charge, and gives an abstract form of the MFL of black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant. Then, as a representative application of this formalism, we derive the MFL of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime. Our MFL of the SdS spacetime relates the variations of three quantities: the mass parameter, the total area of the two horizons and the volume enclosed by the two horizons. If our MFL is regarded as a thermodynamical first law of the SdS spacetime, it offers a thermodynamically consistent description of the SdS black hole evaporation process: the mass decreases while the volume and the entropy increase. In our suggestion, a generalized second law is not needed to ensure the second law of SdS thermodynamics for its evaporation process.

  16. Teología de la evolución (I: La autotrascendencia activa. Karl Rahner, 1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel G. Doncel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el primero de una tríada en la que se presentarán tres intuiciones que creemos valiosas para elaborar hoy día una rica teología de la «creación en evolución» (las otras dos serán: 2. La llamada creativa trinitaria, según Karl Schmitz-Moormann, 1997, y 3. El Espíritu como fuente de novedad, según Denis Edwards, 2004. Quisiéramos entender, a nivel filosófico y teológico, esa «cosmo-bio-evolución» que es nuestra propia «mega historia». Comenzamos hoy por preguntarnos cómo explicar el progreso evolutivo en que de la materia parece emerger la espiritualidad humana. Es un problema filosófico (¿puede de lo menos salir lo más? y teológico (¿cómo concebir una acción creadora y respetuosa con la creación?. Para resolverlo creemos necesario apoyarnos en la intuición de Rahner de 1961, de la que recogemos con concisión didáctica el núcleo central de su documento fundamental de 1961 sobre la «autosuperación» o «autotrascendencia activa» en relación a la hominización. Buscamos a continuación el contexto y la fecha en que se elaboró originalmente esa intuición, analizando tres documentos de Rahner inmediatamente anteriores y relacionados con el fundamental, y deducimos que la intuición hubo de tener lugar prácticamente en 1960. Presentamos por fin algunos artículos poco posteriores al de Rahner 1961, que difundieron positivamente sus ideas centrales, así como algunos otros que las critican, y enumeramos algunas publicaciones ulteriores de Rahner que clarifican su pensamiento.

  17. Karl Rahner, Walter Kasper and Hans Kung on the Current State, Problems and Dimensions of Contemporary theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko Evgenii

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Political history, philosophy, culture and science of the 19th century came to be very important factors in the development of Christian theology, primarily in Western Europe. Major issues of correlation between modern science, philosophical concepts of the modern period, secular ethics and Christianity led to a revision of many traditional theological concepts. There were suggested new methods of solving urgent theological, pastoral and missionary problems. The Second Vatican Ecumenical Council of Roman Catholic Church represented a vivid and constructive response to contemporary challenges. German theologians were among those who contributed significantly to the dialogue between the Church and modern world. The central fi gure among them was Karl Rahner. Using achievements of modern European thought, especially transcendental and existential philosophy, Rahner made Christian theology tenable for modern historical criticism and placed the person and the experience of faith as a crucial object of theological investigation. It may seem a paradox, but the unity of Catholic dogma in the 20th century came to be established not on the unity of the formal scholastic doctrine, proclaimed straightforwardly by Church magisterium, but on theological pluralism and historical dynamism, as well as on hermeneutical analysis of the dogma and inexpressible mystical experience of Revelation proclaimed by Rahner. Walter Kasper used Rahner’s ideas when he pointed to scientific rigour, ecclesiasticism and willingness to be opened to the world as main features of modern theology. At the same time, he considers it impossible to reject metaphysics and to reduce theology to a number of disparate academic studies. He sees the Holy Scriptures and church tradition as the essential foundation for systematic theology and argues that it is necessary to restore the balance between the freedom of theological investigation and the hierarchical control of Church magisterium

  18. Sv. Václav jako scala coeli. (K interpretaci nástěnných maleb schodiště Velké věže na hradě Karlštejně)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studničková, Milada

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, příl. (2006), s. 71-77 ISSN 1212-1487. [Schodištní cykly Velké věže hradu Karlštejna. Stav po restaurování. Praha, 05.05.2004-07.05.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Karlštejn * staircase of the Large tower * symbology of the staircase * St Wenceslas * Gothic painting Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. História, marxismo e questão social: um diálogo com Max Web e Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Oliveira Ramos Passos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O campo de investigação tanto de Karl Marx quanto de Max Weber é o mesmo, ou seja, ambos estudam o caráter “capitalista” da moderna economia e sociedade, isto é, o capitalismo industrial e os desenvolvimentos sociais advindos deste. Porém, suas análises conclusivas são diferenciadas, e porque não, opostas. Marx via a ideologia como uma variável dependente no processo de transformação social. Weber, ao contrário, procurou mostrar que o caráter ideológico não deriva automaticamente da posição social, mas constitui um meio para explicar esta posição. Assim, conforme o exposto, o objetivo deste ensaio é o de tentar explicar os principais aspectos dos estudos de Max Weber e Karl Marx – um possível diálogo entre eles e suas principais diferenças - além de procurar entender a questão social nas obras de ambos.

  20. Oreli õnnistamine / Karl Kello

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kello, Karl, 1950-

    2014-01-01

    Gustav Adolfi gümnaasiumis avati ja õnnistati kooli aastapäeval, 6. juunil kaks orelit: 1905. aastal Inglismaal valmistatud Edington Priory Churchi orel Henry Jones & Sons ja 1957. aastal valmistatud Sibeliuse akadeemia harjutusorel Walker

  1. Kirjad Jaapanist / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    Kommetest, ettevalmistusest abieluks, perekonnaelust, ilukultuurist Jaapanis. 1937. a. alanud Hiina-Jaapani sõjast. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 1.-3. juuli 1938, nr. 177-179; 1., 6. august 1938, nr. 208, 213

  2. Tagasi Pariisis / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    Prantsusmaa sisepoliitilisest olustikust. Poliitilistest oludest 1937. aasta Euroopas, sõjameeleoludest Vahemerel, Nyloni konverentsist. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 21. juuni 1937, nr. 166; 8., 13. sept. 1937, nr. 243, 248

  3. Karl Marx 1864

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    (Inaugural-)adressen til den 1.Internationale Arbejderassociation som Marx formulerede efter dennes grundlæggelse i september 1864 undersøges i en kritisk diskursanalyse der omfatter det engelske (!) original, efterfølgende tyske oversættelser samt den danske oversættelse fra 1971 (MEUS). Marx......' egne tekster sammenlignes med hinanden og med andres oversættelser. Marx' mindre kendte, tyske version som 'Manifest an die arbeitende Klasse Europas' præciserer hans karakteristika for hvad han kalder 'Arbejderklassens politiske økonomi'. Det sker på en måde, der ikke er identisk med den...... engelsksprogede eller for den sags skyld den danske version. På denne måde findes der en mere 'profetisk' version side om side med en version, der fremhæver en tilgang svarende til forsigtigheds-princippet. Udover politisk økonomi anvendte Marx det også på udenrigspolitikken. I dag rammer det den miljøpolitiske...

  4. Karl Marx University Leipzig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    additionally complicated by metal accumulation during electrolysis time. To solve the problem, a first step is the calculation of instantaneous reduction current without metal accumulation, but for presence of complex species. In a second step, the effect of accumulated metal can be considered. Theoretical treatment is often ...

  5. Quantization of the Schwarzschild geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein-Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''.

  6. Un moment méconnu de l’historiographie : l’introduction et la diffusion en France de l’ouvrage de Karl Kautsky

    OpenAIRE

    Ducange, Jean-Numa

    2011-01-01

    On évoque rarement qu’au moment même de la publication de l’Histoire socialiste de la Révolution française de Jean Jaurès fut traduite en 1901 en français une petite brochure de Karl Kautsky, alors une des figures majeures de la deuxième Internationale, La lutte des classes en France en 1789. Bien que sans commune mesure avec l’ampleur du travail de Jaurès, le propos de Kautsky retint néanmoins l’intérêt des guesdistes qui y virent une stricte application du matérialisme historique aux événem...

  7. Repeating Marx: Introduction to the Special Issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today.

  8. Die skepping as gelykenis: 'n Beoordeling van die skeppingsleer van Karl Barth in die lig van die appel van die ekologiese krisis

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    J. Buitendag

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation as an analogy: An assessment of the doctrine of creation of Karl Barth in the light of the appeal of the ecological crisis In a comprehensive article in Afrikaans, the author points out that the problem of the relation between man and nature has become eminent as a result of the ecological crisis. The doctrine of creation as offered by Barth, does to a certain extent, present a coherence of being amongst creatures, but is nontheless not accepted. The main reason for this is that his ontological principle of covenant imputes a docetic character to the creation. This is ascribed to the fact that Barth operated with a canon behind the canon. The author concludes his article by outlining some distinctive features of a theologia naturae.

  9. The proposals that perhaps Karl Popper had propelled facing the enemies the open society of nowadays: for the XXI century, the reformism

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    Juan Guillermo Estay Sepúlveda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During his complete work, the philosopher Karl Popper criticized in a strongly way the totalitarianism of the XX century, which was lived by him directly. We do not have any doubt that nowadays, he would speak with a louder tone in front of the other bad situation in politics which is observed in the horizon ad portas of the third decade of the new millennium, that is to say the fundamentalism. Although it is true, the Austrian philosopher attacks the political totalitarian regimes with the democracy, he is also a critic of it and at the same time, being a defender to the death of dialogue, he does not doubt in putting in front of the tyranny, the principles of tyrannicide.

  10. [Profile and tasks of a medical university polyclinic in the past and present using as example the Medical Polyclinical Institutes of the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, K; Treutler, H; Pietruschka, W D

    1981-03-15

    After a short survey of the historical development of the Medico-Policlinical Institute of the Karl Marx University Leipzig tasks and developmental tendencies of university medical policlinics are described, evaluating hereby the results of the Vth conference of higher education. They are understood as a university representation of ambulatorily working internists and to a large extent of the specialists for general medicine. Their main tasks consist in education and continued professional training of this group of physicians under integrative description of the whole subject internal medicine, a research oriented to practice as well as a guiding and coordination function for the ambulatory internistic care, taking into particular consideration the early recognition of a disease, in primary and secondary prevention as well as in a scientifically based ambulatory therapy of epidemiologically important diseases.

  11. [Development of the legal abortion situation at the gynecologic hospital of Karl-Marx-University, Leipzig from 1.1.1960 to 30.6.1972].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Henning, G

    1973-07-13

    Statistics on legal abortions at the Women's Clinic, Karl Marx University, Leipzig, East Germany, are reported. Between 1960-June 30, 1972, there were 3955 abortions and 53,972 births. Of these, 1368 abortions and 1831 births occurred in 1972; a similar large increase in abortions has been reported from other socialist countries. Average age of patients was 30.6 years in 1960, 27.7 years in 1972. In 1960, 83.1% of patients were married, but only 66.4% in 1972. Average hospital stay was 10.3 days in 1960, 3.7 days in 1972. Complications were seen in 32.5% of cases in 1960, and in 8.3% in 1972. Statistics for each year, 1960-1972, are given, and the implications of this information for medical practice and social policy are discussed.

  12. O princípio da homotipose em Karl Pearson: aspectos biológicos e estatísticos (1899 1906)

    OpenAIRE

    Venturineli, Katia Regina

    2010-01-01

    Karl Pearson (1857-1936) é geralmente conhecido por suas contribuições relacionadas à matemática e estatística. Entretanto, além disso, ele apresentou (em 1901 e 1902) uma proposta em relação à biologia: o princípio da homotipose. Para testá-lo, ele aplicou a estatística. A proposta de Pearson gerou uma discussão com William Bateson (1861-1926) e outros biólogos da época. O objetivo desta dissertação é inicialmente descrever a proposta de Pearson relativa ao princípio da ...

  13. Corrección a una equivocación de Karl Pearson (1904: la suma de fracciones de Mendel no produce acoplamientos genéticos incompletos

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    Conrado Ruiz Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo xx, matemáticos prominentes encontraron una conexión entre el binomio de Newton y las leyes de Mendel con el objetivo de proyectarla a poblaciones enteras considerando a descendientes de varias generaciones. Dentro de esta búsqueda, en 1904 Karl Pearson formuló objeciones sobre los preceptos de Mendel, en particular respecto a los descendientes puros (dominantes y recesivos, que provienen de progenitores híbridos que a su parecer se constituyen en acoplamientos genéticos incompletos, resultado de la suma de fracciones. Se realiza el análisis matemático de este algoritmo (considerando el contexto biológico de su aplicación y se concluye que los descendientes puros previstos en las leyes de Mendel son acoplamientos genéticos completos.

  14. Karl Jaspers: as bases da orientação científica para viver. Um diálogo com Kant

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, José Mauricio de

    2016-01-01

    Nesse trabalho examina-se, segundo Karl Jaspers, até onde a ciência pode servir como orientação para viver. O conhecimento científico não alcança o ser em si, já dizia Kant, tem limites para alcançar e prever o funcionamento do núcleo da matéria, ensina a Física contemporânea. Por outro lado, a razão também encontra limite na liberdade pessoal, o que faz as ciências humanas precisarem conviver com essa limitação. Assim, uma orientação para viver que necessita de uma imagem completa do mund...

  15. Changes in forest cover in the Foresta della Lama (Casentino Forests National Park from Karl Siemon’s and Anton Seeland’s 1837 forest management plan

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    Vazzano E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest estates with a long history of forest management plans are quite rare in Italy. In such cases, the analysis of historical documents combined with the use of GIS technology, can provide useful information on the evolution of forest cover and silvicultural and management techniques. Based on two unpublished documents by Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland dating back to 1837 and 1850, an archive of historical maps for the Lama Forest (Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park was created using GIS techniques. This archive outlines the evolution of the Lama Forest over the last 170 years. Particular attention was given to silver fir plantations, which have strongly characterized silviculture and local economics in the Foreste Casentinesi area. The results of our analysis show that changes in different historical periods have been caused both by silvicultural interventions prescribed by the management plans and by external causes such as changes in forest property or war periods, which have markedly influenced forest area and stand characteristics. Furthermore, our analysis confirms that the work of Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland, carried out between 1835 and 1837, is the oldest forest management plan for an Italian forest. It is interesting to note that the aim of the plan, i.e., a regulated (or “normal” even-aged forest, and the way the plan was laid out, typical of classic forest management originated in Germany at the end of the XVIIIth century, served as model for the forest management plans drawn out by the Florence Forestry School almost until the end of the XXth century.

  16. Církevní kritika výstřední módy císařského dvora Karla IV. a datování nástěnných maleb karlštejnského schodištního cyklu kolem let 1365 - 1367

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, příl. (2006), s. 19-22 ISSN 1212-1487. [Schodištní cykly Velké věže hradu Karlštejna. Stav po restaurování. Praha, 05.05.2004-07.05.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : wall painting * Karlštejn * Charles IV Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. Solar Observations on Magneto-Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    Technical Library National Solar Observatory Sunspot, NM 88349 Karl - Schwarzschild -Strasse 1 8046 Garching bei Mundhen Solar Observations On Magneto...Schmidt, Hermann-Ulrich Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Thomas (eds.) Max-Planck-Institut fir Physik und Astrophysik Institut fiur Astrophysik Karl ... Schwarzschild -St-. 1 D-8046 Garching, FklG 14TIS CRiA.&l DTIC TA. U~Jar,iou8:ed B ......... ... Distribution I -- Availability COcý----- Avail and or Dist special

  18. International Conference on Hyperbolic Problems Theory, Numerics, Applications Held in Stony Brook, New York on 13-17 June 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-25

    Astrophysik are investigated numerically. These collisions do not seem to Karl - Schwarzschild -str., 1, D-85470 Garching, Germany be elastic. On the other hand...Astrophysak, Departamento de Matemdtsca Aplscada y Astronomia Karl -Schwaarzschild-Str. i Universadad de Valencia 85740 Garching bes Munchen. Germany "E...the R-W metric to the empty space Schwarzschild metric, and since in this cae mass and momentum cannot cross the interface, (which in this case models

  19. Anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm’s ideas and social constructivism – hypotheses and thoughts [Anoreksja psychiczna z perspektywy koncepcji Karla Jaspersa, Ericha Fromma oraz nurtu konstrukcjonizmu społecznego – hipotezy i refleksje

    OpenAIRE

    Talarczyk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    e point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm’s ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of ...

  20. Karl Jaspers y la distinción hermenéutica entre entender y explicar en psicopatología. ¿Podríamos reencontrarnos en alguien que padeciera el síndrome de Cotard tipo I?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariso Salgado, José María (UNIR)

    2011-01-01

    Though Karl Jaspers stated in his General Psychopathology that the genesis of delusions is un-understandable rational and empathically, millions of people all over the world and lots of cinema critics seem to have understood in both ways the genesis of the case of Cotard syndrome which appears by the end of the film The Sixth Sense (1999). In this paper, however, I will show that the possibility of understanding rational and empathically the genesis of this case is just unrealisti...

  1. El método antropológico-trascendental de Karl Rahner como hermenéutica teológica del mundo y de la praxis

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    Fernando Berríos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La conmemoración del 40º aniversario del Concilio Vaticano II (1962-1965 es una ocasión propicia para releer sus enseñanzas e intuiciones fundamentales y evaluar su recepción en el pensamiento y en la vida de la Iglesia. El artículo se propone aportar a esta tarea con una aproximación al tema de la praxis en sintonía con la doctrina de la constitución Gaudium et spes sobre la actividad humana en el mundo (GS 33-39. En ese espíritu, el artículo ofrece una presentación del método antropológico-trascendental del teólogo alemán Karl Rahner (1904-1984 como un camino de lectura teológica del mundo y de la praxis histórica relevante para los cristianos de hoy. Sitúa dicho método en el programa rahneriano de un "recentramiento antropológico" de la teología (1. y explica su enfoque "trascendental" a la luz de su subyacente apertura al mundo moderno (2.; analiza someramente las diversas líneas que constituyen su sustrato filosófico (3. y lo confronta con otro enfoque trascendental relevante como es el del filósofo francés Maurice Blondel (4., para concluir con algunas reflexiones y perspectivasThe commemoration of the 40th anniversary of the Vatican Council II (1962-1965 is a suitable occasion to go over its fundamental teaching and institutions again and assess their acceptance to the thought and life of the Church. This article attempts to make a contribution, presenting new lights on the issue of the praxis along with the doctrine of the Constitution Gaudium et Spes on the human activity in the world (GS 33-39. The article presents Karl Rahner's (1904-1984 anthropologic-transcendental method as a theological reading of the world and the historical praxis significant for modern Christians. The author sets this method within Rhaner's program of an `anthropological re-centering' of theology. Thus he (1 explains his `transcendental' approach in the light of the opening of the new world, (2 analyses the various lines underlying

  2. CARTOGRAFIA ISTORICĂ ÎN SECOLUL AL XIX-LEA. KARL SPRUNER VON MERZ (1803-1892 ŞI AL SĂU HISTORISCH – GEOGRAPHISCHER HAND-ATLAS: ATLAS ANTIQUUS

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    FLORIN-GHEORGHE FODOREAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historical cartography in the 19th century: Karl Spruner von Merz (1803-1892 and his Historisch - geographischer Hand-Atlas: Atlas antiquus. The historical atlases publish during the 19th century have changed the level of knowledge of the people regarding the ancient geographical space. The present study focuses on the activity of Karl Spruner von Merz (1803-1892, one of the most important cartographers of the 19th, close collaborator of the famous Justus Perthes’s publishing house in Germany. In 1855, the first section of the atlas edited by Karl Spruner was published: Historisch - geographischer Hand-Atlas: Atlas antiquus, Justus Perthes Verlag, Gotha, 1855. The first section of the atlas included only four pages of texts and commentaries. The atlas was published in three editions. The third one is entitled Spruner-Menke atlas antiquus. Karoli Spruneri opus. Tertio edidit, Theodorus Menke. Gothae: Sumtibus Justi Perthes, anno MDCCCLXV. Thirty-one maps were published. Many of the maps published in this atlas represent a mix of data gathered from ancient geographical sources. By comparing the information from these maps, one can establish the level of modern knowledge regarding the geographical space of the ancient regions of the world.

  3. Astronomical Observations by Speckle Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-12

    commonly -been noted [Heintz (101)] that it was Karl *, Schwarzchild who iui 1895 [ Schwarzschild (190)] made the first measure- ments of binary stars...J. Lett 163. Michelson, A A, Pease. F. G. 1921. Ap. 280: L23 J. 53: 249 190. Schwarzschild . K. 1896. Astron. Nadir. 164. Morgan. B. L., lieddoes. 1

  4. A Provisoriedade do Conhecimento Científico: Uma Reflexão sobre a Filosofia da Ciência de Karl Popper

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    Fátima Siqueira Caropreso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A concepção de ciência de Karl Popper nos mostra que esta, embora indubitavelmente nos forneça um conhecimento muito mais seguro do que aquele do senso comum, jamais poderá alcançar um conhecimento verdadeiro, definitivo. A aspiração de verdade da ciência consiste em uma impossibilidade lógica e empírica, portanto, o conhecimento científico deve ser conhecimento falsificável e não falsificado, que se desenvolve a partir de um processo de eliminação de erros. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a concepção de ciência de Popper, o que parece se justificar por nos lembrar da provisoriedade das teorias científicas, em uma época em que há uma confiança muitas vezes ingênua nos dados científicos, principalmente nos meios não acadêmicos.

  5. [Peripartal mortality in an autopsy sample of the Pathologic Institute of the Department of Medicine of the Karl Marx University in Leipzig 1960-1982].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmrich, P; Wötzel, E

    1986-01-01

    Between 1960 and 1982 we have autopsied 88 cases of peripartal mortality in the pathological institute of the department of medicine, Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig. According to the legal instruction in the GDR we have subdivided in direct and indirect peripartal death cases (direct and indirect relation between maternal mortality and pregnancy). We have compared both the groups (1960-1969, 1970-1982) and have found: The number of cases with indirect and direct relation between maternal mortality and pregnancy is decreased markedly in the second time period. The composition within the two time groups is very different in respect to the cause of the mortality: Between 1960 and 1969 amnioticfluid embolism, thromboembolism and air embolism, furthermore preeclampsia and their consequences as well as hemorrhages sub partu and postpartum could be found. In the second time group the most frequent causes of peripartal mortality are the different forms of embolism and preeclampsia, but then cases with a indirect relation between mortality and pregnancy with diseases of the cardiopulmonary system and of the kidneys.

  6. Anuncios de paz en Colombia: una interpretación visual desde el método documental de Karl Mannheim

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    Giohanny Olave Arias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de dos imágenes sobre el anuncio de un proceso de diálogos en 2012, entre el Gobierno colombiano y las FARC-EP, con miras a finalizar el conflicto armado interno, se analizan las cosmovisiones sugeridas y la imagen que los actores mostraron de sí mismos y de sus colectivos institucionales. La aproximación se enmarca en los avances teóricos y metodológicos sobre interpretación de imágenes, a través del método documental de Karl Mannheim. En los resultados se abordan tres momentos: la interpretación formulada, la interpretación reflectiva y la interpretación constrastiva. En las conclusiones se retoma el asunto empírico, poniéndolo en relación con la implicancia teórica del método de interpretación documental

  7. Between tradition and innovation: the anthropoligical investigation of Karl von den Steinen in the region of the Xingú headwaters (1883-1887 and their significance for the German Americanism of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to analyze the anthropological and ethnographical studies realized by the German traveller and scientist Karl von den Steinen at the end of the 19th century in the region of the river Xingu in Central Brazil. First a short overview will be given of both expeditions directed by him and their scientific concerns. Then the ideological and thematical orientation of the americanism of this epoch will be contrasted with the research undertaken by Karl von den Steinen in Brazil, in order to illustrate the ways in which he worked in the tradition of his time and in which aspects he departed from this framework and effected innovations in his research. After this analysis of the contributions of Karl von den Steinen to the development of German americanism, this article focuses on the question of, to which point his studies are still relevant today and if his methodology and its results continue to be valid in our time. Finally, the relationship of his ideological orientation with those of his predecessors and his successors will be thematized in order to explore Karl von den Steinen’s influences and whom he, in turn, influenced.Este artículo analiza los estudios antropológicos llevados a cabo por el viajero y científico alemán Karl von den Steinen a finales del siglo XIX en la región del río Xingú en Brasil Central. En primer lugar se ofrece una breve introducción sobre las dos expediciones por él dirigidas así como sobre los intereses científicos que las motivaron. A continuación se contrapone la orientación ideológica y temática del americanismo de la época con la investigación de Karl von den Steinen en Brasil, con objeto de ver en qué sentido ha trabajado siguiendo las pautas metodológicas habituales de su época y en qué aspectos ha abandonado ese marco tradicional a fin de desarrollar innovaciones en la investigación. Tras este análisis de la contribución de von den Steinen al desarrollo del

  8. ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 10, Number 2, April to June 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    November International Astronomical Ne eh, Dr. R. Mv. West, ESO Sky Atlas Laboratory 19-28 Union 19th General Assembly India Karl - Schwarzschild ...ferrite (oxide) materials. The use of rare-earth (RE) compounds as permanent magnets resulted mainly from work done by Karl Strnat, then at Wright

  9. Updates of the KArLE Experiment: New Libs Calibration Under High Vacuum for the Quantification of Potassium in Basalt for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devismes, D.; Cohen, B. A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In planetary exploration, in situ absolute geochronology is one of the main important measurements that needs to be accomplished. Until now, on Mars, the age of the surface is only determined by crater density counting, which gives relative ages. These ages can have a lot of uncertainty as they depend on many parameters. More than that, the curves must be ties to absolute ages. Thus far, only the lost lander Beagle 2 was designed to conduct absolute geochronology measurements, though some recent attempts using MSL Curiosity show that this investigation is feasible and should be strongly encouraged for future flight. Experimental: The Potassium (K)-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) is being developed at MSFC through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this experiment is to provide in situ geochronology based on the K-Ar method. A laser ablates a rock under high vacuum, creating a plasma which is sensed by an optical spectrometer to do Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The ablated material frees gases, including radiogenic 40Ar,which is measured by a mass spectrometer (MS). As the potassium is a content and the 40Ar is a quantity, the ablated mass needed in order to relate them. The mass is given by the product of the ablated volume by the density of this material. So we determine the mineralogy of the ablated material with the LIBS spectra and images and calculate its density. The volume of the pit is measured by using microscopy. LIBS measurement of K under high vacuum: Three independant projects [1, 2, 3] including KArLE, are developing geochronological instruments based on this LA-LIBS-MS method. Despite several differences in their setup, all of them have validated the methods with analyses and ages. However, they all described difficulties with the LIBS measurements of K [3,4]. At ambient pressure, the quantification of K by LIBS on geological materials can be accurate [5]. However the protocol of the LA

  10. What killed Karl Patterson Schmidt? Combined venom gland transcriptomic, venomic and antivenomic analysis of the South African green tree snake (the boomslang), Dispholidus typus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Whiteley, Gareth; Wagstaff, Simon C; Harrison, Robert A; Casewell, Nicholas R; Calvete, Juan J

    2017-04-01

    Non-front-fanged colubroid snakes comprise about two-thirds of extant ophidian species. The medical significance of the majority of these snakes is unknown, but at least five species have caused life-threatening or fatal human envenomings. However, the venoms of only a small number of species have been explored. A combined venomic and venom gland transcriptomic approach was employed to characterise of venom of Dispholidus typus (boomslang), the snake that caused the tragic death of Professor Karl Patterson Schmidt. The ability of CroFab™ antivenom to immunocapture boomslang venom proteins was investigated using antivenomics. Transcriptomic-assisted proteomic analysis identified venom proteins belonging to seven protein families: three-finger toxin (3FTx); phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ); cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP); snake venom (SV) serine proteinase (SP); C-type lectin-like (CTL); SV metalloproteinases (SVMPs); and disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich (DC) proteolytic fragments. CroFab™ antivenom efficiently immunodepleted some boomslang SVMPs. The present work is the first to address the overall proteomic profile of D. typus venom. This study allowed us to correlate the toxin composition with the toxic activities of the venom. The antivenomic analysis suggested that the antivenom available at the time of the unfortunate accident could have exhibited at least some immunoreactivity against the boomslang SVMPs responsible for the disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome that caused K.P. Schmidt's fatal outcome. This study may stimulate further research on other non-front-fanged colubroid snake venoms capable of causing life-threatening envenomings to humans, which in turn should contribute to prevent fatal human accidents, such as that unfortunately suffered by K.P. Schmidt. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thomas Piketty’s Book “Capital in the Twenty-First Century”, Karl Marx and the Political Economy of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Piketty’s book Capital in the Twenty-First Century has resulted in a sustained political and academic debate about capitalism in the 21st century. This article discusses the relevance of the book in the context of Karl Marx’s works and the political economy of the Internet. It identifies 3 common reactions to Piketty’s book: 1 dignification; 2 denigration of the work’s integrity; 3 the denial of any parallel to Marx. I argue that all three reactions do not help the task of creating a New Left that is urgently needed in the situation of sustained capitalist crisis. Marxists will certainly view Piketty’s analysis of capitalism and political suggestions critically. I argue that they should however not dismiss them, but like Marx and Engels aim to radicalise reform suggestions. In relation to the Internet, this paper discusses especially how insights from Piketty’s book can inform the discussion of tax avoidance by transnational Internet companies such as Google, Facebook and Amazon. For establishing an alternative, non-commercial, non-capitalist Internet one can draw insights about institutional reforms and progressive capital taxation from Piketty that can be radicalised in order to ground radical-reformist Internet politics. “The daily struggle for reforms, for the amelioration of the condition of the workers within the framework of the existing social order, and for democratic institutions, offers to the social democracy the only means of engaging in the proletarian class war and working in the direction of the final goal-the conquest of political power and the suppression of wage labor. Between social reforms and revolution there exists for the social democracy an indissoluble tie. The struggle for reforms is its means; the social revolution, its aim” (Rosa Luxemburg 1899, 41.

  12. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  13. EnKF OSSE Experiments Assessing the Impact of HIRAD Wind Speed and HIWRAP Radial Velocity Data on Analysis of Hurricane Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Cerese; Sippel, Jason A.; Braun, Scott A.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies (e.g., Zhang et al. 2009, Weng et al. 2011) have shown that radial velocity data from airborne and ground-based radars can be assimilated into ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) systems to produce accurate analyses of tropical cyclone vortices, which can reduce forecast intensity error. Recently, wind speed data from SFMR technology has also been assimilated into the same types of systems and has been shown to improve the forecast intensity of mature tropical cyclones. Two instruments that measure these properties were present during the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field experiment in 2010 which sampled Hurricane Karl, and will next be co-located on the same aircraft for the subsequent NASA HS3 experiment. The High Altitude Wind and Rain Profiling Radar (HIWRAP) is a conically scanning Doppler radar mounted upon NASAs Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle, and the usefulness of its radial velocity data for assimilation has not been previously examined. Since the radar scans from above with a fairly large fixed elevation angle, it observes a large component of the vertical wind, which could degrade EnKF analyses compared to analyses with data taken from lesser elevation angles. The NASA Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a passive microwave radiometer similar to SFMR, and measures emissivity and retrieves hurricane surface wind speeds and rain rates over a much wider swath. Thus, this study examines the impact of assimilating simulated HIWRAP radial velocity data into an EnKF system, simulated HIRAD wind speed, and HIWRAP+HIRAD with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and compares the results to no data assimilation and also to the Truth from which the data was simulated for both instruments.

  14. The East German Research Landscape in Transition Part A: Status and Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-02

    traditional Meteorologisches Observatorium Potsdam, and Prof. Siegfried Marx of the Karl - Schwarzschild -Observatorium Tautenburg. G804L32-00-01 07 APR...Telefax: +37 (091) 53409 or 51959 The Ministry is on Breiter Weg (the former Karl -Marx StraBe) north of Wilhelm Pieck Allee, near Alter Markt. Non...27 69 Karl StraBe 4 D/W-6900 Heidelberg Telephone: +49 (6221) 54-3265 Telefax: +49 (6221) 54-3355 Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz

  15. Vida nua e forma-de-vida em Giorgio Agamben e Karl Marx: Violência e emancipação entre capitalismo e estado de exceção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dalla Bernardina Brocco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho se concentra na investigação sobre as aproximações teóricas entre os trabalhos de Giorgio Agamben, em seu projeto Homo Sacer e os de Karl Marx, em uma tentativa de construir novas ferramentas analíticas para a problemática da violência e da emancipação social na contemporaneidade. A aproximação entre as duas obras se dará pela via dos conceitos de vida nua e de forma-de-vida, os quais, segundo a hipótese deste trabalho, seriam comuns a ambos. O objetivo será o de elaborar a articulação entre o conceito de forma-de-vida em Agamben e o de sociedade sem classes em Marx, com vistas a possíveis leituras da emancipação e da justiça social.  The article Naked Life and Form-of-Life in Giorgio Agamben and Karl Marx: Violence and Emancipation Between Capitalism and State of Exception investigates the theoretical relationship between Agamben and Marx, focusing on Agamben’s Homo Sacer project. It is an attempt to build new analytical tools to the question of violence and social emancipation in contemporary societies. The approach between the two theories will be done by analyzing the concepts of bare life and form-of-life, which, per the hypothesis of this work, would be common to both. The objective would be the articulation of the concept of form-of-life in Agamben and the classless society in Marx, towards new possible approaches to emancipation and social justice. Keywords: bare life, biopolitics, form-of-life, Giorgio Agamben, Karl Marx

  16. Development of X-Y multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) for the magnetic spectrograph 'BIG KARL' of the Juelich cyclotron 'JULIC' and investigation of the reaction 12C(α,α1)12C with Eα=145 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.

    1978-07-01

    The paper reports on the concept and development of a spatial-resolution X-Y detector for the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL, on test measurements on the 300 mm x 40 mm prototype with a 90 Sr β source, and on the first few in-beam measurements. The reaction 12 C(α,α') 12 C with Esub(α) = 145 MeV was investigated under extreme forward angles thetasub(LAB) = 6.0 0 to 1.5 0 . (orig./WL) 891 WL [de

  17. Determination of the analytical performance of a headspace capillary gas chromatographic technique and karl Fischer coulometric titration by system calibration using oil samples containing known amounts of moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years, concerns have been raised in the literature about the accuracy of the Karl Fischer (KF) method for assessing moisture in transformer mineral oils. To better understand this issue, the performance of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic (HS-CGC) technique was compared to that of KF coulometric titration by analyzing moisture in samples containing known amounts of water and various samples obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two modes of adding samples into the KF vessel were used:  direct injection and indirect injection via an azeotropic distillation of the moisture with toluene. Under the conditions used for direct injection, the oil matrix was totally dissolved in the anolyte, which allowed the moisture to be titrated in a single-phase solution rather than in a suspension. The results have shown that when HS-CGC and combined azeotropic distillation/KF titration are calibrated with moisture-in-oil standards, a linear relation is observed over 0-60 ppm H(2)O with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9994 (95% confidence), with the regression line crossing through zero. A similar relation can also be observed when calibration is achieved by direct KF addition of standards prepared with octanol-1, but in this case an intercept of 4-5 ppm is noted. The amount of moisture determined by curve interpolation in NIST reference materials by the three calibrated systems ranges from 13.0 to 14.8 ppm for RM 8506 and 42.5 to 46.4 ppm for RM 8507, and in any case, the results were as high as those reported in the literature with volumetric KF titration. However, titration of various dehydrated oil and solvent samples showed that direct KF titration is affected by a small bias when samples contain very little moisture. The source of error after correction for the large sample volume used for the determination (8 mL) is about 6 ppm for Voltesso naphthenic oil and 4 ppm for toluene, revealing a matrix

  18. A Review of Karl Poppers′ Political Philosophy%在历史与未来之间:卡尔·波普尔政治哲学评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张弛

    2013-01-01

      第二次世界大战给人类带来了血腥的代价和沉痛的历史反思,进而引发了诸多学者对于极权主义(totalitarianism)的深刻批判。批判理性主义思想家卡尔·波普尔以其独特的“反历史主义”方法论对极权主义的政治哲学根源进行了深入挖掘,并在后现代思想界产生了深远影响。本文试图对波普尔的政治哲学理论进行梳理,并对其学理价值进行简要评析。%World War II has caused vast human suffering and has led to painful reflection on history and criticism of totalitarianism. Karl Popper, anti-rationalists, has examined the political philosophy root of totalitarianism from his unique anti-historicism perspective and has exerted far-reaching influence among postmodern thinkers. This paper analyzes Karl Popper′ s Political Philosophy theory and gives comments on its academic value.

  19. Vineerist prillide valmistamine / Karl Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Annus, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Töö eesmärgiks oli anda ülevaade puidust ergonoomiliste prillide valmistamisest kolmele konkreetsele isikule alates visandite kujundamisest kuni praktilise teostuseni. Käsitletakse prillide ajalugu, erinevaid raamitüüpe, erialast terminoloogiat ning kirjeldatakse põhjalikult prillide valmistamise protsessi

  20. Muljeid viimastest kontsertidest / Karl Leichter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leichter, Karl, 1902-1987

    1997-01-01

    Novembrikuu teise poole sündmustest Tallinnas. Väliskülalised: Praha konservatooriumi kammeransambel, Ungari laulusolist Maria Gyurkovic, pianist Maria Grinberg. Kolmel sümfooniakontserdil olid dirigentideks A. Stepanov, R. Matsov, S. Prohhorov

  1. Kirjad vallutatud Hiinast / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    1937. a. alanud Hiina-Jaapani sõjast, poliitlistest oludest ja revolutsioonist Hiinas, hiinlastest ja Hiina suhetest teiste riikidega. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 19.-20. aug, 1938, nr. 226-227; 12.-13., 16. sept. 1938, nr. 250-251, 254

  2. Budapestis ja Ungaris / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    Doonau jõest, Budapesti ajaloost, linnaarhitektuurist ja kuninglikust lossist. Ungari eri piirkondade looduse, põllumajanduse ja rahva eripäradest. Trianoini rahulepinguga kaotatud maa-aladest. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 3., 5., 13. veebr. 1937, nr. 34, 36, 44

  3. Baltimaade õhtu Pariisis / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    André Bossini kõnest teemal "Balti riikide asetus Saksamaa, Poola ja Nõukogude Liidu suhtes" Rahvusvahelise Sõpruse Ühingu korraldatud üritusel Pariisis. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 29. okt. 1935, nr. 42

  4. Teadusmalevlased meisterdasid magnetpuuri / Karl Reinkubjas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinkubjas, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Mart Noorma algatatud Teadusmaleva projekti eesmärk on pakkuda noortele võimalust sisustada oma suvi ning töötada teadusasutuses. Tänavu oli ülesandeks ehitada magnetvälja tekitav Helmholtzi puur

  5. QQDDQ magnet spectrometer 'BIG KARL'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S A; Hardt, A; Meissburger, J; Berg, G P.A.; Hacker, U; Huerlimann, W; Roemer, J G.M.; Sagefka, T; Retz, A; Schult, O W.B.

    1983-09-01

    A magnet spectrometer consisting of two quadrupoles, two dipole magnets and another larger quadrupole in front of the detector was designed and installed at the nuclear research institute of the KFA Juelich. It has been used for charged-particle spectroscopy at the isochronous cyclotron since early 1979. Special features of the spectrometer are variable and high dispersion, coils for higher order field corrections in the dipole magnets and a focal plane perpendicular to the optical axis. A large mass-energy product of mE/q/sup 2/ < 540 u x MeV, an angular acceptance of d..cap omega..<12.5 msr, a high resolving power of p/..delta..p up to 3 x 10/sup 4/ and the possibility of kinematical corrections up to K=0.8 make the instrument a very versatile tool for many experiments in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics. 51 references.

  6. India vabadusliikumine / Karl Ast Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ast Rumor, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Vastuhakkamisest Inglise võimudele 1857. ja 1930. aastal. Liikumine, mille eesotsas seisab Gandhi, põlvneb igivanast hindu enesetundest, selle eesmärgiks on enesemääramine, mitte ainult poliitiliset, vaid ka kultuuriliselt, usuliselt ja lõpuks ka majanduslikult, rippumatus mitte ainult Inglismaast, vaid Euroopast ning Läänest üldse. Varem ilmunud : "Nool" 31. mai, 7., 14., 21. juuni 1930, nr. 27-30

  7. La correspondencia entre José M. Otero Navascués y Karl Wirtz, un episodio de las relaciones internacionales de la Junta de Energía Nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Es una idea compartida que durante el primer franquismo la ciencia española padeció el mismo aislamiento que el resto de la sociedad civil. Al igual que en otros sistemas totalitarios, la labor científica estaba determinada por las purgas ideológicas, el oportunismo político y la inercia de actitudes rutinarias. Pero también es cierto que hubo espacio para propuestas innovadoras y generadoras de nuevas tendencias equiparables a los estandares internacionales. La correspondencia entre José M. Otero y Karl Wirtz se concentra en la década de los años 50 y muestra cómo junto al discurso autoritario habían iniciativas empeñadas en conectar con las tendencias más modernas, en este caso de la investigación nuclear.

  8. Evolución y análisis del canon de belleza aplicado a la moda : análisis de Karl Lagerfeld, John Galliano y Victoria’s Secret (1995 – 2007 – 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Llorca Martínez, Cayetana; Márquez Martínez, María

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo abordará las colecciones de tres de los diseñadores de moda más influyentes de las últimas décadas, John Galiano, Karl Lagerfeld, y la firma de lencería femenina Victoria’s Secret. Será un estudio centrado en la tipología de modelo utilizada en las citadas colecciones con objeto de conocer cómo ha ido evolucionando el canon de belleza a lo largo de la historia y cómo se refleja en la moda actual. Se trata de una evolución variable que ha ido adquiriendo una mayor import...

  9. Measurement of the pp → dπ+ reaction at 793, 800 and 1920 MeV/c and fixing the transport matrix of the magnetic spectrometer Big Karl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razen, B.

    1997-12-01

    This work presents measurements of the pp → dπ + reaction at a beam momentum of 793 MeV/c and 801 MeV/c. Differential and total cross sections at these energies were measured with the magnetic spectrometer Big Karl, which grants a nearly 4π-acceptance in the center of mass system. A major emphasis is given to the deduction of the transfer-matrix of the magnetic system, which allows full momentum reconstruction of the deuterons at the target point. Anisotropies and partial wave contributions are deduced from these measurements. They suggest not negligible P-wave contribution already close to threshold. Comparing our data to the measurements of the isospin related reaction np → dπ 0 yields some difference, which might be a hint to some isospin-breaking. Finally a measurement at 1920 MeV/c beam momentum was done to calibrate the momentum of the external beam of COSY. (orig.)

  10. A repercussão da sociologia do conhecimento de Karl Mannheim no Brasil: uma análise da presença do autor no país e nos estudos de administração [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2015014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Venzke Bortoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Karl Mannheim foi um filósofo que buscou entender a Sociologia do Conhecimento de forma mais ampla: como uma filosofia ‘atemporal’, a qual pode tratar adequadamente os problemas que surgem da situação intelectual presente. Visto a contribuição teórica e metodológica desse estudioso, este artigo visa analisar o surgimento da Sociologia do Conhecimento de Karl Mannheim e a sua repercussão no Brasil. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento do panorama dos estudos na área de Administração, em artigos de 14 periódicos e 9 eventos, a fim de verificar o que vem sendo abordado sobre esse autor no Brasil, bem como identificar estudos e teorias que tem como base essa teoria sociológica. A análise mostra que, apesar de algumas restrições, é significativa a recepção da Sociologia do Conhecimento na sociologia brasileira, tendo impacto no conhecimento sobre a realidade social brasileira. Entretanto, os estudos de Administração no Brasil carecem de embasamento teórico de Karl Mannheim. Esse autor tem influência no conceito de geração, disseminação de cultura, análise de significação, colonialismo e na relação de conhecimento e existencialismo, embora, muitas vezes, sua contribuição teórica nos estudos relativos a esses temas seja negligenciada.   Palavras-Chave Sociologia do Conhecimento; Karl Mannheim; Presença no Brasil.     THE REPERCUSSION OF KARL MANNHEIM’S SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE IN BRAZIL: AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUTHOR’S PRESENCE IN THE COUNTRY AND ON THE STUDIES OF BUSINESS   ABSTRACT Karl Mannheim was a philosopher who aimed to understand the sociology of knowledge as a ‘timeless’ philosophy, which can properly handle the problems that arise from the current intellectual situation. This study aims to analyze the emergence of Karl Mannheim's Sociology of Knowledge and its impact on Brazil. We carried out a survey in order to verify what has been made about this author in Brazil and to identify studies

  11. Editor's note: Reviews in Modern Astronomy 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlepsch, Regina v.

    2015-06-01

    In order to make the scientific events of the meetings of the Astronomische Gese llschaft (AG) more international and bring them to the attention of the worldwide astronomical community, it was decided to devote the Reviews in Modern Astronomy} to the outcomes of the large annual fall meetings of the AG. In particular, it emphasized the Karl Schwarzschild Lectures, the Ludwig Biermann Award Lectures, the invited reviews, and the highlight contributions on recent progress and achievements from leading scientists. The most prestigious of them, the Karl Schwarzschild Lectures, constitutes a special series of reviews by outstanding scientists who have been awarded the Karl Schwarzschild Medal during the fall meeting of the AG. At the same time, excellent young astronomers are honored by the Ludwig Biermann Award. In 2010 the ``Doctoral Thesis Award'' was established to honor the most outstanding Doctoral Thesis of the past year.

  12. Mäletamine ja nostalgia Karl Ristikivi romaanis „Kõik, mis kunagi oli” ning Bernard Kangro Joonatani -romaanides. Remembering and Nostalgia in Karl Ristikivi`s novel „All that Once Was” and Bernard Kangro’s Joonatan-novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Hollo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on the phenomenon of nostalgia has been notably shaped by the interest taken by sociologists, historians, and ethnologists in the ways of remembering past events and the impact of these ways of reminiscence on different communities of memory. This article considers remembering in a narrower sense, focusing on the modes of expression of individual memory, that is, on nostalgia. More specifically, nostalgia is defined as a conglomeration of feelings, images and interpretations that accompany individual remembering; the contradictions between these elements reflect the tensions inherent in remembering. The purpose of the article is first to emphasize ways in which remembering is represented in the works of two Estonian writers who went into exile during World War II; second, differences among their novels which thematize remembering, and third, how these works communicate today, in the context of recent polemics around memory. Karl Ristikivi’s novel „All that Once Was” (Kõik, mis kunagi oli”, 1946, was his first work to be published in exile, and the first volume of a dilogy set in Estonia, which the writer had already planned before fleeing Estonia. The first volume of Bernard Kangro’s Joonatan trilogy was published in 1971, and the last in 1973 – a period of creative crisis for Kangro, in which his prose writing undergoes significant change. In the works of both Ristkivi and Kangro, remembering and nostalgia are inextricably bound together. In Ristikivi’s novel, the connections emerge through the parallel representation of remembering, events in historical time, and the writing of history; in Kangro’s novels, in the force field of remembering and events in historical time. Ristikivi’s novel is set a few months before the conclusion of the Molotov- Ribbentrop pact in August, 1939. The novel’s focus, however, is not on the historical events themselves, but rather on how characters experience and interpret their own

  13. Βιβλιοκρισία:P. SCHREINER-E. VOGT(eds., Karl Krumbacher. Leben und Werk, München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C. H. Beck, München 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter PUCHNER

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Βιβλιοκρισία: P. Schreiner-E. Vogt (eds., Karl Krumbacher. Leben und Werk, München, Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Kommission beim Verlag C. H. Beck, München 2011 (Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, Jahrgang 2011, Heft 4, σελ. 147, 5 εικ., ΙSBN 978 3 7696 1569 0.

  14. Os principios de economia substantiva de Karl Polanyi em relações de economia solidária: o caso do povoado Cruz (Currais Novos/RN [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20111002007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Gonçalves Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OS PRINCIPIOS DE ECONOMIA SUBSTANTIVA DE KARL POLANYI EM RELAÇÕES DE ECONOMIA SOLIDÁRIA: O CASO DO POVOADO CRUZ (CURRAIS NOVOS/RN RESUMO Este estudo aborda relações econômicas e sociais em uma comunidade de fruticultores à luz dos princípios expostos por Polanyi (2000 na obra “A Grande Transformação” e dos pressupostos básicos da Nova Sociologia Econômica (NSE e da Economia Solidária. A unidade de observação foi o Povoado Cruz, no município de Currais Novos (RN. A técnica utilizada foi a observação não participante, com abordagem qualitativa na análise de dados. Em uma aproximação com a realidade buscou-se identificar como, e se, relações sociais não capitalistas, balizadas nos princípios de reciprocidade, domesticidade e redistribuição, sobrevivem em meio a relação capitalista. Percebeu-se que, mesmo dentro da realidade de mercado, predominam princípios elencados por Polanyi e pela Economia Solidária. Tais princípios têm base em valores como solidariedade, integração, respeito, ajuda mútua, cooperação e autonomia.   Palavras-Chave Reciprocidade; Redistribuição; Domesticidade; Economia Solidária; Agroindústria Familiar.     PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS SUBSTANTIVE OF KARL POLANYI RELATIONS IN SOLIDARITY ECONOMY: THE CASE OF CRUZ VILLAGE (CURRAIS NOVOS/RN   ABSTRACT This study focuses economic and social relationships in a fruit culture community under the prism of both principles established by Polanyi (2000 in his work “The Great Transformation” and central assumptions of New Economic Sociology (NES and Solidarity Economy. The community of Povoado cruz, in the municipality of Currais Novos (Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil, was studied through non-participant observation, and data gathered was analyzed with a qualitative approach. The paper aims at identifying how, and if, social not capitalist relationships, guided by reciprocity, domesticity and redistribution principles, survive within the

  15. 25 Jahre - Institut fuer Geodaesie, Teil 1: Wissenschaftliche Beitraege und Berichte (25 Years - Institute of Geodesy, Part 1: Scientific Contributions and Reports)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Analyse der Bahnbewegung des Mondes (E. W. BROWN, 1896) Polschwankung (SETH CARLO CHANDLER, 1885; KARL FRIEDRICH KOJSTNER, 1890; SIMON NEWCOMB, 1891, 1892...Photographic Zenith Tubes) wurden erstmals urn die Jahr- hundertwende von STOLZE (1893), RuNGE (1893), SCHNAUDER (1900) und SCHWARZSCHILD (1903) vor...Geburtstag, Eugen Kuntz zurn 70. Geburtstag, Herman MAilzer zumn 70. Geburtstag, Verbff Geod Inst U Karlsruhe, 23 5-241 SCHWARZSCHILD , K., 1903

  16. Early Scholars' Visits to Central America: Reports by Karl Sapper, Walter Lehmann, and Franz Termer, edited by Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett and Ellen T Hardy, Theodore E Gutman, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Kolb

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute's Director of Publications is archaeologist Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett, herself a specialist on the production and distribution of archaeological ceramics in Mesoamerica and Central America and a scholar of complex society economic organization. Her colleague and the co-editor of this volume, Ellen Hardy, is a Research Associate at The Cotsen Institute and an expert on mortuary customs of the Nicoya region. Theodore (Ted Gutman (1909-1997 was a longtime supporter of the Institute at UCLA worked on a number of translation projects, several of which are presented here. He was the translator of Karl Sapper's Verapaz im 16. und 17. jahrhundert, which appeared as The Verapaz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Contribution to the Historical Geography and Ethnography of Northeastern Guatemala (Los Angeles, University of California, Institute of Archae­ology, Occasional Paper 13, 1985. The contributors to the volume's narrative include, in addtion to Beaudry-Corbett and Hardy, nine other anthropologists who are recognized experts on the region and subject matter.

  17. 略论波普尔和库恩科学哲学的影响%On the Impact of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn's Philosophies of Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗力群

    2011-01-01

    本文考察了波普尔和库恩科学哲学在科学哲学界、科学界及人文社科界的影响。本文的情境分析根据波普尔和库恩作品的特点、社会联系、社会情境、个性因素来解释他们的影响。文章的考察实际上触及了思想史上的社会建构因素,而此因素应该广泛作用于各学科的历史。%This article examines the impact of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn's philosophies of science in the communities of philosophy of science, natural sciences, and arts and social sciences. The situational analysis has recourse to the characteristics of their works, their social ties and personalities, and social context, to explain their influences. This paper actually catches hold of the social construction factor in the history of thought, which should widely act upon a variety of disciplines.

  18. Pursuing Reason with Critique --A Discussion on Karl Popper's Methodology of Scientific Discovery%在批判中追求理性——谈波普的科学发现方法论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成光

    2012-01-01

    Karl Popper's methodology of scientific discovery is a school of philosophy of science based on the critique of logical positivism, and its core is conjectures and refutations. His "deductive method" and "four phase formula" of scientific discovery has some theoretical value, and his methodology of science plays positive role in the development of science. And of course, it has obvious deficiencies because of many limitations.%波普的科学发现方法论是在批判逻辑实证主义基础上建立起来的科学哲学流派之一,其核心是猜测与反驳。他提出的“演绎法”和科学发现的“四段图式”具有一定的理论价值,他的科学方法论在科学发展中有一定的积极作用,又因为种种局限又表现出明显的不足。

  19. Costos de transacción, un hallazgo no tan reciente. Aproximaciones a la teoría de los costos de circulación de Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Valencia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Los aportes de la escuela neoinstitucionalista son reconocidos hoy como uno de los mayores en el campo económico; esto debido a que en su análisis económico del mercado incluyen una gama de aspectos que son fundamentales en la toma de decisiones de las empresas y los agentes llamado costos de transacción. Lo paradójico es que parte de este “gran hallazgo” ya había sido expuesto un siglo antes por Karl Marx en el segundo tomo de El Capital, Crítica de la Economía Política y aun no ha sido reconocido. La contribución de Marx sobre costos de Circulación es enorme, pues define, clasifica y propone soluciones a dichos costos de una manera rigurosa y novedosa, incluso aventajando a las propuestas actuales; lo extraño es que esta propuesta teórica no ha sido reconocida por ninguno de los economistas que trabajan en el tema

  20. “Jeter à la face de son siècle le plus excessif outrage" La critique d'art de Joris-Karl Huysmans, une démarche décadente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Jeannerod

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Joris-Karl Huysmans is mostly known for his famous novel À Rebours (1884, his first steps as a writer were made in art criticism, with an article published in La Revue mensuelle about the landscape painters at the Exposition Universelle that took place in Paris in 1867. From then on, his work as an art critic often echoed his novels, expressing the same views on aesthetics and civilisation. This article discusses to what extent Huysmans's art criticism during the eighteen-eighties comes under the Decadence and an aesthetic of transgression, as well as À Rebours does. Indeed, the art critic promotes a renewal of French painting which would transgress all the prevailing policies. Furthermore, Huysmans himself breaks the laws in various ways: he violates aesthetic rules by blaming academism and standing up for independent painters; he oversteps moral boundaries asserting that art has nothing to do with morality; he infringes social standards by satirizing the bourgeoisie. On numerous occasions, Huysmans uses the transgressive power of humour to show his contempt for the constraints of tradition and his hatred toward his time.

  1. USAF/SCEEE Summer Faculty Research Program (1979). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    K. Schwarzschild , Math. Phys, Kiasse, Grottingen Nachrichten, p. 41 (1906). . 28-21 I -. 4; 1979 USAF - SCEEE SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM...Wollam, 1968, p. 57. 22. Richard H. Hall, Organizations Structure and Process (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2nd ed., 1978). 23. Karl E. Weick, The...The Analysis of the U.S. Army Aircraft Maintenance System, Battelle Memorial Institute, 1970. (AD703839) Weick, Karl E. The Social Psychology of

  2. CHANG-ES. IV. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION OF 35 EDGE-ON GALAXIES OBSERVED WITH THE KARL G. JANSKY VERY LARGE ARRAY IN D CONFIGURATION—DATA RELEASE 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, Theresa; Irwin, Judith; MacGregor, Stephen, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: 11sm36@queensu.ca [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); and others

    2015-09-15

    We present the first part of the observations made for the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) project. The aim of the CHANG-ES project is to study and characterize the nature of radio halos, their prevalence as well as their magnetic fields, and the cosmic rays illuminating these fields. This paper reports observations with the compact D configuration of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) for the sample of 35 nearby edge-on galaxies of CHANG-ES. With the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the VLA, an unprecedented sensitivity was achieved for all polarization products. The beam resolution is an average of 9.″6 and 36″ with noise levels reaching approximately 6 and 30 μJy beam{sup −1} for C- and L-bands, respectively (robust weighting). We present intensity maps in these two frequency bands (C and L), with different weightings, as well as spectral index maps, polarization maps, and new measurements of star formation rates (SFRs). The data products described herein are available to the public in the CHANG-ES data release available at http://www.queensu.ca/changes. We also present evidence of a trend among galaxies with larger halos having higher SFR surface density, and we show, for the first time, a radio continuum image of the median galaxy, taking advantage of the collective signal-to-noise ratio of 30 of our galaxies. This image shows clearly that a “typical” spiral galaxy is surrounded by a halo of magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

  3. The Earliest Transmission and Influence of Karl Popper' s Doctrine in China%波普尔学说在中国的早期传播与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王公

    2016-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔(Karl R Popper)是20世纪著名的科学哲学家,其学说曾引起世界学术界轰动,对当代社会产生了重要影响.关于中国学界早期引介波普尔学说的科学思想史研究中,一直延续着大量的模糊说法,对于波普尔学说引介入中国的时间、路径、领域和影响等问题尚缺乏了解.查找到的文献证据表明:第一,在时间上,波普尔学说进入中国始于“文革”之前,而不是“文革”之后、改革之初;第二,在数量上,“文革”前至少有近20篇文章引介波普尔学说,并非“仅有几篇”;第三,波普尔哲学的核心内容“分界问题”和“证伪主义”早在1959年就被完整地介绍到中国;第四,波普尔学说最初进入中国学界的领域是历史哲学而不是西方哲学;第五,波普尔学说最初在中国是作为反马克思主义历史哲学的反面教材进行批判的对象.

  4. Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...

  5. History of optical theory of reflecting telescopes and implications for future projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond N.

    1997-03-01

    This contribution, The History of Optical Theory of Reflecting Telescopes and Implications for Future Projects, is a shortened form of the Karl Schwarzschild lecture given in Bochum in September 1993. Some material has been added from an invited paper given in Padua in December 1992. For a full account, with figures and tables, the reader is referred to these two papers.

  6. ICO Topical Meeting on Atmospheric, Volume and Surface Scattering and Propagation Held in Florence, Italy on 27-30 August 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    noises occurring in optoelectronic system as a whole. 60 ADAPTIVE OPTICS AND ITS APPLICATION IN ASTRONOMY FRITZ MERKLE European Southern Observatory Karl ... Schwarzschild -Str.2, 8046 Garching bei Mijuchen Federal Republic of Germany Telephone: +49-89-32006.341 (DWITED) Introduction The image quality

  7. University Observatory, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The University Observatory of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität was founded in 1816. Astronomers who worked or graduated at the Munich Observatory include: Fraunhofer, Soldner, Lamont, Seeliger and Karl Schwarzschild. At present four professors and ten staff astronomers work here. Funding comes from the Bavarian Government, the German Science Foundation, and other German and European research progra...

  8. The Weak-Line T Tauri Star V410 Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    700052 Tashkent, Uzbekistan 7 USRA/USNO Flagstaff Station, PO Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002-1149, USA 8 Thüringer Landessternwarte, Karl ... Schwarzschild -Observatorium, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany 9 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 10

  9. Hertzsprung, Ejnar (1873-1967)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Danish astronomer, studied chemical engineering and worked as a chemist in St Petersburg before returning to Denmark to take up astronomy, worked in Göttingen and Potsdam with KARL SCHWARZSCHILD, and then at the Leiden Observatory (Netherlands) where he became director. Hertzsprung determined the proper motions of stars, and about a million positions of binary stars, as well as the brightnesses o...

  10. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IX. Galaxy evolution to z ~ 2 from optically selected catalogues†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Georg; Goranova, Yuliana; Hopp, Ulrich; Gabasch, Armin; Bender, Ralf; Botzler, Christine S.; Drory, Niv

    2007-06-01

    We present B-, R- and I-band-selected galaxy catalogues based on the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS) which, together with the previously used K-selected sample, serve as an important probe of galaxy evolution in the redshift range 0 Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München, Germany.

  11. Raamaturappija / [Sinijärv, Karl Martin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    1997-01-01

    Vandenberg, Philipp. Viies evangeelium; Fischer, Hans. Saatuslik armastus majas nr. 34; Bulgakov, Mihhail. Meister ja Margarita; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Duby, Georges. Guillaume le Maréchal ehk Maailma parim rüütel

  12. Paneelmajad pole kaardimajad / Karl Õiger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õiger, Karl, 1933-

    1999-01-01

    Paneelmajade tehnilisest seisundist, ekspertiisi tegemisest, varisemisohust, vanade hoonete renoveerimisest ja ümberehitamisest, ehitamise kvaliteedist Eestis, nõukogude ajast ehituses, paneelelamutest ja munitsipaalelamufondist, mida tuleks paneelhoone juures jälgida jm. Artikli kirjutamise ajendiks oli Postimehe artikkel "Viitsütikuga majad" (18. VIII)

  13. El relativismo de Paul Karl Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gargiulo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Los críticos que han interpretado el pensamiento de Feyerabend como un relativismo radical no hacen justicia a su intencionalidad, y se muestran incapaces de comprender la unidad de su obra, en particular, su abandono posterior de los ideales relativis-tas. Se busca distinguir las diversas posiciones de Feyerabend frente al relativismo y exponer su reducción al absurdo de las nociones de la ciencia propias del positivis-mo lógico y del racionalismo crítico. Así mismo, se plantea cómo Feyerabend, ante la ausencia de un criterio para discernir la tarea científica, postula un relativismo, pero, al final de su vida, busca elaborar una metafísica de la abundancia que supere las coordenadas de aquel.

  14. El relativismo de Paul Karl Feyerabend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gargiulo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los críticos que han interpretado el pensamiento de Feyerabend como un relativismo radical no hacen justicia a su intencionalidad, y se muestran incapaces de comprender la unidad de su obra, en particular, su abandono posterior de los ideales relativistas. Se busca distinguir las diversas posiciones de Feyerabend frente al relativismo y exponer su reducción al absurdo de las nociones de la ciencia propias del positivismo lógico y del racionalismo crítico. Así mismo, se plantea cómo Feyerabend, ante la ausencia de un criterio para discernir la tarea científica, postula un relativismo, pero, al final de su vida, busca elaborar una metafísica de la abundancia que supere las coordenadas de aquel.

  15. Estonia maintains compulsory military service / Karl Haljasmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haljasmets, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Lätis ja Leedus on kohustuslik ajateenistus ära kaotatud, kuid Eesti jätkab üldise ajateenistusega. Brigaadikindral Urmas Roosimägi leiab, et see peab jääma ega tohi lüheneda. Riigikogu liikme Mati Raidma arvamus

  16. Kreeka kümmeaastak / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    Kreeka Türgi ikkest vabanemise 10. aastapäeva pühitsemisest Ateenas 1937. aastal. Poliitilistest oludest, avalikkude tööde - teede korrastamise ja veejuhtimise kavadest. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 6. aprill 1937, nr 93

  17. Tšehhide kaunil maal / Karl Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2008-01-01

    Tšehhi, Slovakkia ja Karpaadi-Venemaa rahvast, maaelust, loodusest. Tšehhoslovakkia presidendist Thomas Carrigue Masarykist ja tema kasutuses olevast Lany lossist. Tööstuslikust elust Zlinis, kus tegutseb Bata saapatehastes. Varem ilmunud: Uus Eesti 14. nov. 1936, nr. 309; 13., 14., 16., 18., 21. dets. 1936, nr. 338, 339, 341, 343, 346

  18. Raamaturappija / Karl Martin Sinijärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    1997-01-01

    Wolf, Christa. Medeia : hääled; Sermat, Toomas. Blaak ja Biduun; Liksom, Rosa. Ühe öö ekstaas; Durrell, Gerald. Bafuti hagijad; Saarinen, Esa. Filosoofia ajalugu tipult tipule Sokratesest Marxini

  19. Raamaturappija / Karl Martin Sinijärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    1997-01-01

    Meister, Andi. Lõpetamata logiraamat; Asjahuvilistele astroloogia ajaloost ja rakendamisest; Wolf-Cohen, Elizbeth. 50 hõrgutavat suupistet; Üllaste, Pilvi. Matsi raamat; Cookson, Catherine. Tilly Trotter

  20. Raamaturappija / Karl Martin Sinijärv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    1997-01-01

    Jong, Erica. Hirm viiekümnenda eluaasta ees; Tiigi, Liia. Pühadelaud; Talvet, Jüri. Eesti eleegia ja teisi luuletusi; Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. Sõrmuse vennaskond. Sõrmuste isand; Masing, Uku. Mälestusi taimedest