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Sample records for karl fischer titrations

  1. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tavčar; Erika Turk; Samo Kreft

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes p...

  2. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R 2 = 0.997). PMID:22567558

  3. Simple Modification of Karl-Fischer Titration Method for Determination of Water Content in Colored Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tavčar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD=4.3%, accuracy, and linearity (2=0.997.

  4. Simple modification of karl-Fischer titration method for determination of water content in colored samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Eva; Turk, Erika; Kreft, Samo

    2012-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for water content determination is Karl-Fischer titration with electrometric detection, requiring specialized equipment. When appropriate equipment is not available, the method can be performed through visual detection of a titration endpoint, which does not enable an analysis of colored samples. Here, we developed a method with spectrophotometric detection of a titration endpoint, appropriate for moisture determination of colored samples. The reaction takes place in a sealed 4 ml cuvette. Detection is performed at 520 nm. Titration endpoint is determined from the graph of absorbance plotted against titration volume. The method has appropriate reproducibility (RSD = 4.3%), accuracy, and linearity (R(2) = 0.997).

  5. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  6. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  7. Determination of the analytical performance of a headspace capillary gas chromatographic technique and karl Fischer coulometric titration by system calibration using oil samples containing known amounts of moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years, concerns have been raised in the literature about the accuracy of the Karl Fischer (KF) method for assessing moisture in transformer mineral oils. To better understand this issue, the performance of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic (HS-CGC) technique was compared to that of KF coulometric titration by analyzing moisture in samples containing known amounts of water and various samples obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two modes of adding samples into the KF vessel were used:  direct injection and indirect injection via an azeotropic distillation of the moisture with toluene. Under the conditions used for direct injection, the oil matrix was totally dissolved in the anolyte, which allowed the moisture to be titrated in a single-phase solution rather than in a suspension. The results have shown that when HS-CGC and combined azeotropic distillation/KF titration are calibrated with moisture-in-oil standards, a linear relation is observed over 0-60 ppm H(2)O with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9994 (95% confidence), with the regression line crossing through zero. A similar relation can also be observed when calibration is achieved by direct KF addition of standards prepared with octanol-1, but in this case an intercept of 4-5 ppm is noted. The amount of moisture determined by curve interpolation in NIST reference materials by the three calibrated systems ranges from 13.0 to 14.8 ppm for RM 8506 and 42.5 to 46.4 ppm for RM 8507, and in any case, the results were as high as those reported in the literature with volumetric KF titration. However, titration of various dehydrated oil and solvent samples showed that direct KF titration is affected by a small bias when samples contain very little moisture. The source of error after correction for the large sample volume used for the determination (8 mL) is about 6 ppm for Voltesso naphthenic oil and 4 ppm for toluene, revealing a matrix

  8. Comparison study Of H2O determination in UO2 powder by using MEA (Moisture Evaluation Analysis) and KFT (Karl Fischer Titration)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farida; Yudhi, N.; Lilis, W.; Putro, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    To find out an analytical method to determine H 2 O content in UO 2 powder as fuel elements of power reactors which is simple, economical, precise, and accurate, it is necessary to do comparison study of H 2 O content determination using MEA method which is based on electrolysis process with two helically wound electrodes which contains P 2 O 5 that has function to absorb water steam. The platinum electrodes have a 67 Volt potential on them. The quantity of charge required to electrolyse 0.1 μgr of H 2 O is a constant which is the basic of the electronic measurement. In KFT method is based on volumetric titration using the one component reagent hydronol composite contain all reactants i.e. iodine, sulfur dioxide and imidazole as the base, dissolved in a suitable alcohol. The t- (student) test show that there is no different result significantly between those method. The H 2 O contain obtained is 0.956±0.0095 %, for MEA method and 0.953±0.023 % for KFT method. (author)

  9. Comparison study Of H{sub 2}O determination in UO{sub 2} powder by using MEA (Moisture Evaluation Analysis) and KFT (Karl Fischer Titration); Studi banding penentuan kadar H{sub 2}O dalam serbuk UO{sub 2} menggunakan metoda MEA (Moisture Evaluation Analysis) dan KFT (Karl Fischer Titration)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farida,; Yudhi, N; Lilis, W; Putro, P K [Center for Development of Nuclear Fuel and Recycling Technology, National Atomic Energy Agency, Serpong (Indonesia)

    2000-03-08

    To find out an analytical method to determine H{sub 2}O content in UO{sub 2} powder as fuel elements of power reactors which is simple, economical, precise, and accurate, it is necessary to do comparison study of H{sub 2}O content determination using MEA method which is based on electrolysis process with two helically wound electrodes which contains P{sub 2} O{sub 5} that has function to absorb water steam. The platinum electrodes have a 67 Volt potential on them. The quantity of charge required to electrolyse 0.1 {mu}gr of H{sub 2}O is a constant which is the basic of the electronic measurement. In KFT method is based on volumetric titration using the one component reagent hydronol composite contain all reactants i.e. iodine, sulfur dioxide and imidazole as the base, dissolved in a suitable alcohol. The t- (student) test show that there is no different result significantly between those method. The H{sub 2}O contain obtained is 0.956{+-}0.0095 %, for MEA method and 0.953{+-}0.023 % for KFT method. (author)

  10. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  11. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  12. Determination of water in nuclear materials by means of the Karl Fischer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.; Rocha, S.M.R.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1987-06-01

    Karl Fischer Method was adapted for water determination in uranium coumpounds and substances of nuclear interest, by using a comercial equipment. The experimental conditions for the analysis of U 3 O 8 , UO 3 , UO 2 , UF 4 KFnHF and (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 were established. The influence of the agitation and contact time between sample and solvent, of the sample weight, of the reaction end point determination and of the sample granulometry on the precision and accuracy of results was also studied. (Author) [pt

  13. Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisti, C.; Grigoletto, T.

    1990-08-01

    Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H 2 O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author) [pt

  14. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  15. Determination of water traces in various organic solvents using Karl Fischer method under FIA conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantan, N; Frenzel, W; Küppers, S

    2000-05-31

    Flow injection methods utilising the Karl Fischer (KF) reaction with spectrophotometric and potentiometric detection are described for the determination of the trace water content in various organic solvents. Optimisation of the methods resulted in an accessible (linear) working range of 0.01-0.2% water for many solvents studied with a typical precision of 1-2% R.S.D. Only 50 mul of organic solvent was injected and the sampling frequency was about 120 samples per h. Since the slopes of the calibration curves were different for different solvents appropriate calibration was required. Problems associated with spectrophotometric detection and caused by refractive index changes were pointed out and a nested-loop configuration was proposed to overcome this kind of interference. The potentiometric method with a novel flow-through detector cell was shown to surpass the performance of spectrophotometric detection in any respect. The characteristics of the procedures developed made them well applicable for on-line monitoring of technical solvent distillations in an industrial plant.

  16. Standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer Titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The referenced test method for total water content and water regain in lint cotton was developed by USDA scientists in New Orleans at the request of the cotton industry. The method covers the determination of the total water (free and bound) in raw and lint cotton at moisture equilibrium from con...

  17. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  18. Thermometric Titration for Rapid Determination of Trace Water in Jet Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water content in jet fuels is detected by thermometric titration (TMT, and the optimal detected system is 2,2-dimethoxypropane as titrant, cyclohexane and isopropanol as titration solvents, and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst in this method. The amounts of oil, concentration and delivery rate of titrant, volumes, and the reliability and accuracy of thermometric titration were emphasized. The results show that the accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMT are excellent by different indicated spiked water contents. The obtained results between TMT and Karl Fischer titration have been proven to be in accord. But, the duration of titration merely spends 3–5 min in the whole process, greatly shortening the detected time. Therefore, rapid and accurate determination of trace water in a jet fuel can be realized by TMT.

  19. Karl Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Luxemburg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marx died on March 14, 1883. Exactly twenty years later, on March 14, 1903, Rosa Luxemburg’s reflections on Karl Marx were published in German in Vorwärts, the newspaper of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. tripleC publishes an English translation of Luxemburg’s essay on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary. Christian Fuchs’ postface “Karl Marx and Rosa Luxemburg” asks the question of how we can make sense of Rosa Luxemburg’s reading of Marx in 2018. Source of the German original: Luxemburg, Rosa. 1903. Karl Marx. Vorwärts 62: 1-2.

  20. Karl Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Luxemburg

    2018-01-01

    Marx died on March 14, 1883. Exactly twenty years later, on March 14, 1903, Rosa Luxemburg’s reflections on Karl Marx were published in German in Vorwärts, the newspaper of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. tripleC publishes an English translation of Luxemburg’s essay on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary. Christian Fuchs’ postface “Karl Marx and Rosa Luxemburg” asks the question of how we can make sense of Rosa Luxemburg’s reading of Marx in 2018. Source of the German original: Luxembu...

  1. [Karl Sudhoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    In 1914, from 6th May to 18th October, the International Exposition of book Industry and Graphic Arts (BUGRA) took place in Leipzig, then the world capital of books. Karl Sudhoff, director of the Leipzig Institute of the History of Medicine, was appointed by the executive committee of the BURGA to organize the special exhibition "Three Millennia of Graphic Arts in the Service of Science". The paper shows, following Sudhoff's own descriptions and new archival sources, the conceptual design and the contents of this exposition set up by Sudhoff.

  2. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Introduktion til juristen og homopioneren Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1824-1882) og hans fortælling "Manor" (1885)......Introduktion til juristen og homopioneren Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1824-1882) og hans fortælling "Manor" (1885)...

  3. Karl Marx' glemte arvtager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    1988-01-01

    For 50 år siden hyldede avisen 'Social-Demokraten' Karl Kautsky (1854-1938) som "den største Tænker inden for den socialdemokratiske Arbejderbevægelse". I perioden fra Friedrich Engels' død i 1895 til 1. Verdenskrigs udbrud i 1914 blev Karl Kautsky alment anset som Karl Marx's arvtager inden...

  4. LIGHT TITRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Baas-Becking, Lourens G. M.

    1926-01-01

    1. The usefulness of the radiomicrometer in titration work has been pointed out. The authors suggest that light titration may also be used where a reaction mixture changes its absorption in the (near) infra-red. 2. The applicability of this method to the starch-iodine reaction has been demonstrated. PMID:19872266

  5. Karl Lagerfeld obidelsja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Moekunstnik Karl Lagerfeld kaebas kohtusse raamatu "The Beautiful Fall : Fashion, Genius and Glorious Excess in 1970s Paris" autori Alicia Drake'i. Raamat räägib Lagerfeldi noorusajast ja tema konkurentsist moekunstnik Yves Saint Laurent'iga 1970. aastate Pariisis

  6. Karl Ristikivi prantsuse keeles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    29. ja 30. mail Tallinna Kirjanike Majas ja 31. mail Tartu Kirjanduse Majas esinevad näitlejad Ene Rämmeld ja Claude Merlin Karl Ristikivi luulekavaga "Inimese teekond" (tõlkija Tarah Montbélialtz). Vt. ka Looming, 2003, nr. 6, lk. 953

  7. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  8. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  9. Thermometric titration of sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M B; Janata, J

    1970-06-01

    Direct thermometric titration of sulphate with a solution of barium perchlorate is proposed. The stoichiometry of the titration is shown to be critically dependent on the concentration of ethanol in the titration medium. The titration is rapid and suffers from only a few interferences.

  10. In memoriam : Karl R. Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tohăneanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated to Karl Popper’s memory, this essay aims at following the echo of his critical rationalism and how it has been received by Mario Bunge, one of the most prominent contemporary philosopher of science – an admirer, later a critic of Popper’s social and political philosophy. The main goal of such an endeavor is to find out where could have been Popper wrong – from Bunge’s view point – and take note of the arguments of both of them, thus hoping to get closer to the truth, as Sir Karl said.

  11. Sõrmuste isand Karl Fritsch / Merike Alber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alber, Merike

    2008-01-01

    Saksa ehtekunstniku Karl Fritschi (sünd. 1963) näitus "Metrosideros robusta. Ehted" Eesti Tarbekunsti- ja Disainimuuseumis kuni 29. VI. Karl Fritsch pälvis 2006. a. Francoise van den Boschi (hollandi ehtekunstnik, 1944-1977) auhinna, 1995. ja 2007. a. Herbert Hoffmanni preemia. Darling Publications kirjastas Karl Fritschist raamatud "Metrosideros Robusta" ja "Baby Brick"

  12. Near polygons and Fischer spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Cohen, A.M.; Hall, J.I.; Wilbrink, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the relations between near polygons with lines of size 3 and Fischer spaces to classify near hexagons with quads and with lines of size three. We also construct some infinite families of near polygons.

  13. Karl Marx 1864 og forsigtighedsprincippet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer divergerende versioner af den tekst, som Karl Marx efter dannelsen af den 1.Internationale Arbejderassociation i London september 1864 har oversat fra sit engelske original (Inaugural Address...), der udkom i november, til en tysk version med overskriften 'Manifest an die...

  14. Karl Marx and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifferd, K. D.

    1972-01-01

    Implications from Karl Marx's concept of nature are explored. Serving as a frame of reference for the fight against pollution, the Marxian philosophy provides a kind of systems analysis of the origins and dynamics of pollution at the level of society and a set of conceptual tools and attitudes for unmasking the claims of industry. (BL)

  15. Karl Ove Knausgaard's My Struggle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Arnaud; Kjerkegaard, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this study of Karl Ove Knausgaard’s My Struggle, the authors theorize what paratextual information does to one’s reading, especially in autobiography informed literature. Although My Struggle can be read both as memoir and novel, and even as autofiction, Knausgaard is aiming at a higher truth...

  16. [Medical history impressions of Karl Marx 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, W

    1983-12-15

    Excerpts of his London era first published on the occasion of the Karl Marx testimonials of 1983 gave rise to extend the memory of the fundamental achievements of Karl Marx to medico-historical aspects. In this case Karl Marx paid special attention to the working and living conditions of the working class and an analysis of his adequate statements and records shows multifarious details which give a research basis also for the history of medicine. Marx and Engels had friendly contacts with several physicians who shared the opinions of the two classics: their way of life is shown in the most important points.

  17. Potentiometric titration of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), it has been customary to take the equivalence point as the inflection point on a plot of potential vs. volume of titrant. It have not been, however, demonstrated, that the stoichiometric end point corresponds to the inflection point. Suggestions are made according to which these points may not correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium(III), as these titrations are ordinarily concluded in a period of time which is short compared to the time required for valence state rearrangement through disproportionation. (T.G.)

  18. Kirjavahetus Kaarel Robert Pustaga / Karl Ast Rumor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rumor, Karl, pseud., 1886-1971

    2009-01-01

    Kirjavahetus Rio de Janeiros elava Karl Ast Rumori ja New Yorgis elava Kaarel Robert Pusta vahel Eesti kongressi kokkukutsumise vajalikkuse, väliseesti ühingute ja nõukogude, ajakirjanduse ning üldise poliitilise olukorra teemadel

  19. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  20. Automated uranium titration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Kato, Y.

    1983-01-01

    An automated titration system based on the Davies-Gray method has been developed for accurate determination of uranium. The system consists of a potentiometric titrator with precise burettes, a sample changer, an electronic balance and a desk-top computer with a printer. Fifty-five titration vessels are loaded in the sample changer. The first three contain the standard solution for standardizing potassium dichromate titrant, and the next two and the last two contain the control samples for data quality assurance. The other forty-eight measurements are carried out for sixteen unknown samples. Sample solution containing about 100 mg uranium is taken in a titration vessel. At the pretreatment position, uranium (VI) is reduced to uranium (IV) by iron (II). After the valency adjustment, the vessel is transferred to the titration position. The rate of titrant addition is automatically controlled to be slower near the end-point. The last figure (0.01 mL) of the equivalent titrant volume for uranium is calculated from the potential change. The results obtained with this system on 100 mg uranium gave a precision of 0.2% (RSD,n=3) and an accuracy of better than 0.1%. Fifty-five titrations are accomplished in 10 hours. (author)

  1. Karl Kello - elukutse olla saarlane / Aare Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Aare, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Kuressaare Kuursaalis näidati kadripäeval nelja Ruta Celma ja Karl Kello kultuuriloolist dokumentaalfilmi : "Narr Jumala kojas" (2000), "Phaetonit otsides" (1999), "Eestlased Lätis" (2004) ja Kalevipoja temaatikat arendav "Küll siis Kalev..." (2004). Filmide operaator on Arvo Vilu. Artikli autor kõneleb Karl Kellost, tema Karja kiriku ja Kaali järve problemaatika arendustest peale filmide ka kirjasõnas

  2. Twee Fischers, twee dramas: Die geheime Bloemfontein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Fischers, two plays: Die geheime Bloemfontein-konferensie [The secret Bloemfontein conference] (1938) and Die Bram Fischer waltz (2011). There is no better example within Afrikaner history where different generations of the same family played such extraordinary roles in the course of important historical events for ...

  3. Raamaturappija / [Sinijärv, Karl Martin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinijärv, Karl Martin, 1971-

    1997-01-01

    Vandenberg, Philipp. Viies evangeelium; Fischer, Hans. Saatuslik armastus majas nr. 34; Bulgakov, Mihhail. Meister ja Margarita; Paju, Juhan. Katkenud romaan; Duby, Georges. Guillaume le Maréchal ehk Maailma parim rüütel

  4. Physics with Big Karl Brainstorming. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machner, H.; Lieb, J.

    2000-08-01

    Before summarizing details of the meeting, a short description of the spectrometer facility Big Karl is given. The facility is essentially a new instrument using refurbished dipole magnets from its predecessor. The large acceptance quadrupole magnets and the beam optics are new. Big Karl has a design very similar as the focussing spectrometers at MAMI (Mainz), AGOR (Groningen) and the high resolution spectrometer (HRS) in Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory with ΔE/E = 10 -4 but at some lower maximum momentum. The focal plane detectors consisting of multiwire drift chambers and scintillating hodoscopes are similar. Unlike HRS, Big Karl still needs Cerenkov counters and polarimeters in its focal plane; detectors which are necessary to perform some of the experiments proposed during the brainstorming. In addition, BIG KARL allows emission angle reconstruction via track measurements in its focal plane with high resolution. In the following the physics highlights, the proposed and potential experiments are summarized. During the meeting it became obvious that the physics to be explored at Big Karl can be grouped into five distinct categories, and this summary is organized accordingly. (orig.)

  5. Research Opportunities for Fischer-Tropsch Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Nancy B.

    1999-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was discovered in Germany in the 1920's and has been studied by every generation since that time. As technology and chemistry, in general, improved through the decades, new insights, catalysts, and technologies were added to the Fischer-Tropsch process, improving it and making it more economical with each advancement. Opportunities for improving the Fischer-Tropsch process and making it more economical still exist. This paper gives an overview of the present Fischer-Tropsch processes and offers suggestions for areas where a research investment could improve those processes. Gas-to-liquid technology, which utilizes the Fischer Tropsch process, consists of three principal steps: Production of synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from natural gas, the production of liquid fuels from syngas using a Fischer-Tropsch process, and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Each step will be studied for opportunities for improvement and areas that are not likely to reap significant benefits without significant investment

  6. Filtrates & Residues: Olfactory Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that uses a unique acid-base indicator--the odor of raw onion--to indicate the end point of the titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. Allows the student to detect the completion of the neutralization reaction by olfaction rather than sight. (JRH)

  7. ''Titration'' polymerization of monovinylacetylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavinkurve, A; Visser, S; vandenBroek, W; Pennings, AJ

    1996-01-01

    A polymer consisting of a saturated carbon backbone with pendent acetylenic groups was prepared from monovinylacetylene. A titration was performed between the monomer and tertiary butyllithium, its lithiating agent. The charge transfer complex formed between the solvent THF and the tertiary

  8. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [DOE patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Perkins, P.

    Novel compounds are described which are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  9. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  10. Karl A. Gschneidner Jr (1930–2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2016-01-01

    Presented here is the obituary for Karl Albert Gschneidner Jr. He died on 27 April 2016. Nicknamed Mr Rare Earth, he holds an unparalleled place as the renowned authority in just about every aspect related to the science, technology and history of a very special family of elements — the rare earths.

  11. Some Educational Implications of Karl Marx's Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerich, Gert

    1970-01-01

    According to the expressed ideas of Karl Marx, education should be viewed as a means to develop a person's whole potential and to make him a better human being. It is his contention that in a capitalist society, the educational process causes misery and exists solely to further entrench the power of the rich. (CK)

  12. Karl Marx: Critique as Emancipatory Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celikates, R.; de Boer, K.; Sonderegger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Critique of philosophy, critique of religion, critique of politics, critique of political economy - there is almost no sphere of modern society of which Karl Marx’s theory does not offer a critique. This makes it all the more necessary to investigate whether these different critiques possess any

  13. Potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikryzova, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the works carried out during 1911-75 consideration is given to the present state of the method of potentiometric titration with polarized electrodes. The material is generalized in the tabular form indicating the elments of interest, titration conditions and the objects to be analyzed. The list and classification of the potentiometric titration methods intended for determining organic and inorganic substances are presented

  14. Vapor-Phase Infrared Absorptivity Coefficient of Cyclohexyl Isothiocyanate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Alan C; Miles, Jr., Ronald W; Williams, Barry R; Hulet, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    ...)) at a spectral resolution of 0.125 cm(-1). The chemical used in the feedstock was subjected to a rigorous analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and Karl-Fischer titration to verify its purity...

  15. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  16. Plesiophysa guadeloupensis ("Fischer" Mazé, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lobato Paraense

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the shell and anatomic characters of the planorbid mollusk Plesiophysa guadeloupensis ("Fischer" Mazé, 1883, based on topotypic specimens from a pond in Borricaud (Grande Terre, Guadeloupe. Comparison with previous descriptions of nominal species of Plesiophysa points to its identity with P. ornata (Haas, 1938, of which it is a senior synonym.

  17. Veronica sublobata M. Fischer in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, de S.E.

    1968-01-01

    A form of Veronica hederifolia L. s. lat., clearly distinguishable from the well-known form of arable land and occurring in the Netherlands in woods, thickets or sometimes along roads is most possibly identical with V. sublobata M. Fischer. Knowledge of the chromosome number of the Dutch material is

  18. Radiation effects on Fischer-Tropsch syntheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, M.; Matsuda, K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation effects on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been examined using high dose rate electron beams and Fe-Cu-diatomaceous earth catalyst. Yields of saturated hydrocarbons were found to increase by irradiation, but the yields of these compounds were decreased by raising reaction temperature without irradiation, suggesting the presence of radiation chemical process in catalytic reactions. (author)

  19. 'Doing theology as though nothing had happened' – reading Karl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Doing theology as though nothing had happened' – reading Karl Barth's confessional theology in Zimbabwe today? ... This article will attempt to argue that this theology can contribute to the Reformed theology in present day Zimbabwe. It will therefore attempt to introduce the confessional theology of Karl Barth to ...

  20. Amperometric, Bipotentiometric, and Coulometric Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses recent review articles in various kinds of titration. Also discusses new research in apparatus and methodology, acid-base reactions, precipitation and complexing reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and nomenclature. Cites 338 references. (CS)

  1. Fischer-Tropsch. A futuristic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosloo, A.C. [Sasol Technology Research and Development, PO Box 1, 9570 Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2001-06-01

    Although the three processing steps that constitute the Fischer-Tropsch based Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology, namely syngas generation, syngas conversion and hydroprocessing, are all commercially proven and individually optimized, their combined use is not widely applied. In order to make the GTL technology more cost-effective, the focus must be on reducing both the capital and the operating costs of such a plant. Current developments in the area of syngas generation, namely oxygen transfer membranes and heat exchange reforming, have the potential to significantly reduce the capital cost and improve the thermal efficiency of a GTL plant. Further improvements in terms of the activity and selectivity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst can also make a significant reduction in the operating cost of such a plant.

  2. Karl Schwarzschild and the professionalization of astrophysics. (German Title: Karl Schwarzschild und die Professionalisierung der Astrophysik)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Professionalization is characteristic for physics and astronomy since 1830, and forms the basis for their rapid evolution in the 20th century. Karl Schwarzschild's contributions to professionalization of astronomy are presented: the introduction of course lectures in a repeating cycle, a permanent astrophysical laboratory, a tight connection between teaching and research, simulations and suggestions for astronomy at high schools and for the training of high school teachers, an interest in international organisation, and the initiative and planning of a southern observatory.

  3. Karl Korsch e a Comuna de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cavini Martorano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Apesar de haver escrito uma extensa obra que ainda vem sendo editada no seu país natal, o marxista alemão Karl Korsch é praticamente desconhecido no Brasil – exceção feita a alguns poucos pesquisadores. Além da recente edição brasileira de seu importante trabalho Marxismo e filosofia (Editora UFRJ, e de alguns outros textos e artigos que podem ser encontrados em diferentes sites, o acesso ao conjunto de sua obra ainda é bastante difícil.

  4. Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnica, J.

    1992-01-01

    The life's career of Werner Karl Heisenberg is described with emphasis on his creative development and cooperation with many other prominent physicists in the field of the quantum theory of atoms. In 1925, Heisenberg modified Bohr's quantum rule; in 1927 he formulated the uncertainty principle which puts some restrictions on the simultaneous determination of the position and momentum. In 1928, Heisenberg set up the quantum theory of ferromagnetism, which still underlies all theories of magnetic properties of substances. Soon after Chadwick's discovery of the neutron (1932), Heisenberg introduced the concept of the isospin - he interpreted the proton and the neutron as one particle (nucleon) in two charge states. Heisenberg's professional and pedagogical activities during and after the 2nd world war are also described. (Z.S.). 5 refs

  5. Kernaspekte van die kennissosiologie van Karl Mannheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Louw

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with certain crucial aspects of the sociology of knowledge of Karl Mannheim in view of the fact that he finds that the increase, worldwide, of interest in ideological difficulties in South Africa can fruitfully be dealt with in terms of this form of sociology. This is justified in part by Mannheim's viewpoint that thought is a function of human existence, and this function emanates from needs based on social factors. He traces Mannheim's use of the term ideology (in Sociology, culminating With the Idea that “the birth and death of ideology depends on certain social, economic and 'ecological' factors”. Subsequently he deals with a whole line of aspects of the sociology of knowledge as expounded by Mannheim, culminating in the idea that shifts in views with regard to lifeview and underlying values take place when there is a rapid upward (vertical mobility, leading to uncertainties and a lack of trust in established values.

  6. Alkali promotion effect in Fischer-Tropsch cobalt-alumina catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Tsapkina, M.V.; Davydov, P.E.; Kazantsev, R.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Belousova, O.S.; Lapidus, A.L. [Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Promoting Co-alumina Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts with alkali and alkaline-earth metals was studied. XRD, oxygen titration and CO chemisorption were used for the characterization of the catalysts. The best results in terms of catalyst selectivity and long-chain alkanes content in synthesized products were obtained with K-promoted catalyst. Catalytic performance strongly depends on K:Co atomic ratio as well as preparation procedure. Effect of K loading on selectivities is non-linear with extreme point at K:Co=0.01. Significant increase in C{sub 5+} selectivity of K-promoted catalyst may be explained as a result of strong CO adsorption on the catalyst surface, as was confirmed in CO chemisorption experiments. (orig.)

  7. TAPIR: a device for automatic titration with incremental weighing of the titration reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganivet, Michel

    TAPIR is a titration device enabling automatic analyses with weighting of the titration reagent. The titration method used can be based on potentiometry, amperometry, color indicator change... The reproducibility is about 3.10 -4 [fr

  8. Kes oli rännumees Karl Feyerabend? / Urmas Sutrop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sutrop, Urmas, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    Feyerabend, Karl. Kosmopolitische Wanderungen durch Preussen, Curland, Liefland, Litthauen, Vollhynien, Podolien und Schlesien, in der jahren 1795 bis 1798. In Briefen an einen Freund. Bd. 3. 1801. Eestile on pühendatud reisiraamatu 40. kiri

  9. Karl Timoleon v. Neff / Carl Christian Vogel von Vogelstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vogel von Vogelstein, Carl Christian, 1788-1868

    2004-01-01

    "Ruskii Bibliofil", 1912, nr. 4, lk. 34; fotol tekst: "Piano di Sorrento, Villa Pisani, 20. Juli 1843". Neffi käega kirjutatud: "Karl Timoleon v. Neff geboren in Pühs in Estland im Jahre 1804 d. 2. October"

  10. Balti Maailmanõukogu aktsioonid Helsingis 1975 / Karl Laantee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laantee, Karl, 1927-2007

    2006-01-01

    1975. a. Helsingis peetud Euroopa Julgeoleku ja Koostöö Konverentsi Balti delegatsiooni liikme Karl Laantee tekst, mille ta esitas 4. augustil 1975 Balti Maailmanõukogu pressikonverentsil "Continental"hotellis Stockholmis Rootsi Eestlaste Esinduse pressiinfona

  11. Karl Popper at ninety: Highlights of a lifelong intellectual quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Franco; van der Merwe, Alwyn

    1991-12-01

    On the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, Karl Popper's lifelong pursuit of answers in several areas of scientific and philosophical thinking is briefly traced, mainly with reference to excerpts from his own writings.

  12. Märkmeid uusima Preisi tsensuuriinstruktsiooni kohta / Karl Marx

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marx, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Preisi uue (1841. aasta) tsensuuriinstruktsiooni tõusikliku vaimu vastuolust vana (1818. aasta) tsensuurimääruse ratsionalismiga. Moraali ja religiooni vastuolust. Vt. ka Ain Kaalepi artiklit "Veel Karl Marxist ja tsensuurist

  13. Karl Rawer’s life and scientific achievements*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Reinisch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This laudation is given in honor of the 90th birthday of Prof. Karl Rawer. The ionosphere was discovered during Karl Rawer’s life, and he has dedicated his life to the exploration of this part of Earth’s environment. The horrible events of world wars I and II shaped his early life, but they also launched his career as one of the eminent geophysical scientists of the twentieth century.

  14. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  15. Interconversion of Fischer and Zig-Zag Projections Learning ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Stereochemistry, conforma- tional analysis, hands-on learn- ing, Fischer projections, zig-zag projection, C–C bond rotations. Interconversion of Fischer and Zig-Zag Projections. Learning Stereochemistry with the Help of Hands. Visualization of molecules in three dimensions is an important aspect of organic chemistry.

  16. 75 FR 68350 - Fischer, Thomas J.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ID-6422-000] Fischer, Thomas J.; Notice of Filing October 29, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2010, Thomas J. Fischer filed an Application for Authorization to Hold Interlocking Positions as Director of Wisconsin Electric...

  17. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Development and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, G.; Rohde, M.; Mena Subiranas, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut

    2006-07-01

    Production of synthetic hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis has the potential to produce high-value automotive fuels and petrochemicals from fossil and renewable sources. The availability of cheap natural gas and solid raw materials like coal and biomass has given momentum to synthesis technologies first developed in the mid-twentieth century. The present paper summarizes the fundamentals and describes some general aspects regarding driving forces, catalyst and reaction, synthesis reactor, and overall process. In this way, it indicates the context of present and future developments. Worldwide plant capacities will increase significantly in the next future, with natural gas favored as feedstock. Substitution of petroleum as well as production of improved products (like automotive fuels) are the most significant incentives. Energy loss and additional fossil CO{sub 2} emissions caused by the conversion process will be a problem in extended applications with fossil feedstocks. The current R and D activities worldwide, in all areas related to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, will contribute to further process improvements and extended applications. (orig.)

  18. Eli Fischer-Jørgensen, Eugeniu Coseriu et Louis Hjelmslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Viggo Bank

    2015-01-01

    Based on a correspondence between Eugenio Coseriu (1921-2002) and Eli Fischer-Jørgensen (1911-2010), the article discusses the importance of Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965) for the development of the theory of Coseriu. In a letter dated 1955, Fischer-Jørgensen agrees with Coseriu in his criticism of ...... to be a slight change in Coseriu’s view on content substance. This way, the article aims to show that Fischer-Jørgensen played an important role as a critical mediator between Hjelmslev and Coseriu.......Based on a correspondence between Eugenio Coseriu (1921-2002) and Eli Fischer-Jørgensen (1911-2010), the article discusses the importance of Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965) for the development of the theory of Coseriu. In a letter dated 1955, Fischer-Jørgensen agrees with Coseriu in his criticism...

  19. A Conversation with Karl K. Turekian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekian, Karl K.; Cochran, J. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Note Each year, the editorial board invites a distinguished member of the oceanographic community to contribute a prefatory chapter; this year, we were delighted when Karl Turekian, Sterling Professor of Geology and Geophysics at Yale, accepted our invitation. Over the course of a long and productive career, Dr. Turekian has pursued his interests in marine and atmospheric geochemistry by using natural radioactive and radiogenic isotopes to study Earth's evolution and the impacts of global change. He has also directed both the Center for the Study of Global Change at Yale and the Yale Institute for Biospheric Studies. In this interview, conducted by his former student Kirk Cochran, Dr. Turekian tells the story of his early career and discusses some of the major scientific challenges and opportunities faced along the way. His personal account of the rise of geochemistry is a charming story of how chance events and personalities impact scientific careers. His technical insight into the future of this field is illuminating, particularly for scientific outsiders who appreciate the central role of geochemistry in discerning and understanding patterns of global change. Craig A. Carlson and Stephen J. Giovannoni, Editors [Figure: see text

  20. Information Systems Foundations - Karl Popper's third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McDonald

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The various information professions have matured separately over the years, developing different bodies of theory and practice to meet their evolving purposes and needs. A problem arises however, when different information professions address the same knowledge domain and there is no explicit correspondence between the conceptual structures embedded independently in each. In this situation, a knowledge worker involved in the domain is faced with a range of possibly incompatible structures presented in different forms by a range of information professions. This is a common problem that is being exacerbated by the explosion in information production and the widening access to information distribution technology, notably the World Wide Web. Information Systems now need to combine the best of what the information professions in a domain have to offer the domain’s knowledge workers. This paper examines the problem by exploring one of the foundations of the information disciplines - Karl Popper’s 3 Worlds theory, applying it to a case study and suggesting that the Information Systems discipline alone has a sufficiently broad agenda to integrate the various Informatics themes needed to support today’s knowledge workers.

  1. Karl Marx dan Konsep Perjuangan Kelas Sosial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriaty Ismail

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ¬¬This article explores the history of the renowned world economic and political reformist, Karl Marx with a special focus on the social class concept. It also discusses to what extent that the Marx’s concept of social class struggle is capable to provide a way out to the proletariats, to free themselves from the chains of cruelty, violence and alienation in the capitalist system. Our main focal point is to scrutinize the relationship between the concepts of social class struggle and the need for a social revolution as a catalyst for the formation of a classless society. Along the way, we studied and analyzed the documents produced on the primary sources covering major works of Marx and the secondary sources consisting reviews of the Marx’s class concept. As a result, we found out that Marx’s concept of class fight is competent to represent the oppressed group to battle for their freedom rights. The Proletariat dictatorship attitude was used as their main shield to face the threat of the capitalist class. Marx’s ultimate success is realized through a burst of ideas and beliefs that supports the ideas of egalitarian Communism although many contradictions arise between the ideas of Marx and the 20th centuries Communism when they are translated into practice.

  2. Evaluation of an automatic uranium titration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.

    1980-01-01

    The titration system utilizes the constant current coulometric titration of Goldbeck and Lerner. U(VI) is reduced to U(IV) by Fe(II). V(V) is generated to titrate the U(IV), and the titration is followed potentiometrically. The evaluation shows that the recovery of uranium is 100% at the 40-mg level. The accuracy is generally +-0.10% or better. The smallest sample weight at which reliable results were obtained was 40 mg of uranium. Time for one analysis is 15 minutes. Advantages and disadvantages of the automated titrator are listed

  3. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  4. Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min

  5. Constructing Marxism: Karl Kautsky and the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2009-01-01

    Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...

  6. Træk af en ung Karl Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Magnus Møller

    2018-01-01

    Det kritiske program, som var Karl Marx' bidrag til både tænkningen og den revolutionære bevægelse, tog sit udgangspunkt i det filosofiske miljø, der dominerede i Tyskland i 1840'erne.......Det kritiske program, som var Karl Marx' bidrag til både tænkningen og den revolutionære bevægelse, tog sit udgangspunkt i det filosofiske miljø, der dominerede i Tyskland i 1840'erne....

  7. Mozart, Karl Barth, og den kristne troslæren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ......En diskussion af Karl Barths teologiske brug af W.A.Mozart i den kirchliche Dogmatik med kontekstuel inddragelse af en til en vis grad tilsvarende overordnet diskussion af Mozart, skrevet af en samtidig musiker, den fremtrædende Mozart-dirigent Ferenc Fricsay. ...

  8. A DIMENSÃO ECLESIAL DOS SACRAMENTOS SEGUNDO KARL RAHNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Francisco Taborda

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Escrever sobre Karl Rahner já deixou de ser moda. Por isso mesmo vale a pena tentá-lo. Ultrapassados o entusiasmo novidadeiro e o ardor sectário, o estudo do teólogo alemão pode ser muito mais frutuo-so à reflexão teológica. Indubitavelmente — tenha-se sobre ele a opinião que for — Karl Rahner marcou profundamente a teologia católica, de cuja renovação entre os anos 50 e 70 de nosso século foi u m dos mais importantes fautores.

  9. Disposition of citral in male Fischer rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diliberto, J.J.; Usha, G.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The disposition of citral, an essential oil occurring in many foods and fragrances, was studied in male Fischer rats after iv, po, and dermal treatments. The pattern of distribution and elimination was the same after iv or oral exposure. Urine was the major route of elimination of citral-derived radioactivity, followed by feces, 14 CO 2 , and expired volatiles. However, after dermal exposure, relatively less of the material was eliminated in the urine and more in the feces, suggesting a role for first-pass metabolism through the skin. Citral was almost completely absorbed orally; due to its extreme volatility, much of an applied dermal dose was lost. The citral remaining on the skin was fairly well absorbed. No effect of oral dose, from 5 to 500 mg/kg, was detected on disposition. Although the feces was a minor route of excretion, approximately 25% of the administered dose was eliminated via the bile within 4 hr of an iv dose. The metabolism of citral was both rapid and extensive. Within 5 min of an iv dose, no unmetabolized citral could be detected in the blood. Repeated exposure to citral resulted in an increase in biliary elimination, without any significant change in the pattern of urinary, fecal, or exhaled excretion. This suggests that citral may induce at least one pathway of its own metabolism. The rapid metabolism and excretion of this compound suggest that significant bioaccumulation of citral would not occur

  10. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  11. The Power of Prevention: Dr. Karl Augustus Menninger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillogly, Robert R.

    1993-01-01

    This issue's "Voices of Pioneers" segment features the work of Karl Menninger, pre-eminent psychiatrist, and his contributions to prison reform, mental health, and child care systems. Notes many of Menninger's books and writings, including relevant quotes throughout the article. Also describes Menninger's concern over the plight of…

  12. The Wartime Success of Karl Shapiro's V-Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American soldier-poet Karl Shapiro won the Pulitzer Prize for V-Letter and Other Poems (1944), making him an instant celebrity. The volume was written while he was stationed in Australia and New Guinea during World War II. Shaprio sent the completed poems to his fiancée, Evalyn Katz, who edited

  13. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  14. The Reference Process and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to reference process: process is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. Reference interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…

  15. Kõne EV aastapäeva aktusel / Karl Altau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Altau, Karl Stephen, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Läti kirikus peetud Eesti Vabariigi aastapäeva aktusel rääkis Karl Altau Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee nimel kommunismi ohvrite mälestussamba ehitamise alustamisest Washingtoni kesklinna 2006. aastal, koostööst kõigi baltlaste vahel ja võimalusest annetada, üleskutsest toetada Valgevene rahvast teel demokraatiale

  16. The nature and consequence of Karl Marx's skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, S

    2008-01-01

    From an analysis of the original correspondence, it has been possible to establish that Karl Marx's incapacitating skin disease was hidradenitis suppurativa, not 'boils' as was universally assumed at the time and since; the psychological effect of this illness on the man and his work appears to have been considerable.

  17. Karl Marx as a Social Scientist and Utopian Dreamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, James A.

    The central paradox of Karl Marx's work is his belief that the vision of mankind leaving inequality and scarcity behind is attainable. The idea that human alienation, inequality, and need could be rendered obsolete by a future communist society of abundance is a significant failing in Marx's thought. It is at the same time the critical element in…

  18. hts 63_4_ vanwyk natie karl barth 2007 _outeur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Karl Barth's dogmatics is a theology of the Second Article of the Creed .... his theology: • According to Barth, ethics is the teaching of God's command (Gebot). ...... Americanism in the form of religious show business is threatening to destroy our ...

  19. Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers: The Time of Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the enduring friendship between Hannah Arendt and Karl Jaspers. It shows how their intellectual development as public educators was sustained by their ongoing dialogue which flourished not in spite of but because of their huge differences of circumstance and personality. This friendship between two renowned…

  20. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karl Barth's hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth's “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth's understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of ...

  1. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  2. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  3. Nap-titration : An effective alternative for continuous positive airway pressure titration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; Stegenga, B; Meinesz, AF; van der Hoeven, JH; Wijkstra, PJ

    When treating Obstructive Steep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) several alternatives for standard (manual) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration are feasible. A practical alternative is titration without polysomnography during an afternoon nap (Nap-titration). The aim of the present

  4. Contributions to the theory of catalytic titrations-III Neutralization catalytic titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, F F; Abramović, B F

    1985-07-01

    Neutralization catalytic titrations of weak monoprotic adds and bases with both volumetric and coulometric addition of the titrant (strong base/acid) have been simulated by taking into account the equilibrium concentration of the catalyst during the titration. The influence of several factors on the shape of the simulated catalytic titration curve has been investigated and is discussed.

  5. A Tabular Approach to Titration Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    2012-01-01

    Titrations are common laboratory exercises in high school and university chemistry courses, because they are easy, relatively inexpensive, and they illustrate a number of fundamental chemical principles. While students have little difficulty with calculations involving a single titration step, there is a significant leap in conceptual difficulty…

  6. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  7. Potentiometric titration of metal ions in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Graham T T; Mohamed, Mark F; Neverov, Alexei A; Brown, R S

    2006-09-18

    The potentiometric titrations of Zn2+, Cu2+ and 12 Ln3+ metal ions were obtained in ethanol to determine the titration constants (defined as the at which the [-OEt]/[Mx+]t ratios are 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5) and in two cases (La3+ and Zn2+) a complete speciation diagram. Several simple monobasic acids and aminium ions were also titrated to test the validity of experimental titration measurements and to establish new constants in this medium that will be useful for the preparation of buffers and standard solutions. The dependence of the titration constants on the concentration and type of metal ion and specific counterion effects is discussed. In selected cases, the titration profiles were analyzed using a commercially available fitting program to obtain information about the species present in solution, including La3+ for which a dimer model is proposed. The fitting provides the microscopic values for deprotonation of one to four metal-bound ethanol molecules. Kinetics for the La3+-catalyzed ethanolysis of paraoxon as a function of are presented and analyzed in terms of La3+ speciation as determined by the analysis of potentiometric titration curves. The stability constants for the formation of Zn2+ and Cu2+ complexes with 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane as determined by potentiometric titration are presented.

  8. Principles of selectivity in Fischer-Tropsch SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut

    2006-07-01

    The detailed selectivity of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with iron and cobalt as catalysts with high temporal resolution has been determined and used to derive the values of probability of chain growth, chain branching and olefin/paraffin molar ratio as a function of carbon number and time. Catalyst reassembling and self-organization of the Fischer-Tropsch regime are investigated. The basic principle of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, suppression of desorption of growing chains is disclosed. This frustration governs FT-synthesis of the otherwise different systems with iron and cobalt. The advanced characterization of sites and elementary reactions (specifically with cobalt) is thought to be a more realistic basis for future theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  9. Kuninganna Kristiina ning kunungas Karl XI : rootsiaegsed portreed raekojas = Queen Christina and King Karl XI : portraits of the Swedish period in the Town Hall / Pia Ehasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehasalu, Pia, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Kuninganna Kristiina portreest lapsena (1638). Arvatav autor: Rootsi tolleaegne õuekunstnik Jacob Heinrich Elbfas või tema töökoda. Rootsi kuninga Karl XI noorpõlveportreest (1670). Autor: Karl XI õuekunstnik David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl (1628-1698)

  10. Potentiometric Titration Method for Quantitative Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bessette, Russell R

    2005-01-01

    An electrochemical potentiometric titration method that entails titration of a known volume of a catholyte containing an unknown amount of hydrogen peroxide in a titration cell having two electrodes...

  11. 1st Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings collect the selected contributions of participants of the First Karl Schwarzschild Meeting on Gravitational Physics, held in Frankfurt, Germany to celebrate the 140th anniversary of Schwarzschild's birth. They are grouped into 4 main themes: I. The Life and Work of Karl Schwarzschild; II. Black Holes in Classical General Relativity, Numerical Relativity, Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Alternative Theories of Gravity; III. Black Holes in Quantum Gravity and String Theory; IV. Other Topics in Contemporary Gravitation. Inspired by the foundational principle ``By acknowledging the past, we open a route to the future",  the week-long meeting, envisioned as a forum for exchange between scientists from all locations and levels of education, drew participants from 15 countries across 4 continents. In addition to plenary talks from leading researchers, a special focus on young talent was provided, a feature underlined by the Springer Prize for the best student and junior presentations.

  12. Karl Raimund Popper: Problem Neopositivistik dan Teori Kritis Falsifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper once criticizes the positivistic paradigm by means of what he calls the theory of falsification. To him, the positivistic paradigm constitutes a failure simply because it cannot distinguish between science and prude science, that is, between empirical method and non-empirical method. In the scientific knowledge, empirical science, mathematics and logic must be differentiated, something that the positivistic paradigm has failed to do. This paradigm furthermore, did not have a clear picture what logic-based science is, empirical knowledge and psychology of knowledge. It also fails to properly understand knowledge that springs from tradition, emotion, authority and so forth. All positivistic paradigms such as that of Karl Max’s Historicism, Freud’s theory of Psycho Analysis, Adler’s theory of Individual Analysis and Newton’s theory of Gravitation fall into this trap of failure.

  13. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  14. Karl Kolbenheyer (1841–1901 – teacher, naturalist, tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Witold Alexandrowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Karl Kolbenheyer was born on May 28, 1841 in Bielsko. After attending a lower secondary school in Cieszyn, he began studies in classical languages (Greek and Latin at universities in Vienna and Jena, then he worked as a teacher in lower secondary schools in Lewocza, Cieszyn, and Bielsko. The research he undertook included botanical studies, measurements of absolute elevation, and meteorological observations in the Western Beskids as well as in the Tatra Mountains. The results of the studies were printed in German, Austrian, Polish, and Hungarian publications. He found species of plants not known earlier to exist in the area of Cieszyn and Bielsko. The measurements of elevations he made of characteristic points of landscape (more than 500 were used for cartographic purposes. From 1866 on, he was a member of Physiographic Commission of Kraków Scientific Society, and later of the Academy of Arts and Sciences, which financially supported his field work. Karl Kolbenheyer was one of the founders of the Beskidenverein – a German tourist organisation – and managed its branch in Bielsko. He prepared two tourist guides: the guide to Tatra Mountains – Die hohe Tatra (ten editions, and to the Beskids – Führer durch die Beskiden… (two editions. These guides contributed to the remarkable propagation of tourism. Karl Kolbenheyer died on February 1, 1901, and was buried at the Old Evangelical Cemetery in Bielsko.

  15. Linear Titration Curves of Acids and Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, N R

    1959-05-29

    The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, by a simple transformation, becomes pH - pK = pA - pB, where pA and pB are the negative logarithms of acid and base concentrations. Sigmoid titration curves then reduce to straight lines; titration curves of polyelectrolytes, to families of straight lines. The method is applied to the titration of the dipeptide glycyl aminotricarballylic acid, with four titrable groups. Results are expressed as Cartesian and d'Ocagne nomograms. The latter is of a general form applicable to polyelectrolytes of any degree of complexity.

  16. Non-aqueous titration of hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, T W; Christian, R

    1966-01-01

    Benzohydroxamic acid is titrated with 0.1M tetrabutyl-anunonium hydroxide in nine non-aqueous solvents with three different indicating electrodes. The best results are obtained using dimethylformamide as solvent and platinum-platinum electrodes. Four monoprotic and three diprotic hydroxamie acids and iron(III) benzohydroxamate have been successfully titrated with this system. The effect of quantitative additions of carbon dioxide to the titrant on its apparent molarity are found to be dependent on the amount added, the strength and sample size of acid titrated and the solvent used.

  17. Determination of substances by radiothermometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.

    1976-01-01

    For determination, nitrogen is bubbled through a solution containing radioactive Kr, Xe, Rn or another aerogen in addition to the substance determined. A continuous or intermittent addition of the titrating solution results in the release of reaction heat, thus increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture, which releases a radioactive gas. Upon reaching the equivalence point, the cold titrating reagent cools the reaction mixture, thus reducing the radioactive substance release. The equivalence point lies at the point of intersection of the extended linear parts of the curve of the dependence of released radioactivity on the volume of the titrating solution added. (M.K.)

  18. God has moved. Long live the God! / Rene Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Rene

    2004-01-01

    Reklaamifirma Tank senine shveitslasest loovjuht Rene Fischer oma tööst ettevõttes, firma edukuse võimalikest põhjustest, olukorrast Baltimaade reklaamiturul, Läti reklaamifirma Bates/Red Cell loovjuhiks lahkumise põhjustest ning eesmärkidest uuel töökohal. Lisad: Other stuff; Technical data

  19. The Fischer 344 rat as a model of presbycusis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 264, 1-2 (2010), s. 70-78 ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Rat * Fischer 344 * Presbycusis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.428, year: 2010

  20. Alternative Fuel Research in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Angela D.; Klettlinger, Jennifer L.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has recently constructed an Alternative Fuels Laboratory which is solely being used to perform Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reactor studies, novel catalyst development and thermal stability experiments. Facility systems have demonstrated reliability and consistency for continuous and safe operations in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The purpose of this test facility is to conduct bench scale Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst screening experiments while focusing on reducing energy inputs, reducing CO2 emissions and increasing product yields within the F-T process. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which reacts syn-gas (a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), over the surface of a catalyst material which is then converted into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions1. These hydrocarbons can then be further processed into higher quality liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel. The experiments performed in this laboratory will enable the investigation of F-T reaction kinetics to focus on newly formulated catalysts, improved process conditions and enhanced catalyst activation methods. Currently the facility has the capability of performing three simultaneous reactor screening tests, along with a fourth fixed-bed reactor used solely for cobalt catalyst activation.

  1. Collagen changes in the cochlea of aged Fischer 344 rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buckiová, Daniela; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 296-302 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd NR8113; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Presbycusis * Rat * Fischer 344 strain Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2006

  2. Liquefaction of syngas by fischer-tropsch process (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Saeed, M.M.; Riaz, M.; Khan, A.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch process is a set of chemical reactions that convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and is gaining attention under the background of the resource depletion leading to the price hike of the petroleum oil. The diesel fuel obtained from syngas by Fischer-Tropsch process seems to be of high quality and environmental friendly. The present study deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the production/synthesis of mineral diesel from syngas by Fischer-Tropsch process. The catalyst was prepared by coating cobalt nitrate on alumina followed by calcinations and characterization by analytical techniques such as BET, SEM/EDXA and X-Ray diffraction. For the conversion of syngas to liquid fuel, the fixed bed column technique was employed. Different operational parameters such as temperature of the column, flow rate and pressure of the syngas were studied. The product formed was verified by comparing the GC/FID spectrum of the synthesized mineral diesel with commercial sample by employing GC analysis. The qualitative results indicate the success of the Fischer-Tropsch process in the present study. (author)

  3. Niobia-supported Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis niobia has been shown to be an attractive support for application in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis at industrially relevant conditions without apparent deactivation up to at least 200 hours of operation. This proves that the level of potentially poisoning contaminants is sufficiently low

  4. Simulation models and designs for advanced Fischer-Tropsch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G.N.; Kramer, S.J.; Tam, S.S. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Process designs and economics were developed for three grass-roots indirect Fischer-Tropsch coal liquefaction facilities. A baseline and an alternate upgrading design were developed for a mine-mouth plant located in southern Illinois using Illinois No. 6 coal, and one for a mine-mouth plane located in Wyoming using Power River Basin coal. The alternate design used close-coupled ZSM-5 reactors to upgrade the vapor stream leaving the Fischer-Tropsch reactor. ASPEN process simulation models were developed for all three designs. These results have been reported previously. In this study, the ASPEN process simulation model was enhanced to improve the vapor/liquid equilibrium calculations for the products leaving the slurry bed Fischer-Tropsch reactors. This significantly improved the predictions for the alternate ZSM-5 upgrading design. Another model was developed for the Wyoming coal case using ZSM-5 upgrading of the Fischer-Tropsch reactor vapors. To date, this is the best indirect coal liquefaction case. Sensitivity studies showed that additional cost reductions are possible.

  5. Titrated Misoprostol Versus Dinoprostone for Labor Induction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study designed to compare titrated misoprostol regarding its safety and efficacy with dinoprostone for induction of labor. ... Statistical analysis done using Student's t-test for quantitative data and ..... induction: A pilot study. Rev Bras ...

  6. Non-aqueous titration of benzotrifuroxan (BTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1978-01-01

    This compound can be titrated potentiometrically as an acid with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, acetone, pyridine, tetramethylguanidine. The solvent of choice is dimethylformamide which yields the steepest titration curve and the lowest standard deviation. The equivalent weight of benzotrifuroxan is dependent on the solvent used indicating a strong interaction with the solvent. In dimethylformamide, the equivalent weight of benzotrifuroxan is 151.3, corresponding to 1.67 equivalents per mole.

  7. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  8. Theory of titration curves-VII The properties of derivative titration curves for strong acid-strong base and other isovalent ion-combination titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, T; Meites, L

    1970-06-01

    This paper deals with isovalent ion-combination titrations based on reactions that can be represented by the equation M(n+) + X(n-) --> MX, where the activity of the product MX is invariant throughout a titration, and with the derivative titration curves obtained by plotting d[M(+)]/dfversus f for such titrations. It describes some of the ways in which such curves can be obtained; it compares and contrasts them both with potentiometric titration curves, which resemble them in shape, and with segmented titration curves, from which they are derived; and it discusses their properties in detail.

  9. Kapitalismus versus Marktwirtschaft. Karl Marx und Fernand Braudel

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Malte; Petersen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Since the beginning of the finance crisis, the notion of capitalism and the adjective capitalistic are more and more employed in public discourse without making an attempt to define it. In contrast, the concept of market economy is less used. We try in this paper to differentiate both concepts by going back to the approaches by Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Fernand Braudel (1902-1985). Marx does not use the term capitalism but only capitalistic production, while Braudel argues on the basis of a w...

  10. Epistemological anarchism of Paul Karl Feyerabend and medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Patrícia Gomes

    Full Text Available The thoughts of the philosopher Paul Karl Feyerabend brought important contributions to the debate on Science in the 20th century. Most recently his views about non-existence of a single method for doing science have been employed to rethink science education and propose the use of multiple methods for effective teaching-learning process. This article employs the theoretical framework of the author expressed in the book Against Method, 1977, about the epistemological anarchism and the methodological pluralism and uses it in the contemporary discussion of medical education.

  11. Karl pearson the scientific life in a statistical age

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, Theodore M

    2010-01-01

    Karl Pearson, founder of modern statistics, came to this field by way of passionate early studies of philosophy and cultural history as well as ether physics and graphical geometry. His faith in science grew out of a deeply moral quest, reflected also in his socialism and his efforts to find a new basis for relations between men and women. This biography recounts Pearson's extraordinary intellectual adventure and sheds new light on the inner life of science. Theodore Porter's intensely personal portrait of Pearson extends from religious crisis and sexual tensions to metaphysical and even m

  12. El racionalismo crítico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Delio Machado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, pretende acercar algunos de los aspectos más importantes del pensamiento de uno de los filósofos más destacados de nuestro tiempo: Sir Karl Popper. Su presencia atraviesa nuestro siglo, presentándose como una de las voces visionarias y anticipadoras que se alzaron críticamente, contra toda actitud o acción que estuviese fundada en lo dogmático y que tuviese como finalidad, el olvido o la superación del individuo, aunque dicho olvido estuviese "justificado" por oraculares "bienes o fines superiores". (... 

  13. [Karl Marx and the Malthusian theory of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S

    1985-06-01

    An analysis of the works of Karl Marx is presented in order to demonstrate the importance of the population factor. The author contends that population growth is a critical factor in Marx's theory of the progressive impoverishment of the working class. However, because of his reluctance to acknowledge the value of the Malthusian contribution, Marx focused his analysis of the labor force under capitalism on the demand for workers and neglected the supply side, which is determined by the growth of population. The author concludes that Marxist theory would have benefited from greater consideration of Malthusian theory.

  14. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. van Zyl

    1994-01-01

    Who is the sinner? The view of Karl Barth The previous article dealt with Barth’s view of the knowledge and real essence of sin, while this one focus on his view of the human being as sinner. In accordance with his christological approach to all theological matters, Barth presents us with a description of the image and character of the sinner as mirrored by the obedient suffering and death of Jesus Christ on the cross in the place of all sinners of all times - past, present and future. Th...

  15. Karl Nagel : Pain things = Pain things / Eha Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Eha, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    Maali- ja videokunstnik Karl Nagelist kui probleemsest nüüdisaegsest kunstnikust, kes võtab provokatiivseid positsioone ideoloogiate ja poliitika küsimustes. Tema kunstnikupositsioon keerleb terrorismi, fašismi ja natsionalismi ümber, dissidendi positsioonile asununa on ta käsitlenud surma ja vägivalla teemat (Tšetšeenia sõda) ja üritanud sõna võtta ka kodanikuvabaduste laiendamise nimel. Sotsiaalse tegelikkuse ja kunsti vastandlikkuse küsimuses on ta võtnud nulltoleratsi taotleva seisukoha, võrdlemata kunsti tegelikkusega

  16. Coulometric titration at low temperatures-nonstoichiometric silver selenide

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Gesa K.; Janek, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    A modified coulometric titration technique is described for the investigation of nonstoichiometric phases at low temperatures. It allows to obtain titration curves at temperatures where the conventional coulometric titration technique fails because of too small chemical diffusion coefficients of the mobile component. This method for indirect coulometric titration is applied to silver selenide between -100 and 100 °C. The titration curves are analyzed on the basis of a defect chemical model an...

  17. A generalized approach for the calculation and automation of potentiometric titrations Part 2. Redox Titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stur, J.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The very fast calculation procedure described earlier is applied to calculate the titration curves of complicated redox systems. The theory is extended slightly to cover inhomogeneous redox systems. Titrations of iodine or 2,6-dichloroindophenol with ascorbic acid are described. It is shown that

  18. End-point construction and systematic titration error in linear titration curves-complexation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenegracht, P.M.J.; Duisenberg, A.J.M.

    The systematic titration error which is introduced by the intersection of tangents to hyperbolic titration curves is discussed. The effects of the apparent (conditional) formation constant, of the concentration of the unknown component and of the ranges used for the end-point construction are

  19. Petroleum formation by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in plate tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szatmari, P. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1989-08-01

    A somewhat speculative hypothesis of petroleum genesis in the upper lithosphere is proposed, based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This hypothesis is distinct from both the organic (biogenic) model and the inorganic model of hydrocarbon degassing from the Earth's interior. The hypothesis presented in this paper proposes that petroleum liquids form by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on magnetite and hematite catalysts when carbon dioxide (derived by massive metamorphic or igneous decarbonation of subducted sedimentary carbonates) reacts with hydrogen generated by the serpentinization (in the absence of air) of shallow-mantle lithosphere and ophiolite thrust sheets. Oblique plate movements may favor hydrocarbon formation by creating deep faults that aid fluid flow and serpentinization. The world's richest oil provinces, including those of the Middle East, may be tentatively interpreted to have formed by this mechanism. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. [Urs Fischer: faux amis : documentation d'exposition

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tiré du site internet des Musées d'art et d'histoire (www.ville-geneve.ch/mah): "Urs Fischer - Faux Amis propose une sélection inédite d'œuvres de la collection Dakis Joannou, présentée pour la première fois au Musée d'art et d'histoire de Genève. Conçue par le commissaire Massimiliano Gioni comme une synthèse inhabituelle entre une présentation monographique et une exposition de groupe, Faux Amis réunit un ensemble d'œuvres signées Urs Fischer (né en 1973), l'un des artistes suisses les plus...

  1. Moessbauer spectroscopic investigations of Fe/Mn-Fischer-Tropsch-catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppe, P.; Papp, H.; Rosenberg, M.

    1986-01-01

    The phase composition of Fe/Mn oxide catalysts of different compositions after 200 h of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have been investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at room temperature, 77 K and 5 K. The final composition of the bulk catalysts depends strongly on the Mn content and the temperature of reduction before the synthesis. Catalytic activity and selectivity are partly correlated to this phase composition. (Auth.)

  2. KARL RAHNER, UM INQUIETO TEÓLOGO ECUMÊNICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario de França Miranda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta, em grandes linhas, o pensamento ecumênico de Karl Rahner. No novo contexto aberto pelo Concílio Vaticano II, este teólogo defronta-se com as dificuldades de cunho sociocultural, doutrinário e institucional, que dividem as Igrejas cristãs. Enfatizando a centralidade da fé em Jesus Cristo, vivida com autenticidade, pleiteia uma única Igreja Católica, na qual estejam presentes, com sua rica diversidade, as demais Igrejas. Suas reflexões se revelam pertinentes para as Igrejas cristãs na América Latina. ABSTRACT: This article presents Karl Rahner’s ecumenical views. With the new context introduced by the Vatican Council II, Rahner faces the social-cultural, doctrinal and institutional difficulties dividing the Christian Churches. Rahner emphasizes the centrality of faith in Jesus Christ lived with authenticity, and proposes one Catholic Church in which the other Churches may be present with their rich diversity. His reflections are revealed as pertinent to the Christian Churches in Latin America

  3. An accurate potentiometric titration of 5-25 mg uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, J.; Bakker, F.; Lingerak, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A potentiometric titration of 5 to 25 mg uranium is described. Sulphamic and phosphoric acid are added to the sample (volume 1 ml), U VI is reduced to U IV by Fe 2+ and the excess of Fe 2+ is oxidized by a mixture of nitric acid, sulphamic acid and ammonium molybdate; vanadyl sulphate is added to ensure a sharp end-point of the titration. The resultant U IV is titrated automatically with 0.02500N potassiumdichromate using a platinum indicator electrode. The automatic titration is performed both with a commercial titrator (Mettler) and with an R.C.N. titrator which waits after each addition until the equilibrium is reached. Using the Mettler titrator an accuracy of 0.05% relative was reached. The R.C.N. setpoint titrator gave results with an accuracy of 0.04% relative at the 20-mg U level. Each titration takes 5 to 7 min. (author)

  4. Nonsmooth Newton method for Fischer function reformulation of contact force problems for interactive rigid body simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz, Morten; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    contact response. In this paper, we present a new approach to contact force determination. We reformulate the contact force problem as a nonlinear root search problem, using a Fischer function. We solve this problem using a generalized Newton method. Our new Fischer - Newton method shows improved...... qualities for specific configurations where the most widespread alternative, the Projected Gauss-Seidel method, fails. Experiments show superior convergence properties of the exact Fischer - Newton method....

  5. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in the Student Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Yujing; Li, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the measurement of the heat produced by the stepwise addition of one substance to another. It is a common experimental technique, for example, in pharmaceutical science, to measure equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies. We describe a stirring device and an injection pump that can be used with a…

  6. Titration Calculations with Computer Algebra Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Russ; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the symbolic algebraic solution of the titration equations for a diprotic acid, as obtained using "Mathematica," "Maple," and "Mathcad." The equilibrium and conservation equations are solved symbolically by the programs to eliminate the approximations that normally would be performed by the student. Of the three programs,…

  7. NBL-Davies-Gray weight titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, C.

    1981-01-01

    The titration method for uranium consists of the following basic steps: reduction of U +6 to U +4 by Fe +2 ; selective oxidation of excess Fe +2 by HNO 3 with Mo +6 catalyst, all in strong phosphoric acid solution; and titration of the U +4 with standard dichromate after dilution. In this paper, detailed procedure of the NBL method, its modification to a gravimetric system or weight titration technique, and miniaturization of the NBL titrimetric method are discussed. Improved precisions and accuracy (2 to 3 times), of the gravimetric titrant delivery has made it possible to reduce the amount of uranium taken for each analysis. At present, using gravimetric delivery, most samples are titrated in the 30 to 50 mg range. Improved precision has led to investigating the possibility of a scaled-down version of the basic method so as to reduce the volume of phosphoric acid waste generated. Because all reactions are carried out in the same vessel, this method can be automated. Analysts at NBL have been able to restrict error to 0.05% or better in the 30 to 100 mg range using the basic procedure

  8. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  9. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: First Theorist of Erotic Age Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2017-01-01

    The nomination of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895) as the first theorist of homosexuality may be placed in the oblique light of his eligibility for the nomination as the first theorist of erotic age orientation. In Ulrichs's pamphlets, "man-manly" homosexuality emerged as a particular age orientation, with a subsequent typological breakdown that, importantly, blended gender orientation and age orientation. Into the early 20th century, erotic age orientation remained bound up with the classification and emancipation of what here was demarcated as Urningsliebe. Ulrichs's pioneering and shifting comments on age eventually fed into his legal model of consenting adults in private. They also provide a starting point for the historical understanding of the trope of "grooming pedophile" as it, arguably, crossfaded with that of the "seducing homosexual" after the latter's depsychiatricization across the Western world.

  10. KARL GOOSS AND A TEMPLE OF JUPITER IN APULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Szabó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karl Gooss (1844-1881 was one of the few intellectuals of his time who witnessed personally the building of the railway and the ditch of Alba Iulia between 1865 and 1868. The construction was the biggest project of the city since the building of the Vauban fort and destroyed the most significant part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, one of the biggest urban centers of the province. During these works, Gooss witnessed the discovery and destruction of the first Jupiter temple attested in Dacia, the biggest silver deposit ever found in Transylvania and the first coin hoard of Apulum. His German publication was ignored by the later historiography, although it is the first and only detailed account of the archaeological finds discovered in the Partoș in the end of August, 1867. His detailed account helps us to identify the context of some well known artifacts and to reconsider the topography of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis.

  11. Karl Heinz Göller (1924-2009: in memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Stanonik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is written in memory of Karl Heinz Göller, Professor of English literature at the Regensburg University, who died in Kelheim near Regensburg on 22nd April 2009. University of Regenburg was founded in 1967, and Göller was the first Dean of its Faculty of Philosophy. For more than 40 years he worked for the development of good contacts betwen the universities of Regensburg and Ljubljana. Since 2000 he was member of the Advisory Committee of the review Acta Neophilologica. In 1983 he founded the Society of German Mediaevalists, one of the leading societies of German scholars from the whole Germany, and was elected its first president. The study gives report on the development of Göller as a scholar, and his basic achievement in his research, pedagogical work and in university administration.

  12. The origin of art according to Karl von den Steinen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Déléage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of the custom, adopted by ethnologists in the early 20th century, of asking Amerindians of Lowland South America to do drawings in pencil in their notebooks, I explore three forgotten fragments of the history of thinking: the intense debates on the origin of ornaments, opposing an evolutionist and a materialist approach at the end of the 19th century; the theories on the origin of figuration, which I show date back to the important work of Karl von den Steinen regarding the populations of central Brazil; and the publications of ethnologists’ portraits drawn by Indians of the lowlands of South America, a little-known tradition of reverse anthropology serving as a counterpoint to the study of the reception of Amerindian art in Western ethnological literature.

  13. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  14. Psychoanalysis, science and the seductive theory of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don C; Harari, Edwin

    2005-06-01

    To present a critique of the ideas of Karl Popper, the philosopher of science, whose depiction of psychoanalysis as a pseudoscience is often used to justify attacks on psychoanalysis. Published sources are used to provide a brief intellectual biography of Popper, a summary of his concept of science and a summary of criticisms of Popper's view of science. His depiction of psychoanalysis and Freud's reply are presented. Clinical, experimental and neurobiological research which refutes Popper's view is summarized. There is a vast scholarly published work critical of Popper's falsifiability criterion of science. Less recognized is Popper's misunderstanding and misrepresentation of psychoanalysis; his argument against it is logically flawed and empirically false. Even if Popper's theory of science is accepted, there is considerable clinical, experimental and neurobiological research in psychoanalysis which meets Popper's criterion of science. Attacks on psychoanalysis based on Popper's theory of science are ill-founded and reflect inadequate scholarship.

  15. Karl Popper: antes y después de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti, Gabriel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En su último libro sobre Karl Popper, Mariano Artigas plantea una hermenéutica revolucionaria: muestra que la ética de Popper es el fundamento de su epistemología, y que el fundamento de esa ética está lejos del «conjeturalismo» que suele atribuirse a Popper. Artigas analiza qué significa en Popper la «fe irracional en la razón» y utiliza, como fuente inédita, el dramático relato que hace Popper de su relación con W. W. Bartley, por primera vez, en Kyoto, en 1992. Sea cual fuere la opinión del lector, el libro de Artigas divide la hermenéutica de Popper en un antes y un después.

  16. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  17. Karl Marx e a Revolução Russa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Segrillo

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa a visão de Karl Marx sobre a possibilidade de ocorrência da revolução na Rússia. Inicialmente concentrando suas esperanças nos países da Europa Ocidental, onde o capitalismo estava mais desenvolvido, com o fracasso das revoluções de 1948 e da Comuna de Paris, Marx se volta para as possibilidades de revolução a partir do Leste, da Rússia, até ali considerada o bastião da reação. Suas ideias são expostas em correspondência com os próprios revolucionários russos. Essa trajetória intelectual de Marx é descrita a partir de seus próprios escritos.

  18. Wie is die sondaar? Die beskouing van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. van Zyl

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Who is the sinner? The view of Karl Barth The previous article dealt with Barth’s view of the knowledge and real essence of sin, while this one focus on his view of the human being as sinner. In accordance with his christological approach to all theological matters, Barth presents us with a description of the image and character of the sinner as mirrored by the obedient suffering and death of Jesus Christ on the cross in the place of all sinners of all times - past, present and future. The price that God paid in surrendering his only Son to such suffering, indicates the enormous guilt and baseness of every sinner. Every human being is utterly insolvent and can only be delivered from sin through God’s graceful remission of siru

  19. O marxismo antidogmático de Karl Korsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo Viana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tematiza o marxismo de Karl Korsch, focalizando seu caráter não dogmático. A partir de um resgate do caráter crítico e revolucionário do marxismo de Marx, Korsch realiza uma crítica radical ao revisionismo e leninismo. Para tal, ele não só resgata o verdadeiro caráter da dialética marxista e da concepção materialista da história, como exige a coerência dessa concepção ao defender o princípio de aplicação dela a si mesma. Assim ele lança as bases de um marxismo não dogmático, para o qual é o vínculo com o proletariado que mostra o caráter do marxismo e não ideologias petrificadas. Abstract: This article thematizes Marxism of Karl Korsch, focusing on its non dogmatic. From a rescue of criticality and revolutionary Marxism of Marx, Korsch performs a radical critique of revisionism and Leninism. To do so, he not only rescues the true character of Marxist dialectics and materialist conception of history, as this concept requires consistency in defending the principle of applying it to herself. So he lays the foundations of a non-dogmatic Marxism, to which is the bond with the proletariat that shows the character of Marxism and not petrified ideologies. Key words: Marxism, dogmatism, criticism, historical materialism, dialectical.

  20. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  1. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion ... of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. ... silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical ...

  2. An Assesment on the Three Worlds Theories of Karl Popper and Jürgen Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan İyigüngör

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to outline “three world theories” of Karl Popper and Jürgen Habermas comparatively. In this context, it is also aimed to assess Habermas’ critics as “positivist” to Karl Popper who is an opponent to positivism inside it and his abstraction on the “three world theory” under the influence of Karl Popper. The differences between their opinions stem from their main arguments about the methodology of natural and social sciences.

  3. Microculture virus titration--a simple colourimetric assay for influenza virus titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, R; Beeor-Tzahar, T; Arnon, R

    1995-03-01

    Influenza antigens can be detected by several well established methods. However, when it is important to determine the titre of infective virions, a bioassay should be employed. The standard and the most widely used tests for influenza infectivity are titration carried out in embryonated hen eggs, or the plaque assay employing tissue culture techniques. A simple colourimetric assay for influenza virus detection and titration is described. Samples of allantoic fluid or mice lung homogenates were used to infect MDCK cultures in microplate wells. After an incubation period, the tetrazolium (MTT) colourimetric assay was used to determine cell viability, and when compared to untreated culture control enabled the detection and titration of several influenza strains. When samples were assayed simultaneously in embryonated eggs and by the MCVT method, good correlation in determined titres was obtained. The availability of an additional method for influenza titration allows more flexibility in the choice of titration method according to the specific needs of the study. Furthermore, this method lends itself to full automatization. Similar procedures should also be applicable to titration of other cytopathic viruses.

  4. Ion-selective electrodes in potentiometric titrations; a new method for processing and evaluating titration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Kim; Sokalski, Tomasz; Lewenstam, Andrzej; Ivaska, Ari

    2015-08-12

    A new method to convert the potential of an ion-selective electrode to concentration or activity in potentiometric titration is proposed. The advantage of this method is that the electrode standard potential and the slope of the calibration curve do not have to be known. Instead two activities on the titration curve have to be estimated e.g. the starting activity before the titration begins and the activity at the end of the titration in the presence of large excess of titrant. This new method is beneficial when the analyte is in a complexed matrix or in a harsh environment which affects the properties of the electrode and the traditional calibration procedure with standard solutions cannot be used. The new method was implemented both in a method of linearization based on the Grans's plot and in determination of the stability constant of a complex and the concentration of the complexing ligand in the sample. The new method gave accurate results when using titrations data from experiments with samples of known composition and with real industrial harsh black liquor sample. A complexometric titration model was also developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potentiometric determination of milligram amounts of uranium by semiautomatic titrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Stepanov, A.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, L.D.; Solntseva, L.F.; Gromova, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    A semiautomatic titrator is described which allows gravimetriotentiometricc-p titrat mg amounts of substances. Milligram amounts of uranium (absolute contents and oxygen/uranium ratio) in U 3 O 8 were determined as an example of the titrator action. The relative standard deviation was less than 0.001

  6. Simple and Automated Coulometric Titration of Acid Using Nonisolated Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Kenney, Joshua B.; Hasbrouck, Scott; Collins, Michael J.; Amend, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Coulometric titrations involve the quantification of analyte by measurements of current and time. In most coulometric titrations, the anode and cathode are placed in isolated cells that are connected by a salt bridge. By contrast, the experiments described here involve coulometric titrations (of acidic protons in solution) using a silver anode and…

  7. The role of magnetite in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huggins, F.E.; Mahajan, V.; Huffman, G.P.; Rao, V.U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of iron catalysts from a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Pilot Plant run at different time-on-stream periods were carried out. Magnetite Fe 3 O 4 was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction which accompanies the FT synthesis reaction over Fe-based catalysts. A correlation between the ratio of the occupancy of octahedral sites to the tetrahedral sites in magnetite to the WGS activity was found. Cation-deficient magnetite gave higher WGS activity as compared to the stoichiometric phase. (orig.)

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-01-30

    The effects of copper on Fischer-Tropsch activity, selectivity and water-gas shift activity were studied over a wide range of syngas conversion. Three catalyst compositions were prepared for this study: (a) 100Fe/4.6Si/1.4K, (b) 100Fe/4.6Si/0.10Cu/1.4K and (c) 100Fe/4.6Si/2.0Cu/1.4K. The results are reported in Task 2. The literature review for cobalt catalysts is approximately 90% complete. Due to the size of the document, it has been submitted as a separate report labeled Task 6.

  9. Emil Fischer and the "art of chemical experimentation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    What did nineteenth-century chemists know? This essay uses Emil Fischer's classic study of the sugars in 1880s and 90s Germany to argue that chemists' knowledge was not primarily vested in the theories of valence, structure, and stereochemistry that have been the subject of so much historical and philosophical analysis of chemistry in this period. Nor can chemistry be reduced to a merely manipulative exercise requiring little or no intellectual input. Examining what chemists themselves termed the "art of chemical experimentation" reveals chemical practice as inseparable from its cognitive component, and it explains how chemists integrated theory with experiment through reason.

  10. Alles Leben ist Problemlösen: Zum 100. Geburtstag von Karl Raimund Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Gebhard

    2002-01-01

    Karl Popper wäre im Juli 2002 hundert Jahre alt geworden. Prof. Dr. Gebhard Kirchgässner würdigt den politischen Philosophen, der als bedeutendster Wissenschaftstheoretiker des 20. Jahrhunderts gilt.

  11. Millisele õpetajale kingiksite imerohu? / Karl Martin Sinijärv, Vahur Keller, Kaarel Tarand ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Eesti kirjanike liidu esimees Karl Martin Sinijärv, nuku- ja noorsooteatri lavastaja Vahur Keller, Sirbi peatoimetaja Kaarel Tarand, kirjanik Andrus Kivirähk, ajakirjanik Juhani Püttsepp

  12. Graphical evaluation of complexometric titration curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinon, J L

    1985-04-01

    A graphical method, based on logarithmic concentration diagrams, for construction, without any calculations, of complexometric titration curves is examined. The titration curves obtained for different kinds of unidentate, bidentate and quadridentate ligands clearly show why only chelating ligands are usually used in titrimetric analysis. The method has also been applied to two practical cases where unidentate ligands are used: (a) the complexometric determination of mercury(II) with halides and (b) the determination of cyanide with silver, which involves both a complexation and a precipitation system; for this purpose construction of the diagrams for the HgCl(2)/HgCl(+)/Hg(2+) and Ag(CN)(2)(-)/AgCN/CN(-) systems is considered in detail.

  13. Kinetic Titration Series with Biolayer Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry is a method to analyze protein interactions in real-time. In this study, we illustrate the usefulness to quantitatively analyze high affinity protein ligand interactions employing a kinetic titration series for characterizing the interactions between two pairs of interaction patterns, in particular immunoglobulin G and protein G B1 as well as scFv IC16 and amyloid beta (1–42). Kinetic titration series are commonly used in surface plasmon resonance and involve sequential injections of analyte over a desired concentration range on a single ligand coated sensor chip without waiting for complete dissociation between the injections. We show that applying this method to biolayer interferometry is straightforward and i) circumvents problems in data evaluation caused by unavoidable sensor differences, ii) saves resources and iii) increases throughput if screening a multitude of different analyte/ligand combinations. PMID:25229647

  14. Coulometrische titration von hypochloriten und chloraten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründler, P; Holzapfel, H

    1970-03-01

    Hypochlorite was determined by direct coulometric titration with iron(II) in an acetate buffered solution. Chlorate was titrated with titanium(III) in 2M hydrochloric acid. Amperometric indication with one and two electrodes, respectively, was used. Mixtures of hypochlorites and chlorates, e.g., in industrial electrolytes, may be analysed. On a déterminé l'hypochlorite par titrage coulométrique direct avec le fer(II) dans une solution tamponnée à l'acétate. On a titré le chlorate avec le titane(III) en acide chlorhydrique 2M. On a utilisé l'indication ampérométrique une et deux électrodes respectivement. On peut analyser des mélanges d'hypochlorites et de chlorates, par exemple dans des électrolytes industriels.

  15. Optimal level of continuous positive airway pressure: auto-adjusting titration versus titration with a predictive equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Jun, Young Joon; Oh, Jeong In; Jung, Jong Yoon; Hwang, Gyu Ho; Kwon, Soon Young; Lee, Heung Man; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aims of the present study were twofold. We sought to compare two methods of titrating the level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - auto-adjusting titration and titration using a predictive equation - with full-night manual titration used as the benchmark. We also investigated the reliability of the two methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Twenty consecutive adult patients with OSAS who had successful, full-night manual and auto-adjusting CPAP titration participated in this study. The titration pressure level was calculated with a previously developed predictive equation based on body mass index and apnea-hypopnea index. The mean titration pressure levels obtained with the manual, auto-adjusting, and predictive equation methods were 9.0 +/- 3.6, 9.4 +/- 3.0, and 8.1 +/- 1.6 cm H2O,respectively. There was a significant difference in the concordance within the range of +/- 2 cm H2O (p = 0.019) between both the auto-adjusting titration and the titration using the predictive equation compared to the full-night manual titration. However, there was no significant difference in the concordance within the range of +/- 1 cm H2O (p > 0.999). When compared to full-night manual titration as the standard method, auto-adjusting titration appears to be more reliable than using a predictive equation for determining the optimal CPAP level in patients with OSAS.

  16. Determining a Solubility Product Constant by Potentiometric Titration to Increase Students' Conceptual Understanding of Potentiometry and Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Lauren E.; Goode, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations are widely taught in first-year undergraduate courses to connect electrochemistry, stoichiometry, and equilibria and to reinforce acid-base titrations. Students perform a potentiometric titration that is then analyzed to determine analyte concentrations and the solubility product constant of the solid species.

  17. First report of the genus Coeliniaspis Fischer (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from China and Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, M.-L.; Chen, J.-H.; Achterberg, van C.

    2017-01-01

    Coeliniaspis Fischer, 2010 (Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini) is recorded from China and Russia for the first time. Coeliniaspis insularis (Tobias, 1998) is reported from China (Fujian), redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of the genus Coeliniaspis Fischer is added. Coeliniaspis

  18. Spectrophotometric titration of zirconium in siliceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, K.F.; Su, Y.-S.; Strzegowski, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    An accurate and selective complexometric titration procedure based upon a spectrophotometrically detected end-point has been developed for the determination of zirconium in glasses, glass-ceramics and refractories. A p-bromomandelic acid separation step for zirconium imparts excellent selectivity to the procedure. The method is particularly important for the 1 to 5% concentration range where a simple, accurate and selective method for the determination of zirconium has been lacking. (author)

  19. Digital movie-based on automatic titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ricardo Alexandre C; Almeida, Luciano F; Lyra, Wellington S; Siqueira, Lucas A; Gaião, Edvaldo N; Paiva Junior, Sérgio S L; Lima, Rafaela L F C

    2016-01-15

    This study proposes the use of digital movies (DMs) in a flow-batch analyzer (FBA) to perform automatic, fast and accurate titrations. The term used for this process is "Digital movie-based on automatic titrations" (DMB-AT). A webcam records the DM during the addition of the titrant to the mixing chamber (MC). While the DM is recorded, it is decompiled into frames ordered sequentially at a constant rate of 26 frames per second (FPS). The first frame is used as a reference to define the region of interest (ROI) of 28×13pixels and the R, G and B values, which are used to calculate the Hue (H) values for each frame. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) is calculated between the H values of the initial frame and each subsequent frame. The titration curves are plotted in real time using the r values and the opening time of the titrant valve. The end point is estimated by the second derivative method. A software written in C language manages all analytical steps and data treatment in real time. The feasibility of the method was attested by application in acid/base test samples and edible oils. Results were compared with classical titration and did not present statistically significant differences when the paired t-test at the 95% confidence level was applied. The proposed method is able to process about 117-128 samples per hour for the test and edible oil samples, respectively, and its precision was confirmed by overall relative standard deviation (RSD) values, always less than 1.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  1. Determination of milligram amounts of neptunium by potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhinskij, M.V.; Solntseva, L.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two procedures of potentiometric titration of about 1 mg Np are reported which are based on its oxidation to neptunium (6) with silver (2) oxide followed by titration with iron (2) to neptunium (5) in one case and to neptunium (4) in the alternative one. The error is not greater than 0.2% rel. Ten-fold uranium excess does not interfere. Up to 1% of plutonium relative to neptunium does not interfere in the case of the titration to neptunium (5). In the titration to neptunium (4), plutonium is titrated stoichiometrically [ru

  2. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Port, L.

    1966-03-01

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO 4 - HBr - H 2 SO 4 - HCl - HNO 3 - H 3 PO 4 ) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl) m MCl n . (author) [fr

  3. A new sensor for thermometric titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Fadhil M; Zewar, Sardir; Abdulla, Ahmad M

    2007-01-15

    A new thermometric sensor, which is a transistor (OC71), has been introduced to follow thermometric titrations successfully to clear end points. The sensor was suitable in both normal and differential modes of titration. It is possible to titrate down to 1.32micromol of HCl and 26.4micromol of H(3)BO(3)in a final 20ml solution with accuracy and precision of 1%, 2.2% and 1.4%, 2.2%, respectively. The sensor, in association with a pH glass electrode, was used for the determination of pK values of some well established weak acids such as, acetic acid (4.77), phosphoric acid (pK(1)=2.18, pK(2)=7.20 and pK(3)=12.32) as well as for a very weak acid of uncertain pK values H(3)BO(3) (pK(1)=9.20, pK(2)=12.7 and pK(3)=13.80). The sensor was also examined for kinetic catalytic determination of iron(III) in water, milk and pharmaceuticals.

  4. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  5. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10178 - Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized middle, C10-13-branched alkane fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10178 Distillates (Fischer-Tropsch... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as distillates (Fischer-Tropsch), hydroisomerized...

  7. Karl Friedrich Zollner and the historical dimension of astronomical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, C.; Staubermann, K. B.

    This book results from presentations and discussions of a group of astronomers and historians during a one-day workshop held at Archenhold Observatory, Berlin-Treptow, on April 4, 1997. This meeting was the first forum in a series dedicated to historical aspects of observational astrophysics in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The basic principle of these meetings is to reflect during one or more days on the work and personality of a single individual or of a group of persons, at the same time avoiding the really dominant figures that typify the age. By focusing on key people who epitomize a way of thinking and working that has formed many of the ideas by which we do astrophysical research today, we also attempt to evoke the scientific spirit of the era under consideration. In 1858, the German physicist Karl Friedrich Zoellner introduced a new type of astronomical photometer which became a bestseller in the second half of the nineteenth century and which led him to the first German professorship in astrophysics. His type of photometer allowed most accurate photometric measurements and was used at several observatories for almost half a century. This book outlines four major themes. The first part describes the observing instruments that were used by Zoellner and his contemporaries: photometers and spectrographs that complemented his original design, but also competed with his most versatile prototype photometer. The description also includes an account of technical aspects associated with the replication of such a photometer today. The second part analyses the astrophysical data that were obtained with Zoellner's tools, and extracts information hidden in the published data --- scientific information as well as diverse aspects related to the observer himself. These nineteenth-century data are now published for the first time on a modern magnitude scale and are directly accessible in tabular form, and are thus fully applicable to archeophotometric studies

  8. Is automatic CPAP titration as effective as manual CPAP titration in OSAHS patients? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weijie; Jin, Yinghui; Wang, Yan; Sun, Mei; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhou, Ning; Deng, Yuan

    2012-06-01

    It is costly and time-consuming to conduct the standard manual titration to identify an effective pressure before continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Automatic titration is cheaper and more easily available than manual titration. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of automatic titration in identifying a pressure and on the improvement of apnea/hyponea index (AHI) and somnolence, the change of sleep quality, and the acceptance and compliance of CPAP treatment, compared with the manual titration. A systematic search was made of the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCI, China Academic Journals Full-text Databases, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journals Databases and Chinese Medical Association Journals. Randomized controlled trials comparing automatic titration and manual titration were reviewed. Studies were pooled to yield odds ratios (OR) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Ten trials involving 849 patients met the inclusion criteria. It is hard to identify a trend in the pressures determined by either automatic or manual titration. Automatic titration can improve the AHI (MD = 0.03/h, 95% CI = -4.48 to 4.53) and Epworth sleepiness scale (SMD = -0.02, 95% CI = -0.34 to 0.31,) as effectively as the manual titration. There is no difference between sleep architecture under automatic titration or manual titration. The acceptance of CPAP treatment (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.60 to 1.55) and the compliance with treatment (MD = -0.04, 95% CI = -0.17 to 0.10) after automatic titration is not different from manual titration. Automatic titration is as effective as standard manual titration in improving AHI, somnolence while maintaining sleep quality similar to the standard method. In addition, automatic titration has the same effect on the acceptance and compliance of CPAP treatment as manual titration. With the potential advantage

  9. Karl Marx and the Study of Media and Culture Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper discusses the role of Marx in analysing media, communica-tion and culture today. An analysis of three contemporary Cultural Studies works – Lawrence Grossberg’s monograph Cultural Studies in the Future Tense, John Hartley’s monograph Digital Futures for Cultural and Media Studies and Paul Smith’s edited volume The Renewal of Cultural Studies – shows that there is an agreement that the economy needs to be taken more into account by Cultural Studies, but disagreement on which approach should be taken and what the role of Karl Marx’s works shall be. The paper argues that Marx’s labour theory of value is especially important for critically analysing the media, culture and communica-tion. Labour is still a blind spot of the study of culture and the media, although this situation is slowly improving. It is maintained that the turn away from Marx in Cultural and Media Studies was a profound mistake that should be reverted. Only an engagement with Marx can make Cultural and Media Studies topical, politically relevant, practical and critical, in the current times of global crisis and resurgent critique.

  10. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  11. Karl Pearson and eugenics: personal opinions and scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D

    2013-09-01

    The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work.

  12. Karl Popper's Conception of Metaphysics and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n2p209 In this paper I intend to thoroughly analyse Karl Popper’s relation to metaphysics. I start with his first writings, where he states the differences between science, pseudoscience and metaphysics. I then describe how his thoughts on the subject evolved to culminate in his reflection on metaphysical research programmes and the need for a revival of natural philosophy. A major concern is Popper’s famous testability criterion to set apart science from non-science. I point at the problems of the conception of metaphysics as non-testable theories (which are similar to the problems of the conception of metaphysics as theories involving unobservables and, in order to avoid these problems, I propose to retain nothing but the traditional conception of metaphysics as the general theories about the nature of the world. This leads me to the conclusion that science is not only an empirical task but also, and in a very important sense, a speculative one.

  13. Falsifications and corroborations: Karl Popper's influence on systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G; DeSalle, Rob

    2005-04-01

    Over the last three decades, the philosophy of Karl Raimund Popper has had a strong influence on the field of systematic biology. Unequivocally, no other philosopher's work has had such an influence during this formative period in systematics. Much, but not all, of the early discourse on Popper and systematics dealt with the philosophical basis of systematics as a science. More recently Popper's work has been discussed in the systematics literature in relation to specific methodologies such as parsimony and maximum likelihood. In this paper, we provide the reader with a concise summary of Popper's ideas relevant to systematics, review the systematic literature invoking or declining Popper's importance to the field, and make a recommendation for the future course of philosophical thinking in systematics. We try to make clear various authors' interpretations of Popper's work and how those interpretations have impacted systematic thought. Although the reader may come away from this review with a clearer idea of Popper's relevance or lack thereof, our primary hope is that the reader will be compelled to question him- or herself about the philosophical basis of the systematic work that he or she does, and to delve into the literature herein cited. We begin by presenting a synopsis of Popper's philosophical views to allow those views to be placed in the context of systematics.

  14. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.

    1998-07-22

    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  15. Determination of neptunium by redox titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, A.G.; Patil, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    A simple and quick method for the potentiometric determination of neptunium on the 2 to 5 mg scale has been developed. It consists of oxidation to Np(VI) by AgO or fuming with HClO 4 , destruction of excess of AgO by sulphamic acid, reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) with a slight excess of standard Fe(II) in 2M H 2 SO 4 and potentiometric titration of the excess of Fe(II) with standard Ce(IV). The precision is +- 0.5%. (author)

  16. Improving medication titration in heart failure by embedding a structured medication titration plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Annabel; Suna, Jessica; Marquart, Louise; Denaro, Charles; Javorsky, George; Munns, Andrew; Mudge, Alison; Atherton, John J

    2016-12-01

    To improve up-titration of medications to target dose in heart failure patients by improving communication from hospital to primary care. This quality improvement project was undertaken within three heart failure disease management (HFDM) services in Queensland, Australia. A structured medication plan was collaboratively designed and implemented in an iterative manner, using methods including awareness raising and education, audit and feedback, integration into existing work practice, and incentive payments. Evaluation was undertaken using sequential audits, and included process measures (use of the titration plan, assignment of responsibility) and outcome measures (proportion of patients achieving target dose) in HFDM service patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Comparison of the three patient cohorts (pre-intervention cohort A n=96, intervention cohort B n=95, intervention cohort C n=89) showed increase use of the titration plan, a shift to greater primary care responsibility for titration, and an increase in the proportion of patients achieving target doses of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) (A 37% vs B 48% vs C 55%, p=0.051) and beta-blockers (A 38% vs B 33% vs C 51%, p=0.045). Combining all three cohorts, patients not on target doses when discharged from hospital were more likely to achieve target doses of ACEI/ARB (pplan. A medication titration plan was successfully implemented in three HFDM services and improved transitional communication and achievement of target doses of evidence-based therapies within six months of hospital discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Up-titration of allopurinol in patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Claudine G; Mackenzie, Isla S; Flynn, Rob; Ford, Ian; Nuki, George; De Caterina, Raffaele; Riches, Philip L; Ralston, Stuart H; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2014-08-01

    European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout management guidelines recommend achieving a target urate level titration in achieving the EULAR target levels. The Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST) is an ongoing multi-centre study comparing the cardiovascular safety of febuxostat and allopurinol (target recruitment: 5706 patients). Recruited patients were already taking allopurinol and the protocol required up-titration of daily allopurinol dose, in 100 mg increments, to achieve the EULAR urate target level prior to randomisation. We reviewed pre-randomisation data from the first 400 recruited and subsequently randomised FAST patients. Of 400 patients, 144 (36%) had urate levels ≥357 µmol/L at screening and required allopurinol up-titration. Higher urate levels were significantly associated with lower allopurinol dose, male sex, increased BMI, increased alcohol intake and diuretic use. Mean fall in urate levels after a single 100-mg dose increase was 71 µmol/L. The number of up-titrations required ranged from one to five (median = 1) with 65% of patients controlled after one 100-mg up-titration. Overall, 97% of up-titrated patients achieved target urate levels with median final allopurinol dose of 300 mg daily. Side effects and complications of up-titration were minimal. Overall, 36% of FAST patients were not at target urate levels and required up-titration. Allopurinol up-titration was effective in achieving urate target levels and was generally well tolerated by patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Adam T [Cheyenne, WY; Robertson, Raymond E [Laramie, WY; Branthaver, Jan F [Chatham, IL; Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  19. Laboratory Automatic Titration of Chromium Plating and Electropolishing Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    .... The analytical chemistry literature lacks an adequate automatic titration method for the monitoring of chromic acid in chromium plating solutions and the monitoring of phosphoric and sulfuric acids...

  20. Titration in the treatment of the more troubled patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, J A; Ornstein, E D

    2001-01-01

    This article defines and discusses a modification of technique recommended by the authors in the psychoanalytic treatment of more troubled patients--a modification they call titration. Titration is defined as a conscious decision by the analyst to increase or decrease assistance (or gratification) gradually, in order to facilitate the analytic process. The authors emphasize the complexity of decisions in treatment by focusing on the decision-making processes that titration requires. Guidelines and a case vignette are presented. The authors conclude by considering some of the politics involved in the introduction of technique modifications, the salience of the titration concept, and directions for further exploration.

  1. A computer controlled potentiometric titrator for quantitative determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdingh, V.; Michiels, A.

    1988-01-01

    The modified Davies and Gray methods is frequently used for the potentiometric titration of uranium. It is based upon the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) with a reductant (e.g. Fe ++ ) followed by a selective oxidation of the excess of reductant and subsequent titration of U(IV) with potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ). Interference from other elements is low, but the method is rather cumbersome due to the number of reactants to be added before the titration is started. The timing of these additions also plays a role. In order to render the titration less dependent on human factors and with the aim of reaching high reproducibility, a computer controlled system has been designed and set-up. Reagents are added by five computer controlled burettes. A program allows the choice of volumes and waiting times, and commands the start of the final titration which is followed by the microprocessor of the automatic potentiometric titrator. In this way a routine uranium titration can be completed in about twelve minutes. Reproducibilities of the order of ±15% are achievable in routine operation. For high precision work, the titrator is used as an end-point detector. Titrant is added manually by mass, so as to react with > 99% of the uranium. The residual uranium is then titrated automatically by colume with diluted titrant. The precision can be improved by a factor of approximately ten. (orig.)

  2. 3rd International Conference on Stability and Handling of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-07

    potentiometric titration methods for the quantification of low levels of strong acids in gas oils are described, and results from a variety of straight-run...was homogenized and a Karl Fischer w..ater titration was performed. CONTAINING IWATEP, ’Enrecircrens w..i wh ater con tent cf greater than ’. were...storage facilities [491 M P Reynuurs, P Stegmann ........................... 137 Microbiological test methods for fuels in the laboratory and on site [5] E

  3. Analysis of Aircraft Fuels and Related Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    content by the Karl Fischer method . Each 2040 solvent sample represented a different step in a clean-up procedure conducted by Aero Propulsion...izes a potentiometric titration with alcoholic silver nitrate. This method has a minimum detectability of 1 ppm. It has a re- peatability of 0.1 ppm... Method 163-80, which util- izes a potentiometric titration with alcoholic silver nitrate. This method has a minimum detectability of 1 ppm and has a

  4. Best Technical Approach for the Petroleum Quality Analysis (PQA) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    two test methods for determination of water content in a fuel. The Karl Fischer titration method (ASTM D 1744) measures for total water, both...difficult to automate. ASTM D 664, "Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration," is simple to automate...release. distribution unlimnied 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 2C3 words) Recent U.S. militar-y operations have identified a need for improved methods of fuel and

  5. Taani tahab meid ELi kutsuda / Mariann Fischer Boel ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer Boel, Mariann

    2002-01-01

    Taani põllumajandusminister Mariann Fischer Boel vastab küsimustele Eesti soovitud piimakvoodi, EL-i tulevaste liikmesriikide otsetoetuste, Taanis maa ostmise, Eesti üliliberaalse majanduse ja sotsiaalse heaolu ühendamise võimaluse kohta

  6. Dvě ontologie české demokracie: T. G. Masaryk a J. L. Fischer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauza, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-245 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Masaryk * Fischer * democracy * providence * order * structure * function * individuality * sociality * crisis Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  7. Controlled formation of iron carbides and their performance in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wezendonk, Tim A.; Sun, Xiaohui; Dugulan, A. Iulian; van Hoof, Arno J.F.; Hensen, Emiel J.M.; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT) resulted in the formation of χ-Fe5C2. Furthermore, the different activation methods did not alter other important catalyst properties, as pre- and post-reaction transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  8. The acid-base titration of montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Sposito, G.; Bourg, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    Proton binding to clay minerals plays an important role in the chemical reactivity of soils (e.g., acidification, retention of nutrients or pollutants). If should also affect the performance of clay barriers for waste disposal. The surface acidity of clay minerals is commonly modelled empirically by assuming generic amphoteric surface sites (>SOH) on a flat surface, with fitted site densities and acidity constant. Current advances in experimental methods (notably spectroscopy) are rapidly improving our understanding of the structure and reactivity of the surface of clay minerals (arrangement of the particles, nature of the reactive surface sites, adsorption mechanisms). These developments are motivated by the difficulty of modelling the surface chemistry of mineral surfaces at the macro-scale (e.g., adsorption or titration) without a detailed (molecular-scale) picture of the mechanisms, and should be progressively incorporated into surface complexation models. In this view, we have combined recent estimates of montmorillonite surface properties (surface site density and structure, edge surface area, surface electrostatic potential) with surface site acidities obtained from the titration of alpha-Al2O3 and SiO2, and a novel method of accounting for the unknown initial net proton surface charge of the solid. The model predictions were compared to experimental titrations of SWy-1 montmorillonite and purified MX-80 bentonite in 0.1-0.5 mol/L NaClO4 and 0.005-0.5 mol/L NaNO3 background electrolytes, respectively. Most of the experimental data were appropriately described by the model after we adjusted a single parameter (silanol sites on the surface of montmorillonite were made to be slightly more acidic than those of silica). At low ionic strength and acidic pH the model underestimated the buffering capacity of the montmorillonite, perhaps due to clay swelling or to the interlayer adsorption of dissolved aluminum. The agreement between our model and the experimental

  9. On the theory of thermometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloyan, G O; Dolinina, Y V

    1974-09-01

    The general equation defining the change in solution temperature DeltaT during a thermometric titration is DeltaT = T - T(0) = - AV 1 + BV where A and B are constants, V is the volume of titrant used to produce temperature T, and T(0) is the initial temperature. There is a linear relation between the inverse values of DeltaT and V: 1 Delta T = - a V - b where a = 1/A and b = B/A, both a and b being constants. A linear relation between DeltaT and V is usually a special case of this general relation, and is valid only over a narrow range of V. Graphs of 1/DeltaTvs. 1/V are more suitable for practical calculations than the usual graphs of DeltaTvs. V.

  10. Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K.C.; Lin, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm. Three n-paraffin waxes: n-eicosane (n-C/sub 20/), n-octacosane )n-C/sub 28/), and n-hexatriacontane (n-C/sub 36/), were studied to model the industrial wax. Solubility of synthesis gas mixtures of H/sub 2/ and CO in n-C/sub 28/ was also determined at two temperatures (200 and 300)degree)C) for each of three gas compositions (40.01, 50.01, and 66.64 mol%) of hydrogen). Measurements were extended to investigate the gas solubility in two industrial Fischer-Tropsch waxes: Mobilwax and SASOL wax. Observed solubility increases in the order: H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, CO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, at a given temperature pressure, and in the same solvent. Solubility increases with increasing pressure for all the gases. Lighter gases H/sub 2/ and CO show increased solubility with increasing temperature, while the heavier gases CO/sub 2/, ethane, and ethylene show decreased solubility with increasing temperature. The solubility of methane, the intermediate gas, changes little with temperature, and shows a shallow minimum at about 200)degrees)C or somewhat above. Henry's constant and partial molal volume of the gas solute at infinite dilution are determinedfrom the gas solubility data. A correlation is developed from the experimental data in the form on an equation of state. A computer program has been prepared to implement the correlation. 19 refs., 66 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Reduction and reoxidation of cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmen, Anne-Mette

    1996-12-31

    The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis involves the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce mainly hydrocarbons, water and carbon dioxide, but also alcohols, aldehydes and acids are formed. The distribution of these products is determined by the choice of catalyst and synthesis conditions. This thesis studies the reduction and reoxidation of 17%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 17%Co-1%Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by means of several characterization techniques. The effect of small amounts of Re on the reduction properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Co catalysts has been studied by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). An intimate mixture of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts showed a promoting effect of Re similar to that for co impregnated CoRe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. A loose mixture of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} did not show any effect of Re on the reduction of Co. But a promoting effect was observed if the mixture had been pre-treated with Ar saturated with water before the TPR. It is suggested that Re promotes the reduction of Co oxide by hydrogen spillover. It is shown that a high temperature TPK peak at 1200K assigned to Co aluminate is mainly caused by the diffusion of Co ions during the TPR and not during calcination. The Co particle size measured by x-ray diffraction on oxidized catalysts decreased compared to the particle size on the calcined catalysts, while the dispersion measured by volumetric chemisorption decreased somewhat after the oxidation-reduction treatment. The role of water in the deactivation of Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CoRe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Fischer-Tropsch catalysts has been extensively studied. There were significant differences in the reducibility of the phases formed for the two catalysts during exposure to H{sub 2}O/He. 113 refs., 76 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  13. Dalle pagine della Fackel agli Ultimi giorni dell’umanità. Karl Kraus e la guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Morello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From Fackel’s pages to The Last Days of Mankind. Karl Kraus and the War. Between 1915 and the end of the war, Karl Kraus, an Austrian intellectual who had made political satire and criticism of journalistic language, engages in a fierce battle against the inhumanity and cruelty of war. On the pages of Fackel, a magazine published by him for over thirty years, from 1899 to 1936, he gathers many texts that then come together in the tragedy of the Last Days of Mankind, a great work, dripping horror, which seeks to represent the unrepresentable.

  14. Students' integration of multiple representations in a titration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Nicole M.

    A complete understanding of a chemical concept is dependent upon a student's ability to understand the microscopic or particulate nature of the phenomenon and integrate the microscopic, symbolic, and macroscopic representations of the phenomenon. Acid-base chemistry is a general chemistry topic requiring students to understand the topics of chemical reactions, solutions, and equilibrium presented earlier in the course. In this study, twenty-five student volunteers from a second semester general chemistry course completed two interviews. The first interview was completed prior to any classroom instruction on acids and bases. The second interview took place after classroom instruction, a prelab activity consisting of a titration calculation worksheet, a titration computer simulation, or a microscopic level animation of a titration, and two microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) titration experiments. During the interviews, participants were asked to define and describe acid-base concepts and in the second interview they also drew the microscopic representations of four stages in an acid-base titration. An analysis of the data showed that participants had integrated the three representations of an acid-base titration to varying degrees. While some participants showed complete understanding of acids, bases, titrations, and solution chemistry, other participants showed several alternative conceptions concerning strong acid and base dissociation, the formation of titration products, and the dissociation of soluble salts. Before instruction, participants' definitions of acid, base, and pH were brief and consisted of descriptive terms. After instruction, the definitions were more scientific and reflected the definitions presented during classroom instruction.

  15. Analysis of the Purity of Cetrimide by Titrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Rasmussen, Claus/Dallerup; Nielsen, Hans/Boye

    2006-01-01

    . Titration by perchloric acid showed a 99.69 ± 0.05 % purity of cetrimide and titration by silver nitrate showed a 99.85% ± 0.05 % purity while the traditional assay method predicted a purity of only 97.1 ± 0.4. It was found that the discrepancy could be identified as differences in selectivity during...

  16. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  17. Differential Binding Models for Direct and Reverse Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2016-03-10

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique to measure the stoichiometry and thermodynamics from binding experiments. Identifying an appropriate mathematical model to evaluate titration curves of receptors with multiple sites is challenging, particularly when the stoichiometry or binding mechanism is not available. In a recent theoretical study, we presented a differential binding model (DBM) to study calorimetry titrations independently of the interaction among the binding sites (Herrera, I.; Winnik, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 8659-8672). Here, we build upon our DBM and show its practical application to evaluate calorimetry titrations of receptors with multiple sites independently of the titration direction. Specifically, we present a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the general form d[S]/dV that can be integrated numerically to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of free and bound species S at every injection step and, subsequently, to evaluate the volume-normalized heat signal (δQ(V) = δq/dV) of direct and reverse calorimetry titrations. Additionally, we identify factors that influence the shape of the titration curve and can be used to optimize the initial concentrations of titrant and analyte. We demonstrate the flexibility of our updated DBM by applying these differentials and a global regression analysis to direct and reverse calorimetric titrations of gadolinium ions with multidentate ligands of increasing denticity, namely, diglycolic acid (DGA), citric acid (CIT), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and use statistical tests to validate the stoichiometries for the metal-ligand pairs studied.

  18. New applications of corrosion measurements by titration (CMT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1998-01-01

    . It is shown that when aluminium dissolves in alkali, CMT measurements can also be applied, but in this case requiring titration with alkali. Titration with alkali is also required in a special situation, where corrosion of nickel in an acid solution and subsequent formation of a nickel complex results...

  19. The coulometric titration of acids and bases in dimethylsulfoxide media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; IJpma, S.T.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1976-01-01

    The coulometric titration of 20–200 μeq of acids and bases in DMSO media is described. In the titration of bases, the electro-oxidation of hydrogen at a platinized platinum electrode is used as the source of protons. The conditions for 100 % current efficiency at this electrode are low current

  20. Three Göttingen lectures by Karl Schwarzschild, 1904-1905. (German Title: Drei Göttinger Vorlesungen Karl Schwarzschilds 1904-1905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Theodor

    Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), perhaps the most eminent astronomer of his time, was professor at Göttingen University from 1901 to 1909. Three of his lectures from the years 1904 to 1906 are available in the form of copy-books written by his students Arnold Kohlschütter (1883-1969) and Max Born (1882-1970). Here, an overview of these lectures is given.

  1. Karl Julius Lohnert - an unknown astronomer, experimental psychologist and teacher (German Title: Karl Julius Lohnert - ein unbekannter Astronom, experimenteller Psychologe und Lehrer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmadel, Lutz D.; Guski-Leinwand, Susanne

    2011-08-01

    Karl Julius Lohnert (1885-1944) with his double biography as astronomer and psychologist is hardly known in both fields. As a student of astronomy in Heidelberg, Lohnert discovered a couple of minor planets and he dedicated one to his PhD supervisor, the famous Leipzig professor for philosophy, Wilhelm Wundt. This connection is discussed for the first time almost one century after the naming of (635) Vundtia. The paper elucidates some biographical stations of Lohnert.

  2. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  3. Nanostructured Thin Films Obtained from Fischer Aminocarbene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Lazo-Jiménez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of four amphiphilic organometallic complexes with the general formula RC = M(CO5NH(CH215CH3, where R is a ferrocenyl 2(a-b or a phenyl 4(a-b group as a donor moiety and a Fischer carbene of chromium (0 or tungsten (0 as an acceptor group, are reported. These four push-pull systems formed Langmuir (L monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves; Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB method, molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates forming Z-type multilayers. LB films were characterized through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results indicated that films obtained from 2b complex [(Ferrocenyl(hexadecylaminemethylidene] pentacarbonyl tungsten (0 are the most stable and homogeneous; due to their properties, these materials may be incorporated into organic electronic devices.

  4. {alpha},{beta}-Unsaturated Fischer carbene complexes as chemical multitalents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijere, A. de [Institut fuer Organische Chemie der George-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The well established reaction of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated Fischer carbenechromium complexes 6(R{sup 1} = H) with alkynes normally proceeds with carbonyl insertion to yield 4-alkoxyphenols 9. Led by the incidental formation of a cyclopentadiene 3 from certain {beta}-aminosubstituted complexes 6(X = NR{sub 2}{sup 3}, R{sup 1} = cPr) the authors have studied the influences of the nature of substituents (R{sup 1}, X on 6; R{sub L}, R{sub S} in the alkyne; R{sup 3} in the amino group), solvents, and temperature on the outcome of the reaction. Imino substitution on complexes 6 leads to 2H-pyrroles 1, a free primary amino group (X = NH{sub 2}) to pyridines 5, and bulky substituents R{sup 1} to cyclopenta[b]pyrans 8 with double insertion of an alkyne. Eventually, appropriate conditions have been developed which permit to selectively prepare either 3-alkoxy-5-(dialkylamino)cyclopentadienes 3 (as synthetic equivalents of cyclopentenones 4), 5-(dialkylaminomethylene)cyclopent-2-enones 7, 3-alkoxy-2-(1{prime}-morpholino-1{prime}-alkenyl)cyclopent-2-enones 10, and 2-acyl-3-(dialkylamino)cyclopent-2-enones 11 from easily accessible carbene complexes 6 (X = NR{sub 2}{sup 3}) in high yields. Mechanistic aspects and implications of these novel transformations will be discussed.

  5. The Fischer 344 rat as a model of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syka, Josef

    2010-06-01

    Due to the rising number of the aged human population all over the world, presbycusis is a phenomenon that deserves the increasing attention of the medical community as regards to prevention and treatment. This requires finding appropriate animal models for human presbycusis that will be useful in future experiments. Among the available rat strains, the Fischer 344 (F344) strain promises to serve as a model producing prompt and profound presbycusis. Hearing thresholds begin to increase in this strain during the first year of life; toward the end of the second year, the thresholds are very high. The threshold shifts progress independently in both ears. The rapid deterioration of distortion product otoacoustic emissions, with the majority of outer hair cells (OHC) being present and morphologically intact, is apparently produced by the disruption of prestin. The age-related changes within inner ear function are accompanied by deterioration of acoustical signal processing within central auditory system, mainly due to impaired GABA inhibition. The loss of GABA inhibition in old animals is expressed primarily in the inferior colliculus but is also present in the cochlear nuclei and the auditory cortex. Sound-evoked behavioral reactions are also impaired in old F344 rats. Taken together, the described characteristics of the aging F344 rat auditory system supports the idea that this strain may serve as a suitable model for studying the mechanisms of presbycusis, its prevention and treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanostructured Thin Films Obtained from Fischer Aminocarbene Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Jiménez, Rosa E.; Ortega-Alfaro, M. Carmen; López-Cortés, José G.; Alvarez-Toledano, Cecilio; Chávez-Carvayar, José Á.; Ignés-Mullol, Jordi; González-Torres, Maykel; Carreón-Castro, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of four amphiphilic organometallic complexes with the general formula RC = M(CO)5NH(CH2)15CH3, where R is a ferrocenyl 2(a-b) or a phenyl 4(a-b) group as a donor moiety and a Fischer carbene of chromium (0) or tungsten (0) as an acceptor group, are reported. These four push-pull systems formed Langmuir (L) monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves); Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) method, molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates forming Z-type multilayers. LB films were characterized through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results indicated that films obtained from 2b complex [(Ferrocenyl)(hexadecylamine)methylidene] pentacarbonyl tungsten (0) are the most stable and homogeneous; due to their properties, these materials may be incorporated into organic electronic devices. PMID:28773289

  7. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4); however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94%(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2), deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C

  8. Gas to liquids. Fischer Tropsch: what does the future hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2005-01-01

    The process concerning the chemical transformation of natural gas into oil-based products (a so-called 'clean' diesel) known under the term GTL FT (Gas To Liquids - Fischer Tropsch) will turn a new page in its history with the start-up of a major unit in Qatar in 2006 Up until now only two GTL units were deployed, in the early 1990's (Moss as and Shell) without however resulting in the widespread expansion of this process. The technological breakthroughs achieved around the year 2000 combined with a favourable background context (concerning geopolitical tension, ears of oil production peaks, significant increases in the price of crude) now account for much of the interest shown in this solution. Consequently, outside Qatar, projects are also being looked at in various natural gas producing countries such as Nigeria or Algeria. It would be justified however to think that a new wave of natural gas recycling will gradually emerge as part of the global energy market. (author)

  9. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions

  10. Overview of reactors for liquid phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Burtron H.

    2002-01-01

    The following overview is divided roughly into three sections. The first section covers the period from the late 1920s when the first liquid phase synthesis was first conducted until about 1960 when the interest in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) declined because of the renewed view of an abundance of petroleum at a low price. The second period includes the activity that resulted from the oil shortage due to the Arab embargo in 1972 and covers from about 1960 to 1985 when the period of gloomy projections for rapidly increasing prices for crude had faded away. The third section covers the period from when the interest in FTS was no longer driven by the projected supply and/or price of petroleum but by the desire to monetize stranded natural gas and/or terminate flaring the gas associated with petroleum production and other environmental concerns (1985 to date). These sections are followed by a brief overview of the current status of the scientific and engineering understanding of slurry bubble column reactors

  11. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  12. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron H. Davis

    1999-04-30

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  13. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur

    2004-01-01

    This report covers the second year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the second year of the project we completed the STSR test SB-26203 (275-343 h on stream), which was initiated during the first year of the project, and another STSR test (SB-28603 lasting 341 h). Since the inception of the project we completed 3 STSR tests, and evaluated catalyst under 25 different sets of process conditions. A precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany) was used in all tests. This catalyst was used initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. Also, during the second year we performed a qualitative analysis of experimental data from all three STSR tests. Effects of process conditions (reaction temperature, pressure, feed composition and gas space velocity) on water-gas-shift (WGS) activity and hydrocarbon product distribution have been determined

  14. A generalized approach for the calculation and automation of potentiometric titrations Part 1. Acid-Base Titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stur, J.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Fast and accurate calculation procedures for pH and redox potentials are required for optimum control of automatic titrations. The procedure suggested is based on a three-dimensional titration curve V = f(pH, redox potential). All possible interactions between species in the solution, e.g., changes

  15. Fischer-Tropsch diesel production over calcium-promoted Co/alumina catalyst: Effect of reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. de la Osa; A. De Lucas; A. Romero; J.L. Valverde; P. Sanchez [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Chemical Engineering Department

    2011-05-15

    The effects of reaction conditions on the Fischer-Tropsch activity and product distribution of an alkali-earth metal promoted cobalt based catalyst were studied. The influence of the promoter on the reducibility and cobalt particle size was studied by different techniques, including N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction, temperature-programmed desorption and acid-base titrations. Experiments were carried out on a bench-scale fixed bed reactor and catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. It was observed that addition of a small amount of calcium oxide as a promoter (0.6 wt.%) improved the cobalt oxide reducibility and reduced the formation of cobalt-aluminate species. A positive correlation between basicity and particle size was observed. In terms of FTS results, CO conversion and C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity were found to be enhanced by the addition of this promoter. It was important to note that the addition of calcium shifted the distribution to mainly C{sub 16}-C{sub 18} hydrocarbons fraction, which could be greatly considered for a diesel formulation. Furthermore, the variation of the reaction conditions seemed to influence product distribution in a lesser extent than unpromoted catalyst. Also, a displacement of hydrocarbon distribution to higher molecular weight with decreasing space velocity and temperature was observed. Moreover, the addition of calcium to the cobalt based catalyst was found to greatly maintain selectivity to C{sub 5}{sup +} for a wide range of H{sub 2}/CO molar ratios. 60 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Tänapäeva tantsuteatri mitu palet / Heili Einasto, Karl Toepfer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Einasto, Heili

    2015-01-01

    Vestlus San Jose ülikooli professori Karl Toepferiga nüüdisaegsest Eesti tantsuteatrist - I. Tuksami "Vassilissa", E. Tubina ja M Kesleri "Kratt", T. Olleski jt. "HTK", G. Reynoldsi ja S. Stubbsi "Gatsby", N. Rota ja G. Madia "La Dolce Vita", A. Toikka "Faust"

  17. Ideal i realnost : Karl von Gershelman - poet-hudozhnik / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti päritolu kunstniku Elisabeth Rosendorff-Hoerschelmanni (1898-1984) ja Eestiga seotud kunstniku ja kirjaniku Karl von Hoerschelmanni (1899-1951) elust ja loomingust. 2004. a. augustis-oktoobris oli kunstnike tööde näitus Adamson-Ericu muuseumis

  18. Karl Ristikivi rändav Arkaadia / Janika Kronberg, Brita Melts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2012-01-01

    Artikkel jälgib Arkaadia-motiivi arengut Karl Ristikivi loomingus, toetudes nii autori poolt läbikäidud maastikele kui ka kunstikriitiku ja teoreetiku Simon Schama töödele. Käsitletakse ka Arkaadia motiivi Euroopa kultuuriloos

  19. The Psychology of Thinking, Animal Psychology, and the Young Karl Popper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. in his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it

  20. The Rejectability of Karl Popper: Why Popper's Ideas Have Had So Little Influence on Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tyrrell; Swann, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the question of why Karl Popper's work has been disregarded or rejected for educational improvement and suggests a series of impediments to an acceptance of Popper's ideas. Outlines a set of principle which if adopted as a basis for practice could lead to significant improvement. (EV)

  1. [Results of school inspections in the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J

    1978-10-01

    Within the Health Protection in Childhood and Adolescence Research Project a hygienic inspection questionnaire was designed for schools. To test this questionnaire, 248 schools in 11 districts of the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt were inspected. From the ascertainments made, several instances are cited to point out the priorities of school hygiene.

  2. Karl Marx:"Er waart een spook door Europa" door Bart Tromp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir.ing Ruud Thelosen

    2011-01-01

    In dit in 2006 verschenen boekje van prof. Sociologie Bart Tromp, die zelf in 2007 overleed, worden niet alleen belangrijke stukken van de hand van Karl Marx zelf weergegeven, maar ook een grondige biografie en een inleiding om het belang van Marx ook voor de actualiteit te benadrukken.

  3. Problematizing the "Taken for Granted" in Educational Issues: Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, and Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jie

    This paper explores how educators would raise different questions about educational issues by using Karl Marx's framework, Antonio Gramsci's conception, and Michel Foucault's notions, respectively. First, the paper compares the historical perspectives of Marx and Foucault. Marx concludes that history is a progressive linear production and that…

  4. Karl Marx and the Paris Commune of 1871: Tracing Traditions of Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 1871, citizens of the war torn arrondissements of Paris, in the face of traumatic political and military turmoil, established a new local form of government. The Paris Commune, as this government became known as in the English world, attracted attention for its alternative political-economic organization. One notable commentator was Karl Marx…

  5. Karl Marx in One Lesson (1818-1883). Series on Public Issues No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejovich, Steve

    This booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, starts from the premise that Marxism is a threat to our way of life and offers a critique of fundamental components of the social movement Marx created. The first of six subsections focuses on sources of influence on Karl Marx…

  6. USA presidendi üks peamisi nõunikke Karl Rove lahkub ametist / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    1993. aastast praeguse USA presidendi George B. Bushiga koos töötanud Karl Rove lahkub ametist perekonna huvides. K. Rove on uurimise all olnud seoses CIA agendi Valerie Plame'i paljastamisega, Senati komitee kuulas teda üle kaheksa föderaalprokuröri vallandamise uurimise raames

  7. Lidar - nesbõvshajasja estonskaja "nokia" / Karl Rebane ; interv. Julia Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Karl, 1926-2007

    2006-01-01

    Eesti NSV teadlaste poolt välja töötatud laserseade lidar, seadme ehitamisest, töötamise põhimõttest ja kasutusvaldkonnast. Akadeemik Karl Rebase sõnul ei oleks sellise ulatusega Läänemere saastamist juhtunud, kui Eestil oleks normaalne ökoloogilise kontrolli süsteem. Poliitikute suhtumisest kodumaise teaduse arengusse

  8. Karl Barth's definition of church in politics and culture: Growth points ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes briefly Karl Barth's views on church, its role in politics and how it relates to culture. This is done by identifying the way in which the church participates in the social realm through its relationship with the State. The historic religious question asks whether there is a natural mutual-determining relationship ...

  9. Titration and hysteresis in epigenetic chromatin silencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms of silencing via heritable chromatin modifications play a major role in gene regulation and cell fate specification. We consider a model of epigenetic chromatin silencing in budding yeast and study the bifurcation diagram and characterize the bistable and the monostable regimes. The main focus of this paper is to examine how the perturbations altering the activity of histone modifying enzymes affect the epigenetic states. We analyze the implications of having the total number of silencing proteins, given by the sum of proteins bound to the nucleosomes and the ones available in the ambient, to be constant. This constraint couples different regions of chromatin through the shared reservoir of ambient silencing proteins. We show that the response of the system to perturbations depends dramatically on the titration effect caused by the above constraint. In particular, for a certain range of overall abundance of silencing proteins, the hysteresis loop changes qualitatively with certain jump replaced by continuous merger of different states. In addition, we find a nonmonotonic dependence of gene expression on the rate of histone deacetylation activity of Sir2. We discuss how these qualitative predictions of our model could be compared with experimental studies of the yeast system under anti-silencing drugs. (paper)

  10. Novel titration method for surface-functionalised silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofen, Kai; Weber, Siegfried [Department of Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences, Mannheim (Germany); Chan, Chiu Ping Candace [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia); Majewski, Peter, E-mail: peter.majewski@unisa.edu.au [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd, Mawson Lakes 5095 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes three inexpensive and fast analytical methods to characterise grafted particle surfaces. The reaction of silica with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane and N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid hydrate, respectively, leads to NH{sub 2}-, SO{sub 3}H- or COOH-functionalised silica, which were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and titration in nonaqueous media as well as with two titration methods in a water-based environment. In the work presented, factors influencing the titrations are pointed out and solutions are presented to overcome these limiting factors are shown.

  11. Novel titration method for surface-functionalised silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofen, Kai; Weber, Siegfried; Chan, Chiu Ping Candace; Majewski, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes three inexpensive and fast analytical methods to characterise grafted particle surfaces. The reaction of silica with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane and N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid hydrate, respectively, leads to NH 2 -, SO 3 H- or COOH-functionalised silica, which were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and titration in nonaqueous media as well as with two titration methods in a water-based environment. In the work presented, factors influencing the titrations are pointed out and solutions are presented to overcome these limiting factors are shown.

  12. The fluorimetric titration of zirconium in the ppm-range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, W.E. von der; Boef, G. den; Ozinga, W.

    1976-01-01

    A fluorimetric titration of zirconium(IV) with EDTA is proposed. The fluorescence intensity of the zirconium-morin complex is used to indicate the end-point. More than twenty other cations were investigated and it was found that they did not interfere, neither did common anions. Mercury(II) can only be tolerated in amount not exceeding that of zirconium. Bismuth(III) interferes and hafnium(IV0 is titrated together with zirconium. The relative standard deviation of the titration of 10ml of a solution containing 1 ppm of zirconium does not exceed 1.5%

  13. Determination of boron as boric acid by automatic potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, D.

    1988-06-01

    Boron in PWR primary coolant and related waters may be determined as boric acid by titration with sodium hydroxide, using a glass electrode as a pH indicator. With a modern automatic titrator, the analysis is quick, convenient, accurate and precise. In the titration of 8 mg B (e.g. 4 ml of 2000 mg 1 -1 solution), no significant bias was observed and relative standard deviations were about 0.25%. With 0.8 g B, a bias of about 2% appears, although this could be reduced by restandardizing the titrant, but the relative standard deviation was still -1 B, depending on the stage of the fuel cycle. (author)

  14. The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-06-23

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOP11ENT The Potentiometric Titration of Filtrates from the Bachmann Process (OD-12) by F. C. Whitmore OSRD No. 654... Potentiometric Titration of Synthetic Mixtures. A? Nitric Acid-Acetic Acid. A sample of 60 ml. glacial acetic acid war diluted to 200 ml. with distilled...i4flinflr?fj3 TADLE 1 CO) |S?lDBnTl» POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF SYNTHETIC t’.IXTURES WITH CONCENTRATED AJKDNIUM HYDROXIDE A; unonium HNO-j- AcOfi Ky

  15. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  16. Simple home-made sensors for potentiometric titrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.

    1982-04-01

    A sensor for potentiometric titrations was prepared by coating a spectroscopic graphite rod with a solution of poly(vinyl chloride) and dioctyphthalate in tetrahydrofuran. The reference electrode was an Ag/AgCl single-junction electrode. The sensor was used in precipitation, acid-base, compleximetric, and redox titrations. Preparation of the coated-graphite sensor is simple and rapid. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive. A limitation is its applicability in aqueous media only, because organic solvents will dissolve the membrane. Various uncoated types of graphite have also been investigated as sensors, particularly in two applications of interest in the analysis of propellants: the titration of nitroform and perchlorate. Obviously, these sensors can be used also in nonaqueous, or partially nonaqueous media. These sensors may also find use in the potentiometric titration of fluoride vs La(III) or Th

  17. Spectrophotometric titration of sulfates in the presence of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Kotova, S.S.; Molokanova, L.G.; Chekmarev, A.M.; Yagodin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure has been proposed for express determination of sulphate ions in the presence of zirconium by spectrophotometric titration with the use of barium chloride and nitrochromazo as an indicator. The procedure is based on bonding zirconium into a more stable complex with EDTA (ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid). The presence of excess of EDTA and zirconium (4) complexonate in the solution being titrated does not affect the titration curve shape and the character of break on the curve in the equivalence point. A complete demasking of SO 4 2- is observed in the case of 1O-fold excess of EDTA with respect to zirconium (4). Statistic evaluation of the method has shown that the results of titration can be distorted by chance errors only

  18. Coulometric titration of niobium in 1F sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannu, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    A coulometric titration at constant current has been devised for Nb in 1F sulfuric acid. The titration was based on the oxidation of Nb(III) to Nb(V) by Fe(III) electrogenerated at a graphite anode. Both potentiometric and amperometric end points were used. The Nb(V) was prior reduced at a mercury cathode by exhaustive electrolysis at a current density of 15 ma/mc 2 for at least 10 hr. Ta,V,Ti and a working platinum anode interfered, but the separation of the potentials of Nb(V)/Nb(III) and Ti(IV)/Ti(III) permitted the titration of first Nb and then Ti. The average error for the titration of 0.30 to 13.00 mg of niobium in 100 ml of 1F sulfuric acid was + 0.57%. (author)

  19. Coulometric titration of niobium in EDTA complexing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannu, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Constant current coulometry of Nb in EDTA was studied employing both potentiometric and amperometric end-point techniques. The titrations were based on the oxidation of Nb(IV)-EDTA with electrogenerated Fe(III) at a graphite anode. The rate of disproportionation of Nb(IV)-EDTA was found to be slow enough not to effect the accuracy sought for the titration. The coulometric titration of Nb in EDTA was found to be more accurate than in 1F sulfuric acid. The mean error in the titrations of 4.76 to 19.65 of Nb in a volume of about 100 ml of 0.02 to 0.04F EDTA was 0.13%. It was found that Ta may be tolerated to a ratio of 1:4, Ta:Nb, in a solution containing 13 mg of Nb. (author)

  20. Green chemistry volumetric titration kit for pharmaceutical formulations: Econoburette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Singh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Stopcock SC and Spring Sp models of Econoburette (Calibrated, RTC (NR, Ministry of Small Scale Industries, Government of India, developed for semimicro volumetric titration of pharmaceutical formulations are reported. These are economized and risk free titration where pipette is replaced by an inbuilt pipette and conical flask by inbuilt bulb. A step of pipetting of stock solution by mouth is deleted. It is used to allow solution exposure to user’s body. This risk is removed and even volatile and toxic solutions are titrated with full proof safety. Econoburette minimizes use of materials and time by 90 % and prevent discharge of polluting effluent to environment. Few acid and base samples are titrated and an analysis of experimental expenditure is described in the papers.

  1. Potentiometric titration of free acid in uranium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.; Sohn, S. C.; Eom, T. Y.; Lee, C. H.; Jeon, Y. S.; Han, S. H.

    1998-02-01

    Hydrolysis properties of metal cations and fundamental principles of the potentiometric titration of free acid in aqueous solutions containing metal cations were described. The published papers and reports for the alkalimetric and acidimetric titration of free acid were surveyed, and the applicability of these titration methods to the uranium and/or plutonium solutions were discussed. This technical report also includes the various results obtained from the authors' researches to establish the alkalimetric and acidimetric titration methods for the determination of free acid in nitric acid solutions containing uranium and/or oxalic acid, and aluminum. The procedure manuals used in chemical processes and the newly prepared manuals based on the authors' researches are appended. (author). 26 refs., 54 figs

  2. Potentiometric titration of free acid in uranium solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.; Sohn, S. C.; Eom, T. Y.; Lee, C. H.; Jeon, Y. S.; Han, S. H.

    1998-02-01

    Hydrolysis properties of metal cations and fundamental principles of the potentiometric titration of free acid in aqueous solutions containing metal cations were described. The published papers and reports for the alkalimetric and acidimetric titration of free acid were surveyed, and the applicability of these titration methods to the uranium and/or plutonium solutions were discussed. This technical report also includes the various results obtained from the authors` researches to establish the alkalimetric and acidimetric titration methods for the determination of free acid in nitric acid solutions containing uranium and/or oxalic acid, and aluminum. The procedure manuals used in chemical processes and the newly prepared manuals based on the authors` researches are appended. (author). 26 refs., 54 figs.

  3. A Titration Technique for Demonstrating a Magma Replenishment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, A. P. W.

    1983-01-01

    Conductiometric titrations can be used to simulate subduction-setting volcanism. Suggestions are made as to the use of this technique in teaching volcanic mechanisms and geochemical indications of tectonic settings. (JN)

  4. A microcomputer-controlled system for titration analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelema, Gerrit Jan

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the results of the implementation of microprocessor technology in automatic titration equipment to obtain a versatile system for pharmaceutical, chemical analytical and optimization research purposes. ... Zie: Summary

  5. Carbon dioxide titration method for soil respiration measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rubio, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Tampere University of Applied Sciences, which was interested in studying and developing a titration measurement method for soil respiration and biodegradability. Some experiments were carried out measuring soil respiration for testing the method and others adding some biodegradable material like polylactic acid compressed material and 100% biodegradable plastic bags to test its biodegradability and the possibility to measure it via titration. The thesi...

  6. A fully automatic system for acid-base coulometric titrations

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera, A.; Caro, A.; Estela, J. M.; Cerdà, V.

    1990-01-01

    An automatic system for acid-base titrations by electrogeneration of H+ and OH- ions, with potentiometric end-point detection, was developed. The system includes a PC-compatible computer for instrumental control, data acquisition and processing, which allows up to 13 samples to be analysed sequentially with no human intervention. The system performance was tested on the titration of standard solutions, which it carried out with low errors and RSD. It was subsequently applied to the analysis o...

  7. Amperometric titration of indium with edta solution in propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Khadeev, V.A.; Kostylev, V.S.; Khadeeva, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum conditions have been chosen for titration of indium with EDTA solution in anhydrous propanol and its mixtures with some aprotic solvents using amperometric and point detection. A procedure is suggested of determining indium microcontents in the presence of large amounts of other elements. The procedure is based on its extraction preseparation followed by direct titration in the extract with a standard EDTA solution [ru

  8. Thermometric titrations of amines with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, T; Kiliç, E; Cakirer, O

    1996-05-01

    Thirteen aliphatic and four aromatic amines, namely diethylamine, triethylamine, n-propylamine, di-n-propylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isopropylamine, di-isopropylamine, n-butylamine, di-n-butylamine, tri-n-butylamine, isobutylamine, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2-nitroaniline and 4-nitroaniline were titrated thermometrically with nitrosyl perchlorate in acetonitrile solvent. All the aliphatic amines gave very well-shaped thermometric titration curves. The calculated recovery values of the amines were very good. In comparison, the aromatic amines, aniline and N,N-dimethylaniline gave rather well-shaped titration curves, but the recovery values were fairly low. 2-Nitro- and 4-nitro anilines gave no thermometric response at all. The heats of reaction of the amines with nitrosyl perchlorate are rather high. However, the average heat of reaction of the aromatic amines is approximately two-thirds that of the average heat of the aliphatic amines. To support this method all the amines were also titrated potentiometrically and very similar results to those obtained with the thermometric method are seen. The nitrosyl ion is a Lewis acid, strong enough to titrate quantitatively aliphatic amines in acetonitrile solvent, but not strong enough to titrate aromatic amines at the required level in the same solvent.

  9. Gran method for end point anticipation in monosegmented flow titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Emerson V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic potentiometric monosegmented flow titration procedure based on Gran linearisation approach has been developed. The controlling program can estimate the end point of the titration after the addition of three or four aliquots of titrant. Alternatively, the end point can be determined by the second derivative procedure. In this case, additional volumes of titrant are added until the vicinity of the end point and three points before and after the stoichiometric point are used for end point calculation. The performance of the system was assessed by the determination of chloride in isotonic beverages and parenteral solutions. The system employs a tubular Ag2S/AgCl indicator electrode. A typical titration, performed according to the IUPAC definition, requires only 60 mL of sample and about the same volume of titrant (AgNO3 solution. A complete titration can be carried out in 1 - 5 min. The accuracy and precision (relative standard deviation of ten replicates are 2% and 1% for the Gran and 1% and 0.5% for the Gran/derivative end point determination procedures, respectively. The proposed system reduces the time to perform a titration, ensuring low sample and reagent consumption, and full automatic sampling and titrant addition in a calibration-free titration protocol.

  10. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

    2005-01-01

    This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H 2 O, CO 2 , linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter (α) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow

  11. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukur, Dragomir B.; Lang, X.; Chokkaram, S.; Nowicki, L.; Wei, G.; Ding, Y.; Reddy, B.; Xiao, S.

    1999-01-01

    Despite the current worldwide oil glut, the US will ultimately require large-scale production of liquid (transportation) fuels from coal. Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, with its versatile product slate, may be expected to play a major role in production of transportation fuels via indirect coal liquefaction. Some of the F-T catalysts synthesized and tested at Texas A and M University under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89868 were more active than any other known catalysts developed for maximizing production of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (waxes). The objectives of the present contract were to demonstrate repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of preparation procedures of two of these catalysts on a laboratory scale. Improvements in the catalyst performance were attempted through the use of: (a) higher reaction pressure and gas space velocity to maximize the reactor productivity; (b) modifications in catalyst preparation steps; and (c) different pretreatment procedures. Repeatability of catalyst performance and reproducibility of catalyst synthesis procedure have been successfully demonstrated in stirred tank slurry reactor tests. Reactor space-time-yield was increased up to 48% by increasing reaction pressure from 1.48 MPa to 2.17 MPa, while maintaining the gas contact time and synthesis gas conversion at a constant value. Use of calcination temperatures above 300 C, additional CaO promoter, and/or potassium silicate as the source of potassium promoter, instead of potassium bicarbonate, did not result in improved catalyst performance. By using different catalyst activation procedures they were able to increase substantially the catalyst activity, while maintaining low methane and gaseous hydrocarbon selectivities. Catalyst productivity in runs SA-0946 and SA-2186 was 0.71 and 0.86 gHC/g-Fe/h, respectively, and this represents 45-75% improvement in productivity relative to that achieved in Rheinpreussen's demonstration plant

  13. Karl Marx, un periodista en la Era del Capital. Apuntes para una investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Pino, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to criticize the traditional representation of Karl Marx’s journalistic works, usually forgotten by a misleading canon that assumes his articles only as a minor work. One of the problems of this traditional conception is that it dissociates his theoretical and economic contributions from the historical development of the author’s thought (and also from its material roots. We will try to point the importance of Karl Marx’s mature journalism in two areas: in the construction of the central concepts of his critic against the capitalist mode of production (surplus value, a multilineal historical perspective, a global description of the world market, etc. and in the production of political cartographies to intervene in the class conflict. This article poses several hypothesis and tentative affirmations about Karl Marx’s journalism that may serve as a point of departure for a critical research.El objetivo de este artículo es criticar la representación tradicional del trabajo periodístico de Karl Marx, habitualmente olvidado por un canon engañoso que sólo asume sus artículos al precio de convertirlos en una obra menor. Uno de los problemas de esta concepción tradicional es que disocia sus contribuciones teóricas y económicas del desarrollo histórico del pensamiento del autor (y también de sus raíces materiales. Intentaremos señalar la importancia del periodismo maduro de Karl Marx en dos áreas: en la construcción de los conceptos centrales de su crítica contra el capitalismo (plusvalor, un enfoque histórico multilineal, una descripción global del mercado mundial, etc. y en la producción de cartografías políticas para intervenir en el conflicto de clases. Este artículo plantea varias hipótesis y afirmaciones tentativas sobre el periodismo de Karl Marx que pueden servir como punto de partida de una investigación crítica.

  14. Karl Valentin’s Illogical Subversion: issues arising from Karl Valentin’s Das Aquarium and Liesl Karlstadt’s Verein der Katzenfreund

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Mike; Double, Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Valentin Ludwig Fey was born on 4 June 1882 in the Munich suburb of Au, effectively the only child of an artisan-class family – his sister and two brothers all died in early childhood before Valentin Ludwig was even six months old. Valentin himself only narrowly survived a childhood encounter with diptheria (all of which, perhaps unsurprisingly, contributed to his ever-increasing hypochondria1), but he went on to become Karl Valentin, arguably the most famous German comedian and cabaret perfo...

  15. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  16. Strain differences of cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats: involvement of cadmium accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Takamure, Yasutaka; Shimada, Akinori; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P.; Imamura, Yorishige

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats have a strong resistance to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality compared to other strains such as Fischer 344 (Fischer) rats. The present study was designed to establish biochemical and histological differences in Cd toxicity in WI and Fischer rats, and to clarify the mechanistic basis of these strain differences. A single Cd (4.5 mg/kg, s.c.) treatment caused a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, in Fischer rats, but did not in WI rats. This difference in hepatotoxic response to Cd was supported by pathological analysis. After treatment with Cd at doses of 3.0, 3.5 and 4.5 mg/kg, the hepatic and renal accumulation of Cd was significantly lower in the WI rats than in the Fischer rats, indicating a kinetic mechanism for the observed strain differences in Cd toxicity. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced hepatotoxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with a lower tissue accumulation of the metal. Hepatic and renal zinc (Zn) contents after administration were similarly lower in WI than in Fischer rats. When Zn was administered in combination with Cd to Fischer rats, it decreased Cd contents in the liver and kidney, and exhibited a significant protective effect against the toxicity of Cd. We propose the possibility that Zn transporter plays an important role in the strain difference of Cd toxicity in WI and Fischer rats

  17. Physiatrie and German maternal feminism: Dr. Anna Fischer-Dückelmann critiques academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Paulette

    2006-01-01

    Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.

  18. Comprehensive characterisation of products from cobalt catalysed Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, M.C.; Bertoncini, F.; Hugues, F.; Forestiere, A. [IFP, Vernaison (France)

    2006-07-01

    Fischer-Tropsch reaction synthesis has been studied in presence of supported cobalt catalysts. The experimental work has been performed by using a slurry pilot plant. All the gaseous and liquid products, including by-products recovered in the water phase produced, have been analysed in order to determine the whole products distribution and the catalyst selectivity. Apart from paraffin which are the main products obtained via cobalt-catalyzed Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, olefins and oxygenates by-products present also their own distribution. These detailed data are available thanks to new dedicated analytical methods developed in IFP laboratories. (orig.)

  19. Roosna-Alliku mõisa häärber / Karl Kolopka, Nele Rohtla, Johann Schultz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolopka, Karl

    2004-01-01

    12 ill.; peahoone ehitati Johann Schultzi kavandite järgi, siseinterjööri ilmestava Louis XVI stiilis stukitöö tegi Karl Kolopka, häärber restaureeriti Nele Rohtla (OÜ Mõisaprojekt) suunamisel

  20. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE): In Situ Geochronology for Planetary Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Potassium (K) - Argon (Ar) Laser Experiment (KArLE) will make in situ noble-gas geochronology measurements aboard planetary robotic landers and roverss. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is used to measure the K abun-dance in a sample and to release its noble gases; the evolved Ar is measured by mass spectrometry (MS); and rela-tive K content is related to absolute Ar abundance by sample mass, determined by optical measurement of the ablated volume. KArLE measures a whole-rock K-Ar age to 10% or better for rocks 2 Ga or older, sufficient to resolve the absolute age of many planetary samples. The LIBS-MS approach is attractive because the analytical components have been flight proven, do not require further technical development, and provide complementary measurements as well as in situ geochronology.

  1. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmuck

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der kurze, nicht vollständig erhaltene Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer behandelt sehr verschiedene Themen: Politik, Kriegsgefahr, den Wissenschaftsbetrieb, Auszeichnungen und Tagungen, Embryologie und Cholera. Gemeinsam mit Briefen und Reden ergibt sich dabei ein differenziertes Bild der Beurteilung der beiden Wissenschaftler durch den jeweils anderen. Während Baer sich als Bewunderer Humboldts erweist, erscheint umgekehrt Humboldts Einschätzung Baers als ambivalent. Abstract The short, not completely preserved correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Ernst von Baer deals with a wide range of subjects: politics and the danger of war, academic activities, scientific awards and conferences, aspects of embryology and the cholera. Letters to third persons and speeches, together with the correspondence between Humboldt and Baer show a differentiated pattern of mutual appraisal: While Baer always remained an admirer of the elder naturalist, Humboldt’s estimation was characterized by ambivalence.

  2. Large-Scale Influences on the Genesis of Tropical Cyclone Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, K.; Bosart, L. F.

    2012-12-01

    The events leading up to the genesis of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Karl (2010) provides a unique opportunity to examine the continuing problem of understanding tropical cyclogenesis. The PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign allowed for detailed investigation of the tropical disturbance that served as the precursor to TC Karl as it progressed westward through the Caribbean Sea. The purpose of this presentation is to examine the evolution of the pre-Karl disturbance using both common synoptic-scale analyses as well as statistically-based equatorial wave analyses, focusing on where these analyses complement and enhance each other. One of the major factors in the initial spin-up of the pre-Karl tropical disturbance is a surge of southerly and westerly winds from northern South America on 8-10 September 2010. As the surge entered the Caribbean on 9 September, it aided in the formation of a nearly closed earth-relative cyclonic circulation near the southern Leeward Islands. This circulation weakened late on 10 September and remained weak through 13 September before increased organization led to TC genesis on 14 September. This southerly wind surge can be traced to a well-defined surge of anomalously cold air and enhanced southerly winds originating in the lee of the Argentinian Andes over a week prior. While the temperature anomalies wash out prior to reaching the equator, anomalous low-level winds progress into Colombia and Venezuela, where topography aids in turning the southerly winds eastward. An investigation of the pre-Karl environment utilizing wavenumber-frequency filtering techniques also suggests that the initial spin-up of pre-Karl can be associated with the active phase of a convectively coupled Kelvin wave (CCKW). The observed formation of the nearly closed cyclonic circulation on 10 September is well timed with the passage of anomalous westerly winds along and behind the convectively active phase of a CCKW. These

  3. Rapid clozapine titration in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Correll, Christoph U; Nielsen, Jimmi; Burtea, Victoria; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Clozapine is effective in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder (BD). Guidelines recommend slow titration to prevent seizures, hypotension and myocarditis, but this stance is not supported by comparative data. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in BD. Analysis of a consecutive cohort of treatment-refractory BD patients with mixed/manic episode admitted on alternate days to one of two units of a psychiatric hospital. On one unit, clozapine was started at 25mg followed by 25-50mg as needed every 6h (maximum=100mg/day) on day 1, followed by increases of 25-100mg/day. On the other unit, clozapine was initiated with 25mg in day 1, followed by increases of 25-50mg/day. The primary outcome was the number of days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge, adjusted in logistic regression for the number of antipsychotics tried during the hospitalization, psychotropic co-treatments and presence of psychotic features. Patients subject to rapid (N=44) and standard (N=23) titration were similar in age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, illness severity at baseline and discharge, and highest clozapine dose. Clozapine was discontinued due to hypotension (N=1) and pneumonia (N=1) during rapid titration, and for excessive sedation (N=1) in each titration group. The number of hospital days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge was 3.8 days shorter in the rapid titration group (12.7±6.3 vs. 16.5±5.8, p=0.0077). Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective for treatment-refractory BD. The potential for shorter hospital stays justifies prospective trials of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vita biografica vs. Vita biologica. la questione dell’anthropos in Karl Löwith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gambardella, Fabiana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on Karl Löwith’s anthropology. Despite the great number of anthropological studies carried out at the beginning of 20th Century and aimed at describing human nature by means of natural science (biology, ethology, zoology, Löwith elaborates an anthropology based on the concept of biographical life. Man is not a simple living being, he is also an unnatural being that produces himself through the relationship with the other within a shared world.

  5. Den første Karl Gustav-krig 1657-58

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den første Karl Gustav-krig i forskellige persketiver og konkluderer, at krigen ikke bør opfattes som et dårligt forberedt og uigennemtænkt forsøg på dansk revanche inden for rammerne af en nordisk rivalisering, men snarere som  en velovervejet satsning og et led i den dansk-s...

  6. Karl Menningu (ja iseenese) päästmiseks / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Vastuseks Karin Hallas-Murula arvustusele "Maja, mis on sümbol" (Sirp, 2007, 5. X, lk. 13) ja Mait Väljase arvustusele "Iseolemise algus arhitektuuris" (Maja, 2008, nr. 1, lk. 86-87) oma 2007. a. ilmunud raamatust "Maja kui sümbol : Eesti Üliõpilaste Seltsi hoone Tartus" kohta. Georg Hellati ja Karl Menningu osalusest EÜS-i hoone sünniloos. Frank Lloyd Wrightist kui võimalikust eeskujuandjast

  7. "Problem of generations": Origins, content and continuing relevance of Karl Mannheim’s article

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljić Todor

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a brief history of the concept of generations. It focuses on Karl Mannheim’s article "Problems of Generations" (1928), its social origins and theoretical content. Mannheim’s role was crucial in 20th century development of the (new) concept of generation. In order to understand the problem of social (historical) generations and evaluate Mannheim’s position within the concept’s development, several points are discussed in more detail: the history of the concept of "generati...

  8. [Development of child neuropsychiatry at the Karl Marx University of Leipzig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebelt, H

    1978-05-01

    The development of pedoneuropsychiatry at the University of Leipzig is marked by the opening in 1926 of the first "Department of Pedopsychiatric Observation", the establishment of the Clinic of Pedoneuropsychiatry as an independent unit of the Department of Medicine, Karl Marx University, and the setting up in 1976 of a Chair of Pedoneuropsychiatry. Paul Schröder's and R. A. Pfeifer's services to their university are particularly appreciated.

  9. Bringing the economy back in: Hannah Arendt, Karl Marx, and the politics of capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    İnce, Onur Ulaş

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the question of how to construct modern economic relations as an object of political theorizing by placing Hannah Arendt's and Karl Marx's writings in critical conversation. I contend that the political aspect of capitalism comes into sharpest relief less in relations of economic exploitation than in moments of expropriation that produce and reproduce the conditions of capitalist accumulation. To develop a theoretical handle on expropriation and thereby on the politi...

  10. Tim, Jan Lucas ja Karl Robert - vennad üheks kuuks / Maris Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri suvelavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" kaks Karli osatäitjat Jan Lucas Videvik ja Tim Leesnurm ning Joonatani osatäitja Karl Robert Saaremäe tegid Loksal Kaldmaa talus ratsasõiduproove. Üllar Saaremäe lavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" (Astrid Lindgreni samanimelise jutustuse järgi) esietendus on 11. juunil Rakvere teatri taga aias

  11. Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. Traditionally, geochronology has only been accomplishable on samples from dedicated sample return missions or meteorites. The capability for in situ geochronology is highly desired, because it will allow one-way planetary missions to perform dating of large numbers of samples. The success of an in situ geochronology package will not only yield data on absolute ages, but can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache and/or return to Earth. In situ dating instruments have been proposed, but none have yet reached TRL 6 because the required high-resolution isotopic measurements are very challenging. Our team is now addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) - Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) under the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument [1]. KArLE uses a combination of several flight-proven components that enable accurate K-Ar isochron dating of planetary rocks. KArLE will ablate a rock sample, determine the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measure the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relate the two by the volume of the ablated pit using an optical method such as a vertical scanning interferometer (VSI). Our preliminary work indicates that the KArLE instrument will be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to +/-100 Myr, sufficient to address a wide range of geochronology problems in planetary science.

  12. The politics of psychiatry and the vicissitudes of faith circa 1950: Karl Stern's psychiatric novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Karl Stern, MD (1906-1975) was the author of The Pillar of Fire (1951) and three nonfiction books on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and religion. His novel, Through Dooms of Love (1960), written with the assistance of his friend and admirer Graham Greene, covers a number of topics that were to psychiatric theory, treatment, and research at mid-century, and reflects several features of his own personal and professional vicissitudes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  14. Impact of Uniform Methods on Interlaboratory Antibody Titration Variability: Antibody Titration and Uniform Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Cheng, Yan H; Long, Thomas; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-01-01

    -Substantial variability between different antibody titration methods prompted development and introduction of uniform methods in 2008. -To determine whether uniform methods consistently decrease interlaboratory variation in proficiency testing. -Proficiency testing data for antibody titration between 2009 and 2013 were obtained from the College of American Pathologists. Each laboratory was supplied plasma and red cells to determine anti-A and anti-D antibody titers by their standard method: gel or tube by uniform or other methods at different testing phases (immediate spin and/or room temperature [anti-A], and/or anti-human globulin [AHG: anti-A and anti-D]) with different additives. Interlaboratory variations were compared by analyzing the distribution of titer results by method and phase. -A median of 574 and 1100 responses were reported for anti-A and anti-D antibody titers, respectively, during a 5-year period. The 3 most frequent (median) methods performed for anti-A antibody were uniform tube room temperature (147.5; range, 119-159), uniform tube AHG (143.5; range, 134-150), and other tube AHG (97; range, 82-116); for anti-D antibody, the methods were other tube (451; range, 431-465), uniform tube (404; range, 382-462), and uniform gel (137; range, 121-153). Of the larger reported methods, uniform gel AHG phase for anti-A and anti-D antibodies had the most participants with the same result (mode). For anti-A antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube room temperature) and 1 of 8 (uniform versus other tube AHG), and for anti-D antibody, 0 of 8 (uniform versus other tube) and 0 of 8 (uniform versus other gel) proficiency tests showed significant titer variability reduction. -Uniform methods harmonize laboratory techniques but rarely reduce interlaboratory titer variance in comparison with other methods.

  15. Twee vroeë reaksies van Gereformeerde kant op Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Engelbrecht

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1919 het die eerste uitgawe van die epogmakende “Romerbrief” van Karl Barth verskyn. Van die tweede druk in 1922 sê hy dat “kein Stein mehr auf dem andem” gelaat is nie. So opspraakwekkend was hierdie boek dat in 1929 die 5de druk van die tweede, radikaal-hersiene uitgawe verskyn het. Intussen het nog ander werke van Barth en selfs oor Barth verskyn. 0ns noem o.a. sy Der Christ in der Gesellschaft (1920; Das Wort Gottes und die Theologie (1924; Vom Christlichen Leben (1926; Auferstehung der Toten (2. Aufl. 1927, sy preke saam met Eduard Thurneysen Komm Schopfer Geist, (Dritt Aufl., 7-9 Tausend(! 1926. Maar 1927 was veral belangrik vanweë die verskyning van Barth se eerste Dogmatiekboek: “Die Christliche Dogmatik im Entwurf. 1 Die Lehre vom Worte Gottes. Prolegomena zur Christlichen Dogmatik” . Voor dié datum het dwarsoor die wêreld, maar ook in Nederland wye reaksie op sy teologie ontstaan. In 1926 skryf Max Strauch sy “Theologie Karl Barth’s”, terwyl Haitjema in Nederland ook in 1926 sy Barth boek die lig laat sien (Prof. dr. Th. L. Haitjema, Karl Barth, Wageningen 1926. Ander Nederlanders wat gereageer het, was drr. A. H. de Hartog, V. Hepp, Ph. Kohnstamm en di. D. Tromp en 0. Noordmans.

  16. The role of Fischer-Tropsch catalysis in solar nebula chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kress, ME; Tielens, AGGM

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysis, the iron/nickel catalyzed conversion of CO and H(2) to hydrocarbons, would have been the only thermally-driven pathway available in the solar nebula to convert CO into other forms of carbon. A major issue in meteoritics is to determine the origin of meteoritic organics:

  17. Heterosexual Persons' Perceptions Regarding Language Use in Counseling: Extending Dorland and Fischer (2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda D.; Waehler, Charles A.; Gray, Torie N.

    2013-01-01

    An important original study by Dorland and Fischer noted how the use of inclusive language can affect the therapeutic relationship positively for gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. In this extension of that study with heterosexual participants ("N" = 179), there seemed to be low, but positive, salience of the language used by the…

  18. Fischer aminocarbene complexes of chromium and iron: Anomalous electrochemical reduction of p-carbonyl substituted derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, I.; Zvěřinová, R.; Roháčová, J.; Dvořák, D.; Tobrman, T.; Záliš, Stanislav; Ludvík, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 19 (2011), s. 6853-6859 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : DFT calculations * electrochemistry * Fischer aminocarbene complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2011

  19. Age-related changes in cochlear and brainstem auditory functions in Fischer 344 rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelář, Jiří; Groh, Daniel; Pelánová, Jana; Canlon, B.; Syka, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 490-500 ISSN 0197-4580 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd NR8113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Fischer 344 rats * Hearing threshold * Otoacoustic emissions Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.599, year: 2006

  20. Cobalt supported on carbon nanofibers as catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts synthesis gas (H2/CO) over a heterogeneous catalyst into hydrocarbons. Generally, cobalt catalysts supported on oxidic carriers are used for the FT process, however it appears to be difficult to obtain and maintain fully reduced cobalt particles. To overcome

  1. Structure-performance relationships for supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eschemann, T.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33082712X

    2015-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) involves the heterogeneously catalyzed conversion of synthesis gas into water and hydrocarbons and offers a promising route for the synthesis of ultraclean fuels, chemicals and lubricants. The synthesis gas can be generated from different feedstocks, such as coal

  2. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)

  3. On the Deactivation of Cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) process is an attractive way to obtain synthetic liquid fuel from alternative energy sources such as natural gas, coal or biomass. However, the deactivation of the catalyst, consisting of cobalt nanoparticles supported on TiO2, currently hampers the industrial

  4. [Titration comparative study of TOPINA Tablets in patients with localization related epilepsy: double-blind comparative study by rapid and slow titration methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sunao; Inoue, Yushi; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Kato, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    To compare the tolerability and efficacy of two titration methods (rapid and slow titration) for TOPINA Tablets with different dosages and periods of escalation, a double-blind comparative study was conducted in patients with localization-related epilepsy. A total of 183 patients were randomized to either rapid titration (initial dosage 100 mg/day increased by 100-200 mg at weekly intervals) or to slow titration (initial dosage 50 mg/day increased in 50 mg/day increments at weekly intervals). TOPINA Tablets were administered for 12 weeks to the maximum dosage of 400 mg/day. The incident of adverse events leading to treatment interruptions or withdrawals was 18.9% in rapid titration and 14.8% in slow titration, with no statistical significance (p = 0.554). The incident of adverse events and adverse reactions of slow titration was slightly lower than that of rapid titration. The common adverse events and adverse reactions reported in the two titration methods were comparable and were well tolerated. On the other hand, the efficacy of slow titration, percent reduction in seizure rate and responder rate, was comparable with that of rapid titration. In conclusion, there were no significant differences of therapeutic response to TOPINA Tablets between the two titration methods.

  5. Potentiometric titration and equivalent weight of humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    The "acid nature" of humic acid has been controversial for many years. Some investigators claim that humic acid is a true weak acid, while others feel that its behaviour during potentiometric titration can be accounted for by colloidal adsorption of hydrogen ions. The acid character of humic acid has been reinvestigated using newly-derived relationships for the titration of weak acids with strong base. Re-interpreting the potentiometric titration data published by Thiele and Kettner in 1953, it was found that Merck humic acid behaves as a weak polyelectrolytic acid having an equivalent weight of 150, a pKa of 6.8 to 7.0, and a titration exponent of about 4.8. Interdretation of similar data pertaining to the titration of phenol-formaldehyde and pyrogallol-formaldehyde resins, considered to be analogs for humic acid by Thiele and Kettner, leads to the conclusion that it is not possible to differentiate between adsorption and acid-base reaction for these substances. ?? 1960.

  6. Determination of uranium by direct titration with dipicolinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    Direct titration of uranium with dipicolinic acid, in the presence of Arsenazo I, is a simple, precise, and accurate method for uranium determination. The method is particularly attractive because it can be totally automated. Detecting the end point (color change from blue to pink) depends on the concentration range. For the Micro Method (1 to 20 ppM U in the solution titrated), the gradual color change is monitored spectrophotometrically. For the Macro Method (20 to 300 ppM), the end point is determined either visually or spectrophotometrically. The spectrophotometric end point is computed by fitting the titration curve. The relative standard deviation is +-1 to 3% for the Micro Method and +-0.3% for the Macro Method

  7. Two-phase titration of cerium(III) by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, A.I.; Lazareva, V.I.; Gerko, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the two-phase titrimetric determination of cerium(III) with permanganate which does not require an expenditure of sugar and preliminary removal of chlorides and nitrates. The interaction of cerium(III) with permanganate at room temperature was studied as a function of the pH, the concentration of pyrophosphate, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP), permanganate, and extraneous compounds, the rate of titration, and the time of stay of the solution in air before titration. The investigations were conducted according to the following methodology: water, solution of cerium(III) pyrophosphate, and TPP were introduced into an Erlenmeyer flask with a side branch near the bottom for clearer observation of the color of the chloroform phase. The authors established the given pH value, poured the water into a volume of 50 ml, and added chloroform. The result was titrated with permanganate solutions of various concentrations until a violet color appeared in the chloroform phase

  8. Determination of dissolved inorganic species of iodine by spectrophotometric titration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella; Biesuz, Raffaela

    1987-09-01

    A method for determining iodate and iodine (+1) in aqueous solutions is proposed. The assay is similar to a previously described method for the determination of iodide and iodine (O), which were titrated with standard iodate in hydrochloric acid solution. A sample solution made 0.5-1.5 M in hydrochloric acid is titrated with a standard iodide solution and monitored spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. The species involved have strong absorbances that are well differentiated at this wavelength. By combining the two titrations it is possible to resolve any mixture of species of iodine in different oxidation states. The precision of the method (standard deviation) is the same both when determining a single species (IO/sub 3/-,I+,1/sub 2/ or I-) and a mixture, and is equal to 2 x 10/sup -7/ M. Chloride and bromide, even at very high concentrations, do not interfere.

  9. Determination of dissolved inorganic species of iodine by spectrophotometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Profumo, Antonella

    1987-01-01

    A method for determining iodate and iodine (+1) in aqueous solutions is proposed. The assay is similar to a previously described method for the determination of iodide and iodine (O), which were titrated with standard iodate in hydrochloric acid solution. A sample solution made 0.5-1.5 M in hydrochloric acid is titrated with a standard iodide solution and monitored spectrophotometrically at 230 nm. The species involved have strong absorbances that are well differentiated at this wavelength. By combining the two titrations it is possible to resolve any mixture of species of iodine in different oxidation states. The precision of the method (standard deviation) is the same both when determining a single species (IO 3 -,I+,1 2 or I-) and a mixture, and is equal to 2 x 10 -7 M. Chloride and bromide, even at very high concentrations, do not interfere. (author)

  10. Error assessment in recombinant baculovirus titration: evaluation of different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldão, António; Oliveira, Rui; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2009-07-01

    The success of baculovirus/insect cells system in heterologous protein expression depends on the robustness and efficiency of the production workflow. It is essential that process parameters are controlled and include as little variability as possible. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) is the most critical factor since irreproducible MOIs caused by inaccurate estimation of viral titers hinder batch consistency and process optimization. This lack of accuracy is related to intrinsic characteristics of the method such as the inability to distinguish between infectious and non-infectious baculovirus. In this study, several methods for baculovirus titration were compared. The most critical issues identified were the incubation time and cell concentration at the time of infection. These variables influence strongly the accuracy of titers and must be defined for optimal performance of the titration method. Although the standard errors of the methods varied significantly (7-36%), titers were within the same order of magnitude; thus, viral titers can be considered independent of the method of titration. A cost analysis of the baculovirus titration methods used in this study showed that the alamarblue, real time Q-PCR and plaque assays were the most expensive techniques. The remaining methods cost on average 75% less than the former methods. Based on the cost, time and error analysis undertaken in this study, the end-point dilution assay, microculture tetrazolium assay and flow cytometric assay were found to be the techniques that combine all these three main factors better. Nevertheless, it is always recommended to confirm the accuracy of the titration either by comparison with a well characterized baculovirus reference stock or by titration using two different methods and verification of the variability of results.

  11. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can

  12. Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can

  13. Construction and use of an optical semi-automatic titrator employing the technique of reflectance photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hoon

    2001-01-01

    An optical semi-automatic titrator was constructed employing the technique of the reflectance spectrometry and was tested for the determination of the end points of the acid-base, precipitation, and EDTA titrations. And since the current optical semi-automatic titrator built on the principle of the reflectance spectrometry could be successfully used even for the determination of the end of the end point in the precipitation titration where the solid particles are formed during the titration process, it was found to be feasible that a completely automated optical titrator would be designed and built based on the current findings

  14. A contribuição de Karl Polanyi para a sociologia do desenvolvimento rural The contribution of Karl Polanyi for the rural development sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio aborda a importância da redescoberta do pensamento de Karl Polanyi e de sua crítica à "sociedade de mercado" na retomada dos estudos e debates sobre o desenvolvimento (rural. Após uma apresentação geral do quadro teórico e analítico de Polanyi, buscamos utilizar seus conceitos para interpretar a dinâmica da mercantilização dos meios de vida e das formas sociais de trabalho e produção no espaço rural, bem como dos sistemas agroalimentares no capitalismo contemporâneo. Com base nestas proposições, refletimos sobre o papel dos atores sociais e das instituições nos processos de mudança social em geral e os de desenvolvimento rural em particular. Finalizamos, propondo algumas potencialidades dessa abordagem para os estudos sobre desenvolvimento rural no Brasil.The essay deals with the importance of the rediscovery of Karl Polanyi's thinking and of his criticism of the "market society" in resuming (rural development studies and debates. Following an overall presentation of Polanyi's theoretical and analytical framework, we look for using his concepts to interpret the commoditization dynamics of the rural livelihoods and the social forms of labor and production in the rural space, as well as the commoditization of the agri-food systems in the contemporary capitalism. Based on these statements, we reflect about the role of social actors and institutions in the processes of social change at large and of rural development in particular. And, finally, we propose some potentialities of this approach for the rural development studies in Brazil.

  15. Clinical Effectiveness and Dose Titration in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the questions of usage of one of the popular antipyretic and anesthetic drug in pediatric practice — ibuprofen. In the article there are generalized literature data and own experience in ibuprofen dose titration in single dose 5 and 10 mg/kg depending on clinical situation.

  16. Uranium coulometric titration. Application to the determination of traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergey, C.

    After a description of the device, the means developed to improve the titration method are presented. Coulometry enables to determine U with an accuracy of 0,1% in samples of only several tenths of a milligram. This method is rapid but not intended for routine analysis [fr

  17. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Can Provide Critical Thinking Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale E.; Goode, David R.; Seney, Caryn S.; Boatwright, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    College chemistry faculties might not have considered including isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in their majors' curriculum because experimental data from this instrumental method are often analyzed via automation (software). However, the software-based data analysis can be replaced with a spreadsheet-based analysis that is readily…

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy stimulus titration: Not all it seems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen J

    2018-05-01

    To examine the provenance and implications of seizure threshold titration in electroconvulsive therapy. Titration of seizure threshold has become a virtual standard for electroconvulsive therapy. It is justified as individualisation and optimisation of the balance between efficacy and unwanted effects. Present day threshold estimation is significantly different from the 1960 studies of Cronholm and Ottosson that are its usual justification. The present form of threshold estimation is unstable and too uncertain for valid optimisation or individualisation of dose. Threshold stimulation (lowest dose that produces a seizure) has proven therapeutically ineffective, and the multiples applied to threshold to attain efficacy have never been properly investigated or standardised. The therapeutic outcomes of threshold estimation (or its multiples) have not been separated from simple dose effects. Threshold estimation does not optimise dose due to its own uncertainties and the different short-term and long-term cognitive and memory effects. Potential harms of titration have not been examined. Seizure threshold titration in electroconvulsive therapy is not a proven technique of dose optimisation. It is widely held and practiced; its benefit and harmlessness assumed but unproven. It is a prematurely settled answer to an unsettled question that discourages further enquiry. It is an example of how practices, assumed scientific, enter medicine by obscure paths.

  19. Acid/base titrations of simulated PWR crevice environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, J.; Macdonald, D.D.; Millett, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The construction and operation of a titration system that is capable of exploring the acid/base properties of aqueous systems at temperatures solution is measured using YSZ sensors of the type Hg/HgO/ZrO 2 (Y 2 O 3 )/Solution in conjunction with a suitable reference electrode. The use of the system for measuring the pH of the titrated solutions (NaOH/H 2 SO 4 ) is discussed, and we show that the YSZ pH sensor is capable of consistent and precise pH measurements at elevated temperature (275-325 degrees C) and pressures (100-150 bars). However, the accuracy of the measured pH depends critically on the performance of the reference electrode. In the present work, we ensure the viability of the reference electrode. In the present work, we ensure the viability of the reference electrode by periodically calibrating it in situ using the pH sensor and a standard solution of known pH versus temperature characteristics. The titration data obtained in this study are compared with predictions from EPRI's MULTEQ code, and are found to be in satisfactory agreement in the alkaline pH region. Observed discrepancies in the acidic pH region between the two sets of data are attributed to corrosion of the alloys used to fabricate the titration system

  20. A dipstick sensor for coulometric acid-base titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; van der Schoot, B.H.; Chavez, F.; Bergveld, Piet

    1989-01-01

    By performing an acid-base titration by coulometric generation of OH− or H+ ions at an inert electrode in close proximity to the pH-sensitive gate of an ISFET, it is possible to determine the acid or base concentration of a solution using the ISFET as an indicator device for the equivalence point in

  1. Using Spreadsheets to Produce Acid-Base Titration Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Martin James; Parkinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes two spreadsheets for producing acid-base titration curves, one uses relatively simple cell formulae that can be written into the spreadsheet by inexperienced students and the second uses more complex formulae that are best written by the teacher. (JRH)

  2. Developing and Demonstrating an Augmented Reality Colorimetric Titration Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Nicholas Yee Kwang; Gan, Hong Seng; Li, Jonathan; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2018-01-01

    The handling of chemicals in the laboratory presents a challenge in instructing large class sizes and when students are relatively new to the laboratory environment. In this work, we describe and demonstrate an augmented reality colorimetric titration tool that operates out of the smartphone or tablet of students. It allows multiple students to…

  3. Automation of potentiometric titration with a personal computer using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sampling was designed and tested for automation of potentiometric titrations with personal ... automation permits us to carry out new types of experiments, such as those requiring ... have proved to be very useful in routine tasks but not in research, due to their ... This is done by a simple delay sub-routine in data acquisition.

  4. A General Simulator for Acid-Base Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-07-01

    General formal expressions are provided to facilitate the automatic computer calculation of acid-base titration curves of arbitrary mixtures of acids, bases, and salts, without and with activity corrections based on the Davies equation. Explicit relations are also given for the buffer strength of mixtures of acids, bases, and salts.

  5. Evaluation of modified boehm titration methods for use with biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Rivka B; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L

    2013-11-01

    The Boehm titration, originally developed to quantify organic functional groups of carbon blacks and activated carbons in discrete pK ranges, has received growing attention for analyzing biochar. However, properties that distinguish biochar from carbon black and activated carbon, including greater carbon solubility and higher ash content, may render the original Boehm titration method unreliable for use with biochars. Here we use seven biochars and one reference carbon black to evaluate three Boehm titration methods that use (i) acidification followed by sparging (sparge method), (ii) centrifugation after treatment with BaCl (barium method), and (iii) a solid-phase extraction cartridge followed by acidification and sparging (cartridge method) to remove carbonates and dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from the Boehm extracts before titration. Our results for the various combinations of Boehm reactants and methods indicate that no one method was free of bias for all three Boehm reactants and that the cartridge method showed evidence of bias for all pK ranges. By process of elimination, we found that a combination of the sparge method for quantifying functional groups in the lowest pK range (∼5 to 6.4), and the barium method for quantifying functional groups in the higher pK ranges (∼6.4 to 10.3 and ∼10.3 to 13) to be free of evidence for bias. We caution, however, that further testing is needed and that all Boehm titration results for biochars should be considered suspect unless efforts were undertaken to remove ash and prevent interference from DOC. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Karl Poggensee - A widely unknown German rocket pioneer - The early years 1930-1934 - A chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrwild, Karlheinz

    2017-09-01

    The rediscovered estate of Karl Poggensee allows to reproduce chronologically his rocket tests of the period 1930-1934 almost completely for the first time. Thrilled by the movie ;The Woman in the Moon; for the idea of space travel, he started as a student of Hinderburg-Polytechnikum (IAO), Oldenburg, to build his first solid-fuel rocket, producing his own propellant charges. Being a coming electrical engineer his main goal was not set up new record heights, but to provide his rockets with automatic measuring instruments, camera and parachute release systems. The optimization of this sequence was his main focus.

  7. 3rd Karl Schwarzschild Meeting - Gravity and the Gauge/Gravity Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Piero; Kaminski, Matthias; Mureika, Jonas; Bleicher, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The Karl Schwarzschild Meeting 2017 (KSM2017) has been the third instalment of the conference dedicated to the great Frankfurter scientist, who derived the first black hole solution of Einstein's equations about 100 years ago. The event has been a 5 day meeting in the field of black holes, AdS/CFT correspondence and gravitational physics. Like the two previous instalments, the conference continued to attract a stellar ensemble of participants from the world's most renowned institutions. The core of the meeting has been a series of invited talks from eminent experts (keynote speakers) as well as the presence of plenary research talks by students and junior speakers.

  8. Karl Polanyi et les monnaies modernes : un réexamen

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc , Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    Karl Polanyi a établi une célèbre distinction entre "all purpose money", caractéristiques des sociétés modernes, et "special purpose money", caractéristiques des sociétés anciennes. C'est la conception polanyienne des monnaies modernes qui est critiquée dans ce texte : non seulement elle conduit à considérer que les sociétés modernes ne connaissent pas de "special purpose money", mais en plus elle ne permet pas de renouveler la conception courante de la monnaie (sous-entendu moderne) qui en f...

  9. Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in Fischer and Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne

    2003-01-01

    to vehicle or 400 mg/kg bw of 4-tert-octylphenol administrated orally by gavage. Estradiol benzoate, at a dose of 40 mug/kg bw, was used as positive control agent. Treatment with estradiol benzoate decreased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, inhibin and increased prolactin. Additionally, estradiol...... benzoate decreased the weight of all investigated reproductive organs, decreased sperm production and increased seminiferous tubular degeneration in both strains. More progressive effects on testis weight and histopathology were observed in the Fischer rats. Oral administration of octylphenol at 400 mg....../kg bw to both rat strains increased prolactin levels but had no effect on LH, FSH, testosterone or inhibin. In the octylphenol-treated Fischer rats the weights of the seminal vesicles and the levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle were significantly decreased, whereas only the levator ani...

  10. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  11. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  12. Nitrogen isotope fractionations in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and in the Miller-Urey reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Chan Kung; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M.H.; Clayton, R.N.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen isotope fractionations have been measured in Fischer-Tropsch and Miller-Urey reactions in order to determine whether these processes can account for the large 15 N/ 14 N ratios found in organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites. Polymeric material formed in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction was enriched in 15 N by only 3 promille relative to the starting material (NH 3 ). The 15 N enrichment in polymers from the Miller-Urey reaction was 10-12 promille. Both of these fractionations are small compared to the 80-90 promille differences observed between enstatite chondrites and carbonaceous chondrites. These large differences are apparently due to temporal or spatial variations in the isotopic composition of nitrogen in the solar nebula, rather than to fractionation during the production of organic compounds. (orig.)

  13. Una villa en Villa de Leyva, obra del arquitecto Guillermo Fischer Villa de Leyva, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Aschner Rosselli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde las impresiones que despierta una casa de recreo diseñada por Guillermo Fischer en Villa de Leyva se pretende una aproximación al significado y a la historia de la villa, entendida como tipología edilicia que responde a un determinado modo de habitar en el campo. En este escrito, se esbozan hipótesis con respecto a la relación estética y moral de la casa con preexistencias edilicias y con tradiciones sociales arraigadas y se describen los acercamientos y distanciamientos de la villa en relación con su contexto espacial y temporal. En la villa de Villa de Leyva atendemos a un despertar de la tipología, gracias a la atenta lectura de la historia y a la sensibilidad proyectual de su arquitecto Guillermo Fischer.

  14. Update on Development of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE) Instrument for In Situ Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Li, Z.-H.; Miller, J. S.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Swindle, T. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute dating of planetary samples is an essential tool to establish the chronology of geological events, including crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration. We are addressing this challenge by developing the Potassium (K) -- Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE), building on previous work to develop a K-Ar in situ instrument. KArLE ablates a rock sample, determines the K in the plasma state using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures the liberated Ar using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), and relates the two by the volume of the ablated pit using laser confocal microscopy (LCM). Our goal is for the KArLE instrument to be capable of determining the age of several kinds of planetary samples to address a wide range of geochronolgy problems in planetary science.

  15. When acid-base titrations are carried out in unusual conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Marco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncommon aspects in acid-base titrations are presented, which occur in titrations between both mono- and/or poly-functional acid and bases but are rarely introduced in ordinary analytical chemistry courses.

  16. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer Female Rats Differ in Acute Effects of Fluoxetine on Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryala, C.S.J.; Hiegel, C.; Uphouse, L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine, leads to sexual dysfunction in a substantial proportion of women. In studies with the Fischer inbred rat, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in this sexual dysfunction. Whether this association with 5-HT1A receptors holds for other rat strains is not known. Aim The effects of acute fluoxetine on sexual behavior in two strains of rats that differ in their response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist were examined. Whether the strain difference is comparable in naturally cycling and hormonally primed, ovariectomized rats was determined. Main Outcome Measures Lordosis to mount ratios, lordosis quality, and proceptive behaviors were quantified. Sprague-Dawley and Fischer females were compared on each of these measures. The IC50 for inhibition of lordosis behavior was determined. Methods Proestrous rats and ovariectomized rats, hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone, were treated with varying doses of fluoxetine. Sexual behavior was examined before and after treatment with the SSRI. Results In both the intact and the hormonally-primed, ovariectomized model, Sprague-Dawley females were less sensitive to the effects of fluoxetine on sexual behavior. In both groups, fluoxetine showed dose-dependency in behavioral inhibition, but a higher dose was required for Sprague-Dawley than for Fischer females. Naturally cycling, proestrous rats required a higher dose of fluoxetine than hormonally-primed ovariectomized rats to produce significant inhibition of sexual behavior. Thus, the strain difference in the response to fluoxetine does not parallel strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Conclusions Acute treatment with fluoxetine inhibits lordosis behavior in both Fischer and Sprague-Dawley females and the strain difference cannot be explained by reported strain differences in the response to a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Fluoxetine’s inhibition of female rat

  17. Effect of structural promoters on Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of biomass derived syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratibha Sharma; Thomas Elder; Leslie H. Groom; James J. Spivey

    2014-01-01

    Biomass gasification and subsequent conversion of this syngas to liquid hydrocarbons using Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) synthesis is a promising source of hydrocarbon fuels. However, biomass-derived syngas is different from syngas obtained from other sources such as steam reforming of methane. Specifically the H2/CO ratio is less than 1/1 and the CO

  18. Moessbauer investigations of the Fe-Cu-Mn catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanu, V.; Filoti, G.; Ilie, I.; Zamfirescu, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the selective process of the syngas conversion to synthetic gasoline a bifunctional catalytic system has to be used. It was obtained by combination a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst with the HZSM-5 zeolite. The phase compositions of the precursor and the fresh catalyst were established as well as the optimum thermal treatment. The catalyst was reduced in pure H 2 or in a H 2 +CO mixture. The influence of the reduction and reaction conditions on the catalyst structure was investigated. (orig.)

  19. Influence of Reduction Promoters on Stability of Cobalt/g-Alumina Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Burtron H. Davis

    2014-01-01

    This focused review article underscores how metal reduction promoters can impact deactivation phenomena associated with cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts. Promoters can exacerbate sintering if the additional cobalt metal clusters, formed as a result of the promoting effect, are in close proximity at the nanoscale to other cobalt particles on the surface. Recent efforts have shown that when promoters are used to facilitate the reduction of small crystallites with the aim of increasing...

  20. Particle Size and Crystal Phase Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Xun Liu; Peng Wang; Wayne Xu; Emiel J.M. Hensen

    2017-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an increasingly important approach for producing liquid fuels and chemicals via syngas—that is, synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen—generated from coal, natural gas, or biomass. In FTS, dispersed transition metal nanoparticles are used to catalyze the reactions underlying the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Catalytic activity and selectivity are strongly correlated with the electronic and geometric structure of the nanoparticles, which...

  1. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Multicomponent Catalysts: What Can We Learn from Computer Simulations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fajin, Jose L. C.; Cordeiro, M. Natalia D. S.; Gomes, Jose R. B.

    2015-01-01

    In this concise review paper, we will address recent studies based on the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) of the density functional theory (DFT) and on the periodic slab approach devoted to the understanding of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process on transition metal catalysts. As it will be seen, this computational combination arises as a very adequate strategy for the study of the reaction mechanisms on transition metal surfaces under well-controlled conditions and allows separati...

  2. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erling Rytter; Anders Holmen

    2015-01-01

    Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlat...

  3. Extended Abstracts, International Society of Electrochemistry (36th) Held at Salamanca, Spain on 23-28 September 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-28

    potentiometric titration of cimeti- dine with HC1O 4 using the Gran graphic method to estimate the end point. Polarographic Behaviour of Ranitidine In the...solutions: Before each experiment, the H20 content in LiCl04 + MeOR is determined (144 wg/ml) by Karl Fischer cou- lometer (Acquavit-Tacussel). After the... method . The potentiometric selectivity coefficients towards monovalent cations were reasonable good. The response curves are presented in Figure 3, when

  4. Corrosion Control Through a Better Understanding of the Metallic Substrate/Organic Coating/Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    and the cyclohexane over molecular sieves, -79- pm NO pAalB hION fl i4a and then measuring the ppm of water in the cyclohexane using the Karl Fischer ... potentiometric titration using a method outlined by Bell [J. Polymer Sci. 8, 417-36 (1970)]. The procedure for epoxy groups involves the re- action with...with time, earliest stages of coating delamination, and secondary processes that occur was obtained by time lapse photography. Electrical methods are

  5. Determination of MIL-H-6083 Hydraulic Fluid In-Service Use Limits for Self-Propelled Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1744 Karl Fischer Reagent method . The specification limit is 0.05% (500 pans per...cazefully controlled. TOTAL ACID NUMBER The acid number was determined by the ASTM D664 potentiometric titration test method . Unfortunately, data were...fluid condition t results with AOAP tent date was found. The Navy Patch Kit method for particle contamination meamrement was evaluated as a possible

  6. Keim, Karl-Dieter, Das Fenster zum Raum : Traktat über die Erforschung sozialräumlicher Transformation / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Keim, Karl-Dieter: Das Fenster zum Raum : Traktat über die Erforschung sozialräumlicher Transformation / Karl-Dieter Keim. - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2003. - 171 S. : graph. Darst. - (Lehrtexte : Sozialwissenschaften) ISBN 3-8100-4050-9

  7. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  8. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolino, María Candelaria, E-mail: cbertolino@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Granados, Alejandro Manuel, E-mail: ale@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  9. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D.; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  10. Coupling of glycerol processing with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for production of liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, D.A.; Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Kunkes, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid alkanes can be produced directly from glycerol by an integrated process involving catalytic conversion to H-2/CO gas mixtures (synthesis gas) combined with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Synthesis gas can be produced at high rates and selectivities suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (H-2/CO...... between 1.0 and 1.6) from concentrated glycerol feed solutions at low temperatures (548 K) and high pressures (1-17 bar) over a 10 wt% Pt-Re/C catalyst with an atomic Pt : Re ratio of 1 : 1. The primary oxygenated hydrocarbon intermediates formed during conversion of glycerol to synthesis gas are ethanol...... in the liquid organic effluent stream and increasing the selectivity to C5+ alkanes by a factor of 2 ( from 0.30 to 0.60). Catalytic conversion of glycerol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were coupled in a two-bed reactor system consisting of a Pt-Re/C catalyst bed followed by a Ru/TiO2 catalyst bed...

  11. The Application of Moessbauer Emission Spectroscopy to Industrial Cobalt Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosdrecht, J. van de; Berge, P. J. van; Craje, M. W. J.; Kraan, A. M. van der

    2002-01-01

    The application of Moessbauer emission spectroscopy to study cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for the gas-to-liquids process was investigated. It was shown that Moessbauer emission spectroscopy could be used to study the oxidation of cobalt as a deactivation mechanism of high loading cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Oxidation was observed under conditions that are in contradiction with the bulk cobalt phase thermodynamics. This can be explained by oxidation of small cobalt crystallites or by surface oxidation. The formation of re-reducible Co 3+ species was observed as well as the formation of irreducible Co 3+ and Co 2+ species that interact strongly with the alumina support. The formation of the different cobalt species depends on the oxidation conditions. Iron was used as a probe nuclide to investigate the cobalt catalyst preparation procedure. A high-pressure Moessbauer emission spectroscopy cell was designed and constructed, which creates the opportunity to study cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts under realistic synthesis conditions.

  12. Acidity titration curves - a versatile tool for the characterisation of acidic mine waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Acidity titrations with NaOH are valuable tools for characterisation of acidic mine waters. - Titrations can be used to estimate metal concentrations. - Titrations can be carried out in the field, minimising changes in water chemistry due to sample handling time and procedure. (orig.)

  13. Colloid Titration--A Rapid Method for the Determination of Charged Colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Keihei; Kina, Ken'yu

    1985-01-01

    "Colloid titration" is a volumetric method for determining charged polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. The principle of colloid titration, reagents used in the procedure, methods of endpoint detection, preparation of reagent solutions, general procedure used, results obtained, and pH profile of colloid titration are considered. (JN)

  14. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  15. Thermometric titration of cadmium with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, with oxidation by hydrogen peroxide as indicator reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, T; Yoshida, H

    1987-08-01

    A new method of end-point indication is described for thermometric titration of cadmium with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). It is based on the redox reaction between hydrogen peroxide added to the system before titration, and the first excess of DDTC. Amounts of cadmium in the range 10-50 mumoles are titrated within 1% error.

  16. The psychology of thinking, animal psychology, and the young Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hark, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. In his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it is argued that Popper's early psychology has been pivotally important for the development of his philosophy. In particular, it is shown that Popper's views on psychology underwent a radical shift, one that paved the way for his characteristic deductive stance in philosophy. Popper's views shifted from an inductive and associationistic psychology toward a noninductive psychology of problem solving. Tracing the historical background of Popper's early work reveals how he integrated various parts of the psychology of Karl Groos into his analysis of the childish phenomenon of dogmatic thinking and how he shortly after appropriated various elements of the animal psychology of Hans Volkelt and Herbert Jennings in his biological approach to (dogmatic) thinking. In the monumental works of Otto Selz, however, Popper finally found the roots of a noninductive and biological approach to the growth of individual and scientific knowledge. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Karl Marx and Liberation Theology: Dialectical Materialism and Christian Spirituality in, against, and beyond Contemporary Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McLaren

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores convergences and discrepancies between liberation theology and the works of Karl Marx through the dialogue between one of the key contemporary proponents of liberation theology, Peter McLaren, and the agnostic scholar in critical pedagogy, Petar Jandrić. The paper briefly outlines liberation theology and its main convergences with the works of Karl Marx. Exposing striking similarities between the two traditions in denouncing the false God of money, it explores differences in their views towards individualism and collectivism. It rejects shallow rhetorical homologies between Marx and the Bible often found in liberation theology, and suggests a change of focus from seeking a formal or Cartesian logical consistency between Marxism and Christianity to exploring their dialectical consistency. Looking at Marxist and Christian approaches to morality, it outlines close links between historical materialism and questions of value. It concludes that the shared eschaton of Marxism and the Christianity gives meaning to human history and an opportunity to change it.

  18. KARL METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  19. Karl Polanyi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie

    2018-01-01

    What are the origins of the marketing mind? In this introductory quotation Polanyi suggests that it springs from a specifi c type of economy that diffused in nineteenth century processes of industrialization that swept the world. As such, the marketing mind is a recent historic phenomenon; this qu......What are the origins of the marketing mind? In this introductory quotation Polanyi suggests that it springs from a specifi c type of economy that diffused in nineteenth century processes of industrialization that swept the world. As such, the marketing mind is a recent historic phenomenon......; this quotation seems to tell us. Rather than representing the vanguard of history, the marketing mind, the quotation also seems to tell us, is a “formidable obstacle” that possibly inhibits us from seeing how economy and sociality – our “livelihood” – potentially might be organized differently. In this chapter I...

  20. Determination of uranium by a gravimetric-volumetric titration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.

    1998-01-01

    A volumetric-gravimetric modification of a method for the determination of uranium based on the reduction of uranium to U (IV) in a phosphoric acid medium and titration with a standard potassium dichromate solution is described. More than 99% of the stoichiometric amount of the titrating solution is weighed and the remainder is added volumetrically by using the Mettler DL 40 RC Memotitrator. Computer interconnected with analytical balances collects continually the data on the analyzed samples and evaluates the results of determination. The method allows to determine uranium in samples of uranium metal, alloys, oxides, and ammonium diuranate by using aliquot portions containing 30 - 100 mg of uranium with the error of determination, expressed as the relative standard deviation, of 0.02 - 0.05%. (author)

  1. Coulometric thermometric titration of halides in molten calcium nitrate tetrahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsigrai, I J; Bartusz, D B

    1983-01-01

    A method for coulometric thermometric precipitation titrations of chloride, bromide and iodide in molten calcium nitrate tetrahydrate at 55 degrees with coulometrically generated silver ions has been developed. The change in temperature during the titration is followed with the aid of a thermistor bridge coupled to a recorder. To minimize the temperature effect of the passage of current through the melt, two thermistors are connected in opposition in the bridge, with one in the anodic and the other in the cathodic cell compartment. Amounts of 62-80 mumole of halide have been determined with relative error below 0.4% and relative standard deviation less than 2.7%. The relative error in determination of 40 mumole of iodide was + 2%.

  2. Application of cause-and-effect analysis to potentiometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufelnicki, A; Lis, S; Meinrath, G

    2005-08-01

    A first attempt has been made to interpret physicochemical data from potentiometric titration analysis in accordance with the complete measurement-uncertainty budget approach (bottom-up) of ISO and Eurachem. A cause-and-effect diagram is established and discussed. Titration data for arsenazo III are used as a basis for this discussion. The commercial software Superquad is used and applied within a computer-intensive resampling framework. The cause-and-effect diagram is applied to evaluation of seven protonation constants of arsenazo III in the pH range 2-10.7. The data interpretation is based on empirical probability distributions and their analysis by second-order correct confidence estimates. The evaluated data are applied in the calculation of a speciation diagram including uncertainty estimates using the probabilistic speciation software Ljungskile.

  3. Two-phase titration of cerium(3) by permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, A.I.; Lazareva, V.I.; Gerko, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    Reaction of cerium (3) and permanganate was investigated at a room temperature depending on PH, concentrations of pyrophosphate, cerium (3), tetraphenylphosphonium and foreign compounds. Selective method of two-phase titration determination of cerium (3) by permanganate without using silver compounds, preliminary separation of chlorides, nitrates, was developed. The method was tested using alloys based on iron, nickel, REE, copper, cobalt (S r ≤0.008). Correctness is proved with method of standard additives

  4. Characterization of Native and Modified Starches by Potentiometric Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Diana; Urdaneta, Jose; Pernia, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The use of potentiometric titration for the analysis and characterization of native and modified starches is highlighted. The polyelectrolytic behavior of oxidized starches (thermal and thermal-chemical oxidation), a graft copolymer of itaconic acid (IA) onto starch, and starch esters (mono- and diester itaconate) was compared with the behavior of native starch, the homopolymer, and the acid employed as a graft monomer and substituent. Starch esters showed higher percentages of acidity, follo...

  5. Determination of uranium and plutonium by sequential potentiometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Masao

    1976-01-01

    The determination of uranium and plutonium in mixed oxide fuels has been developed by sequential potentiometric titration. A weighed sample of uranium and plutonium oxides is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the solution is fumed with sulfuric acid. After the reduction of uranium and plutonium to uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) by chromium(II) sulfate, 5 ml of buffer solution (KCl-HCl, pH 1.0) is added to the solution. Then the solution is diluted to 30 ml with water and the pH of the solution is adjusted to 1.0 -- 1.5 with 1 M sodium hydroxide. The solution is stirred until the oxidation of the excess of chromium(II) by air is completed. After the removal of dissolved oxygen by bubbling nitrogen through the solution for 10 minutes, uranium (IV) is titrated with 0.1 N cerium(IV) sulfate. Then, plutonium is titrated by 0.02 N cerium(IV) sulfate. When a mixture of uranium and plutonium is titrated with 0.1 N potassium dichromate potentiometrically, the potential change at the end point of plutonium is very small and the end point of uranium is also unclear when 0.1 N potassium permanganate is used as a titrant. In the present method, nitrate, fluoride and copper(II) interfere with the determination of plutonium and uranium. Iron interferes quantitatively with the determination of plutonium but not of uranium. Results obtained in applying the proposed method to 50 mg of mixtures of plutonium and uranium ((7.5 -- 50))% Pu were accurate to within 0.15 mg of each element. (auth.)

  6. Protometric thermometric titrations of sparingly soluble compounds in water in the presence of n-octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgot, G; Burgot, J-L

    2002-10-15

    Thermometric titrimetry permits titration of acido-basic compounds in water in the presence of n-octanol. n-Octanol permits the solubilization of protolytes and moreover may also displace the equilibria of the titration reactions. Hydrochlorides of highly insoluble derivatives such as phenothiazine derivatives can be titrated with satisfactory accuracy and precision by sodium hydroxide despite their high pK(a) values. Likewise barbiturate salts can be titrated by hydrochloric acid. In the case of some salts, the methodology may permit the sequential titration of the ion and counter ion. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. A rapid method for titration of ascovirus infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ningning; Chen, Zishu; Wan, Hu; Huang, Guohua; Li, Jianhong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2018-05-01

    Ascoviruses are a recently described family and the traditional plaque assay and end-point PCR assay have been used for their titration. However, these two methods are time-consuming and inaccurate to titrate ascoviruses. In the present study, a quick method for the determination of the titer of ascovirus stocks was developed based on ascovirus-induced apoptosis in infected insect cells. Briefly, cells infected with serial dilutions of virus (10 -2 -10 -10 ) for 24 h were stained with trypan blue. The stained cells were counted, and the percentage of nonviable cells was calculated. The stained cell rate was compared between virus-infected and control cells. The minimum-dilution group that had a significant difference compared with control and the maximum-dilution group that had no significant difference were selected and then compared each well of the two groups with the average stained cell rate of control. The well was marked as positive well if the stained cell rate was higher than the average stained cell rate of control wells; otherwise, the well was marked as negative wells. The percentage of positive wells were calculated according to the number of positive. Subsequently, the virus titer was calculated through the method of Reed and Muench. This novel method is rapid, simple, reproducible, accurate, and less material-consuming and eliminates the subjectivity of the other procedures for titrating ascoviruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction of molybdenum (6) with potassium benzyldithiocarbaminate during amperometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushko, S.V.; Usatenko, Yu.I.

    1975-01-01

    The paper is an amperometric study of the mechanism of interaction between molybdenum (VI) and potassium benzyl dithiocarbamate [BDTC] which was based on the use of voltamperometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, potentiometry and elemental analysis. In amperometric titration Mo(VI) with BDTC (pH 4-2) forms a red compound of low solubility. In more acidic media the intensity of coloration is increased and a violet hue develops. On the basis of the data obtained it is concluded that in the amperometric titration of Mo(VI) with potassium BDTC there is first formation of a Mo(VI) compound, which subsequently acquires a red colour as a result of the reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V). It was also established that the degree of reduction is small where titration is carried out in the range pH 4.8-0.1. Quantitative determination of Mo is performed most effectively in slightly acidic media. Mo reacts with potassium BDTC in a ratio of 1:2. (E.P.)

  9. Naised käsu korras firmade juhatusse! Jah või ei? / Kairi Alt, Aveli Kippari, Karl Koort... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Columbus IT Partner Eesti AS personalijuht Kairi Alt, Stele ja Riveli omanik Aveli Kippari, AS Panaviatic'i turundusjuht Karl Koort, OÜ Tarkvara Tehnoloogia Arenduskeskuse tegevjuht Indrek Vainu, AS PricewaterhouseCoopers auditiosakonna direktor Eva Jansen, Kalev Chocolate Factory tootmisjuht Hardo Reinike

  10. Karl Schwarzschild's investigations of `out-of-focus photometry' between 1897 and 1899 at Kuffner Observatory in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    From 1897 to 1899 Karl Schwarzschild worked at the Kuffner Observatory in Vienna. During these years he developed new measuring techniques in the field of photographic photometry, where he studied particularly the quantitative determination of the departure from the reciprocity law during photographic exposure. This paper concentrates on Schwarzschild's early work in this field and gives an overview of his important Viennese years.

  11. Blank ja Jeron (sero.org) / Joachim Blank, Karl Heinz Jeron ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Blank, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Nime sero.org all esinenud saksa kunstnikepaarist Joachim Blankist (sünd. 1963) ja Karl Heinz Jeronist ning nende loomingust, intervjuu kunstnikega nende Berliini ateljees 10. II 2000. Saksa võrgukunsti edendamisest rühmituste Lux Logis, Handshake ja Internationale Stadt koosseisus, jututubadest, teostest "Dump your trash", "Re-M@il", installatsioonidest "re: represent", "Scanner +++", "sign.post" ja muust

  12. Mida kujutab endast IB õppekava? / Toomas Kruusimägi, Anu Parts, Karl Hendrik Thomson ; intervjueerinud Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruusimägi, Toomas, 1962-

    2010-01-01

    Uuest rahvusvahelisest International Baccalaureate'i (IB) õppekavast ja selle rakendamisest Tallinna Inglise Kolledži 11. klassis alates möödunud aastast räägivad kooli direktor Toomas Kruusimägi, õppedirektor Anu Parts ning õpilane Karl Hendrik Thomson

  13. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  14. [From Paul Flechsig to the Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research. Development of brain research at the Karl Marx University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibnitz, L; Werner, L; Schober, W; Brauer, K

    1977-04-01

    A review is given on the development of the brain research institute of the Karl-Marx-University of Leipzig during the directorates of Paul Flechsig (1883-1920), Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1925-1957), and Wolfgang Wünscher (1957-1971).

  15. [Territorial differences in the occurrence of caries in Karl Marx Stadt children and adolescent after 12 years of water fluoridation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, W

    1976-01-01

    Cariostatistical comparisons made since the start of drinking-water fluoridation in Karl-Marx-Stadt suggested territorial differences in the prevalence of dental decay. In the present paper an attempt is made to analyse the problems involved, with due consideration being given to both demographic and ecological factors.

  16. Understanding the Relationships Between Lightning, Cloud Microphysics, and Airborne Radar-derived Storm Structure During Hurricane Karl (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Brad; Fuelberg, Henry; Blakeslee, Richard; Mach, Douglas; Heymsfield, Andrew; Bansemer, Aaron; Durden, Stephen L.; Tanelli, Simone; Heymsfield, Gerald; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lightning, cloud microphysics, and tropical cyclone (TC) storm structure in Hurricane Karl (16 September 2010) using data collected by the NASA DC-8 and Global Hawk (GH) aircraft during NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment. The research capitalizes on the unique opportunity provided by GRIP to synthesize multiple datasets from two aircraft and analyze the microphysical and kinematic properties of an electrified TC. Five coordinated flight legs through Karl by the DC-8 and GH are investigated, focusing on the inner-core region (within 50km of the storm center) where the lightning was concentrated and the aircraft were well coordinated. GRIP datasets are used to compare properties of electrified and nonelectrified inner-core regions that are related to the noninductive charging mechanism, which is widely accepted to explain the observed electric fields within thunderstorms. Three common characteristics of Karl's electrified regions are identified: 1) strong updrafts of 10-20ms21, 2) deep mixed-phase layers indicated by reflectivities.30 dBZ extending several kilometers above the freezing level, and 3) microphysical environments consisting of graupel, very small ice particles, and the inferred presence of supercooled water. These characteristics describe an environment favorable for in situ noninductive charging and, hence, TC electrification. The electrified regions in Karl's inner core are attributable to a microphysical environment that was conducive to electrification because of occasional, strong convective updrafts in the eyewall.

  17. A new approach to flow-batch titration. A monosegmented flow titrator with coulometric reagent generation and potentiometric or biamperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Emerson Vidal; Rohwedder, Jarbas José Rodrigues; Pasquini, Celio

    2006-11-01

    Monosegmented flow analysis (MSFA) has been used as a flow-batch system to produce a simple, robust, and mechanized titrator that enables true titrations to be performed without the use of standards. This paper also introduces the use of coulometry with monosegmented titration by proposing a versatile flow cell. Coulometric generation of the titrand is attractive for titrations performed in monosegmented systems, because the reagent can be added without increasing the volume of sample injected. Also, biamperomeric and potentiometric detection of titration end-points can increase the versatility of the monosegmented titrator. The cell integrates coulometric generation of the titrand with detection of end-point by potentiometry or biamperometry. The resulting titrator is a flow-batch system in which the liquid monosegment, constrained by the interfaces of the gaseous carrier stream, plays the role of a sample of known volume to be titrated. The system has been used for determination of ascorbic acid, by coulometric generation of I2 with biamperometric detection, and for determination of Fe(II), by coulometric generation of Ce(IV) with potentiometric detection of the end-point, both in feed supplements.

  18. FILSAFAT ILMU KARL R. POPPER DAN THOMAS S. KUHN SERTA IMPLIKASINYA DALAM PENGAJARAN ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Subekti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about philosophy of science according to Karl R. Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn. There are similarities and differences between their views about how progress and what function of science.Apparently both Popper and Kuhn agree that science does not proceed by induction. However Kuhn disagrees with the view that science progresses by falsifiability through conjectures and refutations, but occurance by paradigm shift. Popper and Kuhn’s disagreement amounted to a distinction between two functions within the practice of science, one of criticism (Popper and one of puzzle solving (Kuhn.Science education implies the teaching and learning of science interesting and fruitful in one hand, and teachers should be role models to students in the other hand

  19. Study of the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL on image errors and their causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, D.

    1987-12-01

    The ionoptical aberrations of the QQDDQ spectrograph BIG KARL are measured and analyzed in order to improve resolution and transmission at large acceptance. The entrance phasespace is scanned in a cartesian grid by means of a narrow collimated beam of scattered deuterons. The distortions due to the nonlinear transformation by the system are measured in the detector plane. A model is developed which describes the measured distortions. The model allows to locate nonlinearities in the system responsible for the observed distortions. It gives a good understanding of geometrical nonlinearities up to the fifth order and chromatical nonlinearities up to the third order. To confirm the model, the magnetic field in the quadrupoles is measured including the fringe field region. Furthermore, nonlinearities appearing in ideal magnets are discussed and compared to experimental data. (orig.) [de

  20. Vital forces and organization: philosophy of nature and biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarotto, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The historical literature on German life science at the end of the 18th century has tried to rehabilitate eighteenth century vitalism by stressing its difference from Naturphilosophie. Focusing on the work of Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer this paper argues that these positions are based on a historiographical bias and that the clear-cut boundary between German vitalism and Naturphilosophie is historically unattested. On the contrary, they both belong to the process of conceptual genealogy that contributed to the project of a general biology. The latter emerged as the science concerned with the laws that regulate the organization of living nature as a whole. The focus on organization was, at least partially, the result of the debate surrounding the notion of "vital force", which originated in the mid-eighteenth century and caused a shift from a regulative to a constitutive understanding of teleology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Historical consciousness and existential awareness in Karl Barth’s hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.M. Pelser

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s hermeneutic legacy prolonged Western Christian tradition, especially influenced by Hegelian philosophy of history. This led to Barth’s “theological exegesis” instead of a historic-critical exegesis. In a preceding article Barth’s understanding of the notion “hermeneutic circle” is discussed against the background of the Enlightenment and its counter-movement in Romanticism. In this article Barth’s attitude to the place and role of historical criticism is explained in light of his dialectic distinction between “scientific” and “practical” interpretation. The article aims to show that Barth, with his dialectics, continues Schleiermacher’s realism. In conclusion, the positivistic traits in the Barth legacy are raised once again, in order to open the door to Jürgen Habermas and other deconstructionist thinkers of the postmodern era in hermeneutics.

  2. Paul Karl Feyerabend: The Projections of Theoretical Proliferation in the Relation Science-Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gargiulo de Vázquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Karl Feyerabend’s doctrine of theoretical proliferation has been interpreted by his experts as an attempt to preserve the ideal of scientific progress. This hermeneutics describes, in part, the intention of our philosopher. However, this reading does not explain the fundamental criticism that theoretical pluralism supposes for Feyerabend. The theoretical proliferation is itself a reductio ad absurdum of the attempts of logical positivism and critical rationalism to define science at the expense of the metaphysical. This article presents the theoretical proliferation as a vindication of the positive role that the metaphysical plays in scientific practice. We expose the Feyerabend’s defense of metaphysics inasmuch as it is constitute the possibility to overcome the conceptual conservatism, to increase empirical content of science and to recover the descriptive value of scientific theories.

  3. Natural Selection or Problem Solving. Critical Re-evaluation of Karl Popper's Evolutionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldachev Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the philosophers and the educated audience the name of Sir Karl Popper is usually associated with the critical method, evolutionary epistemology, falsification as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific knowledge, the concept of the third world and with his dislike to dialectics and contradictions. This article is aimed to show in what way all these things are connected in the evolutionary researches of the philosopher and the new conceptions, which he contributed to studying the mechanisms of evolution. Also there is an attempt to comprehend the evolutionary views of Popper, test them for falsification, relate his epistemology with his claims, which he puts forward to the theory of objective knowledge evolution and show the obvious contradiction between them.

  4. Proposal for the ion optics and for the kinematical fitting at the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberger, F.

    1986-01-01

    For the magnetic spectrograph BIG KARL the installation of an additional quadrupole lens is purposed. From this the possibility of a telescopic ion optic results. For future experiments a standard focusing with a spatial dispersion of 6.6 m and vanishing angular dispersion is proposed. The D/M ratio (dispersion/magnification) extends to 14.0 m, the maximal spatial angle lies at 3 msr. The energy range extends at a focal plane length of 0.66 m to 20%. For the kinematical fitting of the spectrograph the focal plane is shifted. This shift can be simply and rapidly realized for different K values by means of a software correction, if generally two spatial spectra in the focal plane are taken up. By this additionally for each event the actual scattering angle can be determined with relatively good resolution. The dispersion fit is completely decoupled from the kinematical fitting of the magnetic spectrograph. (orig.) [de

  5. Hermeneutic and Teleology in Ethics across Denominations—Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stewart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study arises from the context of current debates in the Catholic Church on the place of rule and law in moral reasoning. I suggest that ethics may be best served by approaches that place the human subject in a teleogical context and that recognise the need for interpretation of circumstances surrounding actions to be evaluated. This is in contrast to normative rule approaches. The insights retrieved from the account of moral reasoning in Thomas Aquinas by Joseph Selling are compared with an account of the ethical implications of Karl Barth’s theology of hope as expressed in Volume Four of the Church Dogmatics. It is concluded that, in an ecumenical convergence, neither propose a normative rule approach. Rather both use a teleological context and require a hermeneutic of evaluation.

  6. Rationalism and traditionalism in politics. The correspondence between Karl R. Popper and Michael Oakeshott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartaco Pupo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of 1948 between Karl Popper and Michael Oakeshott, translated for the first time in Italian and published in the appendix to this paper, demonstrates the existence of two different ways of thinking about politics: the rationalist approach, founded on the “argumentation” as a rational means for the non-violent solution of problems (Popper, and the traditionalist mode, inspired by the method of “conversation” as a guarantee of constant openness to the diversity of identities (Oakeshott. To rise from the letters is a mutual influence on the interpretation of the key concepts that characterize the thought of the two authors, which however does not cancel the fundamental divergence of their political orientation.

  7. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  8. Karl Popper: La explicación en la disciplina histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holbein Giraldo-Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente artículo se revisan los argumentos enunciados en la obra La miseria del historicismo, en la cual Karl Popper realiza una crítica a la concepción historicista emanada de la filosofía de autores como Platón, Hegel y Marx. Crítica que realiza aludiendo a argumentos de orden epistemológico, para demostrar que el modelo nomológico deductivo de la explicación no aplica a la disciplina histórica, y en este sentido negando una de las tesis más fuertes que él había defendido toda su vida: la del monismo metodológico o unificacionismo metodológico de la ciencia, heredada del positivismo lógico.

  9. Bacteriological findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, 1985-1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonitzki, C; Hoffmann, F A

    1989-01-01

    The results of the bacteriological surveillance cultures for 26 patients with bone marrow transplantation (Karl Marx University Leipzig, G.D.R., 1985-1987) are presented. 5.9% of all surveillance cultures contained facultatively pathogenic germs (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the most frequent representative, which was the reason of a sepsis in two patients). Coagulasenegative Staphylococci and other germs with an obscure pathogenicity were isolated upon a large scale, especially from the mucous membrane regions. There are hints, that above all special strains of coagulasenegative Staphylococci "colonize" the patient's body (also for longer periods) and turn into the blood too. During the total decontamination intestinal anaerobic flora is absent. After closing of total decontamination Clostridium perfringens is the first detectable anaerobic species. During the selective decontamination systemic applications of antibiotics are able to obliterate anaerobic findings for certain periods. Recommendations for an effective arrangement of the surveillance cultures of bone marrow transplantation patients are given.

  10. Clever Hans and his effects: Karl Krall and the origins of experimental parapsychology in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Fabio; Marazia, Chantal

    2014-12-01

    Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, the so-called Elberfeld horses, the counting and speaking animals, were among the most debated subjects of the newborn comparative psychology. Yet, they have left little trace in the historiography of this discipline, mostly as an appendix of the more famous Clever Hans. Their story is generally told as the prelude to the triumph of reductionistic experimental psychology. By paying a more scrupulous attention than has so far being done to the second life of Hans, and to the endeavours of his second master, Karl Krall, this article explores the story of the Elberfeld horses as an important, if so far neglected, chapter in the history of experimental parapsychology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ["Homesickness and crime"--a contribution of Karl Jaspers to criminal psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Even a century after its first publication in "Archives of Criminology" (in German: Archiv für Kriminologie), the doctoral thesis of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), which was newly edited in 1996, continues to be of interest. Although the crimes described by Jaspers, which took place in a rural area, do no longer occur in this form just as the rural culture itself has disappeared, this paper nevertheless contains reflections that may also be relevant for the interpretation of modern potentials of conflict and violence and crimes rooted therein. The former homesickness has developed into novel phenomena of uprooting. In both cases, problems of maladjustment are a contributing factor to crime motivation. Thus despite all terminological and methodological change, Jaspers' thesis is an example for the continuing relevance of certain subjects in criminological discourse.

  12. "On cyclic insanity" by Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum, MD: a translation and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baethge, Christopher; Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2003-01-01

    Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828-1899) spent most of his professional career as director of a private psychiatric sanatorium in Germany. He remains influential for introducing his "clinical method" (based on considering the course of an illness as well as the signs and symptoms) of differential diagnosis of specific psychiatric syndromes and urging abandonment of the more unitary views of psychotic disorders favored by the leading German academic theorists of his time. Kahlbaum's approach to nosology, detailed in an 1863 monograph and other works, strongly influenced Kraepelin's views. However, remarkably few of the important writings of this keen clinical observer are available in English translation. His seminal lecture-essay "On Cyclic Insanity" [Uber cyklisches Irresein] of 1882 is translated into English here for the first time, with comments about its place in the history of the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder, including its position as a link between Falret's folie circulaire and Kraepelin's manic-depressive insanity.

  13. El huracán Karl: concepciones sobre su origen en una comunidad de Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Marinero Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las concepciones e ideas de pobladores adultos sobre las afectaciones sufridas por el huracán Karl en 2010, en el municipio de La Antigua, Veracruz. Los datos se obtuvieron de entrevistas a informantes claves y grupos focales, además de la revisión de notas periodísticas. Se observa que las concepciones e ideas sobre el origen del desastre las adjudican a las fuerzas naturales, espirituales o religiosas sin reconocer la responsabilidad de las autoridades encargadas de elaborar políticas públicas en la materia y en la falta de previsión social y personal frente a sus devastadores efectos. Esta concepción dificulta la prevención, mantiene a la comunidad en situación de vulnerabilidad e impide o imposibilita la integración, la cohesión social y la acción colectiva.

  14. Controlled formation of iron carbides and their performance in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Wezendonk, Tim A.

    2018-04-19

    Iron carbides are unmistakably associated with the active phase for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The formation of these carbides is highly dependent on the catalyst formulation, the activation method and the operational conditions. Because of this highly dynamic behavior, studies on active phase performance often lack the direct correlation between catalyst performance and iron carbide phase. For the above reasons, an extensive in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy study on highly dispersed Fe on carbon catalysts (Fe@C) produced through pyrolysis of a Metal Organic Framework was coupled to their FTS performance testing. The preparation of Fe@C catalysts via this MOF mediated synthesis allows control over the active phase formation and therefore provides an ideal model system to study the performance of different iron carbides. Reduction of fresh Fe@C followed by low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) conditions resulted in the formation of the ε′-Fe2.2C, whereas carburization of the fresh catalysts under high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (HTFT) resulted in the formation of χ-Fe5C2. Furthermore, the different activation methods did not alter other important catalyst properties, as pre- and post-reaction transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization confirmed that the iron nanoparticle dispersion was preserved. The weight normalized activities (FTY) of χ-Fe5C2 and ε′-Fe2.2C are virtually identical, whilst it is found that ε′-Fe2.2C is a better hydrogenation catalyst than χ-Fe5C2. The absence of differences under subsequent HTFT experiments, where χ-Fe5C2 is the dominating phase, is a strong indication that the iron carbide phase is responsible for the differences in selectivity.

  15. O modelo de Karl Popper sob a ótica das Ciências Sociais Aplicadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanario

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p124 Karl Popper é o principal filósofo da ciência na modernidade, disputando com Thomas Kuhn a primazia de interpretação do método científico. Claramente há diferentes visões para uma leitura desse importante autor que cunhou o método chamado de dedutivo com teste. O texto reconhece a relevância da visão de Karl Popperno desenvolvimento de trabalhos científicos das ciências exatas e biológicas, onde é amplamente aceita. No entanto, nota-se que essa formulação é pouco sistematizada na área das ciências sociais aplicadas. Este é um ensaio que busca resgatar a sua contribuição, numa tentativa de traduzir os conceitos por ele desenvolvidos de forma didática. Para tanto, será feita uma introdução aos fundamentos da ciência como forma específica de conhecimento, buscando contrastar os métodos dedutivo e indutivo e os procedimentos da ciência formal, básica e aplicada. Uma tentativa de classificar a formulação de proposições a serem testadas ou falseadas é feita com a utilização de diferentes critérios, utilizando exemplos da administração e da economia para ilustração.

  16. Readers and academic reading of Karl Marx (São Paulo, 1958-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Soares Rodrigues

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideas, books and concepts of Karl Marx and various Marxist authors was incorporated into scientific and cultural institutions. It is one of the political sphere importation into the academic implying sense of speed in relation to its origins and gave to Marxism, through the practices of the agents of this transfer, support for their preservation, dissemination and transformation. Concurrently, there is the incorporation of these lines to the required reading of the humanities and the repertoire of cultivated layers. Examination of appropriations that academic and cultured elites made of Marx, situate them (such work and such elites, institutionally. This is what this article does. Arguing that the legitimacy of the uses of a tradition result not only of their intrinsic value, but the work oriented agents interested in it, is elected an exemplary experience for research. This article looks at two university groups initially focused on the study of Karl Marx's work, made in the late 1950. It begins by proposing a collective biography, the reading program and the various uses they made of them. To refine the analysis and proof the advocated method selects for vertical take, within a group (the first one and a discipline (sociology, two contrasting trajectories (Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Octavio Ianni and various forms Marxism (theoretical and empirical / dominant and dominated. Finally, it discusses the profits propitiated to have operated with three concepts of cultural sociology: habitus, « field » and « patterns of intention » – taken from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michael Baxandall.

  17. Charge characteristics of humic and fulvic acids: comparative analysis by colloid titration and potentiometric titration with continuous pK-distribution function model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratskaya, S; Golikov, A; Lutsenko, T; Nesterova, O; Dudarchik, V

    2008-09-01

    Charge characteristics of humic and fulvic acids of a different origin (inshore soils, peat, marine sediments, and soil (lysimetric) waters) were evaluated by means of two alternative methods - colloid titration and potentiometric titration. In order to elucidate possible limitations of the colloid titration as an express method of analysis of low content of humic substances we monitored changes in acid-base properties and charge densities of humic substances with soil depth, fractionation, and origin. We have shown that both factors - strength of acidic groups and molecular weight distribution in humic and fulvic acids - can affect the reliability of colloid titration. Due to deviations from 1:1 stoichiometry in interactions of humic substances with polymeric cationic titrant, the colloid titration can underestimate total acidity (charge density) of humic substances with domination of weak acidic functional groups (pK>6) and high content of the fractions with molecular weight below 1kDa.

  18. Deposition and retention of 67Ga-labelled diesel particles in Fischer-344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Lopez, J.A.; Wolf, I.; Cheng, Y.S.; McClellan, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to 67 Ga radiolabeled diesel exhaust particles produced from a 1 cylinder engine and diluted 10:1 with filtered air. Volume median diameters of the particles were 0.14 to 0.16 μm measured using an electrical aerosol analyzer, a diffusion battery and a cascade impactor. Initial lung deposition was 7 +- 2% and 12 +- 2% in two separate experiments. Gallium-67 left the lung rapidly with a clearance half-time of about 10 days, indicating that the 67 Ga label dissociated from diesel particles

  19. Reversible alkyne insertion in the benzannulation reaction of Fischer carbene complexes with alkynes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, M.L.; Bos, M.E.; Wulff, W.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The benzannulation reaction of Fischer carbene complexes with alkynes to give phenols is highly regioselective with terminal alkynes, and reasonably regioselective with internal alkynes. This has been attributed to steric factors in intermediates, where one form is favored due to close contact between the R substituent and a cis-CO ligand. Whether alkyne insertion is kinetically or thermodynamically controlled has not been determined. The authors now have evidence from regioselectivity studies that alkyne insertion into the metal-carbon bond is reversible. Implications of these results and further mechanistic considerations will be presented.

  20. Synthetic production of fuels by the Fischer Tropsch reaction using iron catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cepeda, Rodrigo; Pacheco Ochoa, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A series of iron catalysts were prepared on three different types of supports: alumina and two activated carbons from eucalyptus woods and tagua seeds. Potassium was used as promoter and palladium was deposited by the excess wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, XRD and TPR analysis and evaluated as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. The carbon supported catalysts favour the production of liquid hydrocarbons and decrease the aqueous phase. Those supported with alumina form gases and aqueous phase as the main products. The α p parameters of the Schulz-Flory distribution show hydrocarbons between gasoline and diesel

  1. Macromolecules and Enzymes: The Geneva Heritage from Kurt H. Meyer and Edmond H. Fischer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edmond H; Piguet, Alfred

    2009-12-01

    On the 26th May 2009, Edmond Fischer, winner with Ed Krebs of the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 1992, and his colleague at the time of his research activities at the Ecole de chimie of the University of Geneva, Alfred Piguet, met with Andreas Hauser, Claude Piguet and Howard Riezman of the Section de chimie et biochimie of the University of Geneva to talk about how they became scientists under the impetus of Kurt H. Meyer and what became of them thereafter.

  2. Fischer Indole Synthesis in the Gas Phase, the Solution Phase, and at the Electrospray Droplet Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Ryan M; Ayrton, Stephen T; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-07-01

    Previous reports have shown that reactions occurring in the microdroplets formed during electrospray ionization can, under the right conditions, exhibit significantly greater rates than the corresponding bulk solution-phase reactions. The observed acceleration under electrospray ionization could result from a solution-phase, a gas-phase, or an interfacial reaction. This study shows that a gas-phase ion/molecule (or ion/ion) reaction is not responsible for the observed rate enhancement in the particular case of the Fischer indole synthesis. The results show that the accelerated reaction proceeds in the microdroplets, and evidence is provided that an interfacial process is involved. Graphical Abstract GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT TEXT HERE] -->.

  3. Effect of pre-heat treatment on a Fischer-Tropsch iron catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huggins, F.E.; Ganguly, B.; Mahajan, V.; Huffman, G.P.; Davis, B.; O'Brien, R.J.; Xu Liguang; Rao, V.U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the effect of heating the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/24 SiO 2 in two different atmospheres while ramping the temperature of the catalyst from room temperature to 280 C in 5.5 h prior to pretreatment of the catalyst. Preheating in H 2 /CO = 0.7 gave rise to an iron (Fe 2+ ) silicate, while preheating in helium resulted in the formation of ε'-carbide Fe 2.2 C. Iron oxides and χ-carbide Fe 5 C 2 were also formed in both preheat treatments. (orig.)

  4. Activity and selectivity control through periodic composition forcing over Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveston, P L; Hudgins, R R; Adesina, A A; Ross, G S; Feimer, J L

    1986-01-01

    Data collected under steady-state and periodic composition forcing of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over three commonly used catalysts demonstrate that both activity and selectivity can be changed by the latter operating mode. Synthesis of hydrocarbons up to C/sub 7/are favored at the expense of the higher carbon numbers for the Co catalyst, while for the Ru catalyst, only the C/sub 3/ and lower species are favored. Only methane production is stimulated with the Fe catalyst. Fe and Ru catalysts shift production from alkenes to alkanes. Transient data is interpreted in the paper.

  5. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  6. Reflections on Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-Biography “A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx”

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-01-01

    The English translation of Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-biography A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx was published two weeks before Marx’s bicentenary. This article presents reflections on Liedman’s book and asks how one should best write biographically about Marx. The paper compares Liedman’s biography to the Marx-biographies written by Jonathan Sperber (Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life) and Gareth Stedman-Jones (Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion). A biography is a way of repeat...

  7. Thermometric titration in investigation of the formation of polyanions of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), vanadium(V), and chromium (VI)-I: comparison of thermometric and potentiometric titration curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiba, N; Takeuchi, T

    1973-09-01

    A new twin-cell thermometric titrator has been devised and used for thermometric titration of solutions of sodium molybdate, sodium tungstate, sodium orthovanadate, ammonium metavanadate, and potassium chromate with perchloric acid. The thermometric titration curves were compared with corresponding pH-titration curves for elucidation of the reactions occurring in the titrations. Thermometric titrimetric methods have been developed for the determination of tungsten, vanadium and chromium.

  8. A novel approach for high precision rapid potentiometric titrations: application to hydrazine assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, P; Malathi, N; Ananthanarayanan, R; Praveen, K; Murali, N

    2011-11-01

    We propose a high precision rapid personal computer (PC) based potentiometric titration technique using a specially designed mini-cell to carry out redox titrations for assay of chemicals in quality control laboratories attached to industrial, R&D, and nuclear establishments. Using this technique a few microlitre of sample (50-100 μl) in a total volume of ~2 ml solution can be titrated and the waste generated after titration is extremely low comparing to that obtained from the conventional titration technique. The entire titration including online data acquisition followed by immediate offline analysis of data to get information about concentration of unknown sample is completed within a couple of minutes (about 2 min). This facility has been created using a new class of sensors, viz., pulsating sensors developed in-house. The basic concept in designing such instrument and the salient features of the titration device are presented in this paper. The performance of the titration facility was examined by conducting some of the high resolution redox titrations using dilute solutions--hydrazine against KIO(3) in HCl medium, Fe(II) against Ce(IV) and uranium using Davies-Gray method. The precision of titrations using this innovative approach lies between 0.048% and 1.0% relative standard deviation in different redox titrations. With the evolution of this rapid PC based titrator it was possible to develop a simple but high precision potentiometric titration technique for quick determination of hydrazine in nuclear fuel dissolver solution in the context of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in fast breeder reactors. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  9. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Maria Andaló TENUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and < 0.005 mmols OH- to reach pH 5.5, respectively. Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  10. Titratable acidity of beverages influences salivary pH recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Brandão, Ana Carolina Siqueira; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A low pH and a high titratable acidity of juices and cola-based beverages are relevant factors that contribute to dental erosion, but the relative importance of these properties to maintain salivary pH at demineralizing levels for long periods of time after drinking is unknown. In this crossover study conducted in vivo, orange juice, a cola-based soft drink, and a 10% sucrose solution (negative control) were tested. These drinks differ in terms of their pH (3.5 ± 0.04, 2.5 ± 0.05, and 5.9 ± 0.1, respectively) and titratable acidity (3.17 ± 0.06, 0.57 ± 0.04 and pH 5.5, respectively). Eight volunteers with a normal salivary flow rate and buffering capacity kept 15 mL of each beverage in their mouth for 10 s, expectorated it, and their saliva was collected after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 s. The salivary pH, determined using a mini pH electrode, returned to the baseline value at 30 s after expectoration of the cola-based soft drink, but only at 90 s after expectoration of the orange juice. The salivary pH increased to greater than 5.5 at 15 s after expectoration of the cola drink and at 30 s after expectoration of the orange juice. These findings suggest that the titratable acidity of a beverage influences salivary pH values after drinking acidic beverages more than the beverage pH.

  11. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark PHILLIPS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH2 followed by gross Ca(OH2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1 Syringe irrigation; 2 Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3 Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, or 4 Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group. Residual Ca(OH2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH2 residue compared to irrigation alone.

  12. Modelling of acid-base titration curves of mineral assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamberg Karel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of acid-base titration curves of mineral assemblages was studied with respect to basic parameters of their surface sites to be obtained. The known modelling approaches, component additivity (CA and generalized composite (GC, and three types of different assemblages (fucoidic sandstones, sedimentary rock-clay and bentonite-magnetite samples were used. In contrary to GC-approach, application of which was without difficulties, the problem of CA-one consisted in the credibility and accessibility of the parameters characterizing the individual mineralogical components.

  13. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, B F G; Delgado, J U; da Silva, J W S; de Barros, P D; de Araújo, R M S; Lopes, R T

    2012-07-01

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Co-Zn-Al based hydrotalcites as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, C.L.; Pirola, C.; Boffito, D.C.; Di Fronzo, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica; Di Michele, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Vivani, R.; Nocchetti, M.; Bastianini, M.; Gatto, S. [Univ. degli Studi di Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2011-07-01

    Co-Zn-Al based hydrotalcites have been investigated as catalysts for the well-known Fischer- Tropsch synthesis. A series of ternary hydrotalcites in nitrate form was prepared with the urea method in order to obtain active catalysts for the above mentioned process. The thermal activation at 350 C gives raise to finely dispersed metallic Co on the mixed oxides, so resulting in retaining the metal distribution of the parent compounds. An optimization study concerning the amount of cobalt of the prepared catalysts (range 15-70% mol, metal based) and the reaction temperature (220-260 C) is reported. All the samples have been fully characterized (BET, ICP-OES, XRPD, TG-DTA, FT-IR, SEM and TEM) and tested in a laboratory pilot plant. Tests to evaluate the stability of these materials were carried out in stressed conditions concerning both the activation and the operating temperatures and pressures (up to 350 C and 2.0 MPa). The obtained results suggest the possibility of using synthetic hydrotalcites as suitable Co-based catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. (orig.)

  15. Abstraction of methyl from neutral Fischer-type carbene complexes: A new site for nucleophilic attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, L.M.; Atwood, J.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1997-02-04

    Reactions of Fischer-type carbene complexes, M(CO){sub 5}(C(OMe)pH) (M = Cr, W), with metal carbonyl anions (M`{sup -} = CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -@}, Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, Mn(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}{sup -}, Co(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 3}{sup -}, Cp{sup *}Cr(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, CpMo(CO){sub 3}{sup -}) result in demethylation of the carbene complexes. The products are M(CO){sub 5}C(O)Ph{sup -} and M`-Me, characterized by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. A slower rate for reaction with W(CO){sub 5}(C(OEt)Ph) in comparison to the methyl analogue is consistent with nucleophilic attack of the metal carbonyl anion on the methyl of the methoxy group of the carbene. This is a new type of nucleophilic attack of a Fischer-type carbene. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in slurry-phase reactors using Co/SBA-15 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.J.; Lima, L.A.; Lima, W.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: meiry@deq.ufcg.edu.br; Fernandes, F.A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this work is to describe the production of bifunctional catalysts using the incipient humidity method, producing catalysts with 15 wt.% cobalt supported in SBA-15 molecular sieve, to be applied in the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The originality of this work is its focus on the use of a 15 wt.% Co/SBA-15 catalyst in FT synthesis in slurry reactors. The deposition of cobalt over SBA-15 support was accomplished by impregnation with a 0.1-M aqueous solution of cobalt nitrate. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was carried out with the catalyst at 240 deg C and 20 atm, under a COH{sub 2} atmosphere (molar ratio= 1), in a slurry reactor for 8 hours. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the calcined cobalt catalyst did not modify the structure of SBA-15, proving that Co was present under the form of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the catalyst. The addition of cobalt in the SBA-15 decreased the specific superficial area of the molecular sieve. The 15 wt.% Co/SBA-15 catalyst had a 40% CO conversion rate and a high selectivity towards the production of C{sub 5}{sup +} (53.9% after 8 hours). (author)

  17. Kinetics of phototoxicity of Fischer's medium for L5178Y leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, F.M.; Ashland, G.; Capizzi, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The uncontrolled exposure of Fischer's medium to cool white fluorescent (CWF) light or other sources emitting near-ultraviolet or visible light absorbance by riboflavin is a crucial random variable in experiments which utilize L5178Y cells and this medium. The radiation effects of CWF light result in the rapid development of toxic photoproducts in the medium which are cytostatic at lower doses of radiation and cytotoxic at higher doses. After a 24-hr suspension in medium irradiated for 3 or 48 hr, the cloning efficiencies of cells subsequently plated in light-protected medium were 87 and 3%, respectively. The corresponding near-ultraviolet doses for these periods of exposure to CWF light were 0.22 x 10(4) for a 3-hr exposure and 3.47 x 10(4) J/sq m for a 48-hr exposure. Cells incubated in lightly irradiated medium resumed growth at nearly normal rates following a 24- to 48-hr period in which no increase in cell numbers occurred. Exposure of medium containing riboflavin, but not tryptophan or tyrosine, to CWF light also produces toxic medium. Tryptophan enhances riboflavin-induced phototoxicity, whereas tyrosine diminishes this effect. As photosusceptibility of this system is very high, Fischer's medium must be fully protected from all sources of light absorbable by riboflavin

  18. The effect of age on digoxin pharmacokinetics in Fischer-344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.L.; Owens, S.M.; Ruch, S.; Kennedy, R.H.; Seifen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Digoxin protein binding and pharmacokinetics were studied in 4-, 14-, and 25-month-old male Fischer-344 rats to determine if there were age-dependent changes in digoxin disposition. Serum protein binding did not differ among age groups. The average percentage unbound digoxin for all animals was 61.3 ± 5.3% (means ± SD, n = 15). For pharmacokinetic studies, [ 3 H]digoxin and 1 mg/kg unlabeled digoxin were administered as an intravenous bolus dose to animals from each age group. The [ 3 H]digoxin terminal elimination half-life was 2.0, 2.3, and 2.5 hr, respectively. The steady-state volume of distribution in the three age groups was 1.51, 1.49, and 1.27 liters/kg, respectively. Total body clearance for the three age groups was 14.2, 12.1, and 7.5 ml/min/kg, respectively. Analysis of variance of these data followed by Duncan's multiple range test indicated a significant decrease in clearance in the aged rats (25-month-old, p less than 0.05). This age-dependent decrease in clearance suggested that digoxin pharmacokinetics could be a significant factor in age-related alterations in digoxin cardiotoxicity in the rat, as it is in humans, and that the Fischer-344 rat could be a useful model for studies of digoxin pharmacokinetic changes with age

  19. Cerium Modified Pillared Montmorillonite Supported Cobalt Catalysts for Fischer Tropsch Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ali, Z.; Abbas, S. M.; Hussain, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was accomplished over Al-pillared Montmorillonite supported 20 wt% Co modified with different weight% of cerium catalysts. These catalysts were prepared by impregnation method while structural characterizations of the prepared samples were performed by XRD, TPR, NH/sub 3/TPD, TGA, BET, XRF and SEM techniques. The Fischer Tropsch reaction was studied in fixed bed micro catalytic reactor at temperature range of 220, 260 and 275 degree C and at different pressure (1, 5 and 10 bars). From the activity results, it was found that by pillaring NaMMT with Al higher catalytic activity and lower methane selectivity of NaMMT was achieved. Furthermore, the results of FT synthesis reaction revealed that cerium incorporation increased the dispersion of Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ on the surface and consequently resulted in enhanced catalytic activity. Additionally, the C/sub 5/-C/sub 12/ hydrocarbons and methane selectivity increased while C/sub 22+/ hydrocarbons selectivity was decreased over cerium modified catalysts. Higher reaction temperature (>220 degree C) resulted in significant enhancement in CO conversion and methane selectivity. Though, increase in pressure from 1 to 10 bars eventually resulted in increase in C/sub 5+/ hydrocarbons and decrease in methane and C/sub 2/-C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons selectivity. (author)

  20. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Multicomponent Catalysts: What Can We Learn from Computer Simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. C. Fajín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review paper, we will address recent studies based on the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA of the density functional theory (DFT and on the periodic slab approach devoted to the understanding of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process on transition metal catalysts. As it will be seen, this computational combination arises as a very adequate strategy for the study of the reaction mechanisms on transition metal surfaces under well-controlled conditions and allows separating the influence of different parameters, e.g., catalyst surface morphology and coverage, influence of co-adsorbates, among others, in the global catalytic processes. In fact, the computational studies can now compete with research employing modern experimental techniques since very efficient parallel computer codes and powerful computers enable the investigation of more realistic molecular systems in terms of size and composition and to explore the complexity of the potential energy surfaces connecting reactants, to intermediates, to products of reaction. In the case of the Fischer-Tropsch process, the calculations were used to complement experimental work and to clarify the reaction mechanisms on different catalyst models, as well as the influence of additional components and co-adsorbate species in catalyst activity and selectivity.

  1. Free Software Development. 3. Numerical Description of Soft Acid with Soft Base Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The analytical methods of qualitative and quantitative determination of ions in solutions are very flexible to automation. The present work is focus on modeling the process of titration and presents a numerical simulation of acid-base titration. A PHP program to compute all iterations in titration process that solves a 3th rank equation to find value of pH for was built and is available through http internet protocol at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.org/molecular_dynamics/ab_titrations/v1.1/ The method allows expressing the value of pH in any point of titration process and permits to observe the equivalence point of titration.

  2. [A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Wu, Wei; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    To develop an assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) based on double antibody sandwich ELISA. A double antibody sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of SFTSV based on SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein specific poly- and monoclonal antibodies, procedures were optimized and evaluated. This ELISA based titration assay was compared with fluorescence assasy and plaque assay based titration method. The results suggested that the titers obtained by ELISA based method are consistent with those obtained by IFA based method (R = 0.999) and the plaque assay titration method (R = 0.949). The novel ELISA based titration method with high sensitivity and specificity is easy to manage and perform, and can overcome the subjectivity associated with result determination of the fluorescence assay and plaque assay based methods. The novel ELISA based titration method can also be applied to high throughput detection.

  3. Computer controlled titration with piston burette or peristaltic pump - a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W

    1996-09-01

    The advantages and problems of the use of piston burettes and peristaltic pumps for dosage of titrant solutions in automatic titrations are shown. For comparison, only the dosing devices were exchanged and all other components and conditions remained unchanged. The results of continuous acid base titration show good agreement and comparable reproducibility. Potentiometric sensors (glass electrodes) with different equilibration behaviour influence the results. The capability of such electrodes was tested. Conductometric measurements allow a much faster detection because there is no equilibration of electrodes. Piston burettes should be used for titration with very high precision, titration with organic solvents and slow titrations. Peristaltic pumps seem to be more suitable for continuous titrations and long time operation without service.

  4. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING WARFARIN DOSE TITRATION IN PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION DEPENDING ON CLINICAL FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    E. L. Artanova; E. V. Saleeva; I. M. Sokolov; Y. G. Shvarts

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To study the relations of clinical characteristics and individual warfarin dose titration in patients with atrial fibrillation. Material and methods. Period of warfarin dose titration was analyzed in 68 patients with atrial fibrillation due to ischemic heart disease. Adjusted warfarin dose in milligram, duration of dose titration in days and maximal international normalized ratio (INR) were taken into account. Sex, age, history of myocardial infarction and stroke, concomitant diseases, a...

  5. The determination of titratable acidity and total tannins in red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Sredović Ivana D.

    2009-01-01

    Titration acidity and content of total tannins in mass-market red wines are analyzed in this paper. The content of total acids in wine, expressed through wine acid, was analyzed by potentiometric titration on 7.00 pH value. According to titratable acidity in analyzed wines, all wines (only) with analyzed parameters according to Regulations about wine quality. The analysis of differential potentiometric curves shows that these curves can give the answer to the question if non organic substance...

  6. Thermometric Titration for Rapid Determination of Trace Water in Jet Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jian-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Yang, Shi-Zhao; Xin, Yong-Liang; Guo, Li; Yao, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Water content in jet fuels is detected by thermometric titration (TMT), and the optimal detected system is 2,2-dimethoxypropane as titrant, cyclohexane and isopropanol as titration solvents, and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst in this method. The amounts of oil, concentration and delivery rate of titrant, volumes, and the reliability and accuracy of thermometric titration were emphasized. The results show that the accuracy, validity, and reliability of TMT are excellent by different indicate...

  7. Potentiometric titration of molybdenum (6) with a cathode-polarized solid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeva, L.V.; Kimstach, V.A.; Bagdasarov, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility has been studied of using solid electrodes for potentiometric precipitation titration of molybdenum (6). A cathode-polarized electrode, electrochemically covered with a molybdenum blue layer, can be used as indicator electrode. The best results were obtained during deposition of molybdenum blue on a tungsten electrode. The mechanism of electrode work during titration has been investigated. A procedure has been developed of titration of molybdenum (6) in acid solutions using hydroxylamine N-aryl derivatives as titrants

  8. Further investigation on the degree of deacetylation of chitosan determined by potentiometric titration

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Sweidan; Abdel-Motalleb Jaber; Nawzat Al-jbour; Rana Obaidat; Mayyas Al- Remawi; Adnan Badwan

    2011-01-01

    The degree of deacetylation (DDA) of various low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) species as the hydrochloride and free base (amine form) was determined by direct and back potentiometric titration, respectively. The DDA values obtained for the chitosan hydrochloride by direct titration were greater than 93% for all oligomers tested (Molecular weight (Mwt) between about 1.3 to 30.0 kDa). However, the DDA values obtained for chitosan amine oligomers using back titration were significantly lower...

  9. Reflections on Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-Biography “A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The English translation of Sven-Eric Liedman’s Marx-biography A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx was published two weeks before Marx’s bicentenary. This article presents reflections on Liedman’s book and asks how one should best write biographically about Marx. The paper compares Liedman’s biography to the Marx-biographies written by Jonathan Sperber (Karl Marx: A Nineteenth-Century Life and Gareth Stedman-Jones (Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion. A biography is a way of repeating a person’s life, works and age in a process of reconstruction and retelling. The question that arises is how to write a biography as a dialectical text. Sven-Eric Liedman: A World to Win: The Life and Works of Karl Marx. London: Verso, London, 2018. 768 pages., £35.00 hbk. ISBN 9781786635044

  10. Constant-pH molecular dynamics using stochastic titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, António M.; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Soares, Cláudio M.

    2002-09-01

    A new method is proposed for performing constant-pH molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, that is, MD simulations where pH is one of the external thermodynamic parameters, like the temperature or the pressure. The protonation state of each titrable site in the solute is allowed to change during a molecular mechanics (MM) MD simulation, the new states being obtained from a combination of continuum electrostatics (CE) calculations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of protonation equilibrium. The coupling between the MM/MD and CE/MC algorithms is done in a way that ensures a proper Markov chain, sampling from the intended semigrand canonical distribution. This stochastic titration method is applied to succinic acid, aimed at illustrating the method and examining the choice of its adjustable parameters. The complete titration of succinic acid, using constant-pH MD simulations at different pH values, gives a clear picture of the coupling between the trans/gauche isomerization and the protonation process, making it possible to reconcile some apparently contradictory results of previous studies. The present constant-pH MD method is shown to require a moderate increase of computational cost when compared to the usual MD method.

  11. Common Standards of Basal Insulin Titration in T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnolds, Sabine; Heise, Tim; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide major health problem, and the number of people affected is steadily increasing. Thus, not all patients suffering from the disease can be treated by specialized diabetes centers or outpatient clinics, but by primary care physicians. The latter, however, might have time constraints and have to deal with many kinds of diseases or with multimorbid patients, so their focus is not so much on lowering high blood glucose values. Thus, the physicians, as well as the patients themselves, are often reluctant to initiate and adjust insulin therapy, although basal insulin therapy is considered the appropriate strategy after oral antidiabetic drug failure, according to the latest international guidelines. A substantial number of clinical studies have shown that insulin initiation and optimization can be managed successfully by using titration algorithms—even in cases where patients themselves are the drivers of insulin titration. Nevertheless, tools and strategies are needed to facilitate this process in the daily life of both primary health care professionals and patients with diabetes. PMID:23759411

  12. Fast Proton Titration Scheme for Multiscale Modeling of Protein Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andre Azevedo Reis; Lund, Mikael; da Silva, Fernando Luís Barroso

    2010-10-12

    Proton exchange between titratable amino acid residues and the surrounding solution gives rise to exciting electric processes in proteins. We present a proton titration scheme for studying acid-base equilibria in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations where salt is treated at the Debye-Hückel level. The method, rooted in the Kirkwood model of impenetrable spheres, is applied on the three milk proteins α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin, for which we investigate the net-charge, molecular dipole moment, and charge capacitance. Over a wide range of pH and salt conditions, excellent agreement is found with more elaborate simulations where salt is explicitly included. The implicit salt scheme is orders of magnitude faster than the explicit analog and allows for transparent interpretation of physical mechanisms. It is shown how the method can be expanded to multiscale modeling of aqueous salt solutions of many biomolecules with nonstatic charge distributions. Important examples are protein-protein aggregation, protein-polyelectrolyte complexation, and protein-membrane association.

  13. Titration of uranium trace amounts in waters environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larabi-Gruet, N.; Ithurbide, A.; Poulesquen, A.; Beaucaire, C.; Peulon, S.; Chausse, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of studies concerning the uranium migration in soils and rocks, it seems necessary to quantify the uranium(VI) dissolved in solution. In the environmental conditions, the uranium(VI) is present at trace amounts. The most adapted method to this study and easy to carry out is the Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry. By addition of a compound (ligand) with a reducing and strong complexing power, the uranium(VI) present in solution is reduced into a U(VI)-ligand complex. This specie is then oxidized and adsorbed on the mercury droplet where an electrolytic pre-concentration of the element to determine the quantity of is carried out. At last, a cathodic re-dissolution of the specie adsorbed in the U(IV)-ligand complex is carried out. The chosen analytical method is the differential impulsional voltammetry. With this method, it is possible to quantify low electro-active species quantities (sensitivity ∼25 ppt (10 -10 mol.L -1 ) for the uranium). This titration method in solution has been optimized, at first, in a non complexing medium. Then, the uranium in solution has been titrated in media whose composition has been progressively complexed (additions of CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - ..) for being at last representative of the environmental interstitial waters. At last, this study has been carried out too by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in order to compare the analysis sensitivity of these two detection methods. (O.M.)

  14. Radiometric titration of thallium(III) with EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.R.S.; Pulla Rao, Ch.; Tataiah, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive solutions containing very small amounts of thallium(III) can be determined by radiometric titration using ammonia as hydrolysing agent. Aqueous solution of thallium(I) (both inactive and radioactive) is treated with bromine water till the appearance of the brown colour of bromine, and the solution is warmed to 80 deg C to expel the excess bromine. By this procedure all thallium(I) is quantitatively oxidised to thallium(III). An aqueous solution of ammonia is added to precipitate thallium(III) as thallic oxide. It is then filtered, washed with water to free it from bromide and then dissolved in 2N HCl and the solution is then standardised. 2 ml of this solution is transferred to a 20 ml volumetric flask, 1 ml of radioactive thallium(III) solution to be standardised is added as well as incremental amounts of EDTA solution and mixed thoroughly. Uncomplexed thallium(III) is then precipitated by the addition of an ammonia solution and diluted to 20 ml. Required amount of this mixture is centrifuged. The beta activity of the supernatant aliquot is measured using a GM counter. Quantitative determination of Tl(III) in the range of 1-10 μM can be carried out. The interference of cations such as Au(III), iron(III), Ga(III) can be eliminated by pretreatment of the Tl(III) solution before carrying out radiometric titration. The results obtained are reproducible and accurate to +-3%. (T.I.)

  15. Semi-automated potentiometric titration method for uranium characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, B.F.G., E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U.; Silva, J.W.S. da; Barros, P.D. de; Araujo, R.M.S. de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende s/n Recreio dos Bandeirantes, PO Box 37750, Rio de Janeiro, 22780-160 RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear (PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Ilha do Fundao, PO Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    The manual version of the potentiometric titration method has been used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis time and the influence of the analyst, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed in the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The method was applied with traceability assured by using a potassium dichromate primary standard. The combined standard uncertainty in determining the total concentration of uranium was around 0.01%, which is suitable for uranium characterization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a semi-automatic version of potentiometric titration method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is used for certification and characterization of uranium compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The traceability of the method was assured by a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} primary standard. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} reference material analyzed was consistent with certified value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uncertainty obtained, near 0.01%, is useful for characterization purposes.

  16. Contribution for the studies of rare earth dithionates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The main objective of this work is the synthesis and investigation of some properties of rare earth dithionates. The rare earth dithionates were prepared from the respective sulphates, by the reaction of the latter with BaS sub(2) O sub(6) in aqueous solutions. The lanthanide ion content was estimated by complexometric titration with EDTA; analysis for H were carried out by microanalysis and the water content was determinated by Karl Fischer titration. This experimental results in addition to thermogravimetric (TG) data gave the stoichiometry of the compounds. (author)

  17. The role of titration schedule of topiramate for the development of depression in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael; Sander, Josemir W

    2009-05-01

    To determine whether a fast titration schedule of topiramate (TPM) has different effects on the occurrence of depression, in relation to other risk factors for TPM-induced depression, including history of depression (HxDEP), febrile seizures (FS), and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Using data from a large case registry of patients prescribed TPM, two models were constructed: Model 1 examined the independent effect of rapid TPM titration after separate adjustment for FS, HxDEP, and HS. Model 2 examined effect of the cooccurrence of rapid titration on the development of depression with each of these risk factors. A total of 423 patients were included (51.8% females), mean age (SD) 35.5 (11.8) years, mean duration of epilepsy of 22.2 (11.5) years. Forty-four patients (10.4%) developed depression during TPM therapy. A rapid TPM titration was associated with 5-fold increased risk of depression that increased to 12.7-fold in the presence of both FS and rapid TPM titration, 23.3-fold in the presence of both HxDEP and rapid TPM titration, and 7.6-fold in the presence of both HS and rapid TPM titration schedule. Our study suggests that a rapid titration schedule is associated with an increased risk of developing depression during TPM therapy. HxDEP and FS are major contraindications to the use of a rapid titration, with a 23.3-fold and 12.7 fold increased risk, respectively.

  18. Application of »Mass Titration« to Determination of Surface Charge of Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The mass titration method, used for the point of zero charge determination, was extended to the measurement of the surface charge density. The results agree with the common method, which is the acid-base titration of the colloidal suspension. The advantage of mass titration is that one does not need to perform blank titration, instead one simply adds metal oxide powder to the electrolyte aqueous solution of known pH. To cover the pH range above and below the point of zero charge, two experime...

  19. [Comparison of different continuous positive airway pressure titration methods for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Ye, Jingying; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Dan; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Yuhuan; Ding, Xiu; Zheng, Li; Li, Hongguang; Bian, Qiuli

    2014-10-01

    To explore whether there were differences between the results of automatic titration and the results of manual titration for positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its influencing factors, the results might provide a theoretical basis for the rational use of two pressure titration methods. Sixty one patients with OSAHS were included in this study. All patients underwent a manual titration and an automatic titration within one week. The clinical informations, polysomnography data, and the results of both two titration of all patients were obtained for analysis. The overall apnea/hypopnea index was (63.1 ± 17.7)/h, with a range of 14.9/h to 110.4/h. The treatment pressure of manual titration was (8.4 ± 2.1) cmH(2)O, which was significantly lower than the treatment pressure of automatic titration, (11.5 ± 2.7) cmH(2)O (t = -9.797, P titration and manual titration), it was found that the pressure of automatic titration was significantly higher in patients with a ΔP > 3 cmH(2)O than in patients with a ΔP ≤ 3 cmH(2)O, which was (13.3 ± 2.3) cmH(2)O vs (10.0 ± 2.0) cmH(2)O (t = -6.159, P titration between these two groups, which was (8.6 ± 2.4) cmH(2)O vs (8.3 ± 2.0)cmH(2)O (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdomen circumference, apnea hypopnea index, and arterial oxygen saturation between these two groups. The treatment pressure of automatic titration is usually higher than that of manual titration. For patients with a high treatment pressure which is derived from automatic titration, a suggestion about manual titration could be given to decrease the potential treatment pressure of continuous positive airway pressure, which may be helpful in improving the comfortableness and the compliance of this treatment.

  20. Ruthenium determination in new composite materials by coulometric titration with generated iron(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butakova, N.A.; Oganesyan, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    A coulometric technique is developed for ruthenium (4) titration with generated iron (2) in a mixture of hydrochloric-, sulfuric- and phosphoric acids with potentiometric and biammetric indication of the final titration point. Bi (3), Pd (2), Nb (5), Pt (4) Pb (2), Rh (3) do not interfere with the titration. Together with Ru (4) titrated are Ir (4), V (5), Au (3). The method is applied to analyze commercial samples of ruthenium dioxides, lead- and bismuth ruthenites, ruthenium pentafluorides containing 30-80% of ruthenium. The Ssub(r) values do not exceed 0.002

  1. Data processing for potentiometric precipitation titration of mixtures of isovalent ions by linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar'yanov, B.M.; Shumar, S.V.; Gavrilenko, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for the computer processing of the curves of potentiometric differential titration using the precipitation reactions is developed. This method is based on transformation of the titration curve into a line of multiphase regression, whose parameters determine the equivalence points and the solubility products of the formed precipitates. The computational algorithm is tested using experimental curves for the titration of solutions containing Hg(2) and Cd(2) by the solution of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. The random errors (RSD) for the titration of 1x10 -4 M solutions are in the range of 3-6%. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Method for linearizing the potentiometric curves of precipitation titration in nonaqueous and aqueous-organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykova, L.N.; Chesnokova, O.Ya.; Orlova, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    The method for linearizing the potentiometric curves of precipitation titration is studied for its application in the determination of halide ions (Cl - , Br - , I - ) in dimethylacetamide, dimethylformamide, in which titration is complicated by additional equilibrium processes. It is found that the method of linearization permits the determination of the titrant volume at the end point of titration to high accuracy in the case of titration curves without a potential jump in the proximity of the equivalent point (5 x 10 -5 M). 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. SURRENDER TO LIFE - A Systematic Theological Analysis of Human Kenosis in Karl Rahner’s Thoughts, with Reference to Ignatian Spirituality

    OpenAIRE

    Røsok, Ingvild

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I have investigated the transcendental theology of Karl Rahner, in order to find a theological basis for understanding the concept of kenosis as a following of Christ. Ignatian spirituality was then explored to deepen the understanding and to point to the consequences of such an understanding of kenosis. The research question was: How do the transcendental theology and the Ignatian spirituality of Karl Rahner contribute to an understanding of kenosis as a following of Christ?

  4. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Karl Kreil und Alexander von Humboldt, ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Geschichte des Erdmagnetismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Reich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Kreil was voluminous, it concerned earth magnetism. But only one letter has survived. This letter was written by Kreil on September 3, 1836; one day later Kreil wrote a letter to Carl Friedrich Gauss with nearly the same contents, some sentences are even literally corresponding. Four letters from Kreil to Humboldt were published in the „Annalen der Physik und Chemie“. Some letters were mentioned in the biographical literature dealing with Kreil. These letters show, that the correspondence covered at least the period until 1851 and give information about the intensive relationship between the two scientists. A further interesting source is the library of Humboldt which unfortunately has not survived. The catalogue mentions nine works of Kreil some of them where annotated by Humboldt. This makes it plausible that the contacts even lasted until 1856. Zusammenfassung Die Korrespondenz zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Kreil war umfangreich und betraf den Erdmagnetismus. Aber heute ist nur noch ein einziger Brief im Original bekannt. Dieser Brief, den Kreil am 3. September 1836 Alexander von Humboldt zukommen ließ, stimmt inhaltlich und teilweise wortwörtlich mit dem Brief überein, den Kreil nur einen Tag später, am 4. September 1836, an Carl Friedrich Gauß schickte. Vier Briefe von Kreil an Humboldt wurden in den „Annalen der Physik und Chemie“ publiziert, eine nicht allzu große Anzahl weiterer Briefe an Humboldt wurde in der biographischen Literatur über Kreil und in Briefen Kreils an Koller und Gauß erwähnt. Aber nicht nur die lückenhafte und bruchstückhaft bekannte Korrespondenz zwischen Humboldt und Kreil, die bis 1851 reicht, gibt Aufschluss über die Beziehungen, sondern von besonderer Bedeutung ist des Weiteren der Bestand an Kreiliana in der Bibliothek Humboldts. Es handelt sich um neun Werke Kreils, das letzte aus dem Jahr 1856. Nachweisbare

  5. [Anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism--hypotheses and thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarczyk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The point of the article is to analyse and reflect on certain symptoms of anorexia nervosa in light of Karl Jaspers and Erich Fromm's ideas and social constructivism. Contemplating the disorder in view of the philosophical ideas mentioned earlier, the author analyses such aspects of patients as: functioning on the verge of life and death, the paradoxical struggle to escape from freedom in search of independence, as well as various understandings and descriptions of anorexia in consideration of social constructivism. The author shares thoughts and poses hypotheses, trying to view anorexia in light of selected philosophical and psychological ideas, which in their general assumptions were not concerned with defining nor analysing anorexia nervosa. In view of Karl Jaspers' ideas, the author focuses on the so called 'limit-situations', in the ideas of Erich Fromm she takes notice in "Escape from Freedom" to new relations. Finally in the light of social constructivism the author focuses on the cultural context.

  6. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for In Situ Geochronology using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment( KArLE), is composed of two main instruments: a spectrometer as part of the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method and a Mass Spectrometer (MS). The LIBS laser ablates a sample and creates a plasma cloud, generating a pit in the sample. The LIBS plasma is measured for K abundance in weight percent and the released gas is measured using the MS, which calculates Ar abundance in mols. To relate the K and Ar measurements, total mass of the ablated sample is needed but can be difficult to directly measure. Instead, density and volume are used to calculate mass, where density is calculated based on the elemental composition of the rock (from the emission spectrum) and volume is determined by pit morphology. This study aims to reduce the uncertainty for KArLE by analyzing pit volume relationships in several analog materials and comparing methods of pit volume measurements and their associated uncertainties.

  7. [Management of functional sterility using clomiphene and cyclophenyl at the Karl-Marx-Stadt District Hospital Gynecologic Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, S; Melzer, H

    1977-01-01

    We report on 39 barren patients suffering from anovulatory cycle disturbances or corpus luteum inadequacies. Them were given treatment in the Gynecological Hospital of Karl-Marx-Stadt County at Karl-Marx-Stadt in the past few years and were administered Clomiphendihydrogencitrate or Cyclophenyl to provoke ovulation. Before and during therapy, the total of estrogenes and pregnanediol were determined in the 24h-urine every two days. The clinical data and the results of the hormone investigations were analysed, and an attempt was made to derive a forecast from the estrogene and pregnanediol secretion so as to be able to form an opinion on the positive or negative result of the treatment.

  8. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  9. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Karl Köller (1857-1944) and the discovery of local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Almiro

    2009-01-01

    The understanding, occasionally recognized, that Sigmund Freud had the intuition to use cocaine as local anesthetic for surgical procedures, or even that he played any role in the discovery of local anesthesia is not true. The objective of Freud's studies were different, and based in irrefutable evidence, Karl Köller was the real inventor of local anesthesia. In face of those facts, proper knowledge of this historically important subject is due. This report refers to the long-known properties of cocaine. It also remembers personal data, and the professional and scientific activities of Sigmund Freud and Karl Köller. It presents Freud's researches on the pathophysiological effects of cocaine. It exposes the reasons for the harsh criticism of Freud's concepts. It describes the sudden, but conscious and justified, idea of Karl Köller to study scientifically the use of cocaine as a local anesthetic in animals and humans. It indicates how those pioneering studies, that culminated with the discovery of local anesthesia by Köller and two presentations in Vienna on the subject, were done. It also reports the first ophthalmologic surgery under local anesthesia. It shows the immediate dissemination throughout the world of the discovery that marked the beginning of regional blocks. It comments several documents corroborating the role of Köller in this discovery. And, finally, it mentions the numerous homages received by Köller in different areas of the world. COCLUSIONS: Regional block was introduced by Karl Köller in 1884, when he demonstrated the feasibility of performing painless ophthalmologic surgeries by using cocaine as a local anesthetic. Sigmund Freud studied cocaine extensively, but he did not have direct participation in this important discovery.

  10. Size and Promoter Effects on Stability of Carbon-Nanofiber-Supported Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Jingxiu; Torres Galvis, Hirsa; Koeken, Ard C J; Kirilin, Alexey; Dugulan, A Iulian; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; de Jong, Krijn P

    2016-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis converts synthesis gas from alternative carbon resources, including natural gas, coal, and biomass, to hydrocarbons used as fuels or chemicals. In particular, iron-based catalysts at elevated temperatures favor the selective production of C2-C4 olefins, which are

  11. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  12. The formation and influence of carbon on cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts : an integrated review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, D.J.; Loosdrecht, van de J.; Saib, A.M.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Davis, B.H.; Occelli, M.L.; Speight, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts are the systems of choice for use in gas-to-liquid (GTL) processes. As with most catalysts, cobalt systems gradually lose their activity with increasing time on stream. There are various mechanisms that have been proposed for the deactivation of

  13. Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Schoterman, H.C.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS, Elix'or) on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Two groups of 102 male Fischer 344 rats were injected twice with AOM to induce

  14. 40 CFR 721.10103 - Naphtha (Fischer-Tropsch), C4-11-alkane, branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-alkane, branched and linear. 721.10103 Section 721.10103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as naphtha (fischer-tropsch), C4-11-alkane, branched and linear (PMN P-04-235; CAS No...

  15. Large-scale production of Fischer-Tropsch diesel from biomass. Optimal gasification and gas cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerrigter, H.; Van der Drift, A.

    2004-12-01

    The paper is presented in the form of copies of overhead sheets. The contents concern definitions, an overview of Integrated biomass gasification and Fischer Tropsch (FT) systems (state-of-the-art, gas cleaning and biosyngas production, experimental demonstration and conclusions), some aspects of large-scale systems (motivation, biomass import) and an outlook

  16. Effects of manganese oxide and sulphate on the olefin selectivity of iron catalysts in the Fischer Tropsch reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.L.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Kraan, van der A.M.; van der Baan, Hessel

    1982-01-01

    Although it has been claimed by various authors that the addition of manganese oxide, MnO, to an iron catalyst gives a marked increase in the olefin selectivity of iron catalysts, we have been unable to confirm these claims in Fischer Tropsch experiments at 513 K for an iron manganese oxide catalyst

  17. Insights into optimal basal insulin titration in type 2 diabetes: Results of a quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Lori; Bonnemaire, Mireille; Mical, Marie; Edelman, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Basal insulin (BI) treatment initiation and dose titration in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are often delayed. Such "clinical inertia" results in poor glycaemic control and high risk of long-term complications. This survey aimed to determine healthcare professional (HCP) and patient attitudes to BI initiation and titration. An online survey (July-August 2015) including HCPs and patients with T2DM in the USA, France and Germany. Patients were ≥18 years old and had been on BI for 6 to 36 months, or discontinued BI within the previous 12 months. Participants comprised 386 HCPs and 318 people with T2DM. While >75% of HCPs reported discussing titration at the initiation visit, only 16% to 28% of patients remembered such discussions, many (32%-42%) were unaware of the need to titrate BI, and only 28% to 39% recalled mention of the time needed to reach glycaemic goals. Most HCPs and patients agreed that more effective support tools to assist BI initiation/titration are needed; patients indicated that provision of such tools would increase confidence in self-titration. HCPs identified fear of hypoglycaemia, failure to titrate in the absence of symptoms, and low patient motivation as important titration barriers. In contrast, patients identified weight gain, the perception that titration meant worsening disease, frustration over the time to reach HbA1c goals and fear of hypoglycaemia as major factors. A disconnect exists between HCP- and patient-perceived barriers to effective BI titration. To optimize titration, strategies should be targeted to improve HCP-patient communication, and provide support and educational tools. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. IMPEDANCE METHOD OF MEASURING OF THE TITRATABLE ACIDITY OF YOGURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vasilev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work are analyzed studies related to changes in the active impedance component of the dairy environment caused by the flow of lactic fermentation and coagulation of casein in milk. The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between the relative change of titratable acidity and the relative change of active impedance component of the dairy environment with lactic fermentation, causing coagulation of the casein in milk. . The data were interpolated with cubic spline, visualizing how when the fat content increases, the electrical resistance increases too. All data, collected during the tests would complement and be used for solving the optimization problem to determine the time of completion of the coagulation in future work.

  19. Oxygen titration strategies in chronic neonatal lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primhak, Robert

    2010-09-01

    The history of oxygen therapy in neonatology has been littered with error. Controversies remain in a number of areas of oxygen therapy, including targets and strategies in supplemental oxygen therapy in Chronic Neonatal Lung Disease (CNLD). This article reviews some of these controversies, and makes some recommendations based on the available evidence. In graduates of neonatal units who are left with CNLD, oxygen saturation should be kept above 93-95%, with levels below 90% being avoided as far as possible. Titration of oxygen should be done using oximetry recordings which include periods of different activities. Weaning of oxygen supplementation should only be done based on satisfactory recordings during a trial of a lower flow. There is insufficient evidence to say whether weaning for increasing hours a day or stepwise weaning to a continuous lower flow is a better method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sailing on the "C": A Vitamin Titration with a Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, S.; Kondo, A. E.

    2003-05-01

    The experiment takes the traditional redox titration of vitamin C using iodine with starch as an indicator, and presents it to the student as a challenge in guided-inquiry format. Two versions, with different levels of difficulty, are provided, to accommodate students with varying levels of problem-solving skills. The "challenge" is both quantitative and qualitative: if you were an eighteenth-century sea captain packing for a voyage to the New World, would you take oranges, lemons, limes, or grapefruits to prevent your crew from getting scurvy? The challenge ties in history, nutrition, and health with chemistry, and provides students an opportunity to work with familiar food products in the laboratory.

  1. Ultrasonic and densimetric titration applied for acid-base reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakowski, Andrzej; Gliński, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Classical acoustic acid-base titration was monitored using sound speed and density measurements. Plots of these parameters, as well as of the adiabatic compressibility coefficient calculated from them, exhibit changes with the volume of added titrant. Compressibility changes can be explained and quantitatively predicted theoretically in terms of Pasynski theory of non-compressible hydrates combined with that of the additivity of the hydration numbers with the amount and type of ions and molecules present in solution. It also seems that this development could be applied in chemical engineering for monitoring the course of chemical processes, since the applied experimental methods can be carried out almost independently on the medium under test (harmful, aggressive, etc.).

  2. Potentiometric and amperometric titration of ferrocene by cerium(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomatin, V.T.

    1985-01-01

    Redox-potentials (E) of ferrocene (ferricenium-cation), Ce(4)/Ce(3) pairs are investigated and a possibility of regulating E value of these systems depending on the composition of water-organic media is shown. E value of Ce(4)/Ce(3) system decreases as increasing H 2 SO 4 concentration and CH 3 COOH mol share in the water-organic phase. Kinetic investigations of Ce(4)-ferrocene reactions shown that E constant value is achieved in 12-16 s depending on donor-acceptor properties of the solvent. Optimum conditions are chosen for potentiometric and amperometric titration of ferrocene by ceruium (4) in technological products. The method is versatile and permits to determine from tenths to dozens per cent of ferrocene

  3. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  4. Crisis y dignidad: un paseo con Karl Kraus por la plaza Tahrir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Escamilla Imparato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los últimos acontecimientos revolucionarios surgidos en el mundo árabe, así como los movimientos sociales de indignación frente a los abusos de poder del mercado y la degradación de la vida democrática, están promoviendo nuevas formas distribuidas y horizontales de resistencia y actuación política en defensa de lo común, mediante un uso comprometido y libertario de las mismas herramientas tecnológicas que han servido para globalizar la economía nanciera y reducir lo político a una gestión técnica del poder. En el texto se pretende recuperar la mirada crítica de Karl Kraus, entendiendo que sus diagnósticos y sus profecías -también su sátira- pueden servirnos ahora para desactivar un poder absolutamente privatizado y en crisis.

  5. A Way Forward Beyond Karl Popper's and Donald T. Campbell's Dead-End Evolutionary Epistemologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettersten, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural thought processes have traditionally served as foundations for philosophies of science. The source of all knowledge is passively received observations; these are combined to produce certain knowledge. After David Hume showed that this was not possible, deductivist alternatives, that is, theories that find a source of knowledge in ideas not derived from observations, from Immanuel Kant to William Whewell in the mid-1 9th century, were introduced. In response, traditional associationist and inductivist views were refurbished; a deductivist alternative was developed by the W6rzburg School. Much later Karl Popper in philosophy and Donald T. Campbell in psychology integrated this view with evolutionary theory. Campbell wanted thereby to find a justificationist view, which would reduce philosophy of science to cognitive psychology; Popper rejected both justificationism and the reduction of philosophy of science to psychology. Campbell thought all rational processes were innate psychological processes; Popper thought psychological processes were used to develop various rational processes. Campbell could not show that all rational thought was reducible to innate psychological processes, nor how some justification of scientific theories was possible. Popper could not show how evolutionary theory contributed to our knowledge of psychological thought processes. Both failed to observe that cognitive processes are social; people have learned how to think by learning how to interact in social groups seeking understanding. When innate thought processes are studied as social characteristics, evolutionary theory can contribute to both cognitive psychology and the theory of rationality, as both Popper and Campbell wanted it to do.

  6. Prison break: Karl Menninger's The Crime of Punishment and its reception in U.S. psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonis, David C; Triggs, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    In 1968, Karl Menninger, a highly visible and vocal U.S. psychiatrist, published a call to action on prison reform, The Crime of Punishment (Menninger, 1966/1968). This widely circulated book's central idea is that punishment as practiced in penal settings is an injustice amounting to a crime. At the outset, The Crime of Punishment quickly achieved national attention. Within mainstream psychology, its antipunishment message encountered a changed climate in which punishment, thought ineffective during the period 1930 through 1960, was redefined as an effective component in learning. It also met competition from the contemporaneous Stanford Prison Experiment (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973), which quickly rose to equivalent media presence and superior disciplinary prominence. Both the Stanford Prison Experiment and The Crime of Punishment survived in the antireform era of hyperincarceration after 1974 as parallel examples of reform activism, one secular and one religious in character, illustrating some convergences of aim between psychology and psychiatry outside of specifically clinical issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A Historical Survey of Sir Karl Popper's Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Shields

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was complete (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. Quanta 2012; 1: 1–12.

  8. Philosophy and Theology in Karl Barth’s Neo-Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pylaev Maksim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed article the author explores the concept of God’s Word in theocentric theology of K. Barth and theology of early K. Barth in times of the second edition of 'Romans’, in terms of their philosophy founding. The author compares the block of philosophical and theological topics such as the theory of temporality, dialectic concept of the beginning (Ursprung and other types in philosophical discourses used by K. Barth (platonism, neo-Kantianism, existentialism, scholasticism, phenomenological philosophy and others with theology of K. Barth. The article gives a brief reconstruction of the theology of God’s Word by K. Barth in its two complementary projections as presented in the ‘Sketch of Christian Doctrine’ and ‘Dogma of the Church’. During the presentation the reader is well acquainted with the third projection of the concept of God’s Word by K. Barth at the time of the genesis of the book ‘Fides quaerens intellectum’. The article tests the hypothesis that the second edition of the ‘Romans’, ‘Fides quaerens intellectum’ and ‘Sketch of the Christian Dogma’ with ‘Church Dogma’ explicate the form of Christian theology, which, absorbing primarily the important philosophic achievements of 19–20th centuries, yet tries to stay free of them. Using various forms of philosophical discourses Karl Barth implements his own task of building a Christian theology beyond metaphysics, history and human existence.

  9. Karl Barth’s male-female order: A kingpin of dogmatic disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth’s gender perspective is often analysed with reference to his so-called “theoethics” or “creational theology”. This perspective perpetuates an asymmetry in gender relations that was prevalent in Biblical times, throughout Christianity and to some extent still is visible today. He based his view on the subordination of women on an exegesis of Genesis 1:27 as “intertext” of Ephesians 5:22-23. Barth’s asymmetrical gender perspective is a product of his embedment in Western Christian tradition which in turn, is rooted in early Christian patriarchal theology. The aim of this article is to focus on Barth’s ontological reframing of the traditional understanding of the Biblical notion of human beings as created in the “image of God”. The article consists of four sections: (a Luther’s and Calvin’s gender perspectives; (b the Enlightenment failure to achieve emancipation; (c gender disparity in Reformed theology; and (d a feminist alternative.

  10. Karl Polanyi e a Nova Sociologia Económica: Notas sobre o conceito de (disembeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Miguel Cardoso Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da Nova Sociologia Económica, Karl Polanyi é quase consensualmente considerado o “pai” do conceito de incrustação (embeddedness. Todavia, este conceito foi alvo de uma apropriação selectiva por parte da disciplina, sendo negligenciada a sua relação com o restante edifício teórico construído por Polanyi. Pode, com efeito, falar‑se de uma “grande transformação” sofrida pelo conceito de incrustação: se em Polanyi ele está associado a um nível macro(económico e é utilizado para evidenciar o carácter excepcional da economia capitalista de mercado – que se encontra desincrustada da sociedade –, na NSE, por seu turno, é normalmente associado a um nível meso (e até micro, sendo preconizado que todas as economias – incluindo a capitalista – estão incrustadas.

  11. Karl Gustaf Torsten Sjögren and the Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Aboud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Karl Gustaf Torsten Sjögren (1896-1974 a Swedish psychiatrist and geneticist, was a pioneer of modern Swedish psychiatry. Sjögren studied medicine at the University of Uppsala. From 1932 to 1935, he was Head Physician and Director of Lillehagen Hospital in Gothenburg, and between 1935- 1945, he was physician-in-chief at the psychiatric department of Sahlgrenska Hospital in Gothenburg. Sjögren was professor of psychiatry at Karolinska Institutet from 1945 to 1961 and was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1951. Sjögren was an expert of psychiatry for the World Health Organization. Among his many contributions to medicine, he is credited for describing several medical conditions, which were later named after him, including Graefe- Sjögren syndrome, Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, and Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS. During his work on juvenile amaurotic idiocy, Sjögren forged a collaboration with Tage K.L. Larsson, a statistics lecturer at the University of Lund. Their study on the combination of oligophrenia, congenital ichthyosis, and spastic disorders in 1957 established the clinical and genetic profile of a new disease entity, later known as Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS.

  12. Ivan Karamazov’s rebellion in Albert Camus’ and Karl Jaspers’ interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Lisowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present Albert Camus’ and Karl Jaspers’ interpretations of Ivan Karamazov’s rebellion as the diagnoses of the weakness of the human intellect in confrontation with the world and the criticism of rationalism. Therefore, in the introduction I will present those fragments of the novel that characterize Ivan’s rebellion as highly abstract and theoretical. At the same time, this common literary context serves as the ground for reconstruction and comparison of the basic philosophical assumptions of each author. The intention of the remaining part of the paper is, firstly, to reconstruct A. Camus’ and K. Jaspers’ epistemology and, secondly, to analyse the arguments against Ivan’s attitude formulated by the writers. Their criticisms of the protagonist’s excessive trust in intellect is based on their own concepts of human epistemic capacity, which are related to the problems of the absurd in A. Camus’ and transcendence in K. Jaspers’ writings. The question of nihilism demands analysis of A. Camus’ idea of the nature of rebellion as both affirmative and negative, and of K. Jaspers’ notion of faith as pre-intellectual trust. Finally, their criticisms of the slogan “If there is no God, then anything is allowed” introduces the problem of freedom, which allows the comparison of the concepts of solidarity (A. Camus and communication (K. Jaspers. In the conclusion these two philosophical attitudes are discussed together. Keywords: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

  13. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy.

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  15. [Note on the epistemology of clinical pharmacology: comparison with the approach of Karl Popper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel, J P

    1999-01-01

    Is clinical pharmacology a science or only an application of science? Karl Popper suggested a method to identify science and to sort it out from other logical activities such as metaphysics, whereby the falsification criterion he proposed can apply to the theory in such a way that the theory could be refuted. The clinical pharmacologist's approach requires the build-up of a therapeutic model on the basis of two other models: the physiopathologic and the pharmacological. The three-model construct is a theory. Is it scientific in the Popperian sense? From the therapeutic model, one can predict the efficacy of a drug, and the corresponding statement is tested by a clinical trial. Whatever the original statement, it is modified into a refutable one because of the use of the statistical approach in clinical trials. Furthermore, the predicate represents a hypothesis of the model validity, which will then be confronted with 'reality' through clinical experiment. As the therapeutic model is refutable, clinical pharmacology is a science in the Popperian sense.

  16. Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: lições de um confronto histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ganem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: Lessons from a historical confrontation. In 1961, during the Congress of the German Society of Sociology, two great theoretical references of the XX century faced in a historical debate about the logic of the social sciences. In addition to methodological issues strict sense, the confrontation became known as a debate between positivism and dialectic. The article first deals with the theoretical trajectories of Popper and Adorno and the relation of their theories with their political and ideological certainties. On one hand, the trajectory of the Popperian epistemology is examined, its contributions and vigorous attacks on Marx in what he called 'poverty of historicism" and false predictive Marxist world, and, on the other hand, the role of Adorno in the Frankfurt School, his criticism of totalitarianism and the defense of a critical emancipatory reason. The article also deals with the confrontation itself, the exposure of Popper's twenty-seven theses that culminate with the situation logic and the method of the economy as exemplary for the social sciences and Adorno's critical perspective of sociology and society as non-separable objects. In conclusion we show how the articulation of theory with the weltanschauung of each author helps to clarify the terms of the debate and how the confrontation contributed unequivocally to the dynamics of scientific progress and for the critical history of the ideas.

  17. Tom McCarthy, Karl Marx, and the Money on the Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Huber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By way of contrast to recent work on the problematic of representation of capital and its prioritized aesthetic mode, visuality, this article addresses the problematic of mediation in financialized capitalism through an attention to the relationship between writing and contemporary money forms. To elaborate this problematic, mediation is deployed methodologically as well: selections from two bodies of work concerned with capitalist monetary phenomena—those of Karl Marx and the novelist Tom McCarthy—are analyzed in parallel. McCarthy’s 'oeuvre' is presented as preoccupied with monetary-inscriptive techniques and pockmarked by Marxian concepts and concerns. It is argued that 'Remainder', specifically, can be read as theorizing the relationship between money and writing under early 21st-century regimes of finance capital through its elaboration of retail loyalty accounts and the multivalent concept of ‘remainder’ or ‘surplus’. The article reads this theorization against neglected sections of Marx’s second volume of 'Capital' in which money is enigmatically treated from the perspective of bookkeeping.

  18. Karl Andrée (1880-1959) sedimentologist and marine geologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Pfaffl, Fritz A.

    2017-09-01

    Karl Andrée began studying questions of sedimentology and oceanography in 1908 when working as an assistant at the University of Marburg and he remained faithful to these subjects until his death in 1959. The vast majority of his scientific contributions, however, were published during his time at the University of Königsberg (1915-1945). There he published his fundamental papers on marine geology, all of which adhered strictly to the principles of uniformitarianism, and helped improve our understanding of sedimentary processes and the stratigraphic record. His scientific work has enormous breadth. In the course of 55 years, he published 124 individual papers and books, some of which became classic textbooks. His versatility is particularly evident in his book "Geology of the Seafloor", which contains many pertinent observations and descriptions still relevant today, even if it has fallen out of fashion. This scientist and university teacher was the first to successfully present the huge field of marine geology in all its facet and to consider the deposition of marine sediments as a function of their geographical distribution.

  19. Karl Ove Knausgård’s My Struggle and the Serial Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge van de Ven

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Karl Ove Knausgård’s six-volume autobiography My Struggle in the frame of an emerging cross-medial aesthetics of the ‘serial self’. This aesthetics is informed by the technological potentialities of digital media, and by social media practices like taking a selfie or posting a blog every single day and accumulating these self-representations, without selection. The serial self is marked by continuity, real-time effects, open-endedness, rhythm, repetition, and a thematic attention to the mundane. It can be discerned in the daily comic strip, the daily selfie, and time-lapse cinema. The article embeds My Struggle in this larger, intermedial framework. Moreover, it refers to the work of psychologist Galen Strawson to argue that the self-representations in Knausgård’s work should be understood as episodic rather than diachronic in nature. This results in a sequential and paratactic, rather than causal and hierarchical, presentation of memorial material. It is claimed that serial self-representations of this type are increasingly central to our current media ecology. They offer a valuable medium for investigating, materializing, and mapping on the page the traces left by the passage of time, as serialization lends itself to performative and cumulative representations of a ‘self’ in flux, that dramatize and perform the struggles of the episodic personality in search for continuity.

  20. Fe/MCM-41 sylilated catalyst: structural changes determination during the Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengoa, J. F.; Fellenz, N. A.; Cagnoli, M. V.; Cano, L. A.; Gallegos, N. G.; Alvarez, A. M.; Marchetti, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Two Fe/MCM-41 systems, one of them sylilated, were obtained to be used as catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch reaction. They have more than 90% of the iron species located inside the support channels, leading to a narrow crystal size distribution accessible to reactive gases. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, N 2 adsorption, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy. Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed us to demonstrate that the catalytic active species were the same in both catalysts. The only difference between them was the surface hydrophobicity, which decreases the 'water gas shift reaction' in the sylilated catalyst. Besides, this solid is more active for hydrocarbon production, with a lower methane yield.

  1. Moessbauer study of CO-precipitated Fischer-Tropsch iron catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huggins, F.E.; Mahajan, V.; Huffman, G.P.; Bukur, D.B.; Rao, V.U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy studies of precipitated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) iron catalysts, viz. 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/x SiO 2 , where x = 0, 8, 16, 24, 25, 40, or 100, have shown that reduction of the oxide precursor in CO gives rise to χ-carbide Fe 5 C 2 whose amount decreases with an increase of SiO 2 content. The χ-carbide is converted into magnetite Fe 3 O 4 while catalyzing the FT synthesis reaction. A correlation between FT activity and the content of χ-carbide in the catalysts was found, which indicated that χ-carbide is active for FT synthesis reaction. (orig.)

  2. Transient Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Reactor with a Fixed Bed of Catalyst Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Derevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analysis of small temperature disturbances in the Fischer-Tropsch reactor with a fixed bed of catalyst particles various scenarios of thermal instability were investigated. There are two possible scenarios of thermal instability of the reactor. First, thermal explosion may occur due to growth of temperature disturbances inside a catalytic granule. Second scenario connected with loss of thermal stability as a result of an initial increase in temperature in the reactor volume. The boundaries of thermal stability of the reactor were estimated by solving the eigenvalue problems for spherical catalyst particles and cylindrical reactor. Processes of diffusional resistance inside the catalytic granule and heat transfer from wall of the reactor tube are taken into account. Estimation of thermal stability area is compared with the results of numerical simulation of behavior of temperature and concentration of synthesis gas.

  3. Morphological transformation during activation and reaction of an iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, N.B.; Kohler, S.; Harrington, M. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to support the development of slurry-phase bubble column processes being studied at the La Porte Alternative Fuel Development Unit. This paper describes the aspects of Sandia`s recent work regarding the advancement and understanding of the iron catalyst used in the slurry phase process. A number of techniques were used to understand the chemical and physical effects of pretreatment and reaction on the attrition and carbon deposition characteristics of iron catalysts. Unless otherwise stated, the data discussed was derived form experiments carried out on the catalyst chosen for the summer 1994 Fischer-Tropsch run at LaPorte, UCI 1185-78-370, (an L 3950 type) that is 88% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11% CuO, and 0.052%K{sub 2}O.

  4. Preparation of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts from cobalt/iron hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.H.; Boff, J.J.; Zarochak, M.F. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Compounds with the (hydrotalcites) have properties that make them attractive as precursors for Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. A series of single-phase hydrotalcites with cobalt/iron atom ratios ranging from 75/25 to 25/75 has been synthesized. Mixed cobalt/iron oxides have been prepared from these hydrotalcites by controlled thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition at temperatures below 600 {degrees}C typically produced a single-phase mixed metal oxide with a spinel structure. The BET surface areas of the spinal samples have been found to be as high as about 150 m{sup 2}/g. Appropriate reducing pretreatments have been developed for several of these spinels and their activity, selectivity, and activity and selectivity maintenance have been examined at 13 MPa in a fixed-bed microreactor.

  5. Fischer matrices of Dempwolff group $2^{5}{^{cdot}}GL(5,2$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Basheer Mohammed Basheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In cite{Demp2} Dempwolff proved the existence of a group of theform $2^{5}{^{cdot}}GL(5,2$ (a non split extension of theelementary abelian group $2^{5}$ by the general linear group$GL(5,2$. This group is the second largest maximal subgroup of thesporadic Thompson simple group $mathrm{Th}.$ In this paper wecalculate the Fischer matrices of Dempwolff group $overline{G} =2^{5}{^{cdot}}GL(5,2.$ The theory of projective characters isinvolved and we have computed the Schur multiplier together with aprojective character table of an inertia factor group. The fullcharacter table of $overline{G}$ is then can be calculated easily.

  6. Immobilised carbon nanotubes as carrier for Co-Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, J.; Rose, A.; Kiendl, I.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Curulla-Ferre, D. [Total S.A., Gas and Power, Paris La Defense (France)

    2011-07-01

    A possibility to immobilise carbon nanotubes (CNT) to make them applicable in a technical scale fixed bed reactor is studied. The approach to fabricate millimetre scale composites containing CNT presented in this work is to confine the nano-carbon in macro porous ceramic particles. Thus CNT were grown on the inner surface of silica and alumina pellets and spheres, respectively. Cobalt nano particles were successfully deposited on the carbon surface inside the two types of ceramic carriers and the systems were tested in Fischer - Tropsch synthesis (FTS). The cobalt mass related activity of these novel catalysts is similar to a conventional system. The selectivities of the Co/CNT/ceramic composites were compared with non supported CNT and carbon nanofibres (CNF). (orig.)

  7. Morphology Changes of Co Catalyst Nanoparticles at the Onset of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Fløystad, Jostein B.; Voronov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt nanoparticles play an important role as catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which is an attractive route for production of synthetic fuels. It is of particular interest to understand the varying conversion rate during the first hours after introducing synthesis gas (H-2 and CO......) to the system. To this end, several in situ characterization studies have previously been done on both idealized model systems and commercially relevant catalyst nanoparticles, using bulk techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Since catalysis takes place at the surface...... of the cobalt particles, it is important to develop methods to gain surface-specific structural information under realistic processing conditions. We addressed this challenge using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), a technique exploiting the penetrating nature of X-rays to provide information about particle...

  8. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT...

  9. Particle Size and Crystal Phase Effects in Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xun Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS is an increasingly important approach for producing liquid fuels and chemicals via syngas—that is, synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen—generated from coal, natural gas, or biomass. In FTS, dispersed transition metal nanoparticles are used to catalyze the reactions underlying the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Catalytic activity and selectivity are strongly correlated with the electronic and geometric structure of the nanoparticles, which depend on the particle size, morphology, and crystallographic phase of the nanoparticles. In this article, we review recent works dealing with the aspects of bulk and surface sensitivity of the FTS reaction. Understanding the different catalytic behavior in more detail as a function of these parameters may guide the design of more active, selective, and stable FTS catalysts.

  10. A chromatographic determination of water in non-aqueous phases of solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, S.J.; Smith, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The disadvantages of the Karl Fischer method for the determination of water in the non-aqueous phases of solvent extraction systems are pointed out, and a gas chromatographic method is described which is claimed to be potentially capable of overcoming these disadvantages. The method, as described, was developed to satisfy conditions relevant to measurement of the transfer rate of water from an aqueous phase into tri-n-butylphosphate in toluene, but it can be used for water determination in other solvent extraction systems. The apparatus used is described in detail. The concentration of water in water-saturated TBP was found to be 3.56 mol/litre, compared with a value of 3.55 obtained by Karl Fischer titration and previous literature values of 3.59 and 3.57. Measurements of water content in benzene solutions of long chain alkylamines were also sucessfully carried out. (U.K.)

  11. flower extract as an improvised indicator in acid – base titration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    laboratory practical with an instructional material that is useful, economical, simple and accurate for the said titration. Therefore, it is recommended for integrated science and chemistry instructions. Keywords: Flower, acid, base, indicator, titration. INTRODUCTION. In Nigeria, factors militating against science education.

  12. Efficacy of daytime continuous positive airway pressure titration in severe obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowski, J C; Verschelden, P; Kimoff, R J

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate manual nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) titration during daytime polysomnography compared with conventional overnight titration for patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Thirty-two patients who underwent daytime titration were retrospectively matched (for age, sex, body mass index and apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI)) to a group titrated overnight during the same period. Successful titration was defined as the identification of the nCPAP level (effective nCPAP (Peff)) required to eliminate respiratory events during all sleep stages. After 3 months of therapy on nCPAP at Peff, nCPAP utilization history was obtained and a group of patients underwent a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and completed a follow-up Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score. Initial titration was successful in 91% of daytime patients and 91% of overnight patients. The success of daytime titration was not related to diagnostic AHI or ESS score. Subjective nCPAP utilization was statistically similar in both groups. On the follow-up PSG, there were no significant differences between daytime (n=11) and overnight (n=11) patients in measures of sleep quality or respiratory disturbance. Both groups demonstrated similar and significant improvements in ESS score. These findings suggest that the effective nasal continuous positive airway pressure can be accurately established during daytime titration in a substantial proportion of severe, symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

  13. Determination of Titratable Acidity in Wine Using Potentiometric, Conductometric, and Photometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dietrich A.; Curbani, Luana; Parker, Timothy A.; Garcia, Jennifer; Schultz, Linda D.; Borges, Endler Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This experiment describes a simple protocol for teaching acid-base titrations using potentiometry, conductivity, and/or photometry to determine end points without an added indicator. The chosen example examines the titratable acidity of a red wine with NaOH. Wines contain anthocyanins, the colors of which change with pH. Importantly, at the…

  14. The ion-sensitive field effect transistor in rapid acid-base titrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Bergveld, Piet; van Veen-Blaauw, A.M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) are used as the pH sensor in rapid acid—base titrations. Titration speeds at least five times greater than those with glass electrodes are possible for accuracies better than ±1%.

  15. A knowledge based advisory system for acid/base titrations in non-aqueous solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer program was developed that could advice on the choice of solvent and titrant for acid/base titrations in nonaqueous media. It is shown that the feasibility of a titration in a given solvent can be calculated from solvent properties and intrinsic acid/base properties of the sample

  16. Quick titration of pergolide in cotreatment with domperidone is safe and effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, PAF; Herings, RMC; Samson, MM; Schuurmans-Daemen, LMPJ; Hovestadt, A; Verhaar, HJJ; Van Laar, T; de Vreede, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze efficacy and safety of quick pergolide titration combined with domperidone. In an open-label prospective study, pergolide was titrated in 16 days to a maximum of 3 mg/d doses as adjunctive treatment to L-Dopa in 10 elderly patients with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Concurrent determination of total serum calcium and magnesium by thermometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, R H; Carr, P W

    1976-07-01

    Total serum calcium and magnesium may be determined in one thermometric titration, with disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate as the titrant. A 1-ml serum sample is diluted with 1 ml of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8) and titrated at a constant rate with a motorized syringe buret. Results by the thermometric method compared well with those by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  18. The predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for CPAP titration in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Huang, Yun-Chen; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chiu, Tsan-Jen; Yang, Mei-Chen

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to identify possible upper airway obstructions causing a higher continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level, utilizing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). A total of 76 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent CPAP titration and DISE. DISE findings were recorded using the VOTE classification system. Polysomnographic (PSG) data, anthropometric variables, and patterns of airway collapse during DISE were analyzed with CPAP titration levels. A significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and BMI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and neck circumference (NC) (P CPAP titration level (P CPAP titration level and any other collapse at the tongue base or epiglottis. By analyzing PSG data, anthropometric variables, and DISE results with CPAP titration levels, we can better understand possible mechanisms resulting in a higher CPAP titration level. We believe that the role of DISE can be expanded as a tool to identify the possible anatomical structures that may be corrected by oral appliance therapy or surgical intervention to improve CPAP compliance.

  19. Fischer 344 and Lewis Rat Strains as a Model of Genetic Vulnerability to Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60% of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore, the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis on differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neuron functionality. Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigation, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in understanding aberrant

  20. Aversive properties of negative incentive shifts in Fischer 344 and Lewis rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Adam; Johnson, Patrick; Stein, Jeff; Schlund, Michael; Williams, Dean C.

    2018-01-01

    Research on incentive contrast highlights that reward value is not absolute but rather is based upon comparisons we make to rewards we have received and expect to receive. Both human and nonhuman studies on incentive contrast show that shifting from a larger more-valued reward to a smaller less-valued reward is associated with long periods of nonresponding—a negative contrast effect. In this investigation, we used two different genetic rat strains, Fischer 344 and Lewis rats that putatively differ in their sensitivity to aversive stimulation, to assess the aversive properties of large-to-small reward shifts (negative incentive shifts). Additionally, we examined the extent to which increasing cost (fixed-ratio requirements) modulates negative contrast effects. In the presence of a cue that signaled the upcoming reward magnitude, lever pressing was reinforced with one of two different magnitudes of food (large or small). This design created two contrast shifts (small-to-large, large-to-small) and two shifts used as control conditions (small-to-small, large-to-large). Results showed a significant interaction between rat strain and cost requirements only during the negative incentive shift with the emotionally reactive Fischer 344 rats exhibiting significantly longer response latencies with increasing cost, highlighting greater negative contrast. These findings are more consistent with emotionality accounts of negative contrast and results of neurophysiological research that suggests shifting from a large to a small reward is aversive. Findings also highlight how subjective reward value and motivation is a product of gene-environment interactions. PMID:27864048