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Sample records for karen hammerness linda

  1. Hammered Dulcimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David

    The hammered dulcimer, a direct ancestor of the clavichord and the pianoforte, is a folk instrument that developed from eleventh-century antecedents such as the psaltery. They are trapezoidal in shape, with a long base of 40-45 in. and height of 15-18 in. Two bridges, treble and bass, each support 11-16 courses of strings, which are struck with light wooden hammers. The treble bridge divides the strings into a musical fifth, which facilitates the fast playing of diatonic melodies. Historically, the instrument was used as a rhythmic back-up for fiddles and other lead instruments, but since being popularized in the 1970s folk revival, it has become a solo or lead instrument in ensembles. The hammered dulcimer shares many acoustic properties with the piano except that the dulcimer is smaller and undamped, and the lighter, harder hammers give a more percussive sound. A hammered dulcimer player can also play double strokes and can alter instrument timbre by changing strike location. Current instruments are lightweight, 13-30 lb, and reasonably stable, but temperature and humidity changes cause tuning problems which are related to the linear scaling that is intrinsic to the trapezoidal design.

  2. Karen voices on resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With little support and often under threat, members of theKaren Women’s Organisation have conducted research,provided programmes and support, and challenged thewisdom of international NGOs and UNHCR.

  3. Entretien avec Linda Boukhris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Jacquot

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Linda Boukhris est Doctorante en géographie, EIREST - Université Paris 1 Panthéon - Sorbonne et consultante dans un cabinet de conseil en management. - Maria Gravari-Barbas (MGB, Sébastien Jacquot (SJ. Quel a été votre parcours de géographe, avant le début de votre thèse ?- Linda Boukhris (LB. Après un baccalauréat littéraire, j’ai réalisé trois années de classe préparatoire littéraire au Lycée Lakanal à Sceaux (hypokhâgne, khâgne, cube dans le but de préparer le concours de l’École Norma...

  4. A denotational Semantics for Timed Linda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, F.S.; Gabbrielli, M.; Meo, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    In [5] we introduced a Timed Linda language (T-Linda) whic hwas obtained by a natural timed interpretation of the usual constructs of the Linda model and by including a simple primitive for specifying time-outs. Here we define a denotational model for T-Linda which is based on timed reactive sequenc

  5. p4-Linda: A portable implementation of Linda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, R.M.; Leveton, A.L. [University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States). Div. of Computer and Information Science; Lusk, E.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Facilities such as interprocess communication and protection of shared resources have been added to operating systems to support multiprogramming and have since been adapted to exploit explicit multiprocessing within the scope of two models: the shared-memory model and the distributed (message-passing) model. When multiprocessors (or networks of heterogeneous processors) are used for explicit parallelism, the difference between these models is exposed to the programmer. The p4 tool set was originally developed to buffer the programmer from synchronization issues while offering an added advantage in portability, however two models are often still needed to develop parallel algorithms. We provide two implementations of Linda in an attempt to support a single high-level programming model on top of the existing paradigms in order to provide a consistent semantics regardless of the underlying model. Linda`s fundamental properties associated with generative communication eliminate the distinction between shared and distributed memory.

  6. a Few Lines about Karen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorodinskaya, Noemi

    2013-06-01

    Karen had tons of amazing students, and it's unfortunate that they could not contribute to this collection. They would have a lot of marvelous stories to tell, since they spent so many days and nights at Karen's house, enjoying Bella Artemievna'sREFID="9789814436571_0023FN001"> hospitality and kindness. Karen was a difficult person, with many eccentricities, but at the same time he was very kind and forgiving. When people he knew had troubles, he always did whatever he could to help them. I should add, however, that due to the many tragedies he had experienced in his family life, Karen's threshold for what counted as troubles was unusually high, and what others perceived as major problems struck him as the minor complications of everyday life...

  7. 100 maja Veneetsias / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti väljapanekust "100 maja / houses" (komissar Ülar Mark, kuraator Karen Jagodin, autorid Kalle Vellevoog, Tiiu Truus, Martin Pedanik, Karen Jagodin) 12. Venezia arhitektuuribiennaalil "Inimesed kohtuvad arhitektuuris" (üldkuraator Kazuyo Sejima). Lisaks 21. sajandi eramutele on ekspositsioonis valik märgilise tähendusega eramuid Eesti Vabariigi ajast aastatel 1918-1940 ja nõukogude ajajärgust

  8. 100 maja Veneetsias / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti väljapanekust "100 maja / houses" (komissar Ülar Mark, kuraator Karen Jagodin, autorid Kalle Vellevoog, Tiiu Truus, Martin Pedanik, Karen Jagodin) 12. Venezia arhitektuuribiennaalil "Inimesed kohtuvad arhitektuuris" (üldkuraator Kazuyo Sejima). Lisaks 21. sajandi eramutele on ekspositsioonis valik märgilise tähendusega eramuid Eesti Vabariigi ajast aastatel 1918-1940 ja nõukogude ajajärgust

  9. Rejoinder to Karen Lutfey Spencer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, V.; Drewniak, D.P.; Sauer, C.G.; Krones, T.

    2017-01-01

    Refers to: Karen Lutfey Spencer, What is the future of research on medical decision making? (And is it bright?): A response to Drewniak and colleagues, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 168, November 2016, Pages 175-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.09.017

  10. Talking about Books: Karen Hesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cathy; Gwyn, Linda; Koblitz, Dick; O'Connor, Anne; Pierce, Kathryn Mitchell; Wolf, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Karen Hesse, author of 12 books of fiction for young, middle, and older readers, and winner of the 1998 Newbery Award. Offers an overview of Hesse's books, organized into picture books, transition chapter books, and novels. Presents a discussion of the themes found in her books, highlighting children's discussion…

  11. On the incomparability of Gamma and Linda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    We compare Gamma and Linda, two of the most prominent coordination languages based on generative communication via a shared data space. In Gamma computation is obtained by applying multiset rewriting rules, reminiscent of the way chemical reactions happen in a solution. On the other hand, Linda perm

  12. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  13. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  14. On the incomparability of Gamma and Linda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Zavattaro

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractWe compare Gamma and Linda, two of the most prominent coordination languages based on generative communication via a shared data space. In Gamma computation is obtained by applying multiset rewriting rules, reminiscent of the way chemical reactions happen in a solution. On the other

  15. Karen Hesse: The Rest Is History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a profile of Newbery Award-winning author Karen Hesse, who is best known for her knack for recovering the little-known stories of the past and making them resonate once again in her books. As a meticulous researcher and lover of things from the past, some of Karen Hesse's most well-loved stories have tugged at her sleeve (and…

  16. Hammering towards QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin C. Blanchette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the emerging methods to automate reasoning over large libraries developed with formal proof assistants. We call these methods hammers. They give the authors of formal proofs a strong "one-stroke" tool for discharging difficult lemmas without the need for careful and detailed manual programming of proof search.The main ingredients underlying this approach are efficient automatic theorem provers that can cope with hundreds of axioms, suitable translations of richer logics to their formalisms, heuristic and learning methods that select relevant facts from large libraries, and methods that reconstruct the automatically found proofs inside the proof assistants.We outline the history of these methods, explain the main issues and techniques, and show their strength on several large benchmarks. We also discuss the relation of this technology to the QED Manifesto and consider its implications for QED-style efforts.

  17. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  18. Ruptures of vulnerability: Linda Stein's Knight Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Ann Vollmann

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Monique Wittig, this article understands Linda Stein's Knight Series as a lacunary writing communicating both her challenges to come to representation and her creative registration of subjectivity. The argument is grounded in an exploration of the rich interplay of power and vulnerability across the series as against the discourse of escapist fashion. Specifically, Stein's critical contradictions of inside and outside, conflated temporality, disjunctions between decoration and abstraction, and fluidity of sex and gender are examined. The discussion is elaborated through consideration of the work of Julia Kristeva, Elizabeth Grosz, and Hayao Miyazaki.

  19. Noorte sisearhitektide leiutised Tallinna Disainigaleriis / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 2005. a. lõpetanud sisearhitektide diplomitööde väljapanekust Tallinnas Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigaleriis juunis 2005. Linda Anstali, Elo Liina Kaivo, Helen Rebase, Maris Kerge, Mari Tosmini, Triinu Kuub'i, Kaarel Künnapu, Kard Männili, Kärt Kukkuri, Karmen Vettiku ja Galina Burnakova diplomitöödest

  20. Noorte sisearhitektide leiutised Tallinna Disainigaleriis / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia 2005. a. lõpetanud sisearhitektide diplomitööde väljapanekust Tallinnas Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigaleriis juunis 2005. Linda Anstali, Elo Liina Kaivo, Helen Rebase, Maris Kerge, Mari Tosmini, Triinu Kuub'i, Kaarel Künnapu, Kard Männili, Kärt Kukkuri, Karmen Vettiku ja Galina Burnakova diplomitöödest

  1. Working with the "Iron Hammer"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CUTTING short her education and abandoning an annual income of several hundred thousand US dollars, Lang Ping, known to fans as the "Iron Hammer", returned from the United States to coach China’s National Women’s Volleyball Team. This news caused an enormous sensation comparable to the stir she used to raise when she won, together with her teammates, championship for

  2. Karen Blixen i øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Anmeldelser af Ivo Holmqvist (red.): Den främmande förförerskan. Svenska synpunkter på Karen Blixen og Marianne T. Stecher: The Creative Dialectic in Karen Blixen’s Essays. On Gender, Nazi Germany, and Colonial Desire......Anmeldelser af Ivo Holmqvist (red.): Den främmande förförerskan. Svenska synpunkter på Karen Blixen og Marianne T. Stecher: The Creative Dialectic in Karen Blixen’s Essays. On Gender, Nazi Germany, and Colonial Desire...

  3. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  4. Water Hammer Analysis by Characteristic Method

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Lohrasbi; R. Attarnejad

    2008-01-01

    Rapid changes in the velocity of fluid in closed conduits generate large pressure, which are transmitted through the system with the speed of sound. When the fluid medium is a liquid the pressure surges and related phenomena are described as water hammer. Water hammer is caused by normal operation of the system, such as valve opening or closure, pump starts and stoppages and by abnormal condition, such as power failure. Problem statement: Water hammer causes the additional pressure in water n...

  5. Multyphase fluid hammer : modeling, experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Rodríguez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] This thesis deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of the water hammer phenomenon generated by the discharge of a pressurized liquid into a pipeline kept under vacuum conditions. This ow configuration induces several multiphase phenomena such as cavitation and gas desorption that cannot be ignored in the water hammer behavior. The motivation of this research work comes from the liquid propulsion systems used in spacecrafts, which can undergo uid hammer effects threateni...

  6. Multiphase fluid hammer: modeling, experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Rodríguez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of the water hammer phenomenon generated by the discharge of a pressurized liquid into a pipeline kept under vacuum conditions. This flow configuration induces several multiphase phenomena such as cavitation and gas desorption that cannot be ignored in the water hammer behavior.The motivation of this research work comes from the liquid propulsion systems used in spacecrafts, which can undergo fluid hammer effects threatening the s...

  7. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  8. Water Hammer Analysis by Characteristic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Lohrasbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in the velocity of fluid in closed conduits generate large pressure, which are transmitted through the system with the speed of sound. When the fluid medium is a liquid the pressure surges and related phenomena are described as water hammer. Water hammer is caused by normal operation of the system, such as valve opening or closure, pump starts and stoppages and by abnormal condition, such as power failure. Problem statement: Water hammer causes the additional pressure in water networks. This pressure maybe defects on pipes and connections. The likely effects of water hammer must be taken into account in the structural design of pipelines and in the design of operating procedures for pumps, valves, etc. Approach: The physical phenomena of water hammer and the mathematical model which provides the basis for design computations are described. Most water hammer analysis involves computer solution by the method of characteristics. In this study water hammer is modelled with this method and effect of valve opening and closure will be surveyed with a program that is used for this purpose and with a numerical example. Results: The more rapid the closure of the valve, the more rapid is the change in momentum and hence, greater is the additional pressure developed. Conclusions/Recommendations: For preventing of water hammer defects, is recommended that valves should be open or closed slowly. Also with using the method of characteristics, we can modelled all pipe networks, and see the affects of water hammer.

  9. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2015-08-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  10. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-12-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  11. Effects of handle angle and work orientation on hammering: I. Wrist motion and hammering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmarklin, R W; Marras, W S

    1989-08-01

    This research investigated the range of wrist motion characteristics associated with the ergonomic principle of "bending the tool and not the wrist" as applied to the hammer. It is thought that bending the tool reduces angular wrist motion, which has been shown in the literature to be a risk factor in hand/wrist disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tenosynovitis. Hammer handles angled at 0 (straight), 20, and 40 deg were investigated in this study. For novices, hammer handles bent at 20 and 40 deg resulted in less total ulnar deviation than straight hammers. However, there was a trade-off in beginning and ending positions of the wrist in that the angled hammers reduced ulnar deviation at the impact position but increased radial deviation at the starting position of a hammer stroke. Handle angle did not significantly affect hammering performance. Wrist motion was affected minimally by hammering orientation, but hammering performance was significantly worse in the wall orientation compared with the bench orientation. This research suggests that for novice users, hammers with handles bent in the range of 20 to 40 deg could possibly decrease the incidence of hand/wrist disorders caused by hammering.

  12. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  13. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  14. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  15. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  16. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Wee Choon; Lim Kheng Aik; Lim Eng Aik; Teoh Thean Hin

    2012-01-01

    This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. Th...

  17. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE ENERGY ECONOMIZATION OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research on the driving principle and economization of energy of electro-hydraulic hammer is discussed. By means of the Balance chart of energy, the method and formulas to calculate every level efficiency and the total efficiency of steam drived hammer are formed. With the aid of actual data of plants, the actual efficiency of steam drived hammer is got. The working principle and the driving system of electro-hydraulic hammer are introduced. The procedure of energy transfer of this hammer is analyzed. The utilization ratio of energy of this type of hammer is got. It is shown that the efficiency of electro-hydraulic hammer is 7 times as much as that of steam drived hammer.

  19. November 2011 DMM Podcast: an interview with Karen Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excerpts from an interview with Karen Steel, of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, in which she explains how she got hooked on studying deafness in mouse mutants and discusses the importance of mouse genetics for advancing biomedical research. Narrated by Sarah E. Allan. To listen to this podcast, visit http://www.biologists.com/DMM/podcasts/index.html.

  20. Plain and Integral: An Interview with Karen Kho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Reams

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Kho describes her work in the Alameda County Green Building Program. She covers the application of an integral framework to working with a variety of stakeholders in the residential building industry. This work includes a stakeholder analysis, rating program, educational materials and guidelines. How the program expanded beyond Alameda County is also covered.

  1. Karen Gehrt named associate director of Virginia Cooperative Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Karen Gehrt of Champaign, Ill., has been named the associate director of Family and Consumer Sciences programs for Virginia Cooperative Extension. In her new position at Virginia Tech, Gehrt will serve as a state program leader for the development and delivery of educational programs that meet the needs of Virginia's families and communities.

  2. Karen Hesse: From Grade School Writer to Newbery Medalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses author Karen Hesse's books for children and young adults; suggests ideas for related activities that include appropriate Web sites; and presents an annotated bibliography for books for young readers, books for older readers, audio, video, Web biographical information, print biographical information, and additional sources. (LRW)

  3. Linda Gordon, Dorothea Lange: A Life Beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Quanquin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In June 2007, the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University organized its first summer seminar on “Writing Past Lives: Biography as History,” which sought to investigate “how a focus on individual lives can further historical analysis.” One of the plenary speakers was Linda Gordon, who was invited to speak on her work on the biography of American documentary photographer Dorothea Lange. The first picture which she showed was neither “Migrant Mothe...

  4. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE COMPOSITION AND BODY COMPOSITION IN HAMMER THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Terzis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01. The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05. Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01. Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05. These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance

  5. Henriku kroonika pole veel ammendatud / Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi ; intervjueerinud Valle-Sten Maiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Marek, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Marek Tamme ja Linda Kaljundiga nende poolt toimetatud artiklikogumikust: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham ; Burlington : Ashgate, 2011

  6. Henriku kroonika pole veel ammendatud / Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi ; intervjueerinud Valle-Sten Maiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Marek, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Marek Tamme ja Linda Kaljundiga nende poolt toimetatud artiklikogumikust: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham ; Burlington : Ashgate, 2011

  7. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  8. The CD-ROM experience at Loma Linda: the issues of training, logistics, and creative financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, G V; Kittle, P W

    1992-01-01

    Since the end of 1987, the Medical Center and University libraries at Loma Linda have progressed from stand-alone CD-ROM-based workstations for access to MEDLINE to networked CD-ROM access to a variety of databases. T.O.M.M.I. (Total Online Medical Material Integration) is a CD-ROM-based wide area network linking the Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda University, and other entities in Loma Linda, California. T.O.M.M.I., a microcomputer-based system, represents the implementation of IAIMS at Loma Linda. In addition to discussing the issue of "downsizing" campus-wide information networks, this article focuses on the issues of training, handling of logistical problems, and the use of creative financing.

  9. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia A Paxton

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and susceptibility to vaccine preventable diseases in Karen refugees in Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of pathology results. SETTING: Community based cohort in Melbourne over the period July 2006-October 2009. PARTICIPANTS: 1136 Karen refugee children and adults, representing almost complete local area settlement and 48% of total Victorian Karen humanitarian intake for the time period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of positive test results for refugee health screening, with breakdown by age group (<6 years, 6-11 years, 12-17 years, 18 years and older. RESULTS: Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B(12 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three. CONCLUSIONS: Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases and may be susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases. These data support the need for post-arrival health screening and accessible, funded catch-up immunisation.

  10. The body in adolescent diaries. The case of Karen Horney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Kirsch, Hiltrud Susanna

    2002-01-01

    The role of the body and its functions in the psychic life of the individual has occupied a central place in psychoanalytic thinking and writing. Developmentally, the body and the ego as a psychic organization have an integral, mutual relationship which becomes particularly important during adolescence, when the body matures physically while at the same time cognition, self-reflection, and social relations develop. This contribution presents results of the content analyses, focusing on the body, of 40 diaries written by twenty women during their adolescent years, compared with Karen Horney's adolescent diaries. In contrary to these diaries of the other young women, Karen Horney's adolescent diaries lack a focus on the body. Instead, idealized relationships with teachers are frequently mentioned. Only in the last diary, written at the transition to young adulthood, is the body, with a focus on sexual relations, more prominent. This discrepancy between Horney and female age-mates in normative samples is noteworthy. It is discussed here with emphasis on theoretical approaches about the body in adolescence in psychoanalysis, the importance of body and sexuality in Karen Horney's later life, Horney's contributions to female psychoanalysis, and her relationship with her father.

  11. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wee Choon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. The experiment is done by capture the vibration signal by using data acquisition device and accelerometer. The pressure signal is capture after a sudden shutoff for the valve. The signal is than analyze and convert to wave speed. The project is differentiating and compares the water hammer phenomenon with different pipe material, pipe length, inlet diameter of pipe, and pressure in pipeline. From the experiment, result shown that the lower strength material pipe, smaller inlet diameter pipe, and longer pipe will deal with lager water hammer effect. Besides, the prevention method by installing by pass pipe with non-return valve of water hammer effect is proved successfully reduce the water hammer phenomenon by 33.33% of pressure.

  12. Water Hammer Modelling and Simulation by GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Hariri Asli, K.; Haghi,A. K.; Hariri Asli, H.; E. Sabermaash Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    This work defined an Eulerian-based computational model compared with regression of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables for water hammer surge wave in transmission pipeline. The work also mentioned control of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW) based on the Geography Information System (GIS) for water transmission pipeline. The experimental results of laboratory model and the field test results showed the validity of prediction achieved by computational model.

  13. Water Hammer Modelling and Simulation by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hariri Asli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work defined an Eulerian-based computational model compared with regression of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables for water hammer surge wave in transmission pipeline. The work also mentioned control of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW based on the Geography Information System (GIS for water transmission pipeline. The experimental results of laboratory model and the field test results showed the validity of prediction achieved by computational model.

  14. Hammering Does Not Fit Fitts' Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Petrič

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While movement is essential to human wellbeing, we are still unable to reproduce the deftness and robustness of human movement in automatons or completely restore function to individuals with many types of motor impairment. To better understand how the human nervous system plans and controls movements, neuromechanists employ simple tasks such as upper extremity reaches and isometric force tasks. However, these simple tasks rarely consider impacts and may not capture aspects of motor control that arise from real-world complexity. Here we compared existing models of motor control with the results of a periodic targeted impact task extended from Bernstein's seminal work: hammering a nail into wood. We recorded impact forces and kinematics from 10 subjects hammering at different frequencies and with hammers with different physical properties (mass and face area. We found few statistical differences in most measures between different types of hammer, demonstrating human robustness to minor changes in dynamics. Because human motor control is thought to obey optimality principles, we also developed a feedforward optimal simulation with a neuromechanically inspired cost function that reproduces the experimental data. However, Fitts' Law, which relates movement time to distance traveled and target size, did not match our experimental data. We therefore propose a new model in which the distance moved is a logarithmic function of the time to move that yields better results (R2 ≥ 0.99 compared to R2 ≥ 0.88. These results support the argument that humans control movement in an optimal way, but suggest that Fitts' Law may not generalize to periodic impact tasks.

  15. Automated Grid Monitoring for LHCb through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  16. Water Hammer Model of Shock Absorber Throttle Slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-jie; GU Liang; LEI Sheng-guang; GUAN Ji-fu

    2008-01-01

    In allusion to easy invalidation of damping valve in vehicle shock absorber caused by the impact from the road surface, the importance of the study of damping valve water hammer pressure is presented. The physical model of damping valve with the circle throttle slice is established. The time for the throttle slice deformation is studied by using the finite software, and the laws that how the structure parameters affect the deformation time are obtained. Combining the theory of water hammer, the water hammer initial and boundary condition of the damping valve is deduced, and the water hammer model of throttle slice is established. The analysis of simulation results indicates that the water hammer pressure amplitude and the amount of water hammer oscillation period can be reduced and the dependability of the valve can be enhanced by modifying the structure parameters and aperture width between slice and valve body.

  17. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings...

  18. Failure analysis of crush hammers based on damage fracture energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun-ping; ZHOU Hong-yi; BAI Zhan-wei; YIN Yi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    To prolong the life-span of crush hammers in the pyrite concentrate workplace of Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant of Chongqing Nantong Mining Ltd., we used a progressive damage constitutive model based on the ductile and shear damage fracture energy to analyze the hammer wear failure caused by the impact and abrasion on the hammer surface by pyrite, and carried out simulation analysis with the explicit algorithm on hammer leftovers from the plant during the process of coarser pyrite comminution. The simulation results are consistent with hammer wear failure caused by pyrite impact. Then we proposed corrective measures to prolong hammer life-span. Results of the production test in the Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant showed that non-clearance hammers can avoid wear erosion, and adding steel bonded tungsten carbides F3002 prolonged the hammer life-span. The effect of austenitic manganese steel work-hardening was not prominent. Therefore, the hammer failure was mainly caused by superficial abrasion instead of fatigue cracks appearing when grains acted on the hardening layer.

  19. Entrevue guidée avec Karen Messing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Seifert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Karen Messing nous a accordé une entrevue pour la rubrique des Défricheurs de PISTES de la revue. Dans son cas nous devons plutôt parler d’une défricheuse de pistes. En effet, tout au long de sa vie professionnelle elle s’est intéressée aux particularités reliées à la question du genre dans le travail et plus particulièrement au travail des femmes et à ses conséquences sur leur santé. Elle était professeure à l’Université du Québec à Montréal, elle vient tout juste de prendre sa retraite « officielle ». Elle est détentrice d’un doctorat en biologie et elle s’est graduellement intéressée à la question de l’environnement de travail et à ses effets sur la santé des personnes. Au début des années 90, elle est allée se perfectionner en ergonomie afin de se doter d’outils d’analyse du travail. Ses recherches ont porté sur plusieurs métiers (préposés aux bénéficiaires, préposés au nettoyage, caissières, etc.. Karen Messing a publié plusieurs livres et articles scientifiques sur la question qui sont importants. Nous vous invitons à la connaître un peu mieux.Karen Messing granted us an interview for the magazine’s Défricheurs de PISTES section. In her case, she is a groundbreaker. In fact, throughout her professional life, she has been interested in the specific issues related to the subject of gender in work, and particularly to women’s work and its impacts on their health. She was a professor at the Université du Québec à Montréal, and has just begun her “official” retirement. She has a doctorate in biology and gradually became interested in the subject of the work environment and its effects on people’s health. In the early 1990s, she refined her skills in ergonomics in order to have the necessary work analysis tools. Her research has investigated several professions (orderlies, cleaning workers, cashiers, etc.. Karen Messing has published several important scientific books and

  20. Lessons Learned: Insights into One Teacher’s Experience Working with Karen Refugee Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Gilhooly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is informed by funds of knowledge and culturally responsive teaching studies that aim to explore and legitimize the cultural knowledge immigrant children bring to their communities and schools. Consequently, this paper specifically addresses issues related to the educational experiences of Karen children and their parents from one American teacher/researcher who has worked with the Karen for the past four years. In aggregate, this paper addresses issues germane to Karen education including; (1 background information on Karen educational experiences prior to resettlement, including a review of their journey from Thailand to the U.S.; (2 important characteristics of Karen culture; (3 Karen names; (4 Sgaw Karen language characteristics; (5 the language divide between parents and children; (6 parental involvement in their children’s schooling; (7 American teacher perceptions of Karen students; (8 issues over grading and, finally; (9 gender issues.

  1. Radio Astronomy Data Transfer and eVLBI using KAREN

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Stuart; Gulyaev, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to transfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the Radio Astronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and various international organizations involved in joint projects and VLBI observations. Here we report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing different data transfer protocols. We investigate new UDP protocols such as 'tsunami' and UDT and demonstrate that the UDT protocol is more efficient than 'tsunami' and 'ftp'. We also report on the tests on direct data streaming from the radio telescope receiving system to the correlation centre without intermediate buffering or recording (real-time eVLBI).

  2. K. Linda Kivi autoriõhtu Tartu College´is / Eda Sepp ; fotod: Eda Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Eda

    2006-01-01

    19. jaanuaril 2006, Linda Kivi kolmanda raamatu "The Inner Green: Exploring Home in the Columbia Mountains" raamatuesitlusest. Korraldajateks Toronto Ülikooli Eesti Õppetool, Tartu Instituut, Tartu College´i laenuraamatukogu

  3. K. Linda Kivi autoriõhtu Tartu College´is / Eda Sepp ; fotod: Eda Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sepp, Eda

    2006-01-01

    19. jaanuaril 2006, Linda Kivi kolmanda raamatu "The Inner Green: Exploring Home in the Columbia Mountains" raamatuesitlusest. Korraldajateks Toronto Ülikooli Eesti Õppetool, Tartu Instituut, Tartu College´i laenuraamatukogu

  4. Study on liquid-liquid bimetal composite casting hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shoufan; Zhou Haitao; ZhuYongchang; Wang Junfa; Yao Jia; Li Chunhong

    2014-01-01

    Crusher hammers for the mineral processing industry must meet the demands of both high wear resistance at the hammer head and high impact toughness at the hammer handle. The crusher hammers made of Hadfield steel have typical y low service life of less than 40 hours. To solve the problem, a kind of bimetal crusher hammers made of high chromium cast iron (HCCI) and low al oy steel (LAS) has been successful y developed by using liquid-liquid composite casting. The microstructure and composite interface bonding was analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, EDX and XRD. Micrographs indicate that the composite interface is metal urgical y bonded with a zigzag shape across the boundary and without unbound region or void. After heat treatment, the composite hammers have shown excellent properties. The hardness of HCCI is at least 63 HRC and its αk is greater than 3.5 J•cm-2; the hardness of LAS is greater than 35 HRC and its αk is no less than 80 J•cm-2. Diffusion of elements takes place at the interface and forms a transition region. The micro hardness increases from LAS to the interface and then to HCCI. Wear comparison was made separately between the bimetal composite hammer and a Hadfield steel hammer in two quarries of Jilin province and Liaoning province. The results showed that the liquid-liquid bimetal composite hammers did not have the fal ing off of hammer head or impact fracture phenomenon, and their service life was 3.75 times as long as that of the Hadfield steel hammers.

  5. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  6. Honoring the Complexities of Our Lives: An Interview with Karen Hesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ellen Huntington

    1997-01-01

    Presents an interview with award-winning author Karen Hesse, discussing her writing for children and young adults. Discusses how ideas for particular books arose, as well as the research and writing processes that went into them. Appends reviews of nine books by Karen Hesse. (SR)

  7. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  8. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  9. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin, E-mail: pauzi@nm.gov.my; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri [NDT Group, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin [Material Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin [Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral, Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains, Ipoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  10. Radio Astronomy and eVLBI using KAREN

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Stuart; Gulyaev, Sergei

    2010-01-01

    Kiwi Advanced Research and Education Network (KAREN) has been used to transfer large volumes of radio astronomical data between the AUT Radio Astronomical Observatory at Warkworth, New Zealand and the international organisations with which we are collaborating and conducting observations. Here we report on the current status of connectivity and on the results of testing different data transfer protocols. We investigate new UDP protocols such as "tsunami" and UDT and demonstrate that the UDT protocol is more efficient than "tsunami" and ftp. We report on our initial steps towards real-time eVLBI and the attempt to directly stream data from the radio telescope receiving system to the correlation centre without intermediate buffering/recording.

  11. HAMMER: Reweighting tool for simulated data samples

    CERN Document Server

    Duell, Stephan; Ligeti, Zoltan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Modern flavour physics experiments, such as Belle II or LHCb, require large samples of generated Monte Carlo events. Monte Carlo events often are processed in a sophisticated chain that includes a simulation of the detector response. The generation and reconstruction of large samples is resource-intensive and in principle would need to be repeated if e.g. parameters responsible for the underlying models change due to new measurements or new insights. To avoid having to regenerate large samples, we work on a tool, The Helicity Amplitude Module for Matrix Element Reweighting (HAMMER), which allows one to easily reweight existing events in the context of semileptonic b → q ` ̄ ν ` analyses to new model parameters or new physics scenarios.

  12. Closed Die Hammer Forging of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenna Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the production of Inconel 718 (IN-718 hemispherical domes by closed die hammer forging is proposed. Different combination of operations employed for production are as follows: (i preforging + final forging + air cooling, (ii preforging + final forging + controlled cooling, (iii direct forging + controlled cooling, and (iv direct forging + air cooling. Last three combinations yielded a crack free hemispherical dome. The forged hemispherical domes were solution annealed at 980°C for 1 h and air cooled. The grain size of the domes at all locations was finer than ASTM No 4. Mechanical properties of the forged dome in solution treated and aged condition (STA were better than feedstock used.

  13. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A. [SKB Geotechnika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gelfgat, M. [Aquatic Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). GeoEngineering Group

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  14. Study on diagonal hammer of three kind metals composite casting with block protecting handle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hammer crusher is widely used in cement, ceramic, mining and electricityother industries, hammer head is one of important parts in crusher, its abrasion performance directly affects the service life of hammer crusher and economic cost. According to bimetalcomposite hammer head is often appear “Hammer handle wear and tear”,“Composite difficult” and the set of casting alloy block hammer head set piece of “come off” phenomenon, which design a set piece type bimetal composite casting straight diagonal hammer, make full use of high chromium cast iron wear resistance and the toughness of low alloy steel. Design a protect block structure reasonably that solve the hammer when the actual production of composite interface is difficult to control and “the problem of hammer head wear” for use. Solve the problem of hammer head wear actively, achieve “energy saving, emission reduction and environmental protection”.

  15. Nostalgia Arhitektuurimuuseumis : kuldsed kuuekümnendad / Karen Jagodin ; interv. Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitusest "Kuuekümnendad. Eesti moodne arhitektuur" ja sisearhitektide Väino Tamme ning Vello Asi loomingu näitusest Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Kuraatorid Karin Hallas-Murula ja Karen Jagodin. Eesti 1960. aastate sisearhitektuurist

  16. Nostalgia Arhitektuurimuuseumis : kuldsed kuuekümnendad / Karen Jagodin ; interv. Ellu Maar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitusest "Kuuekümnendad. Eesti moodne arhitektuur" ja sisearhitektide Väino Tamme ning Vello Asi loomingu näitusest Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Kuraatorid Karin Hallas-Murula ja Karen Jagodin. Eesti 1960. aastate sisearhitektuurist

  17. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  18. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model that accurately predicts the stability of hydrostatic bearings...

  19. a comparative analysis of the rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE REBOUND HAMMER ... Abstract. This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech- .... require separate calibration or correlation charts. [12].

  20. Moving HammerCloud to CERN's private cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Barrand, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    HammerCloud is a testing framework for the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Currently deployed on about 20 hand-managed machines, it was desirable to move it to the Agile Infrastructure, CERN's OpenStack-based private cloud.

  1. Validation of a brief mental health screener for Karen refugees in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Darin R; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A

    2016-02-01

    Karen refugees from Burma are one of the largest refugee groups currently resettling in the USA. Karen people have endured decades of civil war and human rights violations, leaving them more likely to develop serious mental health disorders. There is a noted lack of brief, culturally validated tools present in primary care settings for detecting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Karen refugees. To create the Karen Mental Health Screener, a five-question screening tool used to identify depression and PTSD and to validate it against a clinical reference standard. This validation study was conducted during a primary care visit. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire using a 4-point visual aid and the PTSD and MDD portions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-CV for DSM-IV) as the reference standard. Both the questionnaire and the relevant sections of the SCID-IV were rigorously translated and administered by trained researchers along with a trained Karen interpreter. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine a subset of items that could be used to construct a screener to identify Karen patients who were most likely to have PTSD and/or MDD. A final five-question screener was created with very strong performance characteristics. With a clinical cut score of 4, these items displayed very strong performance characteristics with sensitivity = 0.96, specificity = 0.97, positive predicted value = 0.83 and negative predicted value = 0.99. The Karen Mental Health Screener is a valid measure for detecting PTSD and major depression in Karen people from refugee backgrounds presenting in a primary care setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  3. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  4. Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejović, S.; Mazij, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

  5. Influences on water-hammer wave shape: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traudt, T.; Bombardieri, C.; Manfletti, C.

    2016-09-01

    Water-hammer phenomena are of strong interest in a number of different industrial fields, amongst which the space industry. Here the priming of feedlines during start-up of an engine as well as the rapid closing of valves upon shutdown may lead to pressure peaks symptomatic of a water-hammer wave. Test benches used to conduct tests on future as well as current engines are also sensitive to water-hammer waves traveling along their feedlines. To enhance the understanding of water-hammer, we investigated different configurations and their influence on the wave shape in the frequency domain. The configurations feature a coiled pipe setup with a support structure and without a support structure. Two other phenomena will be presented. We found a beat phenomenon which is likely to be the so called Poisson-coupling beat. Finally we will show that the second water-hammer peak can reach pressures a lot higher than the first peak by additive interference of the primary and secondary water-hammer wave.

  6. Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J., E-mail: yajun@scut.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.

  7. Stable sonoluminescence within a water hammer tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Avik; Georghiou, Theo; Phillipson, Tacye E; Walton, Alan J

    2004-06-01

    The sonoluminescence (SL) from the collapse of a single gas bubble within a liquid can be produced repetitively using an acoustic resonator. An alternative technique using a water hammer tube, producing SL from bubbles of greater size, is described here. A sealed vertical tube partly filled with a liquid and a gas at low pressure is subjected to vertical vibrations. The oscillation of the pressure within the liquid column, due to inertial forces, excites cavitation bubbles to grow and collapse. Rotation is used to confine the bubbles to the axis of the tube. Bright SL emissions were observed in a number of liquids. Repetitive emission was produced from bubbles in condensed phosphoric acid. Bubbles of 0.4 mm ambient radius (containing 2x 10(14) xenon atoms) were excited by vibration at 35 Hz. Approximately 10(12) photons were emitted per collapse in the range 400-700 nm (over four orders of magnitude greater than the brightest SL reported previously), corresponding to a 1% efficiency of the conversion of mechanical energy into light.

  8. Thenar hammer syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youakim, Sami

    2006-10-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon occurs among automobile mechanics secondary to long-term use of vibrating hand-held tools. It can also occur from traumatic injury to the upper extremity. This report describes a case of single digit Raynaud's phenomenon in an automobile mechanic due to focal arterial impact trauma. A 38-year-old right-handed transmission mechanic complained of paraesthesia and blanching of the right index finger on exposure to cold and eventually developed a transient necrotic ulcer at the tip of the digit. He had a long history of occupational exposure to vibrating hand-held power tools. Evaluation for common causes of Raymond's phenomenon was negative. The diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) was rejected because of the rapidity of progression and severity of the symptoms restricted only to the index finger without corresponding symptoms of the other digits of the right hand as would be expected. Angiography revealed an obstructive lesion of the distal right radial artery at the wrist and he was diagnosed with thenar hammer syndrome. This uncommon condition was due to focal injury of the distal radial artery caused by repeated slamming of transmission parts on a work table. Not all cases of Raynaud's phenomenon in workers using vibrating hand-held tools are due to HAVS. Alternative aetiologies should be considered especially if symptoms are asymmetrical and unilateral.

  9. "Everything the World Turns on": Inclusion and Exclusion in Linda Hogan's "Power"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In her novel "Power," Linda Hogan provides readers with a close look at how separatism and syncretism, or exclusion and inclusion, are complex ideologies that lead to complex decisions. A close look at the novel reveals that the tensions and sharp dichotomies between the traditional world of the Taiga elders and the European American world,…

  10. POSMODERNISME LINDA HUTCHEON: POETICS OF POSTMODERNISM (1989) DAN POLITIC OF POSTMODERNISM (2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2016-01-01

    Poetika posmodernisme Linda Hutcheon berusaha menjembatani poetika modernisme yang berfokus pada keotonoman dann keobjektifan karya sastra dengan poetika sosiologis yang berfokus pada aspek sosial, historis, dan politis karya sastra. Dalam hal ini, poetika posmodernisme Hutcheon mencoba melihat karya sastra dari dua sisi sekaligus, yaitu struktur dan isinya, serta sekaligus aspek konteksnya (aspek sosial, sejarah, dan politiknya). Sementara itu, politik posmodernisme Hutcheon menegaskan bahwa...

  11. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  12. Reconstruction of piano hammer force from string velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces. The simulations are based on a nonlinear damped stiff string model previously developed by Chabassier, Chaigne, and Joly [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 648-665 (2013)]. The influence of absorption, dispersion, and amplitude of the string waves on the quality of the reconstruction is discussed. Finally, the method is applied to real piano strings. The measured string velocity is compared to the simulated velocity excited by the reconstructed force, showing a high degree of accuracy. A number of simulations are compared to simulated strings excited by a force derived from measurements of mass and acceleration of the hammer head. One application to an historic piano is also presented.

  13. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  14. Development and application of simulation technique for hydrokinetic hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianye ZHU; Qingyan WANG; Kun YIN; Siyi WANG

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation is an important method for hydrokinetic hammer design. Various kinds of simulation measures with their technical characters and applications being taken during the computer aided design are enumerated. Computer simulation supports plenty of valuable references to the designer. Each type of simulation process is used to explore the exact aspect of the performance of hydrokinetic hammer and each type of simulation method has its own excellences and deficiencies. Thus the integrative simulation methods based on modern computational technology are brought forward to obtain the perfect capability of the whole product. Along with the development of computer hardware and software, various kinds of platforms have been provided to different simulation methods that can be carried out with distinct working flows. The jet flow element is the core part of the hydrokinetic hammer. We can build the ideal simulation model of it by means of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology. On the other hand, to set up the digital model of piston and hammer, the best way is to build the virtual prototype using automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical system. As a result of the argumentation, we think the technique of Virtual Prototype and CFD are the prime way to process the combined computer simulation for hydrokinetic hammer.

  15. Two Versions of Buddhist Karen History of the Late British Colonial Period in Burma:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Ikeda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.

  16. The use of titanium alloys for details of downhole hammers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelyukh, A. I.; Repin, A. A.; Alekseev, S. E.; Martyushev, N. V.; Drozdov, Yu Yu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of cementation technology of titanium alloy Ti-Al-Mn on its wear resistance is studied. It is established that after lubrication a friction pair with mineral oil the wear resistance of the cemented titanium alloy is comparable to wear resistance of the tempered steel 12HN3A, and in water medium surpasses it by 1.5 times. Decrease in the tendency to seizure with steel is the main reason for increase of wear resistance of titanium alloy. Industrial tests of the ASH43 hammer have shown that the use of titanium alloys for the manufacture of hammer strikers allows to increase impact capacity by 1.5 times and to increase drilling rate by 30 % compared to hammers with steel strikers.

  17. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  18. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2013-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  19. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  20. Attenuating water hammer pressure by means of gas storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic equations for computing the volume of gas storage tank were derived from the principles of attenuating water hammer pressure. Verifications using experiments indicate that the proposed equation can provide a fare precision in the predictions. By using the model of solid-liquid two-phase flow, the gas storage tank, pressure-relief valves and slow-closure reverse-control valves were compared with practical engineering problems, and the functions of gas storage tank in attenuating water hammer pressure were further investigated.

  1. REPLACEMENT OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS IN HAMMER TOE DEFORMITY

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosyan, A. S.; N. V. Zagorodniy; V. G. Protsko; E. M. Sultanov; Z. K. Khamokov; B. G. Butaev; N. G. Zakharyan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to assess the results of Hammertoe Implant Procedure (HIP) in the treatment of hammer toes deformation. 28 operations were carried out in 16 patients aged 26 to 58 years with stage II-III (according to the classification of MI Kuslik) of hammer toes from September 2009 to March 2011. In 50% of them surgeries were performed on one foot, in the second half - on two feet. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.4 months, range 6-21. Results: evaluation of the results was carried out by scal...

  2. The Case of Three Karen Refugee Women and Their Children: Literacy Practices in a Family Literacy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadros, Sabrina; Sarroub, Loukia K.

    2016-01-01

    The lack of research about the Karen, one of 135 ethnic groups from Myanmar limits literacy educators charged with educating this refugee population in public schools. In this case study the authors explore the literacy practices of Karen families when at school and in their homes and within an ESL family literacy program. The case of these…

  3. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the

  5. 'Geen Fries spot met zijn land'. Nationalisme, ironie en het Oera Linda-boek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jensma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Irony, nationalism, and the Oera Linda bookThe Oera Linda book is a curious enigma which came to light in the Dutch town of Den Helder in 1867. It is an ambiguous literary text which can be read in two different ways: On the one hand as a nonsensical parody on the tradition of Friesian fantastic historiography, and on the other as a much more serious allegory of the nineteenth-century conflict between liberal theological modernism and orthodoxy. The attribution of this anonymous text to the Minister/ Poet François HaverSchmidt (1835-1894 subsequently shows how an ironic style of thinking and writing can be a by-product of modernisation. In the case of HaverSchmidt and his Oera Linda book, this irony is working in two spheres, viz. that of regional identity and that of religion. In both cases, HaverSchmidt's irony is the result of a strongly felt tension between tradition and modernity, between the desire to believe in a fantastic, non-critical nationalist historiography or in the existence of a wonder-working God on the one hand, and on the other a commitment to the knowledge that such things can no longer exist in a modern world.

  6. 'Geen Fries spot met zijn land'. Nationalisme, ironie en het Oera Linda-boek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jensma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Irony, nationalism, and the Oera Linda bookThe Oera Linda book is a curious enigma which came to light in the Dutch town of Den Helder in 1867. It is an ambiguous literary text which can be read in two different ways: On the one hand as a nonsensical parody on the tradition of Friesian fantastic historiography, and on the other as a much more serious allegory of the nineteenth-century conflict between liberal theological modernism and orthodoxy. The attribution of this anonymous text to the Minister/ Poet François HaverSchmidt (1835-1894 subsequently shows how an ironic style of thinking and writing can be a by-product of modernisation. In the case of HaverSchmidt and his Oera Linda book, this irony is working in two spheres, viz. that of regional identity and that of religion. In both cases, HaverSchmidt's irony is the result of a strongly felt tension between tradition and modernity, between the desire to believe in a fantastic, non-critical nationalist historiography or in the existence of a wonder-working God on the one hand, and on the other a commitment to the knowledge that such things can no longer exist in a modern world.

  7. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  8. HammerCloud. Developments and operations in the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Boehler, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in the years 2010-2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS experiment Grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centres to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise validation and integration of the new ATLAS workload and data management systems JEDI and Rucio or the development and tests of new storage access protocols like HTTP/WebDAV using Davix and aria2c. Results of the continuous monitoring of site performances in functional and site stress tests are displayed in newly developed views on the HammerCloud webpages for site and VO administrators. We report on the development, optimisation and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  9. HAMMER COURSEWARE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, P.R.

    2006-04-28

    HAMMER Courseware Management System (HAMMERCMS) is the official name of the system Fluor Hanford, Inc., uses to facilitate development of, deliver, and track training presented in some electronic form (mainly, web-based training) to Hanford Site employees, subcontractors, and vendors.

  10. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  11. 锤式破碎机锤头有限元模型仿真%Finite Model Simulation of Hammer Head of Hammer-type Crusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李懿

    2011-01-01

    当锤头对矿石的打击力正好发生在锤头的碰撞中心(或称打击中心)时,就可以完全消除锤头销孔与销轴之间的碰撞反力,降低锤头磨损,提高破碎机效率。利用锤头销孔所受碰撞反力的计算公式,建立锤头的有限元模型,通过对锤面上不同点打击力加载,得出了锤面上各点的所受应力,依据结果优化锤头结构尺寸。%When the hitting force of hammer head on ore is just at the collision center of the hammer head(or hitting center),the collision counterforce of hammer pin hole and shaft can be completely eliminated,thus reducing hammer wearing and enhancing crusher efficiency.Through the calculation formula of collision counterforce on hammer pin hole,the article establishes the finite model of hammer,and obtains the stress on each point of the hammer surface through loading hitting force on different points of the hammer surface.The hammer structure size is optimized according to the result.

  12. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher candidates'…

  13. Nations Within. American Indian Scholar Karen Gayton Swisher Envisions Effective Education for All Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rosa Hernandez

    1997-01-01

    An interview with American Indian educator Karen Gayton Swisher explores the learning styles of American Indian children and the application of ideas about these learning styles in the programs at Haskell Indian Nations University. Native American children should be taught from a constructivist, rather than a deficit, point of view. (SLD)

  14. Engaged Teaching and Learning with Adult Karen Refugees in a Service-Learning Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Lynn Atkinson; Zhang, Wei; Detwiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a service-learning project connected to a TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher preparation program. The case study explored the teacher candidates' experiences teaching English to Karen refugees from Myanmar (Burma) in a midwestern city in the United States. The teacher candidates'…

  15. Doing belonging: Meanings of home and settlement among the Karen Community in Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nancy Bird

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of belonging allows diasporic people to negotiate socio-cultural terrains that go beyond singular attachments to “here” or “there”.  This paper interrogates doing belonging amongst members of the Karen refugee community from Burma settling in Brisbane, Australia.  We use data collected over twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork using the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews.  This paper presents an interpretation of challenges faced by Karen community members as they grapple with local and transnational complexities of belonging within their own community, whilst also establishing belonging to Australian social environments.  We argue that Karen participants’ lived experiences of settlement challenge bounded notions of belonging, thereby allowing us to extend dominant constructions of settlement and social inclusion and give way to a more nuanced representation of an emerging diasporic community.  We thus reposition a resettled refugee community away from disempowering and exclusionary notions that dominant constructions of belonging and inclusion tend to impose. Keywords: Karen, belonging, settlement, refugee, transnational

  16. Nations Within. American Indian Scholar Karen Gayton Swisher Envisions Effective Education for All Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rosa Hernandez

    1997-01-01

    An interview with American Indian educator Karen Gayton Swisher explores the learning styles of American Indian children and the application of ideas about these learning styles in the programs at Haskell Indian Nations University. Native American children should be taught from a constructivist, rather than a deficit, point of view. (SLD)

  17. Consider the Source: Feminism and Point of View in Karen Hesse's "Stowaway" and "Witness."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    2003-01-01

    Notes how Karen Hesse strays from her typical pattern of exploring gender issues to provide a look at patriarchal culture from within, in one case, and from multiple points of view in the other, ultimately strengthening the feminist pulse that beats within her earlier works. Concludes that in "Stowaway" and "Witness," the voice of a boy and the…

  18. Newbery Medal Winner Karen Hesse Brings Billie Jo's Voice "Out of the Dust."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Judy; Peck, Jackie

    1999-01-01

    Describes an interview with children's author Karen Hesse, discussing such things as how she chose writing as a career, her use of figurative language and her skillful crafting of dialog, where her book ideas come from, and her latest projects. (SR)

  19. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cigna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively on day 20, a new thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurred. Conclusion. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is caused by repetitive trauma to the heel of the hand. The alterations of the vessel due to its chronic inflammation caused an acute compression of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon's canal and, in our case, do not allow a permanent revascularisation of the ulnar artery.

  20. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jun Xuan; Feng Mao; Jie-Zhi Wu

    2012-01-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter,with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates),and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized.To this end,we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al.(J.Hydrodynamics,B2,51,1995)to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity,and obtain its solution by Green's function method.The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and,by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient,experimentally measured turbulent flow data.Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  1. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  2. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  3. Water hammer analysis in a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twyman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The solution to water hammer in a water distribution system (WDS is shown by applying three hybrid methods (HM based on the Box’s scheme, McCormack's method and Diffusive Scheme. Each HM formulation in conjunction with their relative advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. The analyzed WDS has pipes with different lengths, diameters and wave speeds, being the Courant number different in each pipe according to the adopted discretization. The HM results are compared with the results obtained by the Method of Characteristics (MOC. In reviewing the numerical attenuation, second order schemes based on Box and McCormack are more conservative from a numerical point of view, being recommendable their application in the analysis of water hammer in water distribution systems.

  4. ["Progressive" hypothenar hammer syndrome Indication for operative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitscher, D; Müller, L P; Rudig, L; Simiantonaki, N; Arnold, G; Rommens, P M

    2005-12-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is ischemia of the distal ulnar artery caused by injury to the ulnar part of the palmar arch. This disease often involves workers who frequently use the hypothenar part of the hand as a hammer. The aneurysmatic form of HHS represents an indication for operative treatment; the thrombotic form is treated mainly conservatively. In our opinion, the symptomatic thrombotic form represents an indication for operation if symptoms persist during conservative therapy, particularly if symptoms progress. In fresh embolic occlusions, regional thrombolysis is usually successful. We present here the symptomatic treatment and course in two patients with complaints increasing during conservative therapy. The patients reported progressive Raynaud's phenomenon of the fingers. Angiography confirmed corkscrew-like aneurysmatic configuration of the distal ulnar artery and subsequent embolization of digital arteries. In both cases, we removed the source of the embolism with resection of the involved arterial segment and anastomosis with autologous vein grafts.

  5. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  6. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively ...

  7. A hammer in perpetual motion / The keyboard is the world

    OpenAIRE

    Chokroun, David

    2011-01-01

    Documentation of a hybrid performance-lecture featuring the music and ideas of "Larry Brown," a fictional composer and Marxist, presented at Simon Fraser University on Jan. 15-16, 2011. The score of "Brown's" piano work A Hammer in Perpetual Motion is reproduced in its entirety. The musical work incorporates musical and biographical references to African-American singer and activist Paul Robeson and the Chilean communist singer-composer Victor Jara. The accompanying text, The Keyboard is the ...

  8. Constitutive Equation of Superalloy In718 in Hammer Forging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A constitutive equation reflecting the flow behavior ofSuperalloy In718 during the counter-blow hammer forging process was developed in terms of the relationship of flow stress and hot-deformation parameters, such as strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature. A new simplified approach for the complex multi-pass stress-strain curves has been attempted. The simulation curves calculated by constitutive equation are consistent with the experimental data.

  9. THE LINDA CRANE MEMORIAL LECTUR: Leading Leaders: A Vision for Our Centennial Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace-Chandler, Venita

    2011-06-01

    At 90 years of age, the APTA may be facing some of the greatest national and global challenges of its history. Membership has grown from 238 in 1921 to over 70,000 in 2011, but the expansion of the APTA may be restrictive to individual participation. A leadership gap appears imminent in practice and education. Fostering every member to understand the APTA and its great work is essential to ensuring a profession that lives its core values and meets societal needs. The Linda Crane Memorial Lecture in 2011 celebrated a vision of the APTA's 100th birthday with every member serving as a "professional centenarian" who stewards the organization to continued greatness.

  10. The socially just face of public health leadership Linda Rae Murray. Interview by Donya Lynn Currie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Linda Rae

    2011-02-01

    Linda Rae Murray, MD, MPH, a champion of social justice and outspoken advocate for the medically underserved for more than 40 years, is not easy to describe. Part E. F. Hutton (when she talks, people listen), part streetwise negotiator (she's not shy about dropping a four-letter word into conversation), she might come across as brash and intimidating to some. But those who know her well will attest to her softhearted interior, and her unwavering commitment to speaking out in the name of better health for all.

  11. POSMODERNISME LINDA HUTCHEON: POETICS OF POSTMODERNISM (1989 DAN POLITIC OF POSTMODERNISM (2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poetika posmodernisme Linda Hutcheon berusaha menjembatani poetika modernisme yang berfokus pada keotonoman dann keobjektifan karya sastra dengan poetika sosiologis yang berfokus pada aspek sosial, historis, dan politis karya sastra. Dalam hal ini, poetika posmodernisme Hutcheon mencoba melihat karya sastra dari dua sisi sekaligus, yaitu struktur dan isinya, serta sekaligus aspek konteksnya (aspek sosial, sejarah, dan politiknya. Sementara itu, politik posmodernisme Hutcheon menegaskan bahwa seni posmodern mau tidak mau harus bersifat politis meskipun sulit untuk bergerak lebih konkret yang berupa tindak politik (political act. Dalam hal ini, politik posmodernisme lebih bekerja dalam bidang ideologis, yaitu dengan cara mendenaturalisasi tatanan yang diterima begitu saja karena dianggap benar.

  12. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  13. Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Niels Ole

    2010-01-01

    Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4......Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4...

  14. Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Niels Ole

    2010-01-01

    Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4......Review: Michael Crandall & Karen E. Fisher (Eds) Digital Inclusion: Measuring the Impact of Information and Community Technology. Medford. Information Today. ASIS&T Monographs, 2009. 185 pages. $ 59.50. ISBN 978-1-57387-373-4...

  15. HAMMER FY 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcginnis, K.A.

    1996-09-23

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Program is a Congressionally funded National Program line item which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate new approaches to health and safety training and to use occupational health medical surveillance and risk analysis information to enhance the HAMMER training programs. Hanford is the pilot for this program with the HAMMER user facility as the major component.

  16. Suffering wives: Miller’s Linda and Mahfouz’s Amina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouelmaaty Atef Abdallah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of suffering female characters has been the interest of both the drama and the novel of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Among those who are interested in the matter are the Noble Prize winners Arthur Miller and Naguib Mahfouz in Death of a Salesman (1949 and Palace Walk (1956. Both of Miller’s Linda and Mahfouz’s Amina have greatly suffered at the hands of their tyrannical husbands Willy Loman and Al- Sayyid Ahmad Abd-Elguaad respectively. The main aim of this paper is to study the sources, forms, and consequences of the sufferings of both Miller’s Linda and Mahfouz’s Amina, and to place their sufferings against the current beliefs of the age in which they lived. The reason behind choosing these two characters is that they look like each other in many ways. First, they are reliable, trusted wives and mothers who are dedicated to the welfare of their families. Second, they face the same inherently patriarchal cultures and suffer the same misogyny. Third, they are different from other tragic wives like Shakespeare's Desdemona, who are created to meet Aristotle's tragic requirements.

  17. Pojetí úzkostnosti z pohledu teorie Karen Horneyové

    OpenAIRE

    STRŽÍNKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the verification of relationship between anxiety and early attachment patterns in a population of young adults. Additionally, it serves as a pilot research for a set of unfinished sentences, which was created by the thesis author, and is based on theoretical constructs Karen Horney and is used to detect neurotic attitudes. In the theoretical part of the thesis, there are several topics specified, such as anguish, anxiety neurosis and views of psychological theories on t...

  18. Communication practices of the Karen in Sheffield: Seeking to navigate their three zones of displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Geff; Lockley, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates communication practices of a newly arrived Karen refugee community in the UK who, as well as establishing themselves in a strange country, seek to keep in touch, campaign politically and maintain identity collectively through communication and contact with their global diaspora. We look at the technologies, motivations and inhibiting factors applying to the communication by adult members of this community and construct the idea of three zones of displacement which help...

  19. REPLACEMENT OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS IN HAMMER TOE DEFORMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Petrosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of Hammertoe Implant Procedure (HIP in the treatment of hammer toes deformation. 28 operations were carried out in 16 patients aged 26 to 58 years with stage II-III (according to the classification of MI Kuslik of hammer toes from September 2009 to March 2011. In 50% of them surgeries were performed on one foot, in the second half - on two feet. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.4 months, range 6-21. Results: evaluation of the results was carried out by scale of AOFAS. A significant improvement was noted after HIP: in average score before surgery - 47, in the postoperative period - 92. In evaluating the average preoperative pain score was 24.3, postoperative - 36.0 (complete absence of pain is estimated to be 40 points. Improving the function of the foot with an average of 19 before surgery after surgery reached 41 points, while the position of the fingers (the alignment of the foot and toes is changed from the average value of 2.4 to 12.4 after surgery. Conclusion. Analysis of results showed the effectiveness of the HIP method in the treatment of hammertoe 2-3 fingers. HIP has allowed to achieve good functional and cosmetic results in early and the follow-up postoperative period. In our view, HIP with complex deformations forefoot can be used as an adjunct to other types of reconstructive surgery on the anterior part of the foot, and cases with recurrent strains hammer toes after surgery, HIP can be operation of choice.

  20. Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia Induced Hydrocephalus: the Water-Hammer Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisimopoulou, Vaso; Ntouniadaki, Aikaterini; Aggelidakis, Panagiotis; Siatouni, Anna; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Tavernarakis, Antonios

    2015-04-24

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications.

  1. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia induced hydrocephalus: the water-hammer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaso Zisimopoulou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications.

  2. Analysis of working postures in hammering tasks on building construction sites using the computerized OWAS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, M; Karwowski, W; Vilkki, M

    1993-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the most problematic postures in hammering tasks performed at building construction sites through application of the computerized OWAS method, and to develop recommendations for improvement of working method and workplaces. Eighteen construction workers, with mean age of 41.6, from three construction companies participated in the field study. The hammering tasks observed during the two-month period included roof boarding, concrete form preparation, clamping support braces, assembling roof frames, roof joisting, shelter form preparation, and fixing fork clamps. Three different types of hammer, including a small Fiskar's hammer, a Fiskar's construction hammer, and a Rocket hammer, were used by the workers. Of all the observations, poor working postures were observed most frequently in roof joisting (12.4% of all observations within the task), followed by concrete form preparation (8.6%), and construction of frames for the roof (7.5%). Overall, out of 593 different postures analysed, a total of 7.8% of postures adopted by the workers during various hammering tasks were classified into OWAS categories III or IV, indicating that these postures should be corrected either soon or immediately. The computerized OWAS method for postural data analysis proved to be a very useful way to reduce postural load of dynamic hammering tasks, and allowed for efficient application of the original OWAS method.

  3. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  4. HAMMER FY 1999 multi-year work plan WBS 1.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, P.A.

    1998-09-30

    As a federal training center HAMMER`s [HAzardous Materials Management and Emergency Response] mission is to host, broker, and provide training with partners, involving hands-on use of realistic props and settings, in order to save lives and reduce injuries, increase worker productivity, and serve as a catalyst for a regional training industry.

  5. Autonomous Agents Coordination: Action Languages meet CLP(FD) and Linda

    CERN Document Server

    Dovier, Agostino; Pontelli, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a knowledge representation formalism, in the form of a high-level Action Description Language for multi-agent systems, where autonomous agents reason and act in a shared environment. Agents are autonomously pursuing individual goals, but are capable of interacting through a shared knowledge repository. In their interactions through shared portions of the world, the agents deal with problems of synchronization and concurrency; the action language allows the description of strategies to ensure a consistent global execution of the agents' autonomously derived plans. A distributed planning problem is formalized by providing the declarative specifications of the portion of the problem pertaining a single agent. Each of these specifications is executable by a stand-alone CLP-based planner. The coordination among agents exploits a Linda infrastructure. The proposal is validated in a prototype implementation developed in SICStus Prolog. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).

  6. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  7. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Core

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  8. Hammer events, neutrino energies, and nucleon-nucleon correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation measurements depend on a difference between the rate of neutrino-nucleus interactions at different neutrino energies or different distances from the source. Knowledge of the neutrino energy spectrum and neutrino-detector interactions are crucial for these experiments. Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (SRC) affect properties of nuclei. The ArgoNeut liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (lArTPC) observed neutrino-argon scattering events with two protons back-to-back in the final state ("hammer" events) which they associated with SRC pairs. The MicroBoone lArTPC will measure far more of these events. We simulate hammer events using two simple models. We use the well-known electron-nucleon cross section to calculate e-argon interactions where the e- scatters from a proton, ejecting a pi+, and the pi+ is then absorbed on a moving deuteron-like $np$ pair. We also use a model where the electron excites a nucleon to a Delta, which then deexcites by interacting with a second nucle...

  9. Water hammer reduces fouling during natural water ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, F; Menne, D; Pothof, I; Blankert, B; Roesink, H D W; Futselaar, H; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M

    2012-03-15

    Today's ultrafiltration processes use permeate flow reversal to remove fouling deposits on the feed side of ultrafiltration membranes. We report an as effective method: the opening and rapid closing of a valve on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration module. The sudden valve closure generates pressure fluctuations due to fluid inertia and is commonly known as "water hammer". Surface water was filtrated in hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a small (5%) crossflow. Filtration experiments above sustainable flux levels (>125 l (m2h)(-1)) show that a periodic closure of a valve on the permeate side improves filtration performance as a consequence of reduced fouling. It was shown that this effect depends on flux and actuation frequency of the valve. The time period that the valve was closed proved to have no effect on filtration performance. The pressure fluctuations generated by the sudden stop in fluid motion due to the valve closure are responsible for the effect of fouling reduction. High frequency recording of the dynamic pressure evolution shows water hammer related pressure fluctuations to occur in the order of 0.1 bar. The pressure fluctuations were higher at higher fluxes (higher velocities) which is in agreement with the theory. They were also more effective at higher fluxes with respect to fouling mitigation.

  10. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements....

  11. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: a case and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Keith E; Bartholomew, John R; Paulson, Rolf

    2012-04-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome is an uncommon cause of upper-extremity ischemia that is often overlooked in the absence of a thorough occupational and recreational history. Importantly, it is a reversible cause of hand ischemia that, if missed, can lead to significant morbidity and even amputation. The occupational ramifications and quality of life of those affected can be significant. Its relative rarity, set against the ubiquitous use of the hand as a 'hammer' is noteworthy. Several other causes of hand ischemia can present similarly; therefore, consideration of other etiologies must be thoroughly investigated. Key distinguishing clinical features, in addition to a detailed occupational and recreational history, may include characteristic sparing of the thumb, the absence of a hyperemic phase in 'Raynaud's phenomenon', and a positive Allen's sign. Both non-invasive and invasive diagnostic studies, including bilateral upper-limb segmental pulse volume recordings (PVR), arterial duplex examination, and upper-extremity angiography, are complementary to a thorough history and physical examination. Optimal management strategies are not well defined because of its rarity and resultant lack of quality, evidence-based data. Though most cases can be successfully managed non-operatively, micrographic arterial reconstruction may be limb saving in severe or recalcitrant cases. Newer, experimental strategies including selective sympathetic blockage using botulinum toxin A have been reported in a few recalcitrant cases. The brief case description illustrates the typical presentation and potential treatment strategies employed in a difficult case. A review of relevant literature is also presented.

  12. The meaning and value of traditional occupational practice: a Karen woman's story of weaving in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Yda J; Stephenson, Stephanie; Gibson-Satterthwaite, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This case study sought to understand the meaning of restoring traditional weaving as an occupation among Karen women from Burma who now live in an urban city in the United States and to examine the impact of weaving on their daily lives in terms of identity, empowerment, social support, and opportunities for entrepreneurship. The story of one Karen woman, Paw Law Eh, is described. Her story exemplifies the negative consequences of restricted access to familiar and meaningful daily activities, or "occupations", the relationship between occupation and self-identity, how participation in valued occupations can enhance social networks, and the restorative effects that are possible when engagement in meaningful occupations are maintained or restored. Her story demonstrates that occupational therapists have the skills and opportunity to contribute significantly to the well-being of Karen women by supporting the restoration of the occupation of weaving.

  13. "I'm Telling You ... The Language Barrier Is the Most, the Biggest Challenge": Barriers to Education among Karen Refugee Women in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Paula G.; Razee, Husna; Richters, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines factors influencing English language education, participation and achievement among Karen refugee women in Australia. Data were drawn from ethnographic observations and interviews with 67 participants between 2009 and 2011, collected as part of a larger qualitative study exploring the well-being of Karen refugee women in…

  14. Load and wear experiments on the impact hammer of a vertical shaft impact crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. H.; Fang, H. Y.; Luo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Impact hammers are important components of impact crushers, and are often shortlived due to the high-impact nature of their use. Wear-resistant alloys are welded to the surface of impact hammers to prolong their service life. In this paper, a simulation model of the rotor and impact hammers in impact crushers was designed to utilize the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The wear-resistant alloy on each impact hammer was divided into twenty-two action regions. The load distribution on each alloy block is affected by the structural and manufacturing parameters of the impact crusher. The wear distribution of the impact hammer was measured by shape morphology according to relative impact crushers. The results demonstrated that the real measurements of wear distribution on the impact hammer were similar to simulated load distribution measurements on the same surface. The study of load distribution of impact hammers by DEM established a theoretical foundation on which to base the optimal design of impact crushers.

  15. PyHammer: An Automatic and Visual Suite for Spectral Typing Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesseli, Aurora; West, Andrew A.; Harrison, Brandon; Veyette, Mark; Feldman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a computing product (dubbed "PyHammer"), which can automatically assign estimates of spectral type, metallicity and radial velocity, and/or be used to visually classify stellar spectra. PyHammer uses empirical templates with known spectral types and metallicities as comparisons to automatically determine the spectral type and an estimate of the metallicity of a star by measuring prominent line indices and performing a weighted least squares minimization. The PyHammer GUI allows the user to visually compare their spectra to the templates and determine the spectral type and metallicity. We have created the templates used by PyHammer by co-adding individual spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The templates cover spectral types O5 through L3, are binned by metallicity from -2.0 dex through +1.0 dex, and are separated into main sequence (dwarf) stars and giant stars. This code is based on the “Hammer” spectral typing facility (Covey et al. 2007) and has been updated to include metallicity information, radial velocity calculations, improved automatic estimates, and now is in python (instead of IDL). PyHammer is publicly available to the community on GitHub (github.com/BU-hammerTeam/PyHammer).

  16. A numerical water-hammer model using Scilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rodríguez Calderón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A water hammer can produce severe consequences regarding pipe integrity; simulation thus becomes an es-sential requirement for ensuring proper water distribution system design and operation. This article thus tries to demonstrate the importance of numerical methods in resolving such problems. A Scilab code allowing pressure propagation to be represented using the characteristics’ method applied to a case of classic literature was thus developed for numerically simulating this phenomenon. This method uses a finite difference scheme for resolving mass and momentum equations. The article presents equations governing the problem from the numerical point of view, the phenomenon’s behaviour is analysed and results obtained by the numerical approach (calculating finite differences are compared to those obtained with Scilab and the theoretical solution.

  17. Computation of water hammer protection of modernized pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for irrigation. Maximal capacity 2 × 1.2m3·s-1 became insufficient, thus it was upgraded to 2 × 2m3·s-1. Paper is focused on design of protection against water hammer in case of sudden pumps trip. Numerical simulation of the most dangerous case (when pumps are giving the maximal flow rate) showed that existing air vessels were not able to protect the system and it would be necessary to add new vessels. Special care was paid to influence of their connection to the main pipeline, because the resistance of the connection has a significant impact on the scale of pressure pulsations. Finally, the pump trip was performed to verify if the system worked correctly. The test showed that pressure pulsations are lower (better) than computation predicted. This discrepancy was further analysed.

  18. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Francesco Giovanni; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimiz...

  19. OREST - The hammer-origen burnup program system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U. (Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit mbH Forschungsgelande, 8046 Garching bei Munchen (DE))

    1988-08-01

    Reliable prediction of the characteristics of irradiated light water reactor fuels (e.g., afterheat power, neutron and gamma radiation sources, final uranium and plutonium contents) is needed for many aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Two main problems must be solved: the simulation of all isotopic nuclear reactions and the simulation of neutron fluxes setting the reactions in motion. In state-of-the-art computer techniques, a combination of specialized codes for lattice cell and burnup calculations is preferred to solve these cross-linked problems in time or burnup step approximation. In the program system OREST, developed for official and commercial tasks in the Federal Republic of Germany nuclear fuel cycle, the well-known codes HAMMER and ORIGEN and directly coupled with a fuel rod temperature module.

  20. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. This testing is typically done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ``ERL Type 12 Drop Weight Impact Sensitivity Apparatus``, or ``Drop Hammer Machine``, and the methods used to determine the impact sensitivity of energetic materials, Also discussed are changes made to both the machine and methods since the inception of impact sensitivity testing at LLNL in 1956. The accumulated data for the materials tested in not listed here, the exception being the discussion of those specific materials (primary calibrants: PETN, RDX, Comp-B3,and TNT; secondary calibrants: K-6, RX-26-AF, and TATB) used to calibrate the machine.

  1. CFD Analysis of the Anti-Surge Effects by Water Hammering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-oh; Jeong, Hyo-min; Chung, Han-shik; Lee, Sin-il; Lee, Kwang-sung

    2015-09-01

    Water hammering occurs due to the surge effect that comes from operating the pump, sudden stop during the operating due to a blackout and rapid open and close of the valve. By the water hammering of the pipeline and the pump, the valve are damaged. In this paper, transient analysis is conducted by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The purpose of this paper is to provide the research data about the change of the pressure and flow in the pipe that caused by the water hammering.

  2. Computing equations of water hammer in pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flow and their verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In engineering practice, single-phase water hammer models are still employed to analyze the water hammer of solid-liquid flow. According to the characteristics of solid-liquid flow, continuity equations and momentum equations of pseudo-homogeneous flows are deduced, and a pseudo-homogeneous water hammer model is thus built and verified with experiment results. The characteristics of solid-liquid flow's viscosity, resistance and wave velocity are considered in the model. Therefore, it has higher precision than a single-phase model.

  3. Application of a Numerical Model of Solid-Liquid Hammer in Pipeline Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiPengcheng; WuBaosheng; ZhouJianjun; HanWenliang

    2004-01-01

    The water hammer in pipelines for the transportation of plumbum and Zn mining tailing, supplied by centrifugal pumps, was studied by a numerical model of water hammer for pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flows. The simulation results were in good agreement with earlier experiments. The simulation result of air tanks installed on pipelines proved that the installation of air tanks is the most effective measure to reduce the water hammer associated with return flow caused by rapid closing of check valves. Other effective measures include the use of longer check-valve closure time or installation of the relief valves on the lower segments of the pipelines.

  4. Computing equations of water hammer in pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flow and their verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文亮; 董曾南; 柴宏恩; 韩军

    2000-01-01

    In engineering practice, single-phase water hammer models are still employed to analyze the water hammer of solid-liquid flow. According to the characteristics of solid-liquid flow, continuity equations and momentum equations of pseudo-homogeneous flows are deduced, and a pseudo-homogeneous water hammer model is thus built and verified with experiment results. The characteristics of solid-liquid flow’s viscosity, resistance and wave velocity are considered in the model. Therefore, it has higher precision than a single-phase model.

  5. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  6. The Animals Reader: The Essential Classic and Contemporary Writings (Linda Kalof y Amy Fitzgerald, Eds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beto Vianna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propuestas explicativas de la sociobiología y, aún más recientemente, de la psicología evolucionista han suscitado la queja, entre los científicos humanos, de una “colonización de las ciencias sociales” (término de Rose, 2000 desde la biología. La queja es legítima, si no por otros motivos, por una lamentable tendencia a la simplificación de las intricadas redes conductuales humanas a través de “explicaciones evolutivas”. Pero no podemos olvidar que hay un movimiento de igual tamaño e impacto desde las ciencias sociales que, a ejemplo de Bruno Latour, Tim Ingold y tantos otros, “colonizan” los estudios y objetos naturales (ver, por ejemplo, Latour, 1996 e Ingold, 2008. En The Animals Reader, dos sociólogas - Linda Kalof, de la Universidad del Estado de Michigan, y Amy Fitzgerald, de la Universidade de Windsor, Canada - son las responsables de hacer una incursión en un territorio tradicionalmente natural y, por tanto, perteneciente a las ciencias de la naturaleza: las descripciones que hacemos y las relaciones que mantenemos con los animales. The Animals Reader es una compilación bien cuidada, pienso que la primera de su tipo, que da forma a una preocupación multidisciplinar: los “estudios animales”.

  7. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  8. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  9. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  10. Novel Highly Efficient Compact Rotary-Hammering Planetary Sampler Actuated by a Single Piezoelectric Actuator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We had two objectives in this task: 1. Develop effective single low-mass, low-power piezoelectric drive that can actuate rotary-hammer samplers through walls. 2....

  11. Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma…

  12. War trauma and torture experiences reported during public health screening of newly resettled Karen refugees: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Tonya L; Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Letts, James P; Dwee, Ehtaw

    2015-04-08

    Karen refugees have suffered traumatic experiences that affect their physical and mental health in resettlement. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends assessing traumatic histories and mental health symptoms during initial public health screening. This article reports the traumatic experiences that Karen refugees were able to describe during a short screening and contributes knowledge to existing human rights documentation systems. Four semi-structured and open-ended items asked about lifetime experiences of war trauma and torture. Interviews were completed with adult, Karen refugees during their initial public health screening. Experiences of war trauma and torture were coded using the extensive Human Rights Information and Documentation (HURIDOCS) Micro-thesauri coding system. Additional codes were created to describe experiences not captured by existing codes. Over 85% of 179 Karen people interviewed experienced life-threatening war trauma. All participants who reported war trauma or torture stories were able to describe at least one event. New war trauma codes proposed include: widespread community fear, systematic destruction/burning of house or village, exposure to dead bodies, orphaned in the context of war, injury caused by a landmine, fear of Thai police or deportation from Thailand, and harm or killings in the context of war. New torture codes include: forced portering; forced to be a human landmine sweep; forced to be a soldier, including child soldier; forced contact with a dead body; and removal of the eyes. Karen refugees were able to report traumatic experiences in the context of a brief health screening. The findings confirm existing reports of human rights violations against Karen people and suggest that additional codes be added to the HURIDOCS Micro-thesauri system that is used by torture treatment centers. Understanding the nature of traumatic experiences of this group is important for health providers working

  13. Failure Mechanisms and Structural Optimization of Shredder Hammer for Metal Scraps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xianyan; HU Zhili; TAO Yijun; QIN Xunpeng; HUA Lin

    2016-01-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  14. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  15. STUDY ON OPERATING CHARACTERISTECS OF WATER HAMMER GENERATING DEVICE FOR TREATMENT OF MICROORGANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tatsuhisa; Endo, Shigekatsu; Oda, Akira; Shimizu, Yasushi

    The phenomenon that has been actualized due to the water quality deterioration because of the inflow of drainage and the industrial wastewater includes the phenomenon that is called water-bloom generated in the freshwater environment made a eutrophic. This is becoming a serious problem to secure the water.Mixing with the drinking water has already been confirmed, and the generation of water-bloom is becoming a big social problem, and fundamental measures have not been established yet.On the other hand, authors are proving the pressure to be a fast the pressure speed of the impact pressure by the water hammer and effective in the destruction of the blue-green algae.In this studies, the hydraulics flow characteristics of an effective water hammer pressure generator to the shredding of the water-bloom cell were examined.As a result, there was a boundary in the region where the water hammer was generated by length and the water supply head of conduit, and the water hammer pressure was able to be understood to be influenced according to the angle of the valve that generated the water hammer in addition in the water hammer generator.The demonstration in the locale was confirmed based on these and the scale etc. of an effective device to the doing water-bloom processing were able to be confirmed by continuous running.

  16. Preliminary psychometric properties of a measure of Karen Horney's Tridimensional theory in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Estey, Alisa J; Neuzil, Paula J

    2011-04-01

    This study established the psychometric properties of a child and adolescent version of the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI), which assesses psychoanalyst Karen Horney's theory of neurotic types. Parents of 302 children (ages 5 to 17 years; median age = 12.0 years) completed the new 45-item version of the HCTI and the Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory (CPNI) about their children. The three main scales (Compliance, Aggression, and Detachment) had good internal scale reliability and excellent test-retest reliability. Principal components analysis supported Horney's three dimensions and a six-component substructure. There was also sufficient construct validity with personality disorder scales from the CPNI with the three HCTI dimensions and their six components. The implications of the findings are discussed for Horneyan theory. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Karen Horney's "resigned person" heralds DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R J

    1993-01-01

    It is shown here that what Karen Horney called the resignation solution to the problem of basic anxiety leads to psychopathology very similar to DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both the "resigned person" and the borderline personality show instability of self-image, social relationships, and mood, and live out the associated deficits with similar styles. While not specifically using the term "splitting", Horney showed how alternating expansive and self-effacing trends can coexist in the resigned person, and how these oscillations in self-other-world constitution influence the resigned person's behavior in a way similar to borderline splitting. Horney's descriptive and psychodynamic analysis of the resignation phenomenon elaborates and gives additional credibility to DSM-III-R's BPD as a diagnostic category.

  18. Reasons patients leave their nearest healthcare service to attend Karen Park Clinic, Pretoria North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes T. Masango- Makgobela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many patients move from one healthcare provider or facility to another, disturbing the continuity that enhances holistic patient care.Objectives: To investigate the reasons given by patients for attending Karen Park Clinic rather than the clinic nearest to their homes.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during 2010. Three hundred and fifty patients attending Karen Park Clinic were given questionnaires to complete, with the following variables: place of residence; previous attendance at the clinic nearest their home; services available at their nearest clinic; and their willingness to attend their nearest clinic in future.Results: Respondents were from Soshanguve (153; 43.7%, Mabopane (92; 26.3%, Garankuwa (29; 8.3% and Hebron (20; 5.7% and most were women (271; 77.4% aged 26–45 (177; 50.6%. Eighty per cent (281 of the patients had visited their nearest clinic previously and 54 of these (19.2% said they would not return. The reasons for this were: long waiting time (88; 25.1%; long queues (84; 24%; rude staff (60; 17%; and no medication (39; 11.1%.Conclusion: The majority of patients who had attended their nearest clinic were adamant that they would not return. It is necessary to reduce waiting times, thus reducing long queues. This can be achieved by having adequate, satisfied healthcare providers to render a quality service and by organising training for management. Patients can thus be redirected to their nearest clinic and the health centre’s capacity can be increased by procuring adequate drugs. There is a need to follow up on patients’ complaints about staff attitudes.

  19. Sacred Spaces of Karen Refugees and Humanitarian Aid Across the Thailand-Burma Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I demonstrate that the Karen National Union (KNU was able to manipulate and politicise humanitarian aid in the Thailand-Burma borderland. I contend that in the context of the civil war in eastern Burma, Protestant Christianity provides a crucial vehicle for political mobilisation. The article shows that refugee camps in the Thai borderland become centres of proselytisation, and that Protestant evangelical and missionary networks open up passages across the Thai-Burmese border. The article thus considers a case where a homeland is constructed in the liminal space between two nations. Illegal emergency aid that doubles as missionary project reinforces the image of a helpless victim being vandalized by evil Burmese army. ----- Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie es der Karen National Union (KNU gelungen ist, die humanitäre Hilfe im Grenzgebiet zwischen Thailand und Burma für eigene Ziele zu manipulieren und zu politisieren. Ich argumentiere, dass das protestantische Christentum ein entscheidendes Vehikel zur politischen Mobilisierung im Kontext des Bürgerkriegs in Ost-Burma darstellt. Der Artikel zeigt, dass die Flüchtlingslager im thailändischen Grenzgebiet als Zentren der Missionierung dienen und dass die protestantisch-evangelikalen und missionarischen Netzwerke territoriale Korridore durch die thailändisch-burmesische Grenze öffnen. Wir sehen hier ein Fallbeispiel, wie eine imaginierte Nation in der Grenzerfahrung zweier Nationen konstruiert wird. Soforthilfe, die mit protestantischer Mission doppelt, verstärkt das Bild hilfloser Opfer, die von der burmesischen Armee vandalisiert werden.

  20. Food intake diet and sperm characteristics in a blue zone: a Loma Linda Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzylowska, Eliza M; Jacobson, John D; Bareh, Gihan M; Ko, Edmund Y; Corselli, Johannah U; Chan, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effect the life-long vegetarian diet on male fertility and focused on vegetarians living in the Loma Linda blue zone, a demographic area known for life longevity. The objective was to compare sperm characteristics of vegetarian with non-vegetarian males. The cross-sectional observational study was based on semen analyses of 474 males from 2009 to 2013. Patients categorized themselves as either life-long lacto-ovo vegetarians (N=26; vegetable diet with dairy and egg products), vegans (N=5; strictly vegetables with no animal products) or non-vegetarians (N=443; no diet restrictions). Sperm quality was assessed using a computer-aided sperm analyzer and strict morphology and chromatin integrity were manually evaluated. Lacto-ovo vegetarians had lower sperm concentration (50.7±7.4M/mL versus non-vegetarians 69.6±3.2M/mL, mean±S.E.M.). Total motility was lower in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups (33.2±3.8% and 51.8±13.4% respectively) versus non-vegetarians (58.2±1.0%). Vegans had lowest hyperactive motility (0.8±0.7% versus lacto-ovo 5.2±1.2 and non-vegetarians 4.8±0.3%). Sperm strict morphologies were similar for the 3 groups. There were no differences in rapid progression and chromatin integrity. The study showed that the vegetables-based food intake decreased sperm quality. In particular, a reduction in sperm quality in male factor patients would be clinically significant and would require review. Furthermore, inadequate sperm hyperactivation in vegans suggested compromised membrane calcium selective channels. However, the study results are cautiously interpreted and more corroborative studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving tobacco dependence education among the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.

  2. A Journey across Multidirectional Connections: Linda Grant’s The Cast Iron Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pellicer-Ortín

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous groups that have negotiated their fragmented identities through various literary practices in the last few decades, the Jewish collective has come to symbolize the epitome of diaspora and homelessness. In particular, British-Jewish writers have recently started to reconstruct their fragmented memories through writing. This is an extremely interesting phenomenon in the case of those Jewish women who are fiercely struggling to find some sense of personhood as Jewish, British, female, immigrant subjects. Linda Grant’s novel The Cast Iron Shore will be analyzed so as to unveil the narrative mechanisms through which many of the identity tensions experienced by contemporary Jewish women are exhibited. The different stages in the main character’s journey will be examined by drawing on theories on the construction of Jewish identity and femininity, and by applying the model of multidirectional memory fostered by various contemporary thinkers such as Michael Rothberg, Stef Craps, Max Silverman, and Bryan Cheyette. The main claim to be demonstrated is that this narration links the (histories of oppression and racism endured both by the Jewish and the Black communities in order to make the protagonist encounter the Other, develop her mature political self, and liberate her mind from rigid religious, patriarchal, and racial stereotypes. The Cast Iron Shore becomes, then, a successful attempt to demonstrate that the (histories of displacement endured by divergent communities during the twentieth century are connected, and it is the establishment of these connections that can help contemporary Jewish subjects to claim new notions of their personhood in the public sphere.

  3. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei Kou; Jieming Yang; Ziming Kou

    2016-01-01

    Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve) is proposed in this paper. The mathematic mode...

  4. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali A M Gad; Hassan I Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks’ simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is fed from a boundary head reservoir and loaded by either distributed or concentrated boundary water demands. According to both hydraulic and hydraulic plus water quality equivalence, three simplification levels are performed. The effect of demands’ concentration on the transient flow is checked. The transient flow is initialized by either concentrated or distributed boundary demands which are suddenly shut-off or released. WHAMO software is used for simulation. All scenarios showed that both hydraulic equivalence and demands’ concentration simplifications increase the transient pressure and flow rate. However, hydraulic plus water quality equivalence simplification produces an adverse effect. Therefore, simplifications of the networks should be done carefully. Also, it was found that pump shut-off gives the same trend of valve shut-off or release.

  5. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  6. Measurement and analysis of the water hammer in ram pump

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W SOBIESKI; D GRYGO; S LIPINSKI

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of the phenomena occurring in water ram during a single cycle of its operation. Apart from a brief introduction and description of the test stand and data recording system, the work includes a broad interpretation of the obtained results. Based on the pressure waveforms recorded in two characteristic zones of the device and its detailed analysis, the single cycle of waterram is divided into three main stages: acceleration, pumping, and backflow. The waveforms of phenomena in each of these steps were considered separately. In discussion, some of the issues were supported with additional measurements, including Fourier analysis of signals from the electronic pressure transducers. The main topic ofdiscussion based on the results recorded for the impulse valve, is supplemented by the comments that take into account the results obtained for the impulse valve (flap check valve) and for the others two (self-made) impulse valves. In the final part, in a graphic form presented is the interpretation of the phenomena occurring during one work cycle of water ram. The motivation of this work was to supplement the knowledge concerning the water hammer waveform in ram pump.

  7. Numerical and experimental investigations of water hammers in nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Messahel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear and petroleum industries, supply pipes are often exposed to high pressure loading which can cause to the structure high strains, plasticity and even, in the worst scenario, failure. Fast Hydraulic Transient phenomena such as Water Hammers (WHs are of this type. It generates a pressure wave that propagates in the pipe causing high stress. Such phenomena are of the order of few msecs and numerical simulation can offer a better understanding and an accurate evaluation of the dynamic complex phenomenon including fluid-structure interaction, multi-phase flow, cavitation … For the last decades, the modeling of phase change taking into account the cavitation effects has been at the centre of many industrial applications (chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, … and has a direct impact on the industry as it might cause damages to the installation (pumps, propellers, control valves, …. In this paper, numerical simulation using FSI algorithm and One-Fluid Cavitation models ("Cut-Off" and "HEM (Homogeneous Equilibrium Model Phase-Change" introduced by Saurel et al. [1] of WHs including cavitation effects is presented.

  8. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary

  9. An Analysis of the Impact of Valve Closure Time on the Course of Water Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodura, Apoloniusz

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of transient flow in pressure pipelines is very important for the designing and describing of pressure networks. The water hammer is the most common example of transient flow in pressure pipelines. During this phenomenon, the transformation of kinetic energy into pressure energy causes significant changes in pressure, which can lead to serious problems in the management of pressure networks. The phenomenon is very complex, and a large number of different factors influence its course. In the case of a water hammer caused by valve closing, the characteristic of gate closure is one of the most important factors. However, this factor is rarely investigated. In this paper, the results of physical experiments with water hammer in steel and PE pipelines are described and analyzed. For each water hammer, characteristics of pressure change and valve closing were recorded. The measurements were compared with the results of calculations perfomed by common methods used by engineers - Michaud's equation and Wood and Jones's method. The comparison revealed very significant differences between the results of calculations and the results of experiments. In addition, it was shown that, the characteristic of butterfly valve closure has a significant influence on water hammer, which should be taken into account in analyzing this phenomenon. Comparison of the results of experiments with the results of calculations? may lead to new, improved calculation methods and to new methods to describe transient flow.

  10. Analisa Pengaruh Water Hammer Terhadap Nilai Strees Pipa Pada Sistem Loading-Offloading PT.DABN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Adi Siswanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jalur pipa (pipeline merupakan media yang  digunakan sebagai alat transportasi fluida (cair atau gas, mixed of liquid, solid dan fluid-solid mixture. Ada beberapa tahap penting dalam siklus suatu jalur perpipaan yang digunakan sebagai alat transportasi minyak atau gas: desain, konstruksi, operasional dan pemeliharaan, dan terakhir perbaikan. Operasional merupakn proses kemungkinan terbesar terjadinya kegagalan pada suatu jalur perpipaan. Salah satu kegagalan yang mungkin terjadi adalah fenomena water hammaer. Water hammer adalah sebuah fenomena terjadinhya kenaiakan tekanan yang disebabkan oleh terhenti atau dihentikannya aliran di dalam pipa secara mendadak. Hal ini bisa disebabkan oleh operasional penutupan katup yang dilakukan secara tiba-tiba. Pada paper ini akan dijelaskan kajian mengenai pengaruh kenaikan tekanan yang terjadi karena adanya fenomena water hammer terhadap nilai tegangan jalur perpipaan di sisi discharge. Dari hasil perhitungan diketahui bahwa kenaikan tekanan akibat fenomena water hammer sangat mempengaruhi naiknya nilai tegangan pada pipa. Hasil analisa menunjukan bahwa tegangan yang terjadi ketika fenomena water hammer masih dapat diterima, tetapi kenaikan tekanan ketika terjadi fenomena water hammer melebihi dari batas yang diizinkan sehingga perlu dilakukan prosedur penutupan katup yang sesuai untuk menjaga agar pada saat dioperasionalkan pipa dalam kondisi aman.

  11. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  12. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  13. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  14. Increasing student diversity and cultural competence as part of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's service mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Margie R; Forde, Ron

    2012-06-01

    For many years, studies have identified a need for greater racial and ethnic diversity among dental professionals. However, the ability of the field to collectively address the problem has been hindered by the low numbers of underrepresented minority students who apply to dental school. Over the past two decades, college attendance rates have increased and U.S. dental school applications have tripled, but the number of underrepresented minority dental applicants has remained about the same. With the increasing diversity of the U.S. population and specifically that of the state of California, the dental workforce would be enhanced by the presence of more underrepresented minority dentists. Additionally, curricular changes should be implemented to better prepare dental students to meet the oral health care needs of diverse populations. There is general agreement that these workforce and curricular changes would enhance access to care for underserved populations. For seven years, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry participated in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program. The first phase of this national program addressed deficiencies in diversity in dentistry and in access to oral health care. In the second phase, Loma Linda University continued to collaborate with other California dental schools on specific state initiatives. This article provides an overview of the school's efforts to enroll a more diverse student body, enhance all its students' cultural competence, and expand care to underserved populations.

  15. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) (``Hand Tools'') from the People's... & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

  16. Water hammer in coarse-grained solid-liquid flows in hydraulic hoisting for ocean mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文亮; 王光谦; 吴保生; 刘少军; 邹伟生

    2002-01-01

    The particles of polymetallic nodules in hydraulic hoisting flows that are used for mining in deep sea are rather coarse, therefore their flow velocity is smaller than that of the surrounding water. The characteristics of solid-liquid flows such as their density, concentration, elastic modulus and resistance were discussed. The wave propagation speed and the continuity and momentum equations of water hammer in coarse-grained solid-liquid flows were theoretically derived, and a water hammer model for such flows was developed.

  17. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  18. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve is proposed in this paper. The mathematic model of water hammer fluctuations is established based on the characteristic line method. Then, boundary conditions of water hammer controlling for mine drainage system are determined and its simplex model is established. The optimization adjustment strategy is solved from the mathematic model of multistage valve-closing. Taking a mine drainage system as an example, compared results between simulations and experiments show that the proposed method and the optimized valve-closing strategy are effective.

  19. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  20. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  1. Flux Vector Splitting Schemes for Water Hammer Flows in Pumping Supply Systems with Air Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Sun; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Tae Uk Jang

    2015-01-01

    To solve water hammer problems in pipeline systems, many numerical simulation approaches have been developed. This paper improves a flux vector splitting ( FVS) scheme whose grid is the same as the fixed⁃grid MOC scheme. The proposed FVS scheme is used to analyze water hammer problems caused by a pump abrupt shutdown in a pumping system with an air vessel. This paper also proposes a pump⁃valve⁃vessel model combining a pump⁃valve model with an air vessel model. The results show that the data obtained by the FVS scheme are similar to the ones obtained by the fixed⁃grid method of characteristics ( MOC ) . And the results using the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model are almost the same as the ones using both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model. Therefore, it is effective that the proposed FVS scheme is used to solve water hammer problems and the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model replaces both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model to simulate water hammer flows in the pumping system with the air vessel.

  2. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  3. Modeling and Experimental Validation for Hammer-Driven Type Penetrators under Horizontal Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a method used to analyze the motion of hammer-driven type penetrators and built a testbed for validating the result of structure optimization of the penetrator in deep space exploration. This method gave a clear understanding of the working principle of the penetrator. The penetrator mainly comprises five components: hammer element, suppressor element, housing element, brake spring, and force spring. Based on the structure of the penetrator, the maximum forward movement of housing element was chosen as optimal object. In order to describe the working process clearly and properly, the working stroke was divided into three phases: unlocking phase, colliding phase, and penetrating phase. In each phase, the displacement and velocity of hammer element, suppressor element, and housing element were described with equation sets when numerically solved. Then, the corresponding parameters of the penetrator were obtained in the testbed with high-speed camera. At last, comparing the parameters obtained by theoretical analysis with that obtained by experiment test with high-speed camera, the perfect ratio of mass element (hammer element, suppressor element, and housing element and perfect ratio of stiffness of spring element (brake spring and force spring were obtained.

  4. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  5. Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Brice

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.

  6. Idealism on ainus tarkus, mis maailma veel jäänud on / Linda-Mari Väli ; intervjueerinud Johanna Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väli, Linda-Mari, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Linda-Mari Väli alustas luuletustega, nüüdseks on ilmunud proosat ja romaan "Eikeegi, eikunagi, eiskusagil". Tema tekstides väljendub mure inimeste ja loomade tuleviku pärast, et kaasaegses kirjanduses on vähe idealismi

  7. Idealism on ainus tarkus, mis maailma veel jäänud on / Linda-Mari Väli ; intervjueerinud Johanna Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väli, Linda-Mari, 1988-

    2010-01-01

    Linda-Mari Väli alustas luuletustega, nüüdseks on ilmunud proosat ja romaan "Eikeegi, eikunagi, eiskusagil". Tema tekstides väljendub mure inimeste ja loomade tuleviku pärast, et kaasaegses kirjanduses on vähe idealismi

  8. Estimation on separation efficiency of aluminum from base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp in hammer crusher unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate aluminum from the base-cap of spent fluorescent lamp (SFL), the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit is estimated by introducing a binary separation theory. The base-cap of SFL is composed by glass fragment, binder, ferrous metal, copper and aluminum. The hammer crusher unit to recover aluminum from the base-cap consists of 3stages of hammer crusher, magnetic separator and vibrating screen. The optimal conditions of rotating speed and operating time in the hammer crusher unit are decided at each stage. At the optimal conditions, the aluminum yield and the separation efficiency of hammer crusher unit are estimated by applying a sequential binary separation theory at each stage. And the separation efficiency between hammer crusher unit and roll crush system is compared to show the performance of aluminum recovery from the base-cap of SFL. Since the separation efficiency can be increased to 99% at stage 3, from the experimental results, it is found that aluminum from the base-cap can be sufficiently recovered by the hammer crusher unit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Household ecology and out-migration among ethnic Karen along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local migration in developing-world settings, particularly among rural populations, is an important yet understudied demographic process. Research on migration in such populations can help us test and inform anthropological and demographic theory. Furthermore, it can lead to a better understanding of modern population distributions and epidemiologic landscapes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between household- and individual-level factors on out-migration among Karen villagers along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: We used a random effects hazard model to investigate the relationship of household consumer-producer (C/P ratios, the number of household members, and an individual's sex on the odds of outmigration. We then used simulations in order to test the sensitivity of our model to our C/P ratio weighting scheme. Results: We found that the number of household members is predictive of increased out-migration. Household C/P ratios were positively associated with out-migration in children but negatively associated with out-migration in working age adults. Finally, adult males were much more likely to move out of the household than were adult females. Conclusions: While household-level factors are important with regard to out-migration, the relationships between such household-level factors and out-migration are complex and vary by the individual's age and sex. Our study offers two novel concepts to household demography and migration studies. First, this study offers a new approach to evaluating weighting schemes for C/P ratios. Second, we show that household level factors are important at units of time (two-week intervals that are not normally studied by demographers.

  10. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  11. Auto-Gopher-II: an autonomous wireline rotary-hammer ultrasonic drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Jackson, Shannon; Chesin, Jacob; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale L.; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Kim, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Developing technologies that would enable future NASA exploration missions to penetrate deeper into the subsurface of planetary bodies for sample collection is of great importance. Performing these tasks while using minimal mass/volume systems and with low energy consumption is another set of requirements imposed on such technologies. A deep drill, called Auto-Gopher II, is currently being developed as a joint effort between JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher II is a wireline rotary-hammer drill that combines formation breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted auger bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) mechanism that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform high frequency vibrations of a piezoelectric transducer horn tip into sonic hammering of the drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher and then integrated into a rotary hammer device to develop the Auto-Gopher-I. The lessons learned from these developments are being integrated into the development of the Auto- Gopher-II, an autonomous deep wireline drill with integrated cuttings and sample management and drive electronics. Subsystems of the wireline drill are being developed in parallel at JPL and Honeybee Robotics Ltd. This paper presents the development efforts of the piezoelectric actuator, cuttings removal and retention flutes and drive electronics.

  12. Analysis Methods and Protection Measures of Water Hammer%水击分析方法及保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立婉; 高永强; 万宇飞

    2014-01-01

    Reliable water hammer protection measures are of great significance to close-line transportation safety. In this paper, the water hammer analysis method and its research status at home and abroad were summarized; meanwhile the water hammer protection measures were listed.%可靠的水击安全保护措施对密闭输送管道的安全性具有重要意义。对水击分析方法以及国内外研究现状进行概述,同时总结了管道输送过程中的水击保护措施。

  13. Knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Prissana Naunboonruang,1 Piyatida Junlapeeya,1 Apiradee Payaprom31Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: The double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD is an increasing trend in low- and-middle income developing countries. Rural and minority populations are underserved and likely to be affected severely by these burdens. Knowledge among young people could provide immunity to such diseases within a community in the long term. In this study we aimed to assess the knowledge of several highly prevalent NCDs (diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and several highly incident communicable diseases (malaria and diarrheal diseases among Karen high school students in a rural district in far northwest of Thailand. The aim of the study is to explore information for devising life-course health education that will be strategically based in schools.Method: A cross-sectional survey approved by the ethics committee of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand was conducted in Thasongyang, Tak province, from September 2011 to January 2012. Questionnaires for assessing knowledge regarding diabetes, hypertension, COPD, malaria, and diarrheal diseases were delivered to all 457 Karen high school students attending Thasongyang high school. A total of 371 students returned the questionnaires. Experts' validation and split-half reliability assessment was applied to the instrument.Results: Students' main sources of health information were their teachers (62%, health care workers (60%, television (59%, and parents (54%. Familial risk factors of diabetes and hypertension were not known to more than two thirds of the students. Except obesity and physical

  14. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-liang ZHANG; Ming-fei MIAO; Ji-ming MA

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock,and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock.Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure.The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics.There is agreement between them.The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  15. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang ZHANG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock, and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock. Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure. The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics. There is agreement between them. The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  16. Development and validation of the water hammer program DYVRO Mod.3; Entwicklung und Validierung des Druckstossprogramms DYVRO Mod. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas; Ronneberger, Rolf [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Altstadt, Eberhard [Forschungszentrum Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung (IFS)

    2008-07-01

    Water hammer events in piping systems develop in case of a sudden opening or closure of armatures, changes or pump rotation speeds or as consequence of pipe breaks. The propagation speed of pressure waves depend on the properties of the fluid (compressibility, density) and the mechanical properties (Young modulus, Poisson ratio) and geometry of the piping system. Water hammer effects induce very often damage of the piping and the pipe mountings. The TUeV Nord Sys Tec GmBH and Co KG has developed and qualified the water hammer program DYVRO for two-phase fluids. The contribution covers the improved version of the program DYVRO Mod3. The validation of the calculation procedure includes the Simpson experiment and experiments at the cold water hammer test facility CWHTF in Rossendorf with and without vapor lock.

  17. Molecular characterization of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin in the Karen people of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachoo, Objoon; Sura, Thanyachai; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Krudsood, Srivicha; Phimpraphi, Waraphon; Krasaesub, Somporn; Chanjarunee, Suporn; Looareesuwan, Sornchai

    2003-05-01

    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is the condition whereby a continuously active gamma-globin gene expression leads to elevated fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels in adult life [Stamatoyannopoulos G, Grosveld F. Hemoglobin switching. In: Stamatoyannopoulos G, Majerus PW, Perlmutter RM, Varmus H, eds. The Molecular Basis of Blood Diseases. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2001:135-182; Wood WG. Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and delta(beta) thalassemia. In: Steinberg MH, Forget BG, Higgs DR, Nagel RL, eds. Disorders of Hemoglobin: Genetics, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001:356-388; and Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB. Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. In: Weatherall DJ, Clegg JB, eds. The Thalassaemia Syndromes. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publishers, 1981:450-507]. The condition is caused either by mutation of the beta- and gamma-globin genes, or the gamma-gene controlled region on other chromosomes. Several families with this condition have been reported from Vietnam, Cambodia and China, and the Southeast Asian mutation (or HPFH-6), a 27 kb deletion, was demonstrated. Here we report on a mother and her daughter of the Karen ethnic group with high levels of Hb F, living in the Suan Pueng District on the border of Thailand and Myanmar. Genotyping showed a heterozygosity for the 27 kb deletion of the beta-globin gene. Their conditions have been confirmed by gap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three oligonucleotide primers recently developed by Xu et al. [Xu X-M, Li Z-Q, Liu Z-Y, Zhong X-L, Zhao Y-Z, Mo Q-H. Molecular characterization and PCR detection of a deletional HPFH: application to rapid prenatal diagnosis for compound heterozygotes of this defect with beta-thalassemia in a Chinese family. Am J Hematol 2000; 65:183-188.], and a DNA sequencing method. Thus far there has been no official report of the HPFH-6 anomaly from Thailand. The compound heterozygosity of beta-thalassemia (thal

  18. 管道水击压力的影响因素%Influence factors of water hammer pressure in pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳玲

    2015-01-01

    本文综合分析了流速变化和阀门的不同关闭特性对管道水击压力的影响,从而为水击防护措施提供了一定的理论依据。%This paper reviews the influence of flow-rate change and valve closing characteristics on water hammer pressure in pipeline to provide a theoretical basis for water hammer protection.

  19. Determination of variables for air distribution system with elastic valve for down-the-hole pneumatic hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primychkin, AYu; Kondratenko, AS; Timonin, VV

    2017-02-01

    The air distribution system of down-the-hole pneumatic hammer 105 mm in diameter is updated to enhance drilling efficiency. The design model of the down-the-hole pneumatic hammer is constructed in ITI SimulationX environment. The basic variables of the air distribution system with an elastic valve are determined so that to ensure increased impact energy at the limited pre-impact velocity and the same machine size.

  20. A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.

  1. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud’s Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ciapetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud’s phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the “gold standard” imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud’s phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  2. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; SU Guanghui; WANG Gaopeng; QIU Suizheng; XIAO Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach.

  3. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud's Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Di Carlo, Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud's phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the "gold standard" imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs) and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud's phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  4. Fatigue behaviour of welded joints treated by high frequency hammer peening: Part 1 , experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    LE QUILLIEC, Guenhael; LIEURADE, Henri Paul; BOUSSEAU, Marc; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; INGLEBERT, Geneviève; MACQUET, Pascal; JUBIN, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    High frequency hammer peening is a recent improvement method which is probably one of the most effective for treating welded assemblies. A number of experimental results relating to this process are presented in this article. These results lead to better understand the mechanisms of the process, to outline the influence of the operating parameters and to confirm the role played by the initial quality of the welds. In the long run, the aim of this study is to propose an industrially applicable...

  5. Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Joints Treated by High Frequency Hammer Peening: Part I , Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    LE QUILLIEC, Guenhael; Lieurade, Henri-Paul; BOUSSEAU, Marc; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; INGLEBERT, Geneviève; MACQUET, Pascal; JUBIN, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    International audience; High frequency hammer peening is a recent improvement method which is probably one of the most effective for treating welded assemblies. A number of experimental results relating to this process are presented in this article. These results lead to better understand the mechanisms of the process, to outline the influence of the operating parameters and to confirm the role played by the initial quality of the welds. In the long run, the aim of this study is to propose an...

  6. Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara M. Brice; Kevin F. Ness; Doug Rosemond

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method that would facilitate immediate feedback on linear hammer speed during training. Methods:Three-dimensional hammer head positional data were measured and used to calculate linear speed (calculated speed) and cable force. These data were used to develop two linear regression models (shifted and non-shifted) that would allow prediction of hammer speed from measured cable force data (predicted speed). The accuracy of the two models was assessed by comparing the predicted and calculated speeds. Averages of the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean square (RMS) of the difference between the predicted and calculated speeds for each throw of each participant were used to assess the level of accuracy of the predicted speeds. Results:Both regression models had high CMC values (0.96 and 0.97) and relatively low RMS values (1.27 m/s and 1.05 m/s) for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. In addition, the average percentage differences between the predicted and calculated speeds were 6.6%and 4.7%for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. The RMS differences between release speeds attained via the two regression models and those attained via three-dimensional positional data were also computed. The RMS differences between the predicted and calculated release speeds were 0.69 m/s and 0.46 m/s for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. Conclusion:This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.

  7. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Besharat; Maria Teresa Viseu; Helena M. Ramos

    2017-01-01

    An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP), confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV), has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH) events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water ...

  8. Auto-Gopher: A Wire-Line Rotary-Hammer Ultrasonic Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaogi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chen, Beck

    2011-01-01

    Developing technologies that would enable NASA to sample rock, soil, and ice by coring, drilling or abrading at a significant depth is of great importance for a large number of in-situ exploration missions as well as for earth applications. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for records of past and present life on the planet, as well as, the search for water and other resources. A deep corer, called Auto-Gopher, is currently being developed as a joint effort of the JPL's NDEAA laboratory and Honeybee Robotics Corp. The Auto-Gopher is a wire-line rotary-hammer drill that combines rock breaking by hammering using an ultrasonic actuator and cuttings removal by rotating a fluted bit. The hammering mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) that has been developed as an adaptable tool for many of drilling and coring applications. The USDC uses an intermediate free-flying mass to transform the high frequency vibrations of the horn tip into a sonic hammering of a drill bit. The USDC concept was used in a previous task to develop an Ultrasonic/Sonic Ice Gopher. The lessons learned from testing the ice gopher were implemented into the design of the Auto-Gopher by inducing a rotary motion onto the fluted coring bit. A wire-line version of such a system would allow penetration of significant depth without a large increase in mass. A laboratory version of the corer was developed in the NDEAA lab to determine the design and drive parameters of the integrated system. The design configuration lab version of the design and fabrication and preliminary testing results are presented in this paper

  9. Water hammer, flow induced vibration and safety/relief valve loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valandani, P.; Uffer, R.; Sexton, D.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation performed to determine current and recommended practices regarding the consideration of water hammer, flow-induced vibration and safety-relief valve loads in the design of nuclear power plant piping systems. Current practices were determined by a survey of industry experts. Recommended practices were determined by evaluating factors such as load magnitude and frequency content, system susceptibility to load occurrence and safety effects of postulated piping damage.

  10. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Roth, M. [Center of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Horch, R.E. [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  11. Evaluating Performance of Water Hammer Control Equipment using Hytran Software in Hasanlu Dam Pumping Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nazari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady flows start from a steady state and end the other steady state condition. In water lines unsteady flows occur mainly due to the closure of valves, sudden pumps stops or sudden pumps starts. To prevent these losses, the major ways which can be used are pressure valves, air tanks and surge tanks. All various methods of controlling water hammer pursue a common goal, and that is to balance pressure from water hammer to adjust the pressure in an acceptable range in the network. In this paper, unsteady hydraulic flow control methods include protective measures such as the use of check valve and installation of air valves, air chambers and surge tanks are investigated and compared. And so that the1400 mm existing pipe line of Hasanlu dam pump station, can be simulated using Hytran software, and then minimum and maximum pressure due to the different choking in the throat connecting the main route was evaluated. The results presented that the use of check valve with built-in soft starter in the present case study reduces the positive and negative pressure caused by the water hammer phenomenon as possible value.

  12. Research on Pipeline Water Hammer%输油管道瞬变水击研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昭洋

    2015-01-01

    Based on the reasons of generating the water hammer in the pipeline running, effects of the water hammer on the upstream and downstream flow were respectively analyzed from the aspects of wave supercharging and wave decompressing. Several measures to reduce water hammer pressure hazards were outlined, such as regulating valve protection, pressure protection system and enhancing the ability of automatic control system protection. So it is very important to take effective line pressure protection system for the safe operation of the pipeline.%针对输油管道瞬变水击产生的原因,从所产生的增压波和减压波分别对上下游流动的影响两方面分析了水击对输油管路带来的危害,并结合调节阀保护、压力保护系统与增强自动控制系统保护能力等简述了减小水击压力对管道危害的几种措施,得出采取有效的管路压力保护系统对输油管道安全运行具有重要意义。

  13. THEORETICAL,NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WATER HAMMER IN PIPE SYSTEM WITH COLUMN SURGE CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ze-xuan; Tan Soon Keat

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of governing equations for water hammer based on the elastic column theory was proposed and adopted to analyse water hammer phenomenon in the pipe system with a vertical column surge chamber and water level fluctuation in the surge chamber during pressure transient. The wrongness existing in the classical governing equations for water hammer was analysed. A typical reservoir-valve pipe system was chosen as an example to verify the new governing equations numerically and experimentally. The finite difference method based on the method of characteristics was used to solve numerically the nonlinear characteristic equations. The temporal evolutions of transient volume flux and head and of water level fluctuation for various surge chamber configurations were worked out, assuming that the air in the surge chamber are compressible. The relevant experiment was conducted to verify the new governing equations and numerical method. The numerical and experimental results show that the new governing equations are valid and the conventional assumption that the pressure head at the base of a surge chamber equals that of the static head above it during pressure transient is not always valid. The surge chamber generally reises the period of transient pressure wave in pipe system, reduces the maximum pressure envelope and lifts the minimum envelope substantially. The water level fluctuation in the surge chamber was numerically and experimentally observed. Increasing the size of the surge chamber and/or decreasing the initial air pressure in the surge chamber enhance the effectiveness of the surge chamber in suppressing pressure wave.

  14. [Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Hrsg. von Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen] / Volker Honemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Honemann, Volker, 1943-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Hrsg. von Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Verlag Ashgate. Farnham, 2011

  15. [Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Hrsg. von Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen] / Volker Honemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Honemann, Volker, 1943-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia. Hrsg. von Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Verlag Ashgate. Farnham, 2011

  16. The Armenian minister for trade and economic development Karen Chshmaritian, visited CERN on 4 July and toured the ATLAS experimental cavern and assembly hall

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Armenian Minister for Trade and Economic Development, K. Chshmaritian third from right with from left to right : Aram Kotzinian, JINR, Dubna; Dr Marzio Nessi, ATLAS, Zohrad Mnatsakanian, Ambassador at the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Armenia in Geneva, Karen Chshmaritian, Armenian Minister for Trade and Economic Development, Alexey Sissakian, Vice-Director of JINR and Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson.

  17. Applicability of computer-aided comprehensive tool (LINDA: LINeament Detection and Analysis) and shaded digital elevation model for characterizing and interpreting morphotectonic features from lineaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa; Koike, Katsuaki

    2017-09-01

    Detection and analysis of linear features related to surface and subsurface structures have been deemed necessary in natural resource exploration and earth surface instability assessment. Subjectivity in choosing control parameters required in conventional methods of lineament detection may cause unreliable results. To reduce this ambiguity, we developed LINDA (LINeament Detection and Analysis), an integrated tool with graphical user interface in Visual Basic. This tool automates processes of detection and analysis of linear features from grid data of topography (digital elevation model; DEM), gravity and magnetic surfaces, as well as data from remote sensing imagery. A simple interface with five display windows forms a user-friendly interactive environment. The interface facilitates grid data shading, detection and grouping of segments, lineament analyses for calculating strike and dip and estimating fault type, and interactive viewing of lineament geometry. Density maps of the center and intersection points of linear features (segments and lineaments) are also included. A systematic analysis of test DEMs and Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery datasets in the North and South Eastern Deserts of Egypt is implemented to demonstrate the capability of LINDA and correct use of its functions. Linear features from the DEM are superior to those from the imagery in terms of frequency, but both linear features agree with location and direction of V-shaped valleys and dykes and reference fault data. Through the case studies, LINDA applicability is demonstrated to highlight dominant structural trends, which can aid understanding of geodynamic frameworks in any region.

  18. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  19. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Kluck, Marius; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2009-07-01

    Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods from intertidal zones on islands in the Andaman Sea. Our report is the first scientific investigation to look at the stone tools used by these macaques. We observed they were skilled tool users and used stone tools daily. They selected tools with differing qualities for differing food items, and appeared to use at least two types of stone tools. Pounding hammers were used to crush shellfish and nuts on anvils and axe hammers were used to pick or chip at oysters attached to boulders or trees. We found significant physical differences between these two tools. Tools at oyster beds were smaller and exhibited scarring patterns focused more often on the points, whereas tools found at anvils were larger and showed more scarring on the broader surfaces. We also observed grip differences between the two tool types. Lastly, macaques struck targets with axe hammers more rapidly and over a wider range of motion than with pounding hammers. Both our behavioral and lithic data support that axe hammers might be used with greater control and precision than pounding hammers. Hand-sized axe hammers were used for controlled chipping to crack attached oysters, and larger pounding hammers were used to crush nuts and unattached shellfish on anvils. In addition to stones, they also used hand-sized auger shells (Turritella attenuata) as picks to axe attached oysters. Pound hammering appears similar to the stone tools used by chimpanzees and capuchins, but axe hammering has not yet been documented in other nonhuman primates in natural conditions.

  20. [Adam hammer (1818 - 1878) - remarks on a forgotten pioneer of ether anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, M; Streckfuss, W

    2004-05-01

    Adam Hammer, born in 1818, and working as a doctor for the poor since 1847 in Mannheim, was the first person in the German speaking world to use ether for pain relief during labor on February 18th 1847. He took part in the abortive April 1848 Revolution in Mannheim - a pinnacle of German liberalism and later of political radicalism, which attented to abolish the Monarchy and introduce a democratic Republic. After the revolution was put down, Hammer emigrated to the United States and settled down in St. Louis, Missouri. Remaining politically active, he joined the Republican Party, founded in 1854 and served as a military surgeon in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Even before the war, he was engaged in efforts to improve the level of medical training in America and was involved with the foundation of High Schools which offered training courses along the lines of German universities. His ideas and innovations were not introduced immediately, but had a significant impact on medical training methology later on in the US. During a visit in Europe in 1876, he was the first to diagnose a coronary thombosis as the cause of a heart attack on a live patient. The diagnosis was later confirmed by post-morten autopsy on the patient. In 1877 he returned to Germany and died one year later. The biography of Adam Hammer mirrows that of many other German-Americans whose emigration proved to be a gain for America but a loss for Germany. This story was destinated to be repeated in terrible circumstances some decades later.

  1. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  2. ANALYSIS OF STATE-CHANGING WATER HAMMER IN A LONG PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-ming; WANG Zheng-jun; YANG Ke

    2004-01-01

    Pressure wave propagation along a pipe attached with an active pressure-controlling system at an end was described by an unsteady state-changing motion of the pressure wave fronts, in order to study the interaction among successive waves caused by successive controlling spillovers with the consideration of liquid compressibility due to high head. A model for water hammer propagation was established by using the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The influence of the wave interactions on the pressure suppression was analyzed. Testing verifications were conducted with a 2575m length and 776m head penstock in hydro-power station. The computed results are in good agrement with the tested ones.

  3. Hammer head beam solution for beam-to-column joints in seismic resistant building frames

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on an innovative stiffened extended end-plate joint, used to connect I-shaped beams to partially-encased composite wide flange columns. In the joint, T-shaped hammer heads cut from the same I-profiles than the beams are used, instead of using traditional haunches. At the joint level, the column web is strengthened by two lateral plates welded to the column flanges; these plates also reinforce the column flanges. This type of joint is proposed to use in the seism...

  4. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  5. A new approach for evaluating water hammer including the initial state of pressurization of the installation and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaless

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water hammer phenomenon is well known since the 19th century, while its mathematical formulation, by means of differential equations, is due to works of researchers such us Allievi (1903 and others from the beginning of the 20th century. The equations found in the technical publications produce a strange water hammer when the initial condition is defined assuming an incompressible fluid and a rigid pipe. The correct solution requires solving the water hammer equations for the initial state. When the finite difference method is applied, the initial state is solved by means of a set of non-linear equations. A novel approach is proposed including the initial state of pressurization into the governing equations and hence simplifying the calculus of the initial conditions. Furthermore, a critical reading of the deduction of the equations is done pointing out conceptual inconsistencies and proposing corrections.

  6. 喷灌系统水锤及其防护%Water Hammer and It's Prevention in Sprinkling Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 冯卫民

    2001-01-01

    This paper expounds some sorts of water hammer in sprinklingirrigation system, base theory and method for water hammer analysis, and boundary condition of spray nozzle and complicate pipe network. Through example, this paper point out that when we design a sprinkling irrigation system, we must analyze water hammer in pipe network and adopt rational preventional measure according to actual situation.%本文阐述了喷灌系统水锤的分类及其数值模拟的基本理论和方法,介绍了几种适用的水锤防护技术。结合实例说明:在喷灌系统的设计阶段必须进行水锤的数值模拟和定量分析,并根据实际情况选择合理的水锤防护措施。

  7. Comparison of Amplitudes and Frequencies of Explosive vs. Hammer Seismic Sources for a 1-km Seismic Line in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaip, G.; Harder, S. H.; Karplus, M. S.; Vennemann, A.

    2016-12-01

    In May 2016, the National Seismic Source Facility (NSSF) located at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) Department of Geological Sciences collected seismic data at the Indio Ranch located 30 km southwest of Van Horn, Texas. Both hammer on an aluminum plate and explosive sources were used. The project objective was to image subsurface structures at the ranch, owned by UTEP. Selecting the appropriate seismic source is important to reach project objectives. We compare seismic sources between explosions and hammer on plate, focusing on amplitude and frequency. The seismic line was 1 km long, trending WSW to ENE, with 200 4.5 Hz geophones at 5m spacing and shot locations at 10m spacing. Clay slurry was used in shot holes to increase shot coupling around booster. Trojan Spartan cast boosters (150g) were used in explosive sources in each shot hole (1 hole per station). The end of line shots had 5 shot holes instead of 1 (750g total). The hammer source utilized a 5.5 kg hammer and an aluminum plate. Five hammer blows were stacked at each location to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Explosive sources yield higher amplitude, but lower frequency content. The explosions exhibit a higher signal-to-noise ratio, allowing us to recognize seismic energy deeper and farther from the source. Hammer sources yield higher frequencies, allowing better resolution at shallower depths but have a lower signal-to-noise ratio and lower amplitudes, even with source stacking. We analyze the details of the shot spectra from the different types of sources. A combination of source types can improve data resolution and amplitude, thereby improving imaging potential. However, cost, logistics, and complexities also have a large influence on source selection.

  8. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  9. Studi Numerik Variasi Pemilihan Gas Accumulator Untuk Pencegahan Water Hammer Pada Sistem Perpipaan Sepanjang 1 Kilometer dan Debit Aliran 800 GPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindika Bagus Pradana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem jaringan perpipaan sangat penting dalam menunjang produksi pada bidang industri. Jaringan perpipaan mengalami beberapa fenomena seperti distribusi fluida dan water hammer. Water hammer sering terjadi di daerah discharge pompa saat pengoperasian dan gagalnya beroperasinya pompa. Water hammer dapat merusak jaringan perpipaan. Fenomena water hammer dapat terjadi hampir di setiap sistem instalasi perpipaan. Fenomena ini mempunyai dampak buruk apabila sistem perpipaan tersebut tidak memperhatikan akibat dari water hammer. Fenomena dalam sistem perpipaan mempunyai dampak negatif dengan selang waktu tertentu, water hammer adalah fenomena dimana dampak yang ditimbulkan terjadi seketika itu juga. Penanggulangan yang tidak tepat terhadap dampak tersebut dapat mengakibatkan instalasi tersebut harus dimatikan (shutdown. Pada simulasi ini digunakan sistem instalasi perpipaan dengan panjang 1 kilometer dan debit aliran 800 gpm.Pada sistem instalasi ini memiliki rangkaian pompa tunggal yang dilengkapi dengan gas accumulator di sisi discharge pompa. Ketika terjadi perubahan flow rate yang menyebabkan pompa beroprasi atau gagal beroprasi akan menimbulkan fenomena water hammer.Penelitian dilakukan secara numerik menggunakan software AFT Impulse 4.0. Water hammer dapat diminimalisi dengan memasang gas accumulator pada daerah dekat discharge pompa. Variasi gas accumulator adalah gas accumulator merk NOK tipe AT 175-20 dengan volume maksimum 20 liter, tipe AT 210-60 dengan volume maksimum 60 liter dan tipe AT 230-120 dengan volume maksimum 100 liter. Hasil yang didapatkan pada simulasi menunjukan pada jarak 4 meter dari rumah pompa masing-masing P max dan P min  untuk sistem perpipaan dengan simulasi proses trip pompa tanpa proteksi water hammer adalah 1729 Kpa dan 381 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 20 liter adalah 1228 Kpa dan 927 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 60 liter adalah 1161 Kpa

  10. A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group

    2012-02-15

    Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

  11. Assessment of water hammer effects on boiling water nuclear reactor core dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousbia-Salah Anis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena, as water hammer transients, occurring in nuclear power plants are still not very well investigated by the current best estimate computational tools. Within this frame work, a rapid positive reactivity addition into the core generated by a water hammer transient is considered. The numerical simulation of such phenomena was carried out using the coupled RELAP5/PARCS code. An over all data comparison shows good agreement between the calculated and measured core pressure wave trends. However, the predicted power response during the excursion phase did not correctly match the experimental tendency. Because of this, sensitivity studies have been carried out in order to identify the most influential parameters that govern the dynamics of the power excursion. After investigating the pressure wave amplitude and the void feed back responses, it was found that the disagreement between the calculated and measured data occurs mainly due to the RELAP5 low void condensation rate which seems to be questionable during rapid transients. .

  12. Analysis on shock wave speed of water hammer of lifting pipes for deep-sea mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-jin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  13. Analysis on Shock Wave Speed of Water Hammer of Lifting Pipes for Deep-Sea Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-jin; YANG Ning; WANG Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes.In this work,the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods,and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation.As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed,the experiment results about the pressure-time history,discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that:as its concentrations rose up,the maximum transient pressure went down,so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually,the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less,and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased.These results have highly coincided with simulation results.The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences,such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  14. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion ...

  15. Performance Study of a Fluidic Hammer Controlled by an Output-Fed Bistable Fluidic Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a no-moving-component output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator to control fluid flows into a parallel path has been recognized for a considerable time, but as yet it is not so widely adopted as its obvious benefits would deserve. This may be attributed to the encountered problems associated with its jet behavior, complicated by its loading characteristics. In order to investigate a typical case for the application of the output-fed fluidic oscillator, this paper elaborates on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation method for studying the performance of a fluidic hammer controlled by an output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator. Given that couple mechanism exists between the flow field in the fluidic oscillator and the impact body, dynamic mesh technique and a user-defined function written in C programming language were used to update the mesh in the simulations. In terms of the evaluation of performance, the focus is on the single-impact energy and output power of the fluidic hammer in this study, to investigate the effect of different parameters of the impact body on them. Experimental tests based on the noncontact measuring method were conducted to verify the simulation results, by which the accuracy and reliability of this CFD simulation method was proved.

  16. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster , D; Medrano Llamas, R; Legger , F; Sciaba, A; Sciacca, G; Ubeda Garca , M

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion p...

  17. Study of Concrete Quality Assessment of Structural Elements Using Rebound Hammer Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Gehlot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Structures are assemblies of load carrying members capable of safely transferring the superimposed loads to the foundations. Their main and most looked after property is the strength of the material that they are made of. Concrete, as we all know, is an integral material used for construction purposes. The concept of nondestructive testing (NDT is to obtain material properties of in place specimens without the destruction of neither the specimen nor the structure from which it is taken. However, one problem that has been prevalent within the concrete industry for years is that the true properties of an in-place specimen have never been tested without leaving a certain degree of damage on the structure. . The investigation reported here is to present study of Calibration Graphs for Non Destructive Testing Equipment, the Rebound Hammer and to study the quality of the concrete in existing structures. These Rebound Hammer Test were then used to test the quality of the concrete of the various structural elements (columns & beams of single storied newly under constructed building of TPO office of MBM Engineering College Jodhpur. The use of this method produces results that lie close to the true values when compared with other methods A correlation between rebound number and strength of concrete structure is established, which can be used as well for strength estimation of concrete structures. The method can be extended to test existing structures by taking direct measurements on concrete elements

  18. Assis, Machado de. Ressurrection by Machado de Assis. Trad. Karen Sherwood Sotelino. Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press, 2013. 162 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Beatrice Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resenha crítica da primeira e única tradução para o inglês do romance machadiano Ressurreição, publicado em 1872. Lançada em 2013, a tradução da professora da Universidade de Stanford Karen Sherwood Sotelino chamou a atenção de estudiosos de Machado por mostrar como a obra do autor brasileiro desperta interesse atual no mundo anglófono.

  19. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  20. Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand-Burma Border Réseaux sacrés et conflits parmi les Baptistes karen de part et d’autre de la frontière birmano-thaïlandaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Horstmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I provide a case study of a moving border between Thailand and Burma. Emphasizing the agency of people who become refugees, the article is concerned to point out the important role of religious networks in providing humanitarian assistance, shelter and mobility to stateless Karen refugees. I argue that Christian and Buddhist literate networks- realigned in political exile, develop competing visions of a Karen “homeland.” Arguing that membership in the network is crucial for survival, the article follows the social organization and religious practices in Baptist networks. I examine how the Baptist church network in close partnership with the Karen National Union is able or not able to mobilize refugees for proselytization. Karen refugee leaders and KNU-pastors find analogies in the bible to find an explanation to the suffering of the Karen civil population in the war. The article is interested in the nexus and overlap of humanitarian ideology, Christianity and nationalism in the transitional space between Thailand and Burma. Providing case-studies of individual refugees, the article gives ethnographic sketches from the refugee camp, the countryside and humanitarian assistance to the internally displaced.Cet article est une étude de cas d’une frontière mouvante entre la Thaïlande et la Birmanie. Insistant sur l’agency (action de personnes devenues des réfugiés, l’article souligne le rôle important des réseaux religieux qui apportent une assistance humanitaire, des abris et de la mobilité à des réfugiés karen dépourvus d’État. Je soutiens que les réseaux intellectuels chrétiens et bouddhistes, recomposés dans l’exil, développent des visions concurrentes d’une « mère-patrie » karen. Soutenant que la participation au réseau est cruciale pour la survie, l’article développe plus particulièrement l’organisation sociale et les pratiques religieuses en vigueur dans les réseaux baptistes. J

  1. Hammer toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercises may be helpful. You can try gentle stretching exercises if the toe is not already in ... have difficulty walking or fitting into shoes comfortably Prevention Avoid wearing shoes that are too short or ...

  2. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) from the People's Republic of China..., track tools and wedges; (3) picks and mattocks; and (4) axes, adzes and similar hewing tools. Hand...

  3. 水锤的模拟综合法及防患措施%Simulation and Precaution of Water Hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳耀琦

    2015-01-01

    以某项目原油长输管线为研究对象,结合数解综合法公式估算的快捷性和AFT Impulse软件计算的精确性。首先用经验数据代入公式快速估算出水锤的最大压升,并利用工程经验快速辨识和筛选可能发生较严重水锤事故的管线,然后利用水锤软件进行精确模拟和计算,并制定合理的水锤防患措施。%With one long oil transportation pipeline as studying objective, the swiftness of the equation from numerical synthesis method and the accuracy of Impulse software for simulation of water hammer were estimated. First, empirical data was input to the equation to estimate the maximum pressure rise of water hammer. With engineering experiences the pipeline in which the most serious water hammer may occur was then fast classiifed. Finally, water hammer was simulated and calculated by using software, and the proper protection methods were determined.

  4. The Prediction of Performance of Olympic Athletes in Discus, Hammer, Javelin, and Shotput from Measures of Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G. Robert; And Others

    1979-01-01

    For each of four subsamples of Olympic-quality athletes--14 discus, 8 hammer, 11 javelin, and 12 shotput measures of 19 personality constructs yielded only two statistically significant validity coefficients (out of 76 possible significant indices) in the prediction of average length of throw. (Author/JKS)

  5. A ética ecofeminista de Karen J. Warren: um modelo de ética ambiental genuína?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rosendo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2015v12n1p16 Karen J. Warren apresenta uma proposta ética ecofeminista, segundo a qual os contextos precisam ler levados em consideração na análise de situações e problemas morais, rejeitando-se o monismo ético das correntes principais de ética animal. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar, à luz da noção de vulnerabilidade, critério de considerabilidade moral proposto por Paul Taylor, que a ética sensível ao cuidado de Warren pode não ser considerada uma ética ambiental genuína, à medida que se aproxima do biorregionalismo de Gary Snyder e não esclarece de que forma a consideração moral é atribuída aos animais individualmente. Quanto ao relativismo, segundo os critérios de James Rachels e Peter Singer, a proposta de Warren parece não cumprir com os requisitos de uma ética imparcial e geral, e pode incorrer nos problemas do relativismo, uma vez que a concepção de cuidado da autora é limitada.

  6. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono-Kihara Masako

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548. In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7% of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand.

  7. Design And Preliminary Testing of a Hammer Mill with End-Suction Lift Capability Suitable for Commercial Processing of Grains and Solid Minerals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebunilo P. O.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A hammer mill with an end-suction lift capability has been designed, fabricated and tested. The tests were carried out by comparing the product of a conventional hammer mill with that of the new hammer mill with end suction lift capability. The preliminary test results obtained using grains show that the efficiency of a conventional hammer mill and its ability to produce an output of specific size of 400m-600m for both maize and cowpeas is low when compared with the output of the new hammer mill. The new hammer mill, which is a partially closed system while in operation and utilizes suction power, virtually eliminates environmental pollution usually associated with the operation of conventional hammer mills and can be used to mill commonly occurring Nigerian grains like millet, sorghum, maize, cowpeas, guinea-corn and soya beans into flour and also for pulverizing locally occurring solid minerals like clays into powder. This would diversify storage options for the grains, deepen and widen the available food choices for all Nigerians and enhance food security and rural development.

  8. 蜂窝型双金属复合锤头铸造工艺%Casting Technology of Honeycomb-type Bimetallic Composite Hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a type of honeycomb-type bimetallic hammer was developed. The hammer was made by taking high manganese steel as the hammer body and high chromium cast iron as the wear-rods, and using a special insert-cast process to inserting the wear rods into the end of the hammer. The wear rods and the hammer body have a solid combination and strong impact, improving its life of hammer, reducing the use cost ofhammer.%针对反击式破碎机专用锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种蜂窝型双金属复合型锤头.该锺头以高锰钢作锤体,高铬铸铁作耐磨棒,并采用特殊镶铸工艺,将耐磨棒弥散分布于锤头端部.锤头内耐磨棒与基体结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,大幅度提高了锤头使用寿命,从而降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  9. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site...

  10. Application of image processing technology to problems in manuscript encapsulation. [Codex Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Korsmo, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The long term effects of encapsulation individual sheets of the Codex Hammer were investigated. The manuscript was simulated with similar sheets of paper which were photographed under repeatable raking light conditions to enhance their surface texture, encapsulated in plexiglas, cycled in an environmental test chamber, and rephotographed at selected intervals. The film images were digitized, contrast enhanced, geometrically registered, and apodized. An FFT analysis of a control sheet and two experimental sheets indicates no micro-burnishing, but reveals that the ""mesoscale'' deformations with sizes 8mm are degrading monotonically, which is of no concern. Difference image analysis indicates that the sheets were increasingly stressed with time and that the plexiglas did not provide a sufficient environmental barrier under the simulation conditions. The relationship of these results to the Codex itself is to be determined.

  11. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Medrano Llamas, R; Sciacca, G; Van der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 80 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate si...

  12. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  13. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  14. A numerical analysis on the effect of inlet parameters for condensation induced water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Priyankan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Chakravarty, Aranyak [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); School of Nuclear Studies & Application, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Ghosh, Koushik, E-mail: kghosh@mech.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sen, Swarnendu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Dutta, Anu; Goyal, Priyanshu [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Condensation induced water hammer phenomenon is analysed with RELAP5/Mod 3.4. • Effect of various inlet conditions on the occurrence of CIWH are investigated. • Pressure peak amplitude and location has strong dependency on water subcooling. • Superheated steam does not have significant impact on pressure amplitude. • Presence of dry saturated steam is the necessary condition for CIWH. - Abstract: Direct contact condensation (DCC) is almost an inevitable phenomenon during accidental condition for all LWRs. Rapid condensation caused by the direct contact of steam and subcooled water can lead to condensation induced water hammer (CIWH). The present work explores the underlying physics of CIWH phenomenon in a horizontal pipe under different inlet conditions such as inlet water temperature, pressure difference between steam and water section, steam superheating, steam quality and duration of valve opening using RELAP5/Mod 3.4. This work emphasises on the prediction of pressure peak magnitude in conjunction with its location of occurrence under different parametric conditions. The stratified to slug flow transition is presented in terms of the ‘flow regime map’ which is identified as the primary cause for pressure wave generation. The strongest pressure wave amplitude due to CIWH is found to be 116.6 bar for ΔP = 10 bar. Observation reveals that peak pressure location shifts towards the subcooled water injection point for higher inlet water temperature. For the lowest inlet water temperature (T{sub in} = 20 °C), the peak pressure is found at a distance of 47.5 cm away from the water inlet whereas, for the high water temperature (T{sub in} = 120 °C), peak pressure is observed at 6.25 cm away from the injection point. It is also observed that the duration of valve opening significantly affects the location of peak pressure occurrence. This study also reveals that the presence of superheated or wet steam could possibly avoid the occurrence of

  15. Effect of bit wear on hammer drill handle vibration and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Andrea; Barr, Alan; Martin, Bernard; Rempel, David

    2017-08-01

    The use of large electric hammer drills exposes construction workers to high levels of hand vibration that may lead to hand-arm vibration syndrome and other musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the effect of bit wear on drill handle vibration and drilling productivity (e.g., drilling time per hole). A laboratory test bench system was used with an 8.3 kg electric hammer drill and 1.9 cm concrete bit (a typical drill and bit used in commercial construction). The system automatically advanced the active drill into aged concrete block under feed force control to a depth of 7.6 cm while handle vibration was measured according to ISO standards (ISO 5349 and 28927). Bits were worn to 4 levels by consecutive hole drilling to 4 cumulative drilling depths: 0, 1,900, 5,700, and 7,600 cm. Z-axis handle vibration increased significantly (pvibration did not increase further with bits worn more than 1900 cm of cumulative drilling depth. Neither x- nor y-axis handle vibration was effected by bit wear. The time to drill a hole increased by 58% for the bit with 5,700 cm of cumulative drilling depth compared to a new bit. Bit wear led to a small but significant increase in both ISO weighted and unweighted z-axis handle vibration. Perhaps more important, bit wear had a large effect on productivity. The effect on productivity will influence a worker's allowable daily drilling time if exposure to drill handle vibration is near the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value. ([1]) Construction contractors should implement a bit replacement program based on these findings.

  16. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  17. Potential improvement of Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of moraines in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, by application of the new electronic Schmidt-hammer (SilverSchmidt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Alps of New Zealand are among the few key study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Their characteristic highly dynamic geomorphological process systems prove, however, to be a considerable challenge for all attempts to date and palaeoclimatologically interpret the existing Holocene moraines record. As a multi-proxy approach combining 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) with Schmidt-hammer testing, the recently developed Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has already shown its potential in this study area (cf. Winkler 2005, 2009, 2013). An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers, in particular, facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - is a potential drawback. This difference effectively means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible and, hence, that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without previous comparative tests of both instruments under field conditions. Both instruments used in this comparative study were N-type models with identical impact energy of 2.207 Nm for the plunger. To compare both instruments and explore interconvertibility, parallel measurements were performed on a selected number of boulders (10 boulders per site with 5 impacts each, at least 2 sites per moraine) on moraines of homogeneous lithology but different established ages covering the entire Holocene and the Late Glacial. All moraines are located east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps at Mueller Glacier, Tasman Glacier, and in the outer Tasman River Valley. All paired samples (n = 50) were

  18. EL CASO KAREN ATALA: LA CONJUGACIÓN DE LA ORIENTACIÓN SEXUAL Y EL PRINCIPIO DEL INTERÉS SUPERIOR DEL MENOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia RODRÍGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

    2012-01-01

    Las presentes líneas abordan el caso Karen Atala vs. Chile, planteado como un nuevo reto tanto para la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos como para la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, al determinar el principio del interés superior del menor cuando uno de los progenitores tiene una orientación sexual diferente . El caso presenta la necesidad de encontrar el balance adecuado entre tres principios fundamentales: la no discriminación por orientación sexual, la igualdad, y e...

  19. 石油管道水击压力数值模拟研究%Numerical Simulation of Water Hammer Pressure of Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄腾龙; 李清斌; 潘振; 陈保东; 金春旭; 李丹; 郑舟

    2013-01-01

    作为有压管路中最常见的不稳定流动现象,水击是运动的流体突然停止流动而产生的。针对水击现象,本文分析说明了产生水击的原因和危害,提出了减小水击的措施,通过使用特征线法求解水击问题,并编制相应的计算程序,与理想水击过程进行对比,阐明了计算结果的科学性和合理性。%As the most common unstable flow in the pressure pipeline, the water hammer is caused by sudden stop of the fluid flow in the movement. In this paper, aiming at the phenomenon of the water hammer, causes and harms of the water hammer were analyzed, the measures to reduce the water hammer were put forward. The water hammer problem was solved by using the method of characteristic line, and the corresponding program was compiled. Compared with the ideal water hammer process, the scientificalness and rationality of the results were proven.

  20. Development of Combined Hammer Used in Counterattack-type Crusher%反击式破碎机组合型锤头的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a combination-type hammer used in the counterattack-type crusher was developed. The hammer handle is made of alloy steel material, and the wear-resistant blocks is made of high chromium cast iron, the hammer handle and hammer head is connected with a special structure of profiled tapered dovetail. The connecting surface of the hammer is solid, its impact resistances is strong, and the wear-resistant blocks can be replaced, so its serve life improves, its integrated cost significantly reduces.%针对反击式破碎机中锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种应用于反击式破碎机的组合型锤头.该锤头以合金钢材料做锤柄,高铬铸铁做耐磨块,采用特殊的异形燕尾槽结构连接锤柄与锤头.锤头连接面结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,而且耐磨块可更换,不仅提高了锤头一次性使用寿命,同时大幅度降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  1. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  2. Aberrant course of a communicating branch of the ulnar nerve to the median nerve contributing to hypothenar Hammer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Winston T; Bullocks, Jamal M; Norris, Morgan E

    2007-06-01

    This presentation represents a unique anatomic predisposition to the development of hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS). In this case, a communicating branch of the ulnar nerve to the median common digital nerve of the ring finger was identified crossing volar to the superficial palmar arch. This relationship caused thrombosis of the superficial palmar arch proximal to this crossing nerve branch. The aberrant course of this nerve created a structural anomaly contributing to HHS, which ultimately mandated surgical intervention.

  3. Research of Water Hammer Based on Flowmaster%利用Flowmaster对水锤现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付锴; 马立; 李洪凤

    2015-01-01

    For the possibility of water hammer phenomenon may produce in pipeline, we propose the selection of one-dimensional fluid analysis software Flowmaster to model the practical problems and conduct a transient analysis, when pipeline water hammer happens, the pipeline’s pressure and the cavity occurs periodically change, and It has a impact on the downstream end device towards the water hammer phenomenon. Three amendments have been put forward to suppress the water hammer phenomenon, that is, coupled with the exhaust valve, accumulator tank chamber and the regulated water tank, the obtained simulation results show that the last two programs are more conducive to the stability of the pipeline.%针对管路可能产生的水锤现象,提出选用一维流体分析软件Flowmaster对实际问题进行模型建立和瞬态分析,得到了管路在发生水锤现象时管内压力和空腔的波动变换,并且得到了该水锤现象对下游末端设备的压力影响。通过提出三种修正方式对可能产生的水锤现象进行抑制,即加上排气阀,蓄压腔和稳压水箱,模拟结果显示后两种方案得到的结果更有利于管路的稳定。

  4. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Norazlina Subani; Norsarahaida Amin

    2015-01-01

    Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order m...

  5. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rebekah F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abbott, Robert E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammer TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  6. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface strength and durability assessment of stones by using non-destructive tests, such as Schmidt hammer and Duroskop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Á.

    2012-04-01

    Wide-ranges of surface testing methods are used under laboratory conditions and on site to assess the strength and durability of construction materials. The paper brings examples of the use of two types of techniques: Schmidt hammer and Duroscope. Both techniques were firstly used for testing artificial materials. The Schmidt hammer was developed for concrete testing, while Duroskop was first applied on metal surfaces. These non-destructive techniques are now increasingly applied for stone testing at historical monuments, at construction sites or even in quarries. The paper gives an overview of four different types of Schmidt hammer from which three analogous (L-9, N-34, PT-Schmidt) and one digital (Digi-Schmidt). It compares rebound values of various stones and provides information on the relationship between these values and weathering grades. Another less commonly applied technique the Duroskop was also tested. Relationship between Schmidt and Duroskop rebound values are also given. Tested stone types included porous limestone, cemented limestone, travertine and sandstone. For comparison, basalt and andesite tuff ashlars were also measured. The use of these techniques in assessing surface strength of stones, the advantages and limitations of their applications are also discussed.

  8. Active Precharge Hammering to Monitor Displacement Damage Using High-Energy Protons in 3x-nm SDRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chulseung; Park, Kyungbae; Baeg, Sanghyeon

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes the Active Precharge Hammering on a Row (APHR) test to evaluate displacement damage (DD) in 3x-nm DRAM components. Irradiated SDRAM devices could have multiple current leakage paths, partly owing to DD effects. The degree of leakage from cells with DD can be differentiated from undamaged cells by the difference in the number of hammered accesses to the two types of cells. Proton-based SER tests were performed with DDR3 SDRAM components made using 3x-nm technologies. The experimental results showed that bit errors caused by the APHR test (APHR errors) were more than five times higher in the irradiated sample compared to the non-irradiated sample, and APHR errors were not detectable within 64-ms retention time using the traditional retention test method. In the worst case, the number of hammerings required to cause an APHR error in the irradiated sample reduced by 36 times compared to that in the non-irradiated sample even after the irradiated sample was annealed at 150° C so as to have no retention errors within the maximum retention time of 64-ms.

  9. Interview with a quality leader--Karen Davis, executive director of The Commonwealth Fund. Interview by Lecia A. Albright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Karen Davis is president of The Commonwealth Fund, a national philanthropy engaged in independent research on health and social policy issues. Dr. Davis is a nationally recognized economist, with a distinguished career in public policy and research. Before joining the Fund, she served as chairman of the Department of Health Policy and Management at The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, where she also held an appointment as professor of economics. She served as deputy assistant secretary for health policy in the Department of Health and Human Services from 1977 to 1980, and was the first woman to head a U.S. Public Health Service agency. Before her government career, Ms. Davis was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC; a visiting lecturer at Harvard University; and an assistant professor of economics at Rice University. A native of Oklahoma, she received her PhD in economics from Rice University, which recognized her achievements with a Distinguished Alumna Award in 1991. Ms. Davis is the recipient of the 2000 Baxter-Allegiance Foundation Prize for Health Services Research. In the spring of 2001, Ms. Davis received an honorary doctorate in human letters from John Hopkins University. In 2006, she was selected for the Academy Health Distinguished Investigator Award for significant and lasting contributions to the field of health services research in addition to the Picker Award for Excellence in the Advancement of Patient Centered Care. Ms. Davis has published a number of significant books, monographs, and articles on health and social policy issues, including the landmark books HealthCare Cost Containment, Medicare Policy, National Health Insurance: Benefits, Costs, and Consequences, and Health and the War on Poverty. She serves on the Board of Visitors of Columbia University, School of Nursing, and is on the Board of Directors of the Geisinger Health System. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1975; has served two

  10. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Sciacca, Gianfranco; van der Ster, Dan

    2012-12-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short lightweight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site performances. Sites that fail or are unable to run the tests are automatically excluded from the PanDA brokerage system, therefore avoiding user or production jobs to be sent to problematic sites.

  11. Perception of products by progressive multisensory integration. A study on hammers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Margarita; Mondragón, Salvador; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín Luis; Company, Pedro; Agost, María-Jesús

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of multisensory (visual-haptic) integration and the level of interaction (seeing photographs, seeing the actual product, touching it and using it) on the perception of products, including perceived ergonomics. The product selected for the experiment was the hammer, as this will help to establish whether emotional design studies can also apply to 'commercial' products. Subjective opinions of users were evaluated through semantic differential tests. A factor analysis identified six semantic factors or axes (Quality/Robustness, Ergonomics/Appearance, Innovation, Lightness, Dynamic Effects, and Efficacy). Results show that Lightness and Dynamic Effects are quite sensitive to the level of interaction, while Ergonomics/Appearance is partially affected. However, the perceptions of Innovation, Quality/Robustness and Efficacy are not so affected and they could be detected through a lower level of interaction (i.e. seeing photographs). This suggests that commercial products seem sensitive to emotional design studies and that multisensory integration enhances the perception of the factors that are clearly linked with physical interaction between users and tools, i.e. Ergonomics/Appearance, Lightness and Dynamic Effects. Additionally, it should be highlighted that some aspects related with the ergonomics and ease of use of products are also perceived at different stages of interaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The training principles of the Greek record holder in the women’s hammer throw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEOPHILOS PILIANIDIS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study was to evaluate the long term training periodization of the Greek record holder in women’s hammer throw. The training parameters which were recorded and assessed in relation to the athlete' s best throwing performance were: the strength training, the running and jumping exercises, the specific throws with implements of various weights and the imitation drills. The evaluation of the athlete's longitudinal planning showed that after 5 years of intensive training the throwing performance of the athlete was maximized. In addition, the training seasons 2003-2005 of the studied athlete were characterized by the high volume of the biomotor elements of strength, speed and throwing skills. The assessment of the interaction between the training means and the throwing performance showed that the athlete's improvement was strongly related to the upper-body strength and the lower-body explosive power. Furthermore, the imitation drills and the specific throws with implements contributed to the athlete' s throwing development. In summary, this training report presents the performance progress of a world-class athlete emphasizing that the coach must be focused firstly on building-up the female thrower's strength and then to bridge the gap between the explosive power and technique.

  13. Cavitating flow during water hammer using a generalized interface vaporous cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Mohamadhosein; Riasi, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    In a transient flow simulation, column separation may occur when the calculated pressure head decreases to the saturated vapor pressure head in a computational grid. Abrupt valve closure or pump failure can result in a fast transient flow with column separation, potentially causing problems such as pipe failure, hydraulic equipment damage, cavitation or corrosion. This paper reports a numerical study of water hammer with column separation in a simple reservoir-pipeline-valve system and pumping station. The governing equations for two-phase transient flow in pipes are solved based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using a generalized interface vaporous cavitating model (GIVCM). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes, and the comparison indicated that the GIVCM describes the experimental results more accurately than the discrete vapor cavity model (DVCM). In particular, the GIVCM correlated better with the experimental data than the DVCM in terms of timing and pressure magnitude. The effects of geometric and hydraulic parameters on flow behavior in a pumping station with column separation were also investigated in this study.

  14. Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Imre Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present new theoretical results. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermo-hydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and in the Rosa facility in Japan. In our recent study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow ...

  15. Vibration analysis of fluid -structure interaction in water hammer based on transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; TANG Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the problem that the effect of conduit structure on water hammer has been ignored in the classical theory,the Poisson coupling between the fluid and the pipeline was stu-died and a fourteen-equation mathematical model of fluid -structure interaction (FSI)was developed. Then,the transfer matrix method (TMM)was used to calculate the modal frequency,modal shape and frequency response.The results were compared with that in experiment to verify the correctness of the TMMand the results show that the fluid -structure coupling has a greater impact on the modal frequen-cies than the modal shape.Finally,the influence on the response spectrum of different damping ratios was studied and the results show that the natural frequency under different damping ratios has changed little but there is a big difference for the pressure spectrum.With the decreasing of damping ratio,the damping of the system on frequency spectrum is more and more significant and the dispersion and dissi-pation is more and more apparent.Therefore the appropriate damping ratio should be selected to mini-mize the effects of the vibration of the FSI.The results provide references for the theory research of FSI in the transient process.

  16. A focused liquid jet formed by a water hammer in a test tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, Akihito; Ando, Keita; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate motion of a gas-liquid interface in a test tube induced by a large acceleration via impulsive force. We conduct simple experiments in which the tube partially filled with a liquid falls under gravity and impacts a rigid floor. A curved gas-liquid interface inside the tube reverses and eventually forms an elongated jet (i.e. the so-called a focused jet). In our experiments, there arises either vibration of the interface or increment in the velocity of a liquid jet accompanied by the onset of cavitation in the liquid column. These phenomena cannot be explained by considering pressure impulse in a classical potential flow analysis, which does not account for finite speeds of sound as well as phase change. Here we model such water-hammer events as a result of one-dimensional pressure wave propagation and its interaction with boundaries through acoustic impedance mismatching. The method of characteristics is applied to describe pressure wave interactions and the subsequent cavitation. The proposed m...

  17. Water hammer effect in the spiral case and penstock of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepa, D.; Ursoniu, C.; Gillich, R. N.; Campian, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden pressure increases in the penstock or spiral case of a hydraulic turbine are the effect of sudden flow variation that occur during transient processes of type opening / closing or load rejection of the hydro unit. The consequence of the pressure rise in the spiral case and penstock is the water hammer phenomenon, whose effects can be devastating in some cases, up to breaking pipes and calamities produced in the area. This paper aims to analyze the method of calculation of the maximum pressure values that might occur in load rejection situations to a hydraulic turbine, in spiral case and in penstock, conditioned by the limiting of the values of the over speed and measures of limiting the increase in pressure in conjunction with limiting the increase in speed in these specific processes. As an example, we studied and analyzed the situation of a hydroelectric power plant equipped with a 7.8 MW Francis turbine without pressure regulator and the inflow surge. The results of analytical calculation overlaid on the experimental measurements performed during the performance tests of the hydro unit lead to the conclusion that the calculation algorithm proposed has been chosen correctly and the 2-stage closing law of the wicket gate promoted in this case is effective in such situations.

  18. Numerical analyses of a water pool under loadings caused by a condensation induced water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Calonius, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Poikolainen, J.; Saarenheimo, A. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of a rapidly condensing steam bubble in a water pool have been performed by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Star-CD. The condensing bubble was modelled by using a mass sink in a single-phase calculation. The pressure load on the wall of the pool was determined and transferred to the structural analyses code ABAQUS. The analyses were done for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The structural integrity of the pool during steam experiments was investigated by assuming as a test load the rapid condensation of a steam bubble with a diameter of 20 cm. The mass sink for modelling the collapse of the bubble was deter-mined from the potential theory of incompressible fluid. The rapid condensation of the bubble within 25 ms initiated a strong condensation water hammer. The maximum amplitude of the pressure load on the pool wall was approximately 300 kPa. The loads caused by the high compression waves lasted only about 0.4 ms. The loadings caused by larger bubbles or more rapid collapse could not be calculated with the present method. (au)

  19. Theoretical study of steam condensation induced water hammer phenomena in horizontal pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, Imre Ferenc [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Wigner Research Center; ELI-HU Nonprofit Kft., Szeged (Hungary); Pocsai, Mihaly Andras [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Wigner Research Center; Pecs Univ. (Hungary). Inst. of Physics; Guba, Attila [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Energy Research Center; Imre, Attila Rikard [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Energy Research Center; Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Dept. of Energy Engineering

    2015-11-15

    Steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena are investigated and new theoretical results are presented. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to RELAP5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermohydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and in the Rosa facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In our present study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow rates for various pipe geometries where CIWH can happen. Such a reliable database would be a great help for future reactor constructions and scheming.

  20. Weighty Issues in Small Star Masses...Like Your Favorite Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T. J.

    1999-12-01

    The masses for objects smaller than the Sun are discussed, with particular attention paid to the most populous members of the galaxy, the red dwarfs. Both empirical and theoretical evaluations of current data for low mass stars will be reviewed, as well as the interplay between eclipsing, spectroscopic and astrometric (e.g. visual and interferometric) multiple star research. In addition, the transition region between stars and brown dwarfs is just beginning to be explored for mass determinations using observing techniques from both the ground and space, and the current status of results will be outlined. New results on the mass-luminosity relation (mass versus Mv to be specific) are presented in the form of a tool for researchers studying any aspect of stellar astronomy. The effects of metallicity and age, two parameters which directly affect luminosities on the main sequence and hence any relation derived using only a two parameter fit, are discussed. This tool should reside in every stellar astronomer's toolbox and should be used like a favorite hammer, because it is needed in order for us to build a sturdy understanding of stellar astrophysics.

  1. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Vaateplatvorm Grand Canyoni kohal. Francis Soleri ministeeriumihoone Pariisis. Eduardo Souto de Moura projekteeritud eramu basseiniga Portugalis. Jaapani arhitekti Shinichi Ogawa ühekorruseline betoonist eramu. Britta ja Francesco Buzzi villa Itaalias. Inglise REID Arhitektuuribüroos kavandatud büroode ja lukskorteritega maja Thamesi kaldal

  2. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Soome arhitekti Sami Rintala park Lõuna-Koreas Anyang'is ja hotell Põhja-Norras Kirkenes. Prantsuse arhitekti Edouard Francois' sotsiaalmaja Normandia väikelinnas Louviers'is. Kopenhaagenis ehitati silotornid ümber korterelamuteks (Hollandi arhitektuuribüroo MVRDV koos Taani büroo JJW Arkitekteriga). Energiasäästlik büroohoone Hollandis (büroo RAU). Johnston Marklee & Associatesi projekteeritud eramu Los Angelese lähedal

  3. Viin! / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Näitused austria kaasaegsest arhitektuurist Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis kuni 21. V: "Viin: linnaehitus ja uusim arhitektuur" suures saalis (kuraator Leopold Dungl), kaasneb kataloog; "Elamuehitus Viinis: arhitektuur igaühele" galeriil (näituse idee: Wolfgang Förster, Dietmar Steiner, Alexandra Viehhauser, kuraator A. Viehhauser, kujundus - Span-Arhitektid: Matias del Campo, Sandra Manninger, Sebastian Michalski)

  4. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Vaateplatvorm Grand Canyoni kohal. Francis Soleri ministeeriumihoone Pariisis. Eduardo Souto de Moura projekteeritud eramu basseiniga Portugalis. Jaapani arhitekti Shinichi Ogawa ühekorruseline betoonist eramu. Britta ja Francesco Buzzi villa Itaalias. Inglise REID Arhitektuuribüroos kavandatud büroode ja lukskorteritega maja Thamesi kaldal

  5. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Sardiinia Kunstimuuseum (Zaha Hadid), kortermaja Madridis (German de Sol), kunstimuuseum Riiga (Rem Koolhaas ja Reinier de Graaf), Tietgeni ühiselamu Kopenhaagenis (arhitektuuribüroo Lundgaard&Tranberg), büroohoone Baselis (Herzog&Meuron), eramu Washingtoni osariigis

  6. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Chiba Manabu surfajate rannamaja Tokyo lähedal, Fausto Forni ja Stefano Gueli eramu Šveitsi mägedes, Daniel Libeskindi Denveri muuseumi laiendus (arhitekt Gio Ponti), automuuseumitest, NU Arhitektuuriateljee kavandatud bürooga elamu Hollandis, Arhitektuuribüroo Cukrowicz Nachbaur Architekten projekteeritud kortermaja väljanägemisega kahepereelamu Saksamaal

  7. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Sardiinia Kunstimuuseum (Zaha Hadid), kortermaja Madridis (German de Sol), kunstimuuseum Riiga (Rem Koolhaas ja Reinier de Graaf), Tietgeni ühiselamu Kopenhaagenis (arhitektuuribüroo Lundgaard&Tranberg), büroohoone Baselis (Herzog&Meuron), eramu Washingtoni osariigis

  8. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Austria büroo Coop Himmelb(l)au projekteeritud eramu, mis mõjub skulpturaalse vormina (sisekujundus Virginia Moedelt), uus raamatukoguhoone Prahas, mille projekteeris Jan Kaplicky, juurdeehitus vanale majale Šveitsi Alpides, Sebastian Irarrazavali metallist eramu, mägimaja Bosnias ja betoonist joogikiosk Austrias (projekt Wellmann Ladingerilt), mis pakub ka ööbimisvõimalust

  9. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Mari Cucinella päikesepaneelidel töötav Pekingi uus ülikoolihoone. Arhitektuuristuudio Van der Merwe Miszewski projekteeritud eramu, mis koosneb kolmest, üksteisega risti asetsevast hooneosast, maastiku kujundaja Tarba Klitzner. Hiroaki Ohtani ribimaja 34 m2 suurusel krundil Kobes. AB Verstas Arkkitehdit Oy projekteeritud lahtise vahekäiguga saun. Gernot Hertli kuupjas eramaja romantilises Austria vanalinnas Waidhofen an der Ybbs. Pekka Mäki suvevilla Turu saarestiku kaljusel rannikul

  10. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Elamurajoon Witbrant (Jacq de Brouwer, Erna van Sambeek) Tilburgis Lõuna-Hollandis. Kaubakonteineritest kokkuopandav reisimuuseum (Shigeru Ban). Säästlik, kerge, transporditav ja vähese materjalikuluga näidismaja (Richard Horden, saksa AB Haack + Höpfner). Ristikujuline maja (Bevk Perovic Arhitektid) Ljubljanas. Onnist inspireeritud pargikeskus (Chris Thurlbourne) Taani Rahvuspargis. Eestile ja muuseumidele pühendatud Soome arhitektuuriajakirja Arkkitehti 2006. a. 3. numbrist. Autoritest nimetatud Jorma Mukala, Pekka Vapaavuori, Leonhard Lapin, Triin Ojari, Tarja Nurmi (retsensioon Karin Hallas-Murula raamatule "Soome-Eesti : sajand arhitektuurisuhted)

  11. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Klaasist müramüür ja autosalong Hollandis (arhit. büroo ONL). Elamuarhitektuur Pariisi eeslinnades (arh. Marini ja Trottini). Kasutatud paneelidest ökoeramud Saksamaal (arh. Herve Biele ja insener Claus Asam). Eramud Austria ja Jaapanis. Automuuseum Stuttgardis (arh.Ben van Berkel ja Caroline Bos). USA arhitekti Lorcan O'Herlihy rannamaja. Plastfassaad Hamburgis

  12. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    1928. aastal Stockholmis valminud linnaraamatukogule kavandatud juurdeehituse konkursist. Melbourne'i ökobüroo, arhitekt Mick Pearce. Kengo Kuma projekteeritud villa Tokios. Nils Holger Moormanni kavandatud kaasaskantav kuur-aiamaja

  13. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Jun Aoki projekteeritud Vuittoni glamuuripesa ja pulmakabel Tokios, Toyo Ito kaubanduskeskus Singapuris, Lorcan O'Herlihy projekteeritud Mill Valley villa San Francisco lahe ääres, Zaha Hadidi projekteeritud vinoteek Barcelonas, mis on vanast paviljonist ümber ehitatud, Dietmar Fiechtingeri projekteeritav sild ühendamaks maismaad Mont-Saint-Micheli kloostri saarega ja Cino Zucchini projekteeritud kortermajad Milano tööstuspiirkonda

  14. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Eramu Jaapanis (arh. büroo TNA Arhitektid) ja Itaalias (arh. Massimo Curzi). Elektrijaama territooriumi ümberplaneerimine Soomes Hanasaaris. Berliini Spandau linnaossa rajatud lasteaed "Pipi paradiis" (arh. büroo Baupiloten). Restoran Inglismaal Littlehamptoni rannikul (arh. Thomas Heatherwick ja Jane Wood)

  15. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Trossidega majale kinnitatud rippuv tuba (autor Stefan Eberstadt); disainikooli hoone Saksamaa tööstuspiirkonnas (arhitektid Kazuyo Sejima ja Ryue Nishizawa); hiidlille kujuline elamu Hollandis (arhitektid Ben Huygen ja Jasper Jägers); Fuji mäe kujuline eramu Jaapanis (arhitekt Yuko Nagayama); AR Arhitektuuriauhinnad noorele arhitektile; laeva ja püramiidi hübriidi vormiga elamu (arhitekt Katsuhiro Miyamoto)

  16. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Jackson Clements Borrowsi projekteeritud eramu Melbourne'is. Dominic Stevensi eramu Iirimaal. Büroo Soeters Van Eldonki kortermajad Amsterdamis. Le Corbusier' visandatud kirik Prantsusmaal Firminy-Vert'is. Ameerika arhitektuuribüroo Morphosis projekteeritud Phare Tower Pariisis

  17. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Chiba Manabu surfajate rannamaja Tokyo lähedal, Fausto Forni ja Stefano Gueli eramu Šveitsi mägedes, Daniel Libeskindi Denveri muuseumi laiendus (arhitekt Gio Ponti), automuuseumitest, NU Arhitektuuriateljee kavandatud bürooga elamu Hollandis, Arhitektuuribüroo Cukrowicz Nachbaur Architekten projekteeritud kortermaja väljanägemisega kahepereelamu Saksamaal

  18. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Itaalia arhitekti Raimondo Guidacci kortermajad Orsara di Puglias. Paadikujuline eramu Jaapanis. Saksa arhitekti Titus Bernhardi projekteeritud eramu Augsburgis. Hamburgi Hafencity projektist. Suvepaviljon Londoni Hyde Park'is. Pilvelõhkujad Tiranas

  19. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Mario Garzaniti korrusmaja Brüsselis, Ryue Nishizawa kortermaja Tokyos, Hamburgi arhitektuuribüroo Blauraum loomingust, Michael P. Johnsoni eramu Phoenixis, jaapani arhitekti Kei'ichi Irie ja Power Unit Studio loodud monoliitbetoonist eramu Chita linnas, hollandi arhitektuuribüroo OMA loomingust, inglise büroo Peter Barber Architects lahendus Londoni ühe eeslinna kvartalile

  20. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Stirlingi preemia Enric Mirallesele. Soome puitkirikutest. Sotsiaalmajad Sloveenias. Santa Caterina turuhoone Barcelonas. Ujuv maja Hollandis. Kalju küljes rippuv maja Jaapanis. Eesti arhitektuurist kataloogis "Emerging Identities - East" ja tšehhi ajakirjas "Stauba" 2005, nr. 6 Triin Ojari ajalooline ülevaade

  1. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Richard Rogersi Madridi lennujaam, prantsuse arhitektide odavad mudelmajad, jaapani arhitektide lükandseintega eramu nn. räästamaja, Saksamaal korraldatud multifunktsionaalsete ühiselamu/hostelitubade arhitektuurikonkursi tulemustest, arhitekt Carme Pinose kontorihoone Torre Cube Mehhikos, Sean Godselli projekteeritud eramu Austraalias, arhitektuuribüroo Alphaville projekteeritud eramu Jaapanis, Stefan Hauseri (kunstnikunimega Placed To Ride) projekteeritud Malmö rulapark

  2. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Radikaalne kortermaja Itaalias Bolzanos, kus terrassid ja korteri vahelduvad fassaadil ja lähevad sujuvalt üksteiseks üle. Pouya Khazaeli Parsa projekteeritud villa Teherani lähedal, mis valminud Le Corbusier' loomingu eeskujul. Bitumi ja Pekka Manneri ülimoodne avalik tualett Suomenlinnas. Wolfgang Feyferliki ja Susi Fritzeri projekteeritud eramu, mis sobitub edukalt tammede vahele. Mätaskatusega pargipaviljon Lääne-Holsteinis. Šveitsi Alpidesse projekteeritud elamiskompleks, kus leitud vanaeuroopalik tasakaal vana ja uue vahel

  3. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Itaalia arhitekti Raimondo Guidacci kortermajad Orsara di Puglias. Paadikujuline eramu Jaapanis. Saksa arhitekti Titus Bernhardi projekteeritud eramu Augsburgis. Hamburgi Hafencity projektist. Suvepaviljon Londoni Hyde Park'is. Pilvelõhkujad Tiranas

  4. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Mario Garzaniti korrusmaja Brüsselis, Ryue Nishizawa kortermaja Tokyos, Hamburgi arhitektuuribüroo Blauraum loomingust, Michael P. Johnsoni eramu Phoenixis, jaapani arhitekti Kei'ichi Irie ja Power Unit Studio loodud monoliitbetoonist eramu Chita linnas, hollandi arhitektuuribüroo OMA loomingust, inglise büroo Peter Barber Architects lahendus Londoni ühe eeslinna kvartalile

  5. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Jun Aoki projekteeritud Vuittoni glamuuripesa ja pulmakabel Tokios, Toyo Ito kaubanduskeskus Singapuris, Lorcan O'Herlihy projekteeritud Mill Valley villa San Francisco lahe ääres, Zaha Hadidi projekteeritud vinoteek Barcelonas, mis on vanast paviljonist ümber ehitatud, Dietmar Fiechtingeri projekteeritav sild ühendamaks maismaad Mont-Saint-Micheli kloostri saarega ja Cino Zucchini projekteeritud kortermajad Milano tööstuspiirkonda

  6. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Eramu Jaapanis (arh. büroo TNA Arhitektid) ja Itaalias (arh. Massimo Curzi). Elektrijaama territooriumi ümberplaneerimine Soomes Hanasaaris. Berliini Spandau linnaossa rajatud lasteaed "Pipi paradiis" (arh. büroo Baupiloten). Restoran Inglismaal Littlehamptoni rannikul (arh. Thomas Heatherwick ja Jane Wood)

  7. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Elamurajoon Witbrant (Jacq de Brouwer, Erna van Sambeek) Tilburgis Lõuna-Hollandis. Kaubakonteineritest kokkuopandav reisimuuseum (Shigeru Ban). Säästlik, kerge, transporditav ja vähese materjalikuluga näidismaja (Richard Horden, saksa AB Haack + Höpfner). Ristikujuline maja (Bevk Perovic Arhitektid) Ljubljanas. Onnist inspireeritud pargikeskus (Chris Thurlbourne) Taani Rahvuspargis. Eestile ja muuseumidele pühendatud Soome arhitektuuriajakirja Arkkitehti 2006. a. 3. numbrist. Autoritest nimetatud Jorma Mukala, Pekka Vapaavuori, Leonhard Lapin, Triin Ojari, Tarja Nurmi (retsensioon Karin Hallas-Murula raamatule "Soome-Eesti : sajand arhitektuurisuhted)

  8. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    1928. aastal Stockholmis valminud linnaraamatukogule kavandatud juurdeehituse konkursist. Melbourne'i ökobüroo, arhitekt Mick Pearce. Kengo Kuma projekteeritud villa Tokios. Nils Holger Moormanni kavandatud kaasaskantav kuur-aiamaja

  9. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Mari Cucinella päikesepaneelidel töötav Pekingi uus ülikoolihoone. Arhitektuuristuudio Van der Merwe Miszewski projekteeritud eramu, mis koosneb kolmest, üksteisega risti asetsevast hooneosast, maastiku kujundaja Tarba Klitzner. Hiroaki Ohtani ribimaja 34 m2 suurusel krundil Kobes. AB Verstas Arkkitehdit Oy projekteeritud lahtise vahekäiguga saun. Gernot Hertli kuupjas eramaja romantilises Austria vanalinnas Waidhofen an der Ybbs. Pekka Mäki suvevilla Turu saarestiku kaljusel rannikul

  10. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Trossidega majale kinnitatud rippuv tuba (autor Stefan Eberstadt); disainikooli hoone Saksamaa tööstuspiirkonnas (arhitektid Kazuyo Sejima ja Ryue Nishizawa); hiidlille kujuline elamu Hollandis (arhitektid Ben Huygen ja Jasper Jägers); Fuji mäe kujuline eramu Jaapanis (arhitekt Yuko Nagayama); AR Arhitektuuriauhinnad noorele arhitektile; laeva ja püramiidi hübriidi vormiga elamu (arhitekt Katsuhiro Miyamoto)

  11. Viin! / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Näitused austria kaasaegsest arhitektuurist Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis kuni 21. V: "Viin: linnaehitus ja uusim arhitektuur" suures saalis (kuraator Leopold Dungl), kaasneb kataloog; "Elamuehitus Viinis: arhitektuur igaühele" galeriil (näituse idee: Wolfgang Förster, Dietmar Steiner, Alexandra Viehhauser, kuraator A. Viehhauser, kujundus - Span-Arhitektid: Matias del Campo, Sandra Manninger, Sebastian Michalski)

  12. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Tate Moderni juurdeehitus Londonis, arhitektid Jacques Herzog ja Pierre de Meuron. Šveitsi arhitektuuribüroos Geninasca Delefortrie projekteeritud eramu. Konkursist Vockerode elektrijaama rekonstrueerimiseks Saksamaal. Portugali arhitekti Alvaro Leite Siza Viera projekteeritud eramu. VIP paviljon Valencias 2007. aasta purjeregatiks, arhitekt David Chipperfild. Berliini uus raudteejaama peahoone. Madridi lennujaama Barajas uus terminal, büroo Richard Rogers Partnership, võitis RIBA Stirling Prize'i

  13. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Austria büroo Coop Himmelb(l)au projekteeritud eramu, mis mõjub skulpturaalse vormina (sisekujundus Virginia Moedelt), uus raamatukoguhoone Prahas, mille projekteeris Jan Kaplicky, juurdeehitus vanale majale Šveitsi Alpides, Sebastian Irarrazavali metallist eramu, mägimaja Bosnias ja betoonist joogikiosk Austrias (projekt Wellmann Ladingerilt), mis pakub ka ööbimisvõimalust

  14. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Richard Rogersi Madridi lennujaam, prantsuse arhitektide odavad mudelmajad, jaapani arhitektide lükandseintega eramu nn. räästamaja, Saksamaal korraldatud multifunktsionaalsete ühiselamu/hostelitubade arhitektuurikonkursi tulemustest, arhitekt Carme Pinose kontorihoone Torre Cube Mehhikos, Sean Godselli projekteeritud eramu Austraalias, arhitektuuribüroo Alphaville projekteeritud eramu Jaapanis, Stefan Hauseri (kunstnikunimega Placed To Ride) projekteeritud Malmö rulapark

  15. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Klaasist müramüür ja autosalong Hollandis (arhit. büroo ONL). Elamuarhitektuur Pariisi eeslinnades (arh. Marini ja Trottini). Kasutatud paneelidest ökoeramud Saksamaal (arh. Herve Biele ja insener Claus Asam). Eramud Austria ja Jaapanis. Automuuseum Stuttgardis (arh.Ben van Berkel ja Caroline Bos). USA arhitekti Lorcan O'Herlihy rannamaja. Plastfassaad Hamburgis

  16. Mustvalge linnavilla / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2013-01-01

    Emil Urbeli ja Andrus Margi projekteeritud ning Kristiina Tuulbergi ja Jaanika Sokmani (Boreal OÜ) sisekujundusega villast Tallinnas. Kalle Pruuden on kujundanud baaripukid köögis ning sepispiirded treppidel. Aknakatted-riputussüsteemid ning padjad valmisid koostöös disainer Ange Saarega. Ehitusaeg: 2012 sügis. Elamispind: 454 m²

  17. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Jackson Clements Borrowsi projekteeritud eramu Melbourne'is. Dominic Stevensi eramu Iirimaal. Büroo Soeters Van Eldonki kortermajad Amsterdamis. Le Corbusier' visandatud kirik Prantsusmaal Firminy-Vert'is. Ameerika arhitektuuribüroo Morphosis projekteeritud Phare Tower Pariisis

  18. Alumiiniummaja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    2010. a. Tallinna merelähedasel krundil valminud eramu arhitektuursest lahendusest. Arhitektid Indrek Tiigi, Ülar Mark, Matthias Klitzsch (Urban Mark / Allianss Arhitektid), sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus, Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus). Projekt: 2008

  19. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Stirlingi preemia Enric Mirallesele. Soome puitkirikutest. Sotsiaalmajad Sloveenias. Santa Caterina turuhoone Barcelonas. Ujuv maja Hollandis. Kalju küljes rippuv maja Jaapanis. Eesti arhitektuurist kataloogis "Emerging Identities - East" ja tšehhi ajakirjas "Stauba" 2005, nr. 6 Triin Ojari ajalooline ülevaade

  20. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Tate Moderni juurdeehitus Londonis, arhitektid Jacques Herzog ja Pierre de Meuron. Šveitsi arhitektuuribüroos Geninasca Delefortrie projekteeritud eramu. Konkursist Vockerode elektrijaama rekonstrueerimiseks Saksamaal. Portugali arhitekti Alvaro Leite Siza Viera projekteeritud eramu. VIP paviljon Valencias 2007. aasta purjeregatiks, arhitekt David Chipperfild. Berliini uus raudteejaama peahoone. Madridi lennujaama Barajas uus terminal, büroo Richard Rogers Partnership, võitis RIBA Stirling Prize'i

  1. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Soome arhitekti Sami Rintala park Lõuna-Koreas Anyang'is ja hotell Põhja-Norras Kirkenes. Prantsuse arhitekti Edouard Francois' sotsiaalmaja Normandia väikelinnas Louviers'is. Kopenhaagenis ehitati silotornid ümber korterelamuteks (Hollandi arhitektuuribüroo MVRDV koos Taani büroo JJW Arkitekteriga). Energiasäästlik büroohoone Hollandis (büroo RAU). Johnston Marklee & Associatesi projekteeritud eramu Los Angelese lähedal

  2. Arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Radikaalne kortermaja Itaalias Bolzanos, kus terrassid ja korteri vahelduvad fassaadil ja lähevad sujuvalt üksteiseks üle. Pouya Khazaeli Parsa projekteeritud villa Teherani lähedal, mis valminud Le Corbusier' loomingu eeskujul. Bitumi ja Pekka Manneri ülimoodne avalik tualett Suomenlinnas. Wolfgang Feyferliki ja Susi Fritzeri projekteeritud eramu, mis sobitub edukalt tammede vahele. Mätaskatusega pargipaviljon Lääne-Holsteinis. Šveitsi Alpidesse projekteeritud elamiskompleks, kus leitud vanaeuroopalik tasakaal vana ja uue vahel

  3. 水下重锤夯击能及夯击效果试验研究%Water hammer tamping energy and the experimental study on compaction effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏乐; 石崇; 梁邦炎

    2016-01-01

    重锤夯实是水下抛石基床密实工艺中的重要方法.根据流体动力学,本文建立夯锤在水中运动的计算模型,然后通过室内缩比尺试验,得到了夯锤水下绕流阻力系数经验取值;最后探讨了不同夯锤几何、不同落距对夯实效果的影响.结果表明:圆台型夯锤与圆柱形夯锤相比,由于有倒角,在水中的绕流阻力系数可以小至1.0;同一夯击能作用下不同锤型对抛石基床的夯实效果相差在5%之内;同一夯锤不同落距作用下,落距越大,抛石基床沉降量越大,夯击应力越大,但抛石基床沉降率存在一个极限值.%Heavy tamping method is a kind of important method of rubble bed tamping in the construc-tion, the heavy hammer tamping energy is an important indicator of impact compaction hammer effect, the hammer tamping energy can be influenced by hammer type, flow resistence, drop distance and other effects. Therefore, on the basis of fluid dynamics. First of all, establish the calculation model of the hammer in water movement, analyse the hammer flow resistance in the process of hammer in water movement, and then through the indoor shrinkage scale test, analyse the water movement law of the cylindrical and cone hammer ,obtain the experiential tamping hammer water flow coefficient value. Finally, analyse of the different geometric rammer, different distance to the effect of compaction effect. The results show that a cone type tamping hammer and cylindrical rammer compared. Because of the chamfer of a cone type hammmer, flow resistence coefficient is smaller in water and the value is about 1. 0. under the action of the same tamping energy, different types of hammer has difference in 5% on the rubble mound foundation compaction effect. with a hammer in different falling distance, the greater the falling distance is,the greater the amount of settlement of riprap foundation bed is, the bigger the compaction stress is. but rubble mound foundation settlement

  4. Water-hammer pressure waves interaction at cross-section changes in series in viscoelastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniconi, S.; Brunone, B.; Ferrante, M.

    2012-08-01

    In view of scarcity of both experimental data and numerical models concerning transient behavior of cross-section area changes in pressurized liquid flow, the paper presents laboratory data and numerical simulation of the interaction of a surge wave with a partial blockage by a valve, a single pipe contraction or expansion and a series of pipe contraction/expansion in close proximity.With regard to a single change of cross-section area, laboratory data point out the completely different behavior with respect to one of the partially closed in-line valves with the same area ratio. In fact, for the former the pressure wave interaction is not regulated by the steady-state local head loss. With regard to partial blockages, transient tests have shown that the smaller the length, the more intense the overlapping of pressure waves due to the expansion and contraction in series.Numerically, the need for taking into account both the viscoelasticity and unsteady friction is demonstrated, since the classical water-hammer theory does not simulate the relevant damping of pressure peaks and gives rise to a time shifting between numerical and laboratory data. The transient behavior of a single local head loss has been checked by considering tests carried out in a system with a partially closed in-line valve. As a result, the reliability of the quasi steady-state approach for local head loss simulation has been demonstrated in viscoelastic pipes. The model parameters obtained on the basis of transients carried out in single pipe systems have then been used to simulate transients in the more complex pipe systems. These numerical experiments show the great importance of the length of the small-bore pipe with respect to one of the large-bore pipes. Precisely, until a gradually flow establishes in the small-bore pipe, the smaller such a length, the better the quality of the numerical simulation.

  5. 水锤及水锤压力波在水系中传播的分析与试验%Apparatus Inducing Water-hammer and the Analysis and Experiment of the Water-hammer Pressure Wave Propagation in the Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春敏; 张景松

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper a pulsating water-hammer apparatus that drives by low-pressure water and takes advantage of the tremendous energy generated by water-hammer is introduced. The structure and working process to the pulsating water-hammer apparatus is elaborated. The movement of the plunger assembly when the hammering occurs and the generating and propagation mechanism of the impacting pressure wave are analyzed. The results show the water-hammer pressure that induced by this appara-tus includes water-hammer static pressure and impact pressure,and the experiments verify that the theoretical analysis is correct.%详细介绍了脉动水锤装置的结构及其工作过程,对锤击时柱塞组件的运动以及冲击压力波产生和传播机理进行了分析,分析表明这种水锤装置能够产生的水锤压力包括水锤静压力和冲击压力,并通过试验验证了理论分析的正确性。

  6. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  7. Interview with a quality leader. Linda Aiken on the healthcare industry and workplace issues. Interview by Susan V. White and Colleen J. Hewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Linda Aiken, PhD MSN, is director of the Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research and The Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor of Nursing and Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Dr. Aiken's other appointments at the University of Pennsylvania include senior fellow at the Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics and research associate in the Population Studies Center. Before joining the University of Pennsylvania faculty in 1988, Dr. Aiken served as vice president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the National Academy of Social Insurance, a former president of the American Academy of Nursing, a distinguished fellow of the Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy (now AcademyHealth), and a member of the Council on the Economic Impact of Health System Change. Dr. Aiken served on the Medicare Physician Payment Review Commission for 6 years and was a member of the 1982 Social Security Advisory Council and of President Clinton's National Health Reform Task Force. Her recent work, for which she received the Sigma Theta Tau International Clinical Research Award in 1999, has focused on accounting for variation in hospital patient outcomes in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Germany. Dr. Aiken received her bachelor's and master's degrees in nursing from the University of Florida, Gainesville, and her doctorate in sociology and demography from the University of Texas at Austin.

  8. Holocene Amazon rainforest-savanna dynamics and climatic implications: high-resolution pollen record from Laguna Loma Linda in eastern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-10-01

    We present a high-resolution pollen record of a 695-cm-long sediment core from Laguna Loma Linda, located at an altitude of 310 m in the transitional zone between the savannas of the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonian rainforest, about 100 km from the Eastern Cordillera. Based on eight AMS 14C ages, the record represents the last 8700 14C yr BP. During the period from 8700 to 6000 14C yr BP the vegetation was dominated by grass savanna with only a few woody taxa, such as Curatella and Byrsonima, present in low abundance. Gallery forest along the drainage system apparently was poorly developed. Compared with today, precipitation must have been significantly lower and seasonality stronger. During the period from 6000 to 3600 14C yr BP, rainforest taxa increased markedly, reflecting an increase in precipitation. Rainforest and gallery forest taxa such as Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Alchornea, Cecropia and Acalypha, were abundant, whereas Poaceae were reduced in frequency. From 3600 to 2300 14C yr BP rainforest taxa continued to increase; Moraceae/Urticaceae became very frequent, and Myrtaceae and Myrsine became common. Savanna vegetation decreased continuously. We infer that precipitation was still increasing, and that the length of the annual dry period possibly shortened. From 2300 14C yr BP onwards, grass savanna (mainly represented by Poaceae) expanded and Mauritia palms became frequent. This reflects increased human impact on the vegetation.

  9. On the Use of the Water Hammer Equations with Time Dependent Friction during a Valve Closure, for Discharge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Dunca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for in site discharge estimation in pressured pipes. The method consists in using the water hammer equations solved with the method of characteristics with an unsteady friction factor model. The differential pressure head variation measured during a complete valve closure is used to derive the initial flow rate, similarly to the pressure-time (Gibson method. The method is validated with a numerical experiment, and tested with experimental laboratory measurements. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the discharge estimation error by 0.6% compared to the standard pressure-time (Gibson method for the flow rate investigation.

  10. Numerical simulation analysis of water-hammer pressure of rocket engine%火箭发动机水击压力数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘英元; 陈海峰

    2012-01-01

    依据水击理论,以某液体火箭发动机为例,采用特征线法建立推进剂供应系统一维流动数学模型,实现了关机水击数值模拟。实例计算分析了测压导管对水击过程的影响。%Taking one liquid rocket engine as example, the characteristic method is adopted to es- tablish a one-dimension mathematical model of the propellant feeding system on the basis of water-hammer pressure theory. The numerical simulation of water-hammer pressure as the engine is shut down. The effect of the manometry conduit on the water-hammer process is computed and analyzed with the example.

  11. Cubic Spline - wavelet Finite Element Method for Solving the Water Hammer Equation%基于MATLAB的一类输运问题的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽男; 张馥菊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of water hammer equations, it is in this paper the cubic spline wavelet finite element method to solve the water hammer equation. This method meets the requirements of complex pipeline, but also with the characteristics of the cubic spline wavelet function to improve the accuracy, opened a new way and theoretical basis for the solution of the water hammer equations.%利用差分方法对一类输运问题在一维和二维空间中进行数值分析,得到相应数值解,并将数值解与解析解进行比较,且进一步分析了数值方法的有效性.

  12. 基于MATLAB的长距离输水管道水锤防护%Long pipelines and water hammer protection based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来钱; 付强伟

    2012-01-01

    利用特征线方法的基本原理,将水锤基本微分方程转化为便于计算机运算的有限差分方程式,并利用C++语言编制计算机程序。通过MATLAB的图形显示功能对水锤暂态过程数值模拟的试验数据进行研究,采取较优的水锤防护措施。%Using the basic principles of characteristics method, the basic differential equations of water hammer was into easy computing finite difference equations, and using the C + + language computer program. MATL- BA graphics function of water hammer transient numerical simulation of experimental data, to take the better measures of protection against water hammer.

  13. Occurrence and Protection of Water Hammer in Stream Pipeline%蒸汽输送管道的水击及其防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马博

    2016-01-01

    工业蒸汽输送管道中,水击问题始终困扰蒸汽系统运行维护人员.文章分析了蒸汽输送系统水击发生的机理及危害,并介绍如何通过有效的系统设计和布置,良好的操作实践来避免输送系统产生严重的水击事故.%In industrial steam piping, phenomenon of water hammer often makes engineers disturbed. In this article, the mechanism and harms of water hammer occurred in steam transportation system were analyzed. The methods with effective sysmematic design and arrangement and good practical operation to avoid serious accident induced from water hammer were introduced.

  14. 大吨位蒸(空)模锻锤改造技术%Modification technology of large tonnage steam (air) drop hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建虎; 曹文胜; 杨丹锋; 辛宏斌; 谢建国; 黄继忠

    2012-01-01

    The working principle of all hydraulic electric-liquid hammer is introduced. The innovation technology is described, offered hy China National Heavy Machinery Research Institute Co. , Ltd. lo First Tractor Co. , Ltd. , and needed for changing the large tonnage steam (air) drop hammer into an all hydraulic electric-liquid hammer whose hydrolic system adopts a heavy-calibre special service valve set, hammer rod and hammer head adopt the spherical hinge linkage, hammer return stroke is designed as a double-limit buffer unit to avoid the shatter crack of the pipeline, and partial pipeline uses hose. The modified equipment works well, and has low failure rate and high reliability. Its energy saving rate is 90%.%介绍了全液压电液锤的工作原理,以及中国重型机械研究院有限公司为第一拖拉机股份有限公司将大吨位蒸(空)模锻锤改造成全液压电液锤项目中所采用的创新技术:液压系统采用专利技术的大口径专用阀组,锤杆与锤头采用球铰活动联接,锤头回程设计为双限位缓冲装置,为避免管道被震裂,部分管路采用软管联接等.改造后的设备使用情况良好,故障率低,可靠性高,节能率90%以上.

  15. An Analysis of Water Hammer Sensitivity in Double-pump Water Supply Systems%双泵给水系统水锤敏感度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟实; 王鑫; 幸奠川; 王明鹤

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the model of a specific parallel two-pump water supply system, the numerical simulation and quan- titative analysis of water hammer of this water supply system are carried out, with emphasis on sensitivity analysis of water hammer. The research results show that the effect of flow on water hammers is significant, with the initial flow rate increasing, fluctuations of pressure increases significantly. As the moment of inertia of centrifugal increases, the water hammer effect will be weakened. In the case of constant water supply, the increase of diameter of the pipeline will ease water hammer pressure. In addition, the ways of the control valve closes will have a significant impact on the water hammer effect.%建立双泵并联给水系统,对本给水系统水锤过程进行了数值模拟以及定量分析,重点进行双泵给水系统水锤作用敏感度分析。结果表明:初始流量对水锤作用效果影响明显,随着初始流量增大,输水管道后压差波动明显增强;离心泵转动惯量增加,停泵水锤作用效果将减弱;输水流量不变情况下,输水管道管径增加将缓解水锤压力;另外,改变调节阀关闭方式也将对水锤效果产生明显影响。

  16. Offshore wind turbine foundations. Development of a special vibratory hammer with enhanced function; Gruendung von Offshore Windenergieanlagen. Entwicklung einer speziellen Vibrationsramme mit erweiterter Funktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Johannes; Ulrich, Dirk [ThyssenKrupp Tiefbautechnik GmbH, Alsfeld (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    To ensure that steel jacket foundations for offshore wind turbines are securely anchored, they are fixed to the seabed by means of ''pins''. The pins consist of pipe piles weighing up to 140 metric tons, and are driven into the seabed by a vibratory hammer and then anchored by impact driving. ThyssenKrupp Tiefbautechnik has modified a vibratory hammer so that it can pick up the piles horizontally directly from the working ship or pontoon and then vibrate them vertically into the ground. This significantly reduces installation times and foundation costs. (orig.)

  17. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system%矿山排水系统设计阶段水锤的预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东燕

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore, the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident.%介绍矿山排水系统水锤事故发生的机制及种类,通过计算停泵水锤的水锤压头,可直观地显示出水锤可能产生的危害程度,有针对性地提出在设计阶段为减少水锤事故发生应采取的预防措施.

  18. Long-term follow-up of hypothenar hammer syndrome: a series of 47 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Hervé, Fabien; Primard, Etienne; Cailleux, Nicole; Levesque, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon, occurring mainly in subjects who use the hypothenar part of the hand as a hammer; the hook of the hamate strikes the superficial palmar branch of the ulnar artery in the Guyon space, leading to occlusion and/or aneurysm of the ulnar artery. In patients with HHS, such injuries of the palmar ulnar artery may lead to severe vascular insufficiency in the hand with occlusion of digital artery. To date, only a few series have analyzed the long-term outcome of patients with HHS. This prompted us to conduct the current retrospective study to 1) evaluate the prevalence of HHS in patients with Raynaud phenomenon and 2) assess the short-term and long-term outcome in patients with HHS. From 1990 to 2006, 4148 consecutive patients were referred to the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Rouen medical center for evaluation of Raynaud phenomenon using nailfold capillaroscopy. HHS was diagnosed in 47 of these 4148 patients (1.13% of cases).Forty-three patients (91.5%) had occupational exposure to repetitive palmar trauma. The more common occupations were factory worker (21.3%), mason (12.8%), carpenter (10.6%), and metal worker (10.6%); the mean duration of occupational exposure to repetitive palmar trauma at HHS diagnosis was 21 years. One patient (2.1%) had recreational exposure (aikido training) to repetitive trauma of the palmar ulnar artery, and 3 other patients (6.4%) developed HHS related to a single direct injury to the hypothenar area. Clinical manifestations were more often unilateral (87.2%) involving the dominant hand (93%). HHS complications included digital ischemic symptoms (ischemia: n = 21, necrosis: n = 20) and irritation of the sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (n = 11). In HHS patients, angiography demonstrated occlusion of the ulnar artery in the area of the Guyon space (59.6%), aneurysm of the ulnar artery in the area of the Guyon space (40.4%), and embolic

  19. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Salto

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS and undergraduate (UG student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical

  20. Experimental Analysis on Characteristics of Water Hammer in Reciprocating Pump Loss of Normal Speed%往复式泵失速水击特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚斌; 刘扬; 韩洪升; 周济人; 钟开伟

    2013-01-01

    为了研究往复式泵失速产生水击的特性,通过试验装置采集并分析了阀门速开速关和阀门速关工况下试验管道上11个断面自水击发生至其衰减结束整个过程中的压力变化.结果表明,阀门速开速关工况下,水击压力相对较小,衰减时间短,水击锤击数较高,高水击锤击数断面比率较大,其沿程衰减速度慢;阀门速关工况下,水击压力相对较大,衰减时间长,水击锤击数沿程衰减速度快,水击锤击数较少.关注阀门速关水击的同时,也要重视往复式泵失速引起的高水击锤击数水击现象.%In order to study the characteristics of water hammer on reciprocating pump loss of its normal speed,the pressures of eleven cross-sections were acquired and their changes were analyzed under two kinds of operating conditions.The rusults indicated that:when the valves were quickly opened and closed,water hammer pressure,the rate and time of decay were lower,and the water hammer hammering number on each cross-section was relatively large; when the valves were closed quickly,water hammer pressure was higher,the rate of decay was faster on water hammer hammering number,decay time was long and water hammer hammering number was smaller.High frequency hammer fatigue and potential damage caused by large water hammer hammering number should be also concerned except that paying attention to the damage on pipes caused by high water hammer pressure.

  1. CFD simulation of reverse water-hammer induced by collapse of draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during runaway process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Yongguang; Xia, Linsheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary progress in the CFD simulation of the reverse water-hammer induced by the collapse of a draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during the runaway process. Firstly, the Fluent customized 1D-3D coupling model for hydraulic transients and the Schnerr & Sauer cavitation model for cavity development are introduced. Then, the methods are validated by simulating the benchmark reverse water-hammer in a long pipe caused by a valve instant closure. The simulated head history at the valve agrees well with the measured data in literature. After that, the more complicated reverse water-hammer in the draft-tube of a runaway model pump-turbine, which is installed in a model pumped-storage power plant, is simulated. The dynamic processes of a vapor cavity, from generation, expansion, shrink to collapse, are shown. After the cavity collapsed, a sudden increase of pressure can be evidently observed. The process is featured by a locally expending and collapsing vapor cavity that is around the runner cone, which is different from the conventional recognition of violent water- column separation. This work reveals the possibility for simulating the reverse water-hammer phenomenon in turbines by 3D CFD.

  2. 多元低合金耐磨锤头制造工艺%Manufacturing Process for Complex Low-alloyed Wear-resisting Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正伟; 李永堂; 曹建新; 贾璐

    2013-01-01

    锤头的耐磨性和工作寿命直接影响着破碎机的工作效率和生产成本,因此锤头要求有良好的力学性能、冲击韧性和耐磨性。在分析了锤头工况和失效机理的基础上,设计了多元低合金耐磨锤头材料的化学成分,提出了铸造工艺和热处理工艺,进行了工业试验,并对试件进行了检测分析,获得了满意的结果。%The operation efficiency and production cost of crusher were directly affected by the performance and service life of hammers .Therefore ,hammers were requested to have good mechanical properties ,impact toughness and abrasive resistance .Based on the analysis of working condition of the hammers and the failure mechanism ,the chemical composition of multi-element low-alloy wear-resistant material for hammers was designed ,the program of casting process and heat treatment process were proposed ,the industrial test was carried out ,and the satisfactory results were obtained .

  3. 击弦乐器乐声特性与演奏手法的关系%Relationship between hammered string instrument musical sound characteristic and playing skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静锋; 王旸; 龙姝明

    2012-01-01

    给定初值条件,解弦振动波动定解问题,计算演奏手法变化引起的击弦乐器振动驻波能谱结构变化.探索击弦乐器乐声的音调、音色与弦振动驻波能谱结构的关系.用Mathematica编程模拟击弦乐器弦振动乐声,用听觉体验和频谱分析研究击弦乐器音调、音色与演奏手法的关系.%Given initial conditions, string vibration wave problem was solved. By changing playing techniques, calculation of the change caused by hammered string instrument vibration energy spectrum. Explore the relationship of the hammered string instrument tone and timbre and string vibration energy spectrum was exploved. Mathematics programming was used to simulate the hammered string instrument music. By auditory experience and spectrum analysis, the relationship between the hammered string instrument tone and timbre and playing techniques was studied.

  4. ANALYSIS OF WATER-HAMMER WAVE SPEED IN WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION%油包水型乳化液水击波速的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤明; 吴峰平; 陈彬; 潘诗浪; 张渊博; 王立存

    2011-01-01

    水击驻波场处理油包水型乳化液是一门新兴工艺,稳定驻波场的存在是破乳的关键,而水击压力波波速在驻波场形成中起着重要的作用。因此,为了更精确的求解水击波速,从W/O型乳化液两相流产生水击现象的特点出发,根据流体力学的连续性原理,推导其水击波波速的表达式,并与经典单相流水击波波速公式进行对比,通过MATLAB仿真分析与对比验证,表明此水击波速公式既适用于单相流水击波速的计算,也适用于两相流水击波速的求解,且W/O型乳化液中含水量越大,其波速就越大。%The application of standing wave field occurred by water-hammer in water-in-oil emulsion is a new technology.And the existence of stable standing wave field is the key to demulsification.The velocity of water-hammer pressure wave plays an important role in the formation of standing wave field.Therefore,in order to solve the water-hammer wave speed more accurately,embarked from the characteristicses of water-hammer produced in W/O emulsion which is the two-phase flow,according to the principle of continuous fluid,the expression of water-hammer wave speed is inferred and is compared with that of classical water-hammer wave speed in single-phase flow.The simulations with MATLAB software and the verifications by contrast indicate that this formula is not only suitable for the water-hammer of single-phase flow,but also the two-phase flow.And the more water it contents in the W/O emulsion,the higher wave speed.

  5. 便携式液压打桩机现状分析%Status Analysis of Portable Hydraulic Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步恩; 余俊锋; 彭博

    2015-01-01

    In the flood rescue process,traditional bundle and throw wicker rock pillows, firewood pile revetment, rock?loft and other emergency technologies in emergency and rescue play significant roles. These methods require a lot of wood pipes to fasten the wicker pillows and willow branches;In highway construction project, the construction and maintenance of fences also need large amount of steel piles. So it can concluded that in a variety of rescue methods, piling is an in dispensable process.In the piling work of flood rescue,dike reinforcement before and after the flood sea?son, rivers, lakes, ponds and embankment maintenance and highway construction and maintenance, the machine in?stead of human piling operation is a technological revolution.Based on the status and principle research and review of domestic portable hammer,the technical level of domestic portable hydraulic hammers is clarified, for the view of the current shortcomings, it lies the theoretical basis for the design and development of new portable hydraulic hammers.%防洪抢险过程中,传统捆抛柳石枕、桩柴护岸、柳石楼厢等抢险技术发挥着巨大无比的作用,在这些应急抢险方法中,需要大量木桩以便固定柳枕和厢埽.在公路建设工程中,两边护栏的建设维护也需要大量钢管桩.由此可见,打桩是各种抢护方法中不可缺少的一道工序.而在抗洪抢险,汛期前后的堤防加固,维护江、湖、河、塘等堤岸以及公路建设维护的打桩作业中,由机械劳动代替人力打桩作业是一次技术性革命.本文通过对国内各类便携式打桩机现状、原理进行研究总结,明确国内便携式液压打桩机技术水平及存在的缺陷,为设计研发新型便携式液压打桩机奠定理论基础.

  6. Precision Numerical Simulation of Water Hammer Considered Windward%考虑迎风性的高精度水击数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳思源; 刘韩生; 董瑜

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial to simulate the process of water hammer because of its serious harm to the normal operation of running hydro. Numerical method to simulate water hammer phenomenon is a hot research currently. In this paper a TVD scheme considered the windward applying in numerically the water hammer couple was used to solve the water hammer equations to simulate water hammer pressure in a simple pipeline. A comparison with Lax-Friedrichs, MacCormark the TVD scheme not considered windward and analytical solutions shows that the TVD scheme considered the windward has the advantages of high resolution, high accuracy and low dissipation. The TVD scheme considered the windward is more repressive and less dissipative than that of the TVD scheme.%水击问题会对水利枢纽的正常运行造成严重危害,模拟其过程至关重要。考虑TVD格式及水流的迎风性,应用于水击方程组中,模拟简单管道中的水击压力变化。并与Lax-Friedrichs( LF)、MacCormark( MC)、未考虑迎风性的TVD格式及解析解进行对比。结果表明:基于迎风性的TVD格式具有高分辨率、高精度、低耗散性等优点,相比于未考虑迎风性的TVD格式,其有更强的压制性,耗散性更弱。

  7. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  8. A contribution to water hammer analysis in pumped-storage power plants; Ein Beitrag zur Druckstossberechnung von Pumpspeicheranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeller, Stefan; Jaberg, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    2013-03-01

    The operation of pumped-storage power plants induces a highly transient fluid flow in the penstock of high head water power plants. In the planning phase a reliable prediction of the transient plant behaviour in unsteady load cases such as e.g. machine start or switching load cases is necessary. Numerical simulation methods provide a tool to calculate the occurring pressure pulsations or mass oscillations as well as for the optimization of the transient behaviour. Commercial software-packages for water hammer simulations usually do not provide numerical models for a realistic calculation of complex components like surge tanks, turbines or emergency closing valves in a high head water power plant. But especially these components need to be modelled correctly in order to get a significant and reliable solution. This article shows the practice ofthe development of a custom-designed numerical model on the example of a pump turbine. (orig.)

  9. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Treatment of Hammer Toe%微创治疗锤状趾畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵思桥; 马顺前; 高战鳌; 顾始伟; 周文; 贾晓龙; 夏涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical results after minimally invasive surgery in treatment of hammer toe. Methods The clinical data of 218 patients (344 toes)with hammer toe who received the minimally invasive surgery between January 2012 and January 2016 were reviewed.There were 8 males and 210 females with an average age of 59. 80 years.215 patients (309 toes)suffered from hammer toe in second toe;29 patients (31 toes)in third toe;4 patients (4 toes)in fourth toe.215 patients (338 toes)suffered from hallux valgus at the same time.ACFAS Scoring Scale for forefoot was (41.3±10.71)before surgery.Results All patients were followed for 6~30 months.ACFAS Scoring Scale for forefoot is 88.6±5.29 after surgery.The difference had statistical significance before and after surgery (P=0.000). 90.83% patients had excellent results,7.79% good,and 1.38% bad.Conclusion Hammer toe can be corrected with less trauma,faster recovery,less complications,and more satisfaction by flexibly using a variety of minimally invasive sur-gery.%目的:评价微创手术治疗锤状趾畸形的临床疗效。方法回顾分析了西安市第一医院骨科自2012年1月至2016年1月所行218例(344趾)使用微创手术技术治疗锤状趾畸形病例,其中男性8例(16趾),女性210例(328趾);平均年龄59.80岁;第2趾发病215例(309趾),第3趾发病29例(31趾),第4趾发病4例(4趾);合并拇外翻畸形215例(338趾)。这些病例均采用微创手术技术治疗。术前美国足踝外科医生学会(American college of foot and ankle surgeons,ACFAS)前足评分平均为(41.3±10.71)分。结果全部病例均获随访,随访时间6~30个月;术后ACFAS前足评分平均为(88.6±5.29)分,进行两样本t 检验发现术前术后评分之间差异有统计学意义(P=0.000)。术后疗效评价:优198例(318趾),占90.83%;良17例(21趾),占7.79%;差3例(5趾),占1

  10. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  11. Skull wounds linked with blunt trauma (hammer example). A report of two depressed skull fractures--elements of biomechanical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Yann; Becart, Anne; Colard, Thomas; Delille, Rémi; Tournel, Gilles; Hedouin, Valéry; Gosset, Didier

    2012-09-01

    The lesions of the skull following perforating traumas can create complex fractures. The blunt traumas can, according to the swiftness and the shape of the object used, create a depressed fracture. The authors describe through two clinical cases the lesional characteristic of the blunt traumas, perforating the skull using a hammer. In both cases the cranial lesions were very typical: they were geometrical, square shaped, of the same size than the tool (head and tip of the hammer). On the outer table of the skull, the edges of the wounds were sharp and regular. On the inner table, the edges of the wounds were beveled and irregular. The bony penetration in the depressed fracture results from a rupture of the outer table of the bone under tension, in periphery, by the bend of the bone to the impact (outbending) and then, from the inner table with comminuted bony fragmentation. Breeding on the fractures of the size and the shape of the blunt objects used is inconstant and differs, that it is the objects of flat surface or wide in opposition to those of small surface area. Fractures morphologies depend on one hand on these extrinsic factors and on the other hand, of intrinsic factors (structure of the bone). To identify them, we had previously conducted experimental work on cranial bone samples. The bone was submitted to a device for three-point bending. This work had shown properties of thickness and stiffness of the various areas of the vault. Our cases are consistent with these results and illustrate the variability of bone lesions according to region and mode of use of blunt weapons. Many studies have identified criteria for identification of the weapons and the assistance of digital and biomechanical models will be an invaluable contribution with this aim in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contemporary perspectives on psychosomatics in Germany: A commentary on Karen Gubb's paper, "Psychosomatics today: a review of contemporary theory and practice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Karen Gubb's (2013) review focuses on contemporary developments in psychoanalytic theory and practice in relation to psychosomatics, starting with some historical remarks, and Paris School with the Attachment approach. This paper examines the question of how the German scene fits into the issues raised in Gubb's discussion. From a historical point of view, psychosomatic thinking had already come into existence at the beginning of the twentieth century in internal medicine, influenced not only by Freud's ideas, but also by holistic philosophical approaches, anthropology, and semiotic systems theory as well. Psychosomatics is still under the influence of psychodynamic thinking, but as a required subject for all medical students, it is currently more involved in inpatient treatment settings than in psychoanalyses in the classical couch setting. Research projects using standardized questionnaires, neuroimaging, and other empirical methods have also proved that these treatments are as effective as therapy based on psychoanalytic concepts like alexithymia or the Attachment approach. In addition, qualitative methods have been implemented to grasp the fine-grained conscious and unconscious processes in the inner life of patients and in the verbal and nonverbal interaction phenomena of therapies. To sum up: Recent developments in psychoanalytic theory, which begin to overcome the differences among psychoanalytic schools in favor of re-erecting a common psychoanalytic understanding like that demonstrated in Gubb's article, fit together in bridging the gap between insights from classical psychoanalyses and results from empirical research.

  13. The Junkyard in the Jungle: Transnational, Transnatural Nature in Karen Tei Yamashita’s Through the Arc of the Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Simal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this new millennium the relatively young field of ecocriticism has had to face important transdisciplinary, transnational, and transnatural challenges. This article attempts to demonstrate how two of the major changes that environmental criticism is currently undergoing, the transnational turn and the transnatural challenge, have both been encoded in Through the Arc of the Rain Forest (1990, the first novel published by Karen Tei Yamashita. I particularly focus on a significant episode in Through the Arc of the Rain Forest, when a peculiar anthropogenic ecosystem is discovered, and interpret it according to Leo Marx’s classic paradigm of “the machine in the garden.” I intend to prove that Yamashita’s novel not only revisits the old master theory but also revamps it by destabilizing the classic human-nature divide inherent in first-wave ecocriticism and by adding the transnational ingredient. Thus, the machine-in-the-garden paradigm is updated in order to incorporate the broadening of current environmental criticism, both literally (globalization and conceptually (transnatural nature. While at times Marx’s paradigm may metamorphose in intriguing ways, the old trope also corroborates its continuing validity. Though filtered by the sieve of globalization and shaken by the emergence of cyborg ecosystems, “the machine in the garden” has survived as a compelling ecocritical framework, even if it occasionally mutates into a junkyard in the jungle.

  14. The Junkyard in the Jungle: Transnational, Transnatural Nature in Karen Tei Yamashita’s Through the Arc of the Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Simal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In this new millennium the relatively young field of ecocriticism has had to face important transdisciplinary, transnational, and transnatural challenges. This article attempts to demonstrate how two of the major changes that environmental criticism is currently undergoing, the transnational turn and the transnatural challenge, have both been encoded in Through the Arc of the Rain Forest (1990, the first novel published by Karen Tei Yamashita. I particularly focus on a significant episode in Through the Arc of the Rain Forest, when a peculiar anthropogenic ecosystem is discovered, and interpret it according to Leo Marx’s classic paradigm of “the machine in the garden.” I intend to prove that Yamashita’s novel not only revisits the old master theory but also revamps it by destabilizing the classic human-nature divide inherent in first-wave ecocriticism and by adding the transnational ingredient. Thus, the machine-in-the-garden paradigm is updated in order to incorporate the broadening of current environmental criticism, both literally (globalization and conceptually (transnatural nature. While at times Marx’s paradigm may metamorphose in intriguing ways, the old trope also corroborates its continuing validity. Though filtered by the sieve of globalization and shaken by the emergence of cyborg ecosystems, “the machine in the garden” has survived as a compelling ecocritical framework, even if it occasionally mutates into a junkyard in the jungle.

  15. Study on Effect of Water Hammer in Space Pipe with CFD%空间管道的水锤效应的CFD研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席志德; 马建中; 孙磊

    2012-01-01

    The typical water hammer theory is introduced at first, and the shortcoming of typical water hammer to calculate water hammer in the space pipe is analyzed, and then the CFD method to study the effect of water hammer in space pipe is applied. If the coupling effect of the structure and the fluid is not considered, the fluid govern equation in the space pipe can use the basic fluid control equation. The result can be obtained by CFD technology, when the govern equation and the fluid state equation and the initial condition, boundary condition is obtained. The numerical effect numerical dissipation and the frequency dissipation is avoid when the case include wave process. The CFD is applied to simulate the model in related reference, and discuss the effect of the discrete format and the grid. Finally the progress of the water hammer in the pipe is discussed. The method in this paper can be used in more complex pipe system to simulate the water hammer effect.%分析经典水锤理论在计算空间管道的缺陷,介绍计算流体力学( CFD)计算空间管道中水锤的方法.如果不考虑结构和流场的耦合效应,可以用流场的基本方程作为计算空间管道水锤的控制方程,加上状态方程、初始条件及边界条件就可以借助于CFD技术求解空间管道的水锤效应.CFD计算具有波动特性的问题时,需要注意数值耗散和数值频散这2个数值效应.本研究对相关文献的实例进行CFD水锤的计算,讨论不同阶的离散格式和网格对管道水锤计算结果的影响,以及管道内水锤波产生及传播的过程.

  16. Mechanism of Demulsification of Emulsified Oil by Water Hammer Harmonic%乳化油液水击谐波破乳技术的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阁; 陈彬; 张贤明; 黄朗

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of water hammer harmonic demulsification, a mechanics equilibrium equation for dispersed droplets was established, and the demulsification experiment under water hammer harmonic was carried out. Causes and characteristics of the dispersed droplet gathering in the water hammer harmonic field due to the water hammer harmonic vibration force were investigated. The demulsification mechanism was studied based on gathering, deformation, collision and coalescence of the dispersed droplets. The movement law of the dispersed droplets in the waterhammer harmonic field was acquired. The experimental results showed that the dispersed dropletsaggregated in a certain wavelength range under action of the water hammer harmonic and frequency ofthe water hammer harmonic influenced the aggregation; along with increases of the dispersed dropletsize and the density, the gathering of the dispersed droplets was enhanced, which benefited thedemulsification.%对水击谐波破乳的机理进行了分析,在此基础上建立了分散相液滴的力学平衡方程,并进行了水击谐波破乳实验.分析和讨论了在水击谐波场中分散相液滴由于受到水击谐波强迫振动力而相互聚集的原因和特点,从分散相液滴的聚集、变形、碰撞和聚结等几个阶段探讨了水击谐波破乳的机理,得到分散相液滴在水击谐波场作用下的运动规律.实验结果表明,在水击谐波场中分散相液滴在一定波长范围相互聚集,水击谐波的频率对分散相液滴聚集有一定的影响;随分散相液滴粒径和密度的增大,分散相液滴聚集能力增强,有利于破乳.

  17. 航天器推进系统水击及其抑制方法%Research of water hammer and its suppression methods for spacecraft propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏政; 彭小辉; 程玉强; 吴建军

    2012-01-01

    针对航天器推进系统充填和关机过程水击这一动力学问题,基于已建立的航天器推进系统仿真模型,开展了某型推进系统的仿真研究,并重点分析了节流孔、弯管对推进剂供应管路水击的抑制作用.研究结果表明:①在推进系统充填和关机过程中,其不同位置均出现了明显的水击现象,充填过程水击频率较低,而关机过程水击频率较高,关机过程的水击峰值压力显著高于充填过程;②节流孔可显著削弱充填过程中的压力和流量振荡,关机过程的水击需要由较小的节流孔才能有效抑制;③弯管可明显削弱充填过程中的压力和流量振荡,对流量振荡的抑制效果尤为显著,但弯管对关机过程水击的抑制效果不明显.%In order to investigate the water hammer dynamics of spacecraft propulsion system during the priming and shutdown processes,dynamic simulation of a certain unified propulsion system(UPS) was conducted firstly based on UPS simulator modeled previously.Then the water hammer suppression effect of orifice and bent pipe on the propellant supply pipeline was analyzed thoroughly.Results show that water hammer phenomena occur obviously in almost the whole propulsion system during the priming and shutdown processes.However,the frequency and the peak pressure of water hammer during the priming process are both lower than that of the shutdown process,especially the peak pressure.The results also show that both the orifice and the bent pipe can suppress the oscillation of pressure and flow rate significantly during the priming processes,but only orifice with small diameter can suppress the water hammer effectively during the shutdown process.Moreover,in contrast to their weak suppression of water hammer during the shutdown process,bent pipe can suppress the oscillation of flow rate especially effective in the priming process.

  18. 1000 MW 火电机组水击现象分析及预防处置措施%Water Hammer Analysis,Prevention and Handle in 1 000 MW Coal Combustion Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳海; 张才稳; 王广庭; 许涛; 卢双龙

    2015-01-01

    火力发电机组装机容量越大,发生水击时的危害就越大,一旦发生就可能造成设备的严重损害。结合水击发生的机理,分析了1000MW火力发电机组可能发生水击的重点部位,并结合运行实际,提出了水击的预防与应急处置措施。%The capability of coal combustion unit is larger ,the damage caused by water hammer is greater .Once it happens , may lead to serious damage to equipments .Combined with the mechanism of water hammer ,this paper analyzes the possible position of water hammer in 1 000MW coal combustion unit .It also brings forward the prevention and handle measurement of water hammer .

  19. Explore Off Valve Water Hammer Problem with Long-distance Lines Filling Water Supply Project%长距离供水工程的关阀水锤与线路充填问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚财鸿

    2015-01-01

    主要分析了长距离供水工程中关阀水锤特性和出现的线路填充现象,在无摩阻输水系统水锤公式的基础上,分别探讨了长距离供水系统的直接水锤和间接水锤,以期能为相关管道设计和运行调度提供理论参考。%The analysis of the long-distance water supply project hammer feature off valve and the emergence of the phenomenon of filling lines, water supply systems on the basis of non-friction formula on water hammer, water hammer, respectively, discussed the direct and indirect long-distance water supply system hammer, with a view to provide theoretical reference for the associated piping design and operation scheduling.

  20. 破碎机锤头耐磨材料与制造工艺的发展%Development of wear-resistant materials for crusher hammers and their manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦; 程巨强; 高滋辰; 刘志学

    2012-01-01

    介绍了破碎机锤头常用材质的种类、成分、组织和性能特点;综述了破碎机锤头耐磨材料的几种生产工艺及特点。破碎机锤头的耐磨材料要根据破碎物料的种类和设备情况来选择。锤头工作应力较大时,可选择高锰钢或超高锰钢锤头材料,锤头的生产可采用整体铸造的方法;锤头工作应力较小时,可选择合金钢整体铸造或碳钢与高铬铸铁复合铸造方法。复合铸造法生产破碎机锤头,是提高破碎机锤头使用寿命的较好方法。%The kind of common materials for crusher hammers and their microstructure, properties and char- acteristics were introduced, and several processes of manufacturing wear-resistant materials and their charac- teristics were summarized. Wear-resistant materials for the crusher hammers should be selected according to the kind of crushing material and equipment status. While the hammer had higher operating stress, the high manganese steel or ultra-high manganese steel could be selected for hammer material and the hammer could be manufactured by integral casting. While the hammer had lower operating stress, integral casting of alloy steel or compound casting of carbon steel and high chromium cast iron could be selected. The application of compound casting to manufacture of the crusher hammer was a good way to improve the lifespan of the crusher hammer.

  1. Energy based simulation of a Timoshenko beam in non-forced rotation. Influence of the piano hammer shank flexibility on the sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabassier, Juliette; Duruflé, Marc

    2014-12-01

    A nonlinear model for a vibrating Timoshenko beam in non-forced unknown rotation is derived from the virtual work principle applied to a system of beam with mass at the end. The system represents a piano hammer shank coupled to a hammer head. An energy-based numerical scheme is then provided, obtained by non-classical approaches. A major difficulty for time discretization comes from the nonlinear behavior of the kinetic energy of the system. This new numerical scheme is then coupled to a global energy-preserving numerical solution for the whole piano. The obtained numerical simulations show that the pianistic touch clearly influences the spectrum of the piano sound of equally loud isolated notes. These differences do not come from a possible shock excitation on the structure, or from a changing impact point, or a “longitudinal rubbing motion” on the string, since neither of these features is modeled in our study.

  2. Numerical simulation of water hammer in low pressurized pipe: comparison of SimHydraulics and Lax-Wendroff method with experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himr D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article describes simulation of unsteady flow during water hammer with two programs, which use different numerical approaches to solve ordinary one dimensional differential equations describing the dynamics of hydraulic elements and pipes. First one is Matlab-Simulink-SimHydraulics, which is a commercial software developed to solve the dynamics of general hydraulic systems. It defines them with block elements. The other software is called HYDRA and it is based on the Lax-Wendrff numerical method, which serves as a tool to solve the momentum and continuity equations. This program was developed in Matlab by Brno University of Technology. Experimental measurements were performed on a simple test rig, which consists of an elastic pipe with strong damping connecting two reservoirs. Water hammer is induced with fast closing the valve. Physical properties of liquid and pipe elasticity parameters were considered in both simulations, which are in very good agreement and differences in comparison with experimental data are minimal.

  3. Numerical simulation of water hammer in low pressurized pipe: comparison of SimHydraulics and Lax-Wendroff method with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.

    2013-04-01

    Article describes simulation of unsteady flow during water hammer with two programs, which use different numerical approaches to solve ordinary one dimensional differential equations describing the dynamics of hydraulic elements and pipes. First one is Matlab-Simulink-SimHydraulics, which is a commercial software developed to solve the dynamics of general hydraulic systems. It defines them with block elements. The other software is called HYDRA and it is based on the Lax-Wendrff numerical method, which serves as a tool to solve the momentum and continuity equations. This program was developed in Matlab by Brno University of Technology. Experimental measurements were performed on a simple test rig, which consists of an elastic pipe with strong damping connecting two reservoirs. Water hammer is induced with fast closing the valve. Physical properties of liquid and pipe elasticity parameters were considered in both simulations, which are in very good agreement and differences in comparison with experimental data are minimal.

  4. Theory of Influences of Water Hammer Effect on Well Cleanout%水锤效应影响洗井效果的原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕健; 刘盈君; 杨甘生

    2015-01-01

    Cleanout service plays an important role in hydrological well completion.With an example of packed backpres-sure cleanout, well cleanout by water hammer effect is elaborated in this paper.It is showed that by the model simplifica-tion, the water head difference caused by water hammer effect can reach 136m;the good effect of well washing is proved in theory.Based on the analysis on variance in the water hammer pressure formula, 3 methods for well cleanout optimization by water hammer effect are put forward:put suction nozzle of pump at the bottom end of packed interval, increase the pump volume or shorten the length of packed interval.%洗井工艺在水文勘探孔成井工艺中占有重要的地位。以封闭反压洗井为例,详细阐述了水锤效应的洗井原理,并通过相应的模型简化推算,得出了水锤效应所造成的水头差可达136 m,在理论上证明了水锤效应具有良好的洗井效果。最后,通过对水锤压强公式中变量的分析,提出了将泵的入水口置于封隔段最底端、提高泵量、减小封隔段长度等3种方法来优化水锤效应的洗井效果。

  5. 高性能液动锤的试验与研究%Tests and Research on High-performance Hydro-hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红东; 武国峰

    2015-01-01

    High-performance hydro-hammer adopts the working principle of volumetric double effect;it has the characteris-tics of single high impact energy and low pump pressure.Laboratory experiments have showed that the structure design of high-performance hydro-hammer is reasonable and the performance and technical indicators have reached the design expec-tations.The hammer can output single high impact energy and has the characteristics of high impact frequency and low pump pressure also.The field tests have showed that rapid and efficient full face drilling in hard rocks can be realized by the combination of high-performance hydro-hammer and spherical crown button bits.%高性能液动锤采用容积式双作用的工作原理,具有输出单次大冲击功和低泵压的工作特性。室内实验表明,高性能液动锤结构设计合理,其性能和技术指标达到了设计预期,既能输出较大的单次冲击功,同时还拥有较高的冲击频率和低泵压的工作特性;野外初步试验表明,高性能液动锤配合球齿钻头能够在坚硬地层中实现快速、高效的全面钻进。

  6. Schmidt Hammer studies in the maritime Antarctic: Application to dating Holocene deglaciation and estimating the effects of macrolichens on rock weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmin, M.; Worland, M. R.; Convey, P.; Cannone, N.

    2012-06-01

    In order to contribute to the reconstruction of the deglaciation history of the Marguerite Bay area (~ 68°S, Maritime Antarctic) and to estimate the rock weathering rate in this Antarctic sector, 28 sites (7 on Rothera Point and 21 on Anchorage Island) were characterised using Schmidt Hammer values. The weathering effect of two of the most widespread species of macrolichens in this area (Usnea sphacelata and Umbilicaria decussata) was tested at 5 different sites on Rothera Point. Schmidt Hammer data, in conjunction with recent 14C age, suggest a deglaciation age for the Marguerite Bay area of around 12 ka, and an average uplift rate of 5.4 mm year- 1 on Anchorage Island for the period between 3.3 and 5.2 ka. The weathering rates are extremely slow (e.g. three times slower than reported in Norway). Our data confirm that lichens exert a strong impact on weathering, decreasing the Schmidt Hammer R-values on lichenised surfaces by a factor of 3-4 compared to bare rock surfaces. The effect of lichens on weathering is mainly due to edaphic conditions and the type of the lichen involved rather the period of exposure.

  7. 关于湿法熄焦系统中水锤现象防护的比较%Measures for water hammer prevention in wet quenching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春才; 张晓光

    2014-01-01

    介绍了水锤现象的成因、危害、机理及防护措施,通过对比分析国内几种典型湿法熄焦工艺中水锤现象的防护措施,发现在熄焦水泵出口选用缓闭止回阀,在熄焦水输送管道中部选用自动液力阀,可防止湿法熄焦系统中水锤现象发生。%With description of the cause , harmfulness , mechanism and prevention measures against water hammer , and by analyzing several typical measures for water hammer prevention in wet quenching system ,this paper concluded that delay-close check valve can be selected at the outlet of quenching pump and automatic hydraulic pump can be used on the pipeline carrying quenching water so that the water hammer can be effectively avoided in the wet quenching process .

  8. 水击泄压阀在成品油管道的应用%Application of Water Hammer Pressure Relief Valve in the Product Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 刘威

    2012-01-01

    The water hammer pressure relief valve is one of the protective equipments of product pipeline. It prevents the piping system through venting the excess pressure. According to 10 years of practical experience of applying the water hammer pressure relief valve in the Lanzhou-Chengdu-Chongqing pipeline, this paper introduces the water hammer pressure relief valve from the structure and principle, routine operations, maintenance and failure analysis and its improvements in the application process.%水击泄压阀是成品油管道的保护设备之一,通过泄放多余的压力防止管道系统受到破坏.本文根据水击泄压阀在兰成渝输油管道应用10年来的实际经验,从水击泄压阀的结构及原理、常规操作、维护保养及故障分析等方面介绍了水击泄压阀以及其在应用过程中的改进.

  9. 化工装置中防范管道水击设计的研究%Research on Design against Pipe Water Hammer in Chemical Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董新

    2016-01-01

    从化工装置中管道内气-液两相混合流动的状态入手,综合分析了蒸汽管道、凝结水回收管道、气-液两相流管道产生水击的过程,并结合具体的工程实例,指出了水击现象是由管道内的介质冷热混合不均形成气-液两相造成的,并提出了管道水击的预防和消除措施。%Beginning from the flowing status of mixed gas and liquid in pipe of chemical unit, this paper analyzes the process in which water hammer oc ̄curs in steam pipe, condensate recovery pipe and two ̄phase gas ̄liquid pipe. It also sheds light on the reasons for water hammering in the pipe of chemical unit based on specific engineering example, and it puts forward measures for preventing and eliminating pipe water hammer.

  10. 降低蒸汽管路水锤的技术方法%Method for Reducing Water Hammer in Steam Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金勇; 王占青; 张云蒙; 郭志明; 李培伟

    2015-01-01

    为了降低水锤现象,通过对蒸汽管路初始送气时内部汽、液转化,流动的分析,较为形象地阐述了水锤现象的产生机理,然后通过在管路提升处合理设置集水管、疏水器的技术方法及规范蒸汽阀门开启步骤的操作,较好地解决了蒸汽管路水锤现象的产生,消除了管路振动所带来的安全隐患。%In order to remove or decrease the appearance of water hammer, by analyzing gas-liquid transformation and fluid flow in steam pipeline, the mechanism of producing water hammer phenomena was described in this article. With the methods of disposing water collecting pipe and steam trap at elevating location and regulating valve opening procedure, the problem of water hammer had been solved and safety menace induced from vibration of pipeline was removed.

  11. Development and Selection of Wear Resistant Materials for Hammer Crusher%破碎机锤头耐磨材料的研制与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛静波

    2012-01-01

    分析了近年来国内外破碎机锤头耐磨材料的研究及应用情况,指出破碎机锤头材料普遍存在的问题:硬度和韧性偏低、耐磨性差,且容易断裂。着重介绍了大型破碎机超强高锰钢锤头、耐磨合金钢锤头、高韧性合金耐磨铸铁锤头的研制和使用效果。%The development and application of wear resistant materials for hammer crusher in recent years is analyzed. It is pointed out that the common problems of hammer crusher materials are lower hardness and toughness, bad abrasion resistant and easy to fracture. The manufacture and using effects of superhigh manganese steel, wearresistant alloy steel and high toughness abrasionresistant alloy cast iron hammers for large crusher are emphasized.

  12. Flexible design and algorithm achievement of hammer crushers%锤式破碎机柔性化设计及其算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周征; 段国林; 岳磊; 许红静; 李宁

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the force states of key parts of hammer crashers, the size of the spindle is optimized, the hammer lifespan is predicted, and the collision and crushing course is simulated. Then, the flexible design method is proposed, generating algorithm and connecting algorithm of flexible body are studied. Moreover, the rigid and flexible coupled model is built. With the application of proe/adams/ansys, the performancedriven analysis results are obtained, which offers references for the development of hammer crushers.%为了研究锤式破碎机关键零部件的受力情况,对主轴进行设计优化,对锤头进行寿命预测,对碰撞破碎过程进行模拟仿真,提出了柔性化设计方法,研究了柔性体的生成算法和连接算法,建立了刚柔耦合分析模型.通过proe/adams/ansys的联合应用,得到了满足性能驱动的分析结果.研究结果将为锤式破碎机的设计开发提供依据.

  13. Review of Financial Intelligence for Entrepreneurs: What You Really Need to Know about the Numbers by Karen Berman and Joe Knight, with John Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Vacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berman, Karen and Knight, Joe, with John Case. Financial Intelligence for Entrepreneurs: What You Really Need to Know about the Numbers, (Boston MA: Harvard Business Press, 2008. 285 pp. ISBN 978-1-4221-1915-0. From “The art of finance (and why it matters” (Part One through “Creating a financially intelligent company” (Part Eight, Financial Intelligence for Entrepreneurs is an engaging explanation and appreciation of financial statements and financial ratios. Short, easily digested chapters; just-in-time boxes to introduce terminology; easy, direct, in-text calculations from bare-bones, hypothetical financial statements to illustrate concepts; a 44-page appendix of crafted exercises on the income statement, balance sheet, cash-flow statement, and financial ratios from two public companies for deeper understanding; a detailed 19-page index for quick, after-you’ve-read-it navigation – all make for an efficient learning opportunity for readers who want a painless way to know about the numbers used in the world of business. Two quantitative literacy principles emerge as themes. The first is the “art of finance” (social construction: that is, the numbers are not totally objective; to varying extents, they reflect decisions, assumptions, and estimates in the accounting. The second is that ratios provide a window into the story that financial statements are able to tell. Written for entrepreneurs and company owners, the book ends with OBM (open-book management—a management philosophy based on financial literacy. The vision of this book is businesses in which all employees are financially literate and managers and owners are financially intelligent.

  14. Students and Graduates Learn Library Educational Content from Interactive Multimedia Tutorials. A review of: Markey, Karen, Annie Armstrong, Sandy De Groote, Michael Fosmire, Laura Fuderer, Kelly Garrett, Helen Georgas, Linda Sharp, Cheri Smith, Michael Spaly, and JoniE. Warner. “Testing the Effectiveness of Interactive Multimedia for Library‐User Education.” portal: Libraries & the Academy 5.4 (Oct. 2005: 527‐54

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective –To demonstrate the effectiveness of interactive multimedia tutorials in delivering library educational content, and to evaluate librarian experiences of developing multimedia tutorials, both aspart of the LUMENS (Drabenstott project.Design – User study (questionnaire and interviews using pretest‐posttest design.Setting – Four academic libraries in the United States. One library dropped out during the course of the project.Subjects – Ninety university students from the University of Illinois Chicago (UIC, Purdue University, and the University of Notre Dame participated in the main study to evaluate three of the tutorials: “Doing research an introduction to the concepts of online searching,” “How to read a scientificp aper,” and “Hungry for information?” Another group of 15 subjects from UIC, consisting of 10 graduate students, 2 faculty, 2 librarians, and one fellow, assessed a fourth tutorial “Keeping current in your field.” Librarians were interviewed about their experiences producing the interactive multimedia tutorials.Methods – The 90 students were given a pretest containing questions about library educational content and five demographic questions. The students used the multimedia tutorial for 15‐30 minutes and immediately afterward were given a posttest containing comparable questions to the pretest in terms of content and difficulty. The students were also asked to rate their experiences of using the tutorials in various ways on a scale from 0‐10. At UIC, the experiences of the subjects using the multimedia tutorial were assessed by personal interviews. Librarians producing the multimedia tutorials were asked about their experiences of developing multimedia tutorials through e‐mail, listserv discussion, phone calls, and face‐to‐face personal and group interviews.Main results – All three libraries measured a significant increase (using a one sample t test, p75% of students were familiar with tutorial content before start. Despite this, most of the students found the tutorials useful and enjoyable, and the majority were fairly likely to recommend the tutorial to a friend. Interviews with subjects at UIC revealed similar experiences, except that the subjects were less familiar with the tutorial content at the beginning, and they were more likely to return to the tutorial for a refresher. The tutorial with the highest amount of interactivity was the most popular. The librarians found it difficult to find time to learn Macromedia Flash and to work within the LUMENS project generally. Eight out of 15 librarians remained with the project over the entire period.Conclusion – Students learned library educational content by using multimedia tutorials and seemed to enjoy the experience, and educational librarians should lead multi‐expert project teams in tutorial production. Finally, the educational value of multimedia tutorials must be offset from the time and effort needed to produce them.

  15. Cavity water hammer characteristic test on two places%两处断流弥合水击特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵莉; 杨玉思; 卢玉东; 胡晓; 樊凌珲

    2016-01-01

    为研究有压管道系统停泵过程产生的多处水柱分离现象,并分析断流弥合水击升压和断流长度的影响因素,设计出可以实现同时发生两处断流弥合水击的试验模型。试验观察到停泵产生的水柱分离现象有完全雾状汽化状态、完全断流空腔状态、既有断流空腔又有雾状汽化区的断流状态以及不完全断流状态等4种。试验结果表明,初始流速、关阀速度是两处断流弥合升压和断流长度的重要影响因素,初始流速越大,弥合升压越大,断流长度越长;关阀速度越快,弥合升压越大,断流长度越长;流速较高时,管路布置形式对具有两处断流管路的弥合升压影响很大。%In order to study the water column separation phenomenon and analyze the factors of pressure boosts and breaking length during the process of stopping a pump for a system, a test model was designed to cause cavity water hammer to occur in two places at the same time. Through the test model, we observed the water column separation phenomena. These phenomena included a completely vaporized state, a completely blocked cavity state, a blocked cavity and vaporized state, and not-completely block cavity state. The test results show that the initial flow rate and valve closing speed are the two most important factors that influence the water hammer pressure and breaking length. When the flow rate is higher, the water hammer pressure is greater and the breaking length is longer. When the valve closing speed is faster, the water hammer pressure is greater and the breaking length is longer. When there is a higher flow rate, the pipeline layout form has a large influence on water hammer pressure when the pipeline system has devascularization in two places.

  16. Microstructure and Properties of Solid-Liquid Composite Cast Hammer%固-液复合铸造锤头的组织与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程巨强; 弥国华; 李梦; 刘志学

    2014-01-01

    研究高铬铸铁-碳钢固-液复合铸造锤头的组织及硬度分布特征。结果表明,固-液复合铸造高铬铸铁锤头部分具有较高的硬度,远离复合面高铬铸铁硬度增加,碳钢硬度降低。远离复合面高铬铸铁组织为M7C3型碳化物+回火马氏体+残余奥氏体,固-液复合铸造高铬铸铁组织中碳化物有定向分布的趋势,有利于提高锤头的耐磨性;远离复合面碳钢部分的组织为珠光体和较多的铁素体,复合面附近碳钢组织珠光体数量明显增加,铁素体数量明显减小,高铬铸铁中的碳通过复合界面向碳钢进行扩散。%It's a study on microstructure and hardness distribution characteristics of the solid-liquid composite cast hammer of high chromium cast iron and carbon steel casting. The experimental results have shown that high chromium cast iron of solid-liquid composite cast hammer has better hardness. Far away from composite surface, the hardness of high chromium cast iron hammer increased while that of carbon steel casting decreased and the microstructure was M7C3 type carbide+tempered martensite+residual austenite, and the carbide of solid-liquid composite high chromium cast iron hammer showed a trend of directional distribution propitious to an improved wear resistance. Far away from composite surface, the hardness of cast steel hammer decreased and with microstructure of pearlite and more ferrite. The number of pearlite significant increased and ferrite significant decreased near the composite surface and carbon in high chromium cast iron diffused from composite interface to carbon cast steel.

  17. Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Caldwell, R L

    2005-10-01

    Mantis shrimp are renowned for their unusual method of breaking shells with brief, powerful strikes of their raptorial appendages. Due to the extreme speeds of these strikes underwater, cavitation occurs between their appendages and hard-shelled prey. Here we examine the magnitude and relative contribution of the impact and cavitation forces generated by the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. We present the surprising finding that each strike generates two brief, high-amplitude force peaks, typically 390-480 micros apart. Based on high-speed imaging, force measurements and acoustic analyses, it is evident that the first force peak is caused by the limb's impact and the second force peak is due to the collapse of cavitation bubbles. Peak limb impact forces range from 400 to 1501 N and peak cavitation forces reach 504 N. Despite their small size, O. scyllarus can generate impact forces thousands of times their body weight. Furthermore, on average, cavitation peak forces are 50% of the limb's impact force, although cavitation forces may exceed the limb impact forces by up to 280%. The rapid succession of high peak forces used by mantis shrimp suggests that mantis shrimp use a potent combination of cavitation forces and extraordinarily high impact forces to fracture shells. The stomatopod's hammer is fundamentally different from typical shell-crushing mechanisms such as fish jaws and lobster claws, and may have played an important and as yet unexamined role in the evolution of shell form.

  18. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Subani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order modelling technique. The results show that changes in the pressure wave profile and amplitude depend on the type of closing laws, valve closure times, and the number of polygonal segments in the closing function. The pressure wave profile varies from square to triangular and trapezoidal shape depending on the type of closing laws, while the amplitude of pressure waves reduces as the closing time is reduced and the numbers of polygonal segments are increased. The instantaneous and convex closing laws give rise to minimum and maximum pressure, respectively.

  19. Numerical Simulation for Two-Phase Water Hammer Flows in Pipe by Quasi-Two-Dimensional Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Uk Jang; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Qiang Sun

    2016-01-01

    The features of a quasi⁃two⁃dimensional ( quasi⁃2D) model for simulating two⁃phase water hammer flows with vaporous cavity in a pipe are investigated. The quasi⁃2D model with discrete vaporous cavity in the pipe is proposed in this paper. This model uses the quasi⁃2D model for pure liquid zone and one⁃dimensional ( 1D ) discrete vapor cavity model for vaporous cavity zone. The quasi⁃2D model solves two⁃dimensional equations for both axial and radial velocities and 1D equations for both pressure head and discharge by the method of characteristics. The 1D discrete vapor cavity model is used to simulate the vaporous cavity occurred when the pressure in the local pipe is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid. The proposed model is used to simulate two⁃phase water flows caused by the rapid downstream valve closure in a reservoir⁃pipe⁃valve system. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with those by the corresponding 1D model and the experimental ones provided by the literature, respectively. The comparison shows that the maximum pressure heads simulated by the proposed model are more accurate than those by the corresponding 1D model.

  20. Mapreduce is Good Enough? If All You Have is a Hammer, Throw Away Everything That's Not a Nail!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jimmy

    2013-03-01

    Hadoop is currently the large-scale data analysis "hammer" of choice, but there exist classes of algorithms that aren't "nails" in the sense that they are not particularly amenable to the MapReduce programming model. To address this, researchers have proposed MapReduce extensions or alternative programming models in which these algorithms can be elegantly expressed. This article espouses a very different position: that MapReduce is "good enough," and that instead of trying to invent screwdrivers, we should simply get rid of everything that's not a nail. To be more specific, much discussion in the literature surrounds the fact that iterative algorithms are a poor fit for MapReduce. The simple solution is to find alternative, noniterative algorithms that solve the same problem. This article captures my personal experiences as an academic researcher as well as a software engineer in a "real-world" production analytics environment. From this combined perspective, I reflect on the current state and future of "big data" research.

  1. Robust Sub-harmonic Mixer at 340 GHz Using Intrinsic Resonances of Hammer-Head Filter and Improved Diode Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; He, Yue; Lu, Bin; Jiang, Jun; Miao, Li; Deng, Xian-Jin; Xiong, Yong-zhong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a sub-harmonic mixer at 340 GHz based on anti-parallel Schottky diodes (SBDs). Intrinsic resonances in low-pass hammer-head filter have been adopted to enhance the isolation for different harmonic components, while greatly minimizing the transmission loss. The application of new DC grounding structure, impedance matching structure, and suspended micro-strip mitigates the negative influences of fabrication errors from metal cavity, quartz substrate, and micro-assembly. An improved lumped element equivalent circuit model of SBDs guarantees the accuracy of simulation, which takes current-voltage (I/V) behavior, capacitance-voltage (C/V) behavior, carrier velocity saturation, DC series resistor, plasma resonance, skin effect, and four kinds of noise generation mechanisms into consideration thoroughly. The measurement indicates that with local oscillating signal of 2 mW, the lowest double sideband conversion loss is 5.5 dB at 339 GHz; the corresponding DSB noise temperature is 757 K. The 3 dB bandwidth of conversion loss is 50 GHz from 317 to 367 GHz.

  2. Comparison of electrostatic fins with piezoelectric impact hammer techniques to extend impulse calibration range of a torsional thrust stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancotti, Anthony P; Gilpin, Matthew; Hilario, Martin S

    2012-03-01

    With the progression of high-power electric propulsion and high thrust-to-power propulsions system, thrust stand diagnostics require high-fidelity calibration systems that are accurate over a large-range of thrust levels. Multi-mode and variable I(sp) propulsion devices also require that a single stand be capable of measuring thrust from 10's of uNs to 100's of mNs. While the torsional thrust stand mechanic and diagnostics are capable of operating over such a large range, current pulsed calibration schemes are typically limited to a few orders of magnitude of dynamic range. In order to develop a stand with enough dynamic range, two separate calibration methods have been examined and compared to create a combined system. Electrostatic fin (ESF) and piezoelectric impact hammer (PIH) calibration systems were simultaneously tested on a large scale torsional thrust stand system. The use of the these two methods allowed the stand to be calibrated over four orders of magnitude, from 0.01 mNs to 750 mNs. The ESF system produced linear results within 0.52% from 0.01 mNs to 20 mNs, while the PIH system extended this calibration range from 10 mNs to 750 mNs with an error of 0.99%. The two calibration methods agreed within 4.51% over their overlapping range of 10-20 mNs.

  3. Research and Analysis of Water Hammer Problem of Crude Oil Terminal Pipeline%原油码头管道输送水击问题的研究与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵振智; 王为民; 李卫卫; 郑翔文; 王有龙

    2013-01-01

    原油码头卸船、原油库区装船过程当中很容易出现原油不稳定流动的现象,因此造成水击,水击对原油管道产生很严重的破坏性影响。针对大连长兴岛油船发生水击的现象进行了分析,阐述了产生水击的原因,水击的危害。提出了水击波的流速公式和不同工况时冲击压力的计算公式。最后针对工程的实际情况,从设计、施工、管理三方面提出了预防水击的措施。%Instable flow of crude oil appears very easily during crude oil ship unloading or loading, which can result in the phenomenon of water hammer, water hammer for crude oil pipeline is a devastating impact. In this paper, according to the tanker water hammer phenomenon occurred in Dalian Changxing island, reasons to cause the water hammer were analyzed as well as harms of water hammer. The velocity formula of water hammer wave was put forward as well as impact pressure calculation formula under different conditions. Finally, according to the actual situation of project, the prevention measures of water hammer were put forward from three aspects of design, construction and management.

  4. 有压管道水锤数学模型分析和防护技术%Analysis on Mathematical Model for Water Hammer in Pressure Pipeline and Discussion on Its Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣禹; 张嘉军; 张乾

    2012-01-01

    Choosing the right mathematical model and reasonable scheme of water hammer protection is very important for the safely operation of long distance water transmission pipeline. Based on the related theory and the engineering practice for many years, the mathematical model for water hammer calculation was described, the latest technology of water hammer protection was introduced, and the reasonable mathematical model for water hammer calculation and the optimum scheme of pressure pipeline water hammer protection were recommended.%长距离输水管道水锤计算数学模型的正确选用及合理选择水锤防护方案对管道安全运行至关重要.根据相关理论和多年工程实践,简要说明了水锤计算数学模型,介绍了水锤防护技术的最新研究进展,推荐了较为合理的水锤计算数学模型和最佳压力管道水锤防护方案.

  5. Calculating of Water Hammer Pressure of Closing Valve in Long-distance Slurry Pipeline Transportation%长距离浆体管道关阀水击压力计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁力

    2015-01-01

    长距离浆体管道输送操作过程中会发生水击现象,严重影响系统运行的安全性和可靠性。关阀水击在管道操作过程中普遍存在。为通过模型计算,有效预测关阀水击压力,文中综合考虑了浆体特性对水击波速的影响,采用弹性水击理论,应用水击连锁方程得到浆体管道关阀水击压强模型。通过实验室实测数据与模型对比,验证了该模型数据与实测数据误差较小。%Water hammer happened in long-distance slurry pipeline transportation and it will severely influence safety and reliability of the system. The water hammer of closing valve occurs frequently. In order to forecast water hammer pressure of clos-ing valve by formula,the influence of the characters of slurry on wave speed was considered in this article. According to elasticity theory and interlocking equation of water hammer,water hammer model of slurry was deduced. The result shows that there is little difference between the modeling data and the measured data.

  6. 长距离液相输送管道水锤现象分析、计算和防护%Analysis, Calculation and Prevention of Water Hammer Occurred in Long Distance Liquid Transportation Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祎庆

    2015-01-01

    The phenomena of water hammer existed in long distance liquid transportation pipeline was analyzed in this article. Water hammer can be classiifed based on forming principle and its harmfulness. In this article, the method for calculation of water hammer was introduced. By using software AFT Impulse and combined with practical instance, the calculation of water hammer was analyzed. From aspect of engineering, the prevention of water hammer phenomena was provided so as to decrease its harmfulness.%针对长距离液相输送管线中出现的水锤现象进行分析,根据其原理、危害性对水锤进行分类,并介绍了水锤效应的计算方法。然后使用AFT Impulse软件,结合实际案例,对水锤效应的计算进行梳理,从工程设计方面提出预防水锤现象的措施,以减小其带来的危害。

  7. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior of Arc-Sprayed and Hammer-Peened Coatings Using Tungsten Carbide Cored Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Schröder, P.

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding properties, WC-W2C iron-based cermet coatings are widely used in the field of wear protection. Regarding commonly used WC-W2C reinforced coating systems, it has been reported that their tribological behavior is mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Although the manufacturing route for arc-sprayed WC-W2C cermet coatings is in an advanced state, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the performance of cored wires with tungsten carbides as filling material and their related coating properties when post-treatment processes are used such as machine hammer peening (MHP). A major objective was to characterize WC-W2C FeCMnSi coatings, deposited with different carbide grain size fractions as a filling using cored wires, with respect to their tribological behavior. Moreover, deposits derived from cored wires with a different amount of hard phases are investigated. According to this, polished MHP surfaces are compared to as-sprayed and polished samples by means of metallographic investigations. With the use of ball-on-disk and dry rubber wheel tests, dry sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that the MHP process leads to a densification of the microstructure formation. For dry sliding experiments, the MHP coatings obtain lower wear resistances, but lower coefficients of friction than the conventional coatings. In view of abrasion tests, the MHP coatings possess an improved wear resistance. Strain hardening effects at the subsurface area were revealed by the mechanical response using nanoindentation. However, the MHP process has caused a cracking of embedded carbides, which favor breakouts, leading to advanced third-body wear.

  8. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  9. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior of Arc-Sprayed and Hammer-Peened Coatings Using Tungsten Carbide Cored Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Schröder, P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties, WC-W2C iron-based cermet coatings are widely used in the field of wear protection. Regarding commonly used WC-W2C reinforced coating systems, it has been reported that their tribological behavior is mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Although the manufacturing route for arc-sprayed WC-W2C cermet coatings is in an advanced state, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the performance of cored wires with tungsten carbides as filling material and their related coating properties when post-treatment processes are used such as machine hammer peening (MHP). A major objective was to characterize WC-W2C FeCMnSi coatings, deposited with different carbide grain size fractions as a filling using cored wires, with respect to their tribological behavior. Moreover, deposits derived from cored wires with a different amount of hard phases are investigated. According to this, polished MHP surfaces are compared to as-sprayed and polished samples by means of metallographic investigations. With the use of ball-on-disk and dry rubber wheel tests, dry sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that the MHP process leads to a densification of the microstructure formation. For dry sliding experiments, the MHP coatings obtain lower wear resistances, but lower coefficients of friction than the conventional coatings. In view of abrasion tests, the MHP coatings possess an improved wear resistance. Strain hardening effects at the subsurface area were revealed by the mechanical response using nanoindentation. However, the MHP process has caused a cracking of embedded carbides, which favor breakouts, leading to advanced third-body wear.

  10. Visual persuasion and politics: ideology and symbols of the totalitarian regimes'--case study: hammer and sickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2013-06-01

    Unlike all other autocracies, authoritarian regimes are, as the ultimate form of authoritarianism, a distinct phenomenon of the modern era. Caused by the crisis of liberal democracy and industrial capitalism of the early twentieth century, and led by radical populist political movements/parties and their leaders, they established themselves as the regimes which marked one of the greatest degrees of unfreedom. The article analyzes the specific sociostructural, sociocultural and sociopsychological aspects of the formation of totalitarian regimes (particularly communism), as well as their political system, ideological foundations and modus operandi. In doing so, it particularly emphasizes the dissolution of civil society and its substitution by a political society as a key structural determinant, authoritarianism and fear as a sociopsychological basis, and repression as the functional basis of operation for totalitarian regimes. In that context, it analyzes the political, anthropological and visual aspects of the symbols of totalitarian regimes, their archetypal (mythological, religious, ethnic, cultural, historical) meaning, and explains their function (political, anthropological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological) in the development and preservation of totalitarian regimes. Using the example of the hammer and sickle, a typical symbol of communism, it shows a substantial and communicational (particularly visual) dimension of symbol, by breakdown by the elements of semiotics (signum, designatum, interpretant) and its sub-disciplines (semantics, pragmatics, sintactics). On this basis, it tries to show the decisive power of political symbols over the political perceptions and political behavior of individuals and entire social groups, i.e. their manipulative power by meanings assigned to them by totalitarian authorities and forms of their communication, with the goal of preserving the totalitarian regime.

  11. 输水管道水锤防护方案对比分析%Comparison of Pipes Water Hammer Protection Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗东翔

    2016-01-01

    输水管道中经常出现独立气囊,管道排气不通畅会诱发一系列安全问题,如管道过水断面减小、水流阻力增大、水流压力振荡、爆管等等。为了提出合理的水锤防护方案,首先对输水管道水锤特点进行研究,讨论水平气液两相流流型变化过程,建立环状流的几何模型,采用Matlab软件,对3种水锤防护方案进行对比分析。结果表明,3 s快闭95%+35 s缓闭5%的防护效果最好。%Independent gasbag often appears in water pipe, pipe exhaust flow would not induce a se-ries of security problems, such as:water pipe section decrease, water flow resistance increase, water pressure oscillation, tube, etc. In order to put forward reasonable water hammer protection scheme, first to study the characteristic of pipes for water hammer and discusses the horizontal type gas-liq-uid two phase flow change process, the geometry of annular flow model was established, using MAT-LAB software to three kinds of water hammer protection scheme. The results show that the 3 s fast closed 95% +35 s slowly closing best protective effect of 5%.

  12. RE400型履带式潜孔锤钻机的研制%Development of RE400 Crawler Hammer Drilling Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于传江; 王海盈

    2012-01-01

      The paper introduced RE400 crawler hammer drilling machine about its developing process and overall structure placement design.The functions of main components, structure features, working principles, testing and the application are presented.%  介绍了 RE400型履带式多功能潜孔锤钻机的研制过程和总体结构布局设计,分别叙述了钻机主要组成部分的功能、结构特点、工作原理及该钻机的试验和应用情况

  13. Water hammer analysis. Dynamic simulation model check valve piston; Analisis del golpe de airete. Modelo de simulacion dinamica de valvula de retencion piston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royo, B.; Valdes, R.

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the description and the results of the dynamic simulation model that has been developed to predict the behaviour of one of our lift check valve design. The aim of the model is not only to simulate the closing process of the valve and to product the magnitude of the water hammer effect that may appear immediately after the valve closing, but also to simulate several design version until obtain the optimum which further minimizes such effect. the input data used for this study ensure reliable results since they represent a real system. (Author)

  14. The derivation of water hammer principal equations in annular space%环形空间中水击基本方程的推导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚斌; 韩洪升; 刘扬; 周济人; 钟开伟

    2013-01-01

    为研究轴流泵和石油开采等工程中环形空间液流的运动规律和现象,探讨环形空间水击问题.针对环形空间的结构特点和流体运动特性,根据牛顿第二定理推导出环形空间水击运动的基本方程,根据质量守恒定律推导出环形空间水击的连续性基本方程.把相应公式与圆管流进行类比、分析,进一步对环形空间水击基本方程进行简化,讨论了方程中液流摩阻项的计算方法及其对方程的影响.所得的环形空间水击基本方程可为环形空间液流流动规律和特性的进一步研究提供参考.%In order to research the phenomenon and movement regular pattern of liquid flow in annular space during projects such as oil extraction and drilling,the water hammer problem of liquid flow in annular space was discussed.According to the structure characteristics of the annular space and the motion characteristics of flow,the movement principal equation and continuity equation of water hammer were obtained respectively based on Newton's second law and law of mass conservation.By analogy and analysis on homologous formulas in circular tube,water hammer principal equations in annular space were further simplified.The calculating method of friction drag and its effect on equations were discussed.The obtained water hammer principal equations can provide reference for the further research of mobility pattern and characteristics of liquid flow in annular space.

  15. Tamm ja Asi / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitus "Sisearhitektid Väino Tamm & Vello Asi" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis kuni 2. IX. Kuna valminud objektidest ei ole enam ühtegi originaalkujul alles, on eksponeeritud võimalikult suurel hulgal valmimisjärgseid fotosid, millest enamiku on teinud Rein Vainküla

  16. Tamm ja Asi / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitus "Sisearhitektid Väino Tamm & Vello Asi" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis kuni 2. IX. Kuna valminud objektidest ei ole enam ühtegi originaalkujul alles, on eksponeeritud võimalikult suurel hulgal valmimisjärgseid fotosid, millest enamiku on teinud Rein Vainküla

  17. Uued koolid 2006 / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Viimsi kool (arhitektid Illimar Truverk, Raul Järg, Priit Pent, Eero Endjärv; sisearhitektid Kristi Lents, Hannelore Pihlak), Rakvere eragümnaasiumi algklasside maja (arhitektid Laur Pihel, Tauno Aadma), Tallinna Rahumäe põhikool (arhitektid Maaja Nummert, Triinu Nurmik), Tabasalu Ühisgümnaasium (arhitekt Veljo Kaasik), Jüri gümnaasium (arhitekt Katrin Tomberg Tohter)

  18. Karen Blixen. The Devil's Advocate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Mads

    en række modfortællinger gør Blixen op med denne forestilling bl.a. i ”Carnival”, ”Drømmerne” og ”Ehrengard”. Ph.d.en påviser også, at Blixen allerede i 1920erne havde indgående kendskab til det meste af Kierkegaards æstetisk-pseudonyme forfatterskab (1843-46), og at den relativt ukendte...

  19. 2006. aasta arhitektuurikonkursid / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Toodud ka 2006. a. konkursside tulemused: Eesti Rahva Muuseumi uus hoone, Tartu Ida t. lastead, Kiviõli linnaväljak, Tartu Lutsu t. korterelamu fassaadilahendus, Paide spordihall, Pärnu piirivalvekordoni hoone, Tartu Rebase t. kortermajade kompleks, Viljandi Maagümnaasiumi juurdeehitus, Veneetsia X arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti kuraatorinäitus, betoonehitis 2005, Estonia Seltsi vana teatrimaja asukoha tähistamine, TTÜ uus raamatukogu, Maakri kvartali arhitektuurikonkursi I etapp, Viljandi Uku t. 1A Lidli kauplusehoone ja südalinna kvartali detailplaneering, Pärnu jõeäärse keskuse ideeplaneering, Karksi-Nuia keskväljak ja roheala, terasehitis 2006, Edela-Eesti loodus- ja keskkonnahariduskeskuse ehk ökomaja eskiisprojekt, puitehitis 2006

  20. Uued koolid 2006 / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Viimsi kool (arhitektid Illimar Truverk, Raul Järg, Priit Pent, Eero Endjärv; sisearhitektid Kristi Lents, Hannelore Pihlak), Rakvere eragümnaasiumi algklasside maja (arhitektid Laur Pihel, Tauno Aadma), Tallinna Rahumäe põhikool (arhitektid Maaja Nummert, Triinu Nurmik), Tabasalu Ühisgümnaasium (arhitekt Veljo Kaasik), Jüri gümnaasium (arhitekt Katrin Tomberg Tohter)

  1. 2006. aasta arhitektuurikonkursid / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Toodud ka 2006. a. konkursside tulemused: Eesti Rahva Muuseumi uus hoone, Tartu Ida t. lastead, Kiviõli linnaväljak, Tartu Lutsu t. korterelamu fassaadilahendus, Paide spordihall, Pärnu piirivalvekordoni hoone, Tartu Rebase t. kortermajade kompleks, Viljandi Maagümnaasiumi juurdeehitus, Veneetsia X arhitektuuribiennaali Eesti kuraatorinäitus, betoonehitis 2005, Estonia Seltsi vana teatrimaja asukoha tähistamine, TTÜ uus raamatukogu, Maakri kvartali arhitektuurikonkursi I etapp, Viljandi Uku t. 1A Lidli kauplusehoone ja südalinna kvartali detailplaneering, Pärnu jõeäärse keskuse ideeplaneering, Karksi-Nuia keskväljak ja roheala, terasehitis 2006, Edela-Eesti loodus- ja keskkonnahariduskeskuse ehk ökomaja eskiisprojekt, puitehitis 2006

  2. Karen Blixen. The Devil's Advocate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Mads

    Denne Ph.d. er en artikel-Ph.d. og består af tre artikler, der er integreret i en længere baggrundssektion, der indeholder 1) en forskningsoversigt over Blixen Kierkegaard forskningen fra 1934 til i dag, 2) refleksioner over den teori og metode, der er anvendt i hver af artiklerne, 3) en række su...

  3. Edasiminek Afganistanis / Karen B. Decker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Decker, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 7. veebr. 2008, lk. 9. Afganistani kaitseministri Abdul Rahim Wardaki visiit rõhutab Eesti rolli rahvusvahelise julgeolekuabimissiooni liikmena Afganistanis

  4. Muhu majakavahi maja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2012-01-01

    Taivo Pilleri ja Mart Haberi maakodust Muhu saarel. 1905. aastal ehitatud majakavahi maja taastati aastatel 2009-2012. Rekonstruktsiooni arhitekt Laila Põdra, sisearhitektid Taivo Piller, Mart Haber, Pille Lausmäe

  5. Muhu majakavahi maja / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2012-01-01

    Taivo Pilleri ja Mart Haberi maakodust Muhu saarel. 1905. aastal ehitatud majakavahi maja taastati aastatel 2009-2012. Rekonstruktsiooni arhitekt Laila Põdra, sisearhitektid Taivo Piller, Mart Haber, Pille Lausmäe

  6. 1450六辊轧机工艺润滑系统的水锤及水锤防护%Water hammer and its protection of process lubrication system in 1450 six-roller mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马旻; 艾春璇; 甄永富; 辛静泰

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes of water hammer of the process lubrication system in 1450 six-roller mill. The water hammer was calculated according to the actual situation. The water hammer impact and pipe vibration were effectively eliminated by reasonably arranging the action sequence of the pneumatic butterfly valve in the system and prolonging the closing time of the butterfly valve.%分析了1450六辊轧机工艺润滑系统水锤产生的原因,结合实际情况进行水锤计算,通过合理的安排系统中气动蝶闭的动作顺序和延长阀开闭的时间的方法,有效地解决了水锤冲击和管道振动.

  7. Cubic Spline - wavelet Finite Element Method for Solving the Water Hammer Equation%三次样条小波有限元法求解水锤方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of water hammer equations, it is in this paper the cubic spline wavelet finite element method to solve the water hammer equation. This method meets the requirements of complex pipeline, but also with the characteristics of the cubic spline wavelet function to improve the accuracy, opened a new way and theoretical basis for the solution of the water hammer equations.%为了提高水锤方程的求解精确度,采用三次样条小波有限元法求解水锤方程,此法既能满足复杂管道的要求,又能借助三次样条小波函数的特点提高计算精度.为水锤方程的解法开辟了一条新的途径和理论依据.

  8. 基于改进的水击方程的计算程序编制与应用%Establishment and Application of Calculation Program Based on Modified Water Hammer Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the modified equation of water hammer,the method for solving the water hammer using the characteristic line is researched. The relevant calculating program with C++language is worked out. The simulation calculation of water hammer in the horizontally simple pipeline is made when the valve is gradually closed,and the rationality of the calculation results is proved.%基于改进的水击方程,用矩形网格差分格式及其算法原理,研究了特征线求解水击的方法,用C++语言编制程序,对水平放置的简单管道在阀门逐渐关闭时的水击进行了模拟计算,并分析了计算结果的合理性。

  9. 重力有压输水系统主线调节阀关闭水锤计算%Water hammer calculation on the main regular valve-closed condition in gravity pressure water conveyance system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婧宇; 车威

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research on the principle of valve-closed water hammer, with the application of MATLAB programming language platform, the water hammer process at different valve closing operating conditions within the pipe system has been calculated.%在对关阀水锤的机理进行研究的基础上,应用MATLAB高级计算语言平台,对重力有压流管道部分阀门瞬时关闭情况下不同的水锤工况进行了瞬变流计算。

  10. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  11. FGC-15D large-diameter DTH air hammer drilling system and its application in offshore rock-socketed pile hole drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun YIN; Jianming PENG; Maosen WANG; Zhanjiang ZHOU

    2006-01-01

    In the past two decades, numerous large-diameter rock-socketed piles were constructed in China to support foundations of skyscrapers, great bridges or to retain soil in potential geological hazard areas. However, drilling large-diameter rock-socketed pile holes with conventional drilling method such as rotary drilling or cable tool drilling is time-consuming and the cost is usually very high. In order to drill large-diameter rock-socketed pile holes faster at relatively low cost, the FGC15A large-diameter DTH air hammer drilling system was developed in 1987 and was given the second-class award by Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources in 1991. Since it was innovated the drilling system has been used in more than twenty important and tough projects on land, and wonderful results were acquired. At the same time the large-diameter DTH air hammer drilling system was improved continuously. The FGC15D is the latest version of the technique.

  12. Optimization of Water Hammer Protection in Water Supply System for Pump Station%泵站供水系统水锤防护措施优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅红

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure the safe operation of water supply system in pump station, priority scheme of overflow type surge tank is selected and water hammer protection measures in the water supply system are discussed. The surge tank is adjacent to the pump station, which would reduce the water hammer pressure of pump starting and ensure the water supply system safety. The practice operation in pump station also proves the rationality of design scheme.%为确保泵站供水系统的安全运行,通过对供水系统水锤防护措施的多方案分析研究,优选了溢流式调压塔.调压塔紧邻泵站布置,有利于消减水泵开停机产生的水锤压力,供水系统运行安全可靠.泵站工程运行实践验证了水锤防护设计方案的合理性.

  13. The Effect of Intraoperative Sounds of Saw and Hammer on Psychological Condition in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkam Kömürcü

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. Methods. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI instruments, respectively. Results. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient’s mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed.

  14. Application of rock- chiseling hammer in explosive- forbidden project%凿岩棒在禁爆项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈开堤; 石全贵; 林文电

    2016-01-01

    凿岩棒破岩清礁是一种简便、环保的施工工艺,对改建码头附近原有建筑物或设施破坏性小。文章从施工原理、施工工艺、施工质量控制和应用情况等方面阐述了凿岩棒在禁爆项目中的应用。在码头改建项目中,破岩清礁效果良好。%The application of rock-chiseling hammer in breaking rock and clearing reef is a convenient and environmental-friendly construction technique, which has such advantages as minimized destruction to the existing structures and facilities adjacent to the quay to be reconstructed, convenient, and easy operation maneuver. We elaborate on the application of rock-chiseling hammer in rock-breaking and reef-clearing during construction of foundation bed in explosive-forbidden project by expounding the construction theory, construction technique, quality control and the result of its application for the purpose of serving as a valuable reference for explosive-forbidden project such as reconstruction and extension projects.

  15. The effect of intraoperative sounds of saw and hammer on psychological condition in patients with total knee arthroplasty: prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Nusran, Gürdal; Göksel, Ferdi; Şahin, Hasan; Ömür, Dilek; Hancı, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments, respectively. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient's mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed.

  16. Consideration of geomorphological uncertainties with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND): combining Schmidt-hammer and 10Be dating, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    "by vision". Especially in regions like the Southern Alps affected of considerable neo-tectonic activity and paraglacial erosion, post-depositional movement of any boulders on moraine ridges cannot be excluded a priori. On base on these considerations, an attempt to combine TCND with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology has been developed (Winkler 2009). Cosmogenic 10Be dating delivers ‘absolute' ages for the exposure of boulder surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer relative-age dating technique. Therefore, Schmidt-hammer measurements can successfully endorse the selection of representative boulders for TCND and effectively avoid sampling boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Additionally, the number of boulders sampled for TCND can be reduced, positive in the light of economic and conservational considerations. Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at a number of individual glaciers in Westland/Tai Poutini and Mt Cook/Aoraki National Parks of the Southern Alps proof its potential. At least three ‘Little Ice Age'-type events culminating around 2,300, 1,600, and 1,000 years ago and predating the "Little Ice Age" have been confirmed. The construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and demonstrates the high potential of this attempt. References: Schaefer, J.M., Denton, G.H., Kaplan, M., Putnam, A., Finkel, R.C., Barrell, D.J.A., Andersen, B.G., Schwartz, R., McIntosh, A., Chinn, T. & Schlüchter, C. (2009): High-frequency Holocene glacier fluctuations in New Zealand differ from the northern signature. Science 324, 622 - 625. Winkler, S. (2009): First attempt to combine terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt hammer relative-age dating: Strauchon Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand. Central European

  17. Water Hammer Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation This video shows the propulsion system on an engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander being successfully tested. Instead of fuel, water is run through the propulsion system to make sure that the spacecraft holds up to vibrations caused by pressure oscillations. The test was performed very early in the development of the mission, in 2005, at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. Early testing was possible because Phoenix's main structure was already in place from the 2001 Mars Surveyor program. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. emcee: The MCMC Hammer

    CERN Document Server

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Lang, Dustin; Goodman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a stable, well tested Python implementation of the affine-invariant ensemble sampler for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) proposed by Goodman & Weare (2010). The code is open source and has already been used in several published projects in the astrophysics literature. The algorithm behind emcee has several advantages over traditional MCMC sampling methods and it has excellent performance as measured by the autocorrelation time (or function calls per independent sample). One major advantage of the algorithm is that it requires hand-tuning of only 1 or 2 parameters compared to $\\sim N^2$ for a traditional algorithm in an N-dimensional parameter space. In this document, we describe the algorithm and the details of our implementation and API. Exploiting the parallelism of the ensemble method, emcee permits any user to take advantage of multiple CPU cores without extra effort. The code is available online at http://danfm.ca/emcee under the GNU General Public License v2.

  19. emcee: The MCMC Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.; Lang, Dustin; Goodman, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a stable, well tested Python implementation of the affine-invariant ensemble sampler for Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) proposed by Goodman & Weare (2010). The code is open source and has already been used in several published projects in the astrophysics literature. The algorithm behind emcee has several advantages over traditional MCMC sampling methods and it has excellent performance as measured by the autocorrelation time (or function calls per independent sample). One major advantage of the algorithm is that it requires hand-tuning of only 1 or 2 parameters compared to ∼N2 for a traditional algorithm in an N-dimensional parameter space. In this document, we describe the algorithm and the details of our implementation. Exploiting the parallelism of the ensemble method, emcee permits any user to take advantage of multiple CPU cores without extra effort. The code is available online at http://dan.iel.fm/emcee under the GNU General Public License v2.

  20. Water Hammer Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the animation This video shows the propulsion system on an engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander being successfully tested. Instead of fuel, water is run through the propulsion system to make sure that the spacecraft holds up to vibrations caused by pressure oscillations. The test was performed very early in the development of the mission, in 2005, at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. Early testing was possible because Phoenix's main structure was already in place from the 2001 Mars Surveyor program. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Hammer toe repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David ...

  2. Der hadronen-hammer

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The depthes of the cosmos and the world of the elementary particles contain the biggest enigmae of the modern physics. With a superstrong particle accelerator the physicists want to break the hardest cores. (2,5 pages)

  3. Water Hammer Protection Comparison of Two Kinds of Hydraulic Transient Calculation Model%两种水力过渡计算模型的水锤防护比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕坤

    2012-01-01

    Water hammer of cavities collapsing is harm for long distance and large water pi pel inc. water hammer boost is dozens of times more than the ordinary water hammer. Al present mainly through hydraulic calculation model to predict ihe pipeline pressure, there are two kindx of models. the difference is that whether can reflect the flow and calculate pressure. by ram combing theory and practice conelusion, consider the water hammer of cavities collapsing model reflects (he actual situation.%断流弥合水锤对于长距离的大型输水管道来说危害极大,水锤升压是普通水锤的数十倍.目前主要通过水力计算模型来预测管道压力情况,王要存在两种模型,其区别在于是否反应出断流现象及计算出断流后的压力.通过理论结合实践得出结论,考虑断流弥合水锤的计算模型更反映出实际情况.

  4. 轨姿控液体火箭发动机水击仿真模拟%Simulation of water hammer in liquid rocket engine of orbit and attitude control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峥岳; 康乃全

    2012-01-01

    Taking the liquid rocket engine of orbit and attitude control system as the study object, an emulator was established with AMESim according to the modular modeling idea. The simulation computation of water hammer pressure in the pipeline while the engine system was working was per- formed. The results show that the running of orbit control engine is a major factor creating high water hammer. The compared result of theoretical calculation and test data indicate that the simulation mod- els can give reasonable descriptions for generative process of water hammer. The measure to reduce the amount of water hammer is introduced.%以轨姿控液体火箭发动机为研究对象,根据模块化思想,利用AMESim建立了仿真平台,仿真计算了发动机系统工作中管路的水击压力。结果表明:轨控发动机的工作是引起大水击的主要因素。通过与理论计算和试验数据的对比表明,仿真模型较好地描述了管路水击的生成过程。介绍了减小系统水击量的措施。

  5. The Correlating Control Model of Water Hammer Caused by Variable Frequency Flow Regulation%变频调速所致水击的关联控制模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲艳; 邱水才; 卢齐英; 吴馨芳

    2011-01-01

    The application of highly-efficient energy-saving variable frequency flow regulation technique is becoming more and more widespread, and the phenomenon of water hammer caused by variable frequency flow regulation has become the key technical problem of its application. Based on the characteristics of water hammer caused by variable frequency flow regulation, the correlating control model of the rheological properties parameters which avoided water hammer caused by variable frequency flow regulation was es tablished. It lays theoretical foundation for water hammer pressure precise control.%高效节能的变频流量控制技术的应用日趋广泛,而由变频流量控制所致水击现象成为该技术应用的关键技术问题.针对变频流量控制所致水击过程的特点,建立了避免变频流量控制所致水击的流变性能参数的关联控制模型,为水击压力精确控制奠定了理论基础.

  6. The Applications in Wood Fiber Breakage of Multi Ring Type Hammer Crusher%多环式锤片破碎机在木纤维破碎上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐克

    2012-01-01

      The working principle and application in wood fiber breakage of multi ring type hammer crusher are introduced.%  介绍了多环式锤片破碎机的工作原理及其在木纤维破碎上的应用

  7. Study on Water Hammer Suppression of Pipeline in Opening Process of Ultra-supercritical Steam Trap%超(超)临界疏水阀开启过程管道水锤抑制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树勋; 娄燕鹏; 徐晓刚; 丁强伟

    2016-01-01

    针对超(超)临界疏水阀开启过程中管道水锤振动问题,采用特征线法对阀控管道水锤瞬变模型进行了数值计算,运用 Matlab 求解得到了疏水阀在不同流量特性、不同节流效应下开启时管道中流量和水锤压头的时域曲线。研究表明:选用等百分比流量特性的疏水阀,可以减缓阀开启时阀后管道的水锤现象,同时节流效应对疏水阀开启时阀后管道水锤的影响显著,节流越明显,管道中水锤压头幅值越小,水锤波动趋势也越缓和。研究结果为抑制管路水锤与冲击设计提供理论参考。%Aiming at severe vibration phenomenon of pipe behind the ultra-supercritical steam trap during the valve-opening process,the transient model on water hammer in the pipe was calculated by method of characteristics (MOC).Based on Matlab software,the time domain curves of flow and water hammer pressure head on fluid was obtained in different flow characteristic and different throttling effect for valve.The analyses show that adopting equal percentage flow characteristic about the valve could alle-viate water hammer in the pipe.Moreover,the influences of throttling effect for steam trap on water hammer are obvious,and the more obvious the throttling effect for steam trap,the more relieving water hammer wave and the smaller water hammer pressure head peak.The results provide theoretical references for design of steam trap in preventing water hammer and anti-shock analysis of the fluid on pipeline.

  8. 高压水除鳞系统中蓄势器对水击防护的特性分析%Characteristic analysis of accumulator to water hammer protection in high pressure water descaling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晴; 习磊朋; 孟胜利; 张新铭

    2011-01-01

    针对高压水除鳞系统水击现象,基于特征线法,建立了高压水除鳞系统水击计算的通用数学模型.通过实例,对系统中蓄势器在不同位置对水击的防护特性进行了模拟仿真计算,得到了有无加装蓄势器以及蓄势器安装在不同位置时对水击防护的差异性.分析结果表明:安装蓄势器,并不一定能完全达到防护水击的理想效果.蓄势器的安装位置越靠近管道上游处,则对水击的防护特性越差;相反,越靠近下游处,则对水击的防护特性越好,这将对系统的工程设计具有极其重要的指导意义.%Aimet at water hammer phenomenon in high pressure water descaling system, a general simulation model of hammer calculation was established with the characteristic method. By example, the results of the simulative calculation were obtained by accumulator of different locations in the system to characteristics of water hammer protection, and the differences were obtained by the protection of water hammer for there is or not accumulator and it is in different locations. It shows that it is not necessary to attain ideal effect of water hammer protection where is accumulator. The more close to the upriver pipe for the location of the accumulator, it leads to the worse results for characteristics of water hammer protection. Instead, the more close to the downriver pipe for the location of the accumulator, it leads to the better results for characteristics of water hammer protection. This will have important meaning to the engineering design of system.

  9. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: case report and literature review Síndrome do martelo hipotenar: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Muniz de Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report of a 69 year-old patient, with history of repetitive trauma events in the wrist, clinically simulating tenosynovitis, being held with Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Nuclear Resonance, which showed ulnar artery thrombosis. The accurate diagnosis of the hammer hypothenar disease through those tests enable an early intervention, improving the prognosis of patients affected by this rare disease.Paciente de 69 anos, com história de traumas repetitivos no punho, simulando clinicamente tenossinovite, sendo feitas ultrassonografia com doppler e ressonância nuclear magnética, que evidenciaram trombose da artéria ulnar. O diagnóstico preciso da doença do martelo hipotenar por meio desses exames possibilita uma intervenção precoce e melhora o prognóstico dos pacientes acometidos por essa rara afecção.

  10. Technology of Pneumatic DTH Hammer Casing Drilling with Double Shock%气动潜孔锤双冲击跟管钻进技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑英飞; 王茂森; 岳文斌

    2014-01-01

    To solve the common problem of casing pipe breaking in DTH hammer drilling with casing and to increase the depth of drilling with casing, double shock of DTH hammer drilling with casing was adopted and casing pipe jar was designed to put external force to the top of the casing in the drilling process.By calculating the force of the jar and analyzing the factors on the maximum drilling depth of drilling with casing, this paper verifies that the impact generated by the jar can drive the casing follow-down smoothly, so as to solve the problem of casing pipe breaking and low depth of casing with drilling.%为了解决潜孔锤跟管钻进过程中经常发生的套管断裂问题以及增加套管跟管深度,采用了潜孔锤双冲击跟管钻进技术,设计了套管振击器,在钻进过程中对套管顶端施加外部作用力。通过计算套管振击器产生作用力的大小和分析套管跟管最大深度的影响因素,验证了振击器产生的冲击力能够使套管顺利跟进,解决了套管断裂及跟管深度过低的问题。

  11. 琳达·哈琴的后现代文学理论国内研究考察%A General Review of Chinese Scholars' Studies about Linda Hutcheon' s Postmodern Literary Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾彦艳

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most famous literary theorists on postmodernism in the world, Linda Hutcheon has always been a focus of study for Chinese scholars. Since the early 1990s onwards, more and more Hutcheon' s works have been translated into Chinese, while her postmodern poetics including many of its categories adopted as important theoretical sources in literary critical practices. With a general literature review of the course of Hutcheon' s theory being spread, studied as well as practiced in China while analyzing the inspirations she gave us, this article endeavors to yield a better exploitation of Hutcheon ' s postmodern theory.%作为国际著名的后现代文艺理论家,琳达·琴在国内学术界一直是人们研究的重点。自1990年代初以来,她的著作被越来越多的翻译成中文,她的后现代诗学思想和其中的很多范畴也成为人们文艺批评实践中的重要资源和理论工具。认真回顾一下哈琴的学术思想在国内被传播、研究和运用的历程,并思考她带给我们的启示,有助于我们更好地发挥其理论价值。

  12. 基于地基特性的双作用液压锤沉桩可打入性研究%Drivability of piles by double-process hydraulic hammer based on geological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春雷; 顾增海; 喻威; 刘健

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem that the drivability of the piles is difficult to judge during hammering pile, the criterion of the drivability of piles using double-process hydraulic hammer was studied. Based on the working mechanism of double-process hydraulic hammer and one-dimensional wave theory, hammering power equation was presented. According to the geological characteristics, piling resistance equation was developed considering pile-soil interaction. On the basis of pile sinking mechanism, the criterion of the drivability of piles using double-process hydraulic hammer was provided, and the numerical simulation for drivability was carried out using Matlab. Finally, field experiment studies were carried out. The results show that the relative error between the experimental results and theoretical calculation results of piling resistance is 6%−8%, and that of height of hammer in different depths is 4%−8%, which shows that the numerical simulation method is a good way to predict the drivability of the piles during hammering pile based on the geological characteristics, the simulation precision meets the need of engineering practices, and it can provide foundation for matching hammer-pile-soil system.%针对锤击沉桩过程中可打入性难以判断的问题,对双作用液压锤在打桩过程中桩的可打入性判据进行研究。基于双作用液压锤的工作机理以及一维行波理论,推导锤击力方程;基于地基土的地质特性,考虑沉桩过程中桩−土相互作用,得到桩端位移与桩顶荷载迭代模型,推导出桩周阻力方程;根据沉桩机理,提出双作用液压锤锤击沉桩的可打入性判据,并利用 Matlab 软件对沉桩能力进行数值模拟计算,并进行现场试验。研究结果表明:试验结果与模拟结果中沉桩阻力相对误差为6%~8%,锤芯落差相对误差为4%~8%,表明本文数值模拟方法能很好地预测具体地质条件下液压锤的沉桩能力,计算

  13. 锤片式粉碎机在酒厂曲块粉碎中的应用%The Application of the Type of Hammer Piece Grinder for Rhizopus Brick Smash in Distillery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付捷; 崔勇; 罗钢; 王瑛

    2011-01-01

    通过锤片式粉碎机在酒厂曲块粉碎中的试验分析,提出了曲块粉碎采用双级粉碎流程、降低锤片线速度、增大筛孔直径、减少装机功率、提高风机转速等措施,取得了较好效果.%Through the experimental analysis of the type of hammer piece grinder for rhizopus brick smash in distillery, This article proposed rhizopus brick smash used the two-stage smashing flow, reduced the hammer piece link speed, increased the mesh diameter, reduced installing equipment power, by enhancing the air blower rotational speed and so on. The good effect has been obtained.

  14. 安全控制系统在管道水击保护中的应用%Application of Safety Control System in Water Hammer Protection for Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 马宏伟

    2016-01-01

    为了确保长呼原油管道的安全运行,在管道设计时使用Safety Manager系统,其工作方式是2个CPU同时运行,无主备之分;当管道存在水击触发条件后,SM通讯给其他站,并开始计时,达到触发时间,本站设备动作;在水击执行过程,可人工干预,点击“水击综合复位”,终止程序的执行;触发水击保护的条件主要有站关闭、失电、甩泵、站触发ESD等。通过该系统的投入使用,减小了调控操作人员的操作压力,有效保护管道安全运行。%To ensure the safe operation of the ChangHu crude oil pipeline, Safety Manager system was chosen when desig-ning the pipeline, which works by two CPU running at the same time, no standby. When the pipeline exists water hammer trigger conditions, SM communicates to other stations, and time is started, when reaching trigger time, site equipment is operated. In the course of the water hammer, it can be intervened,“water hammer comprehensive reset” was clicked, and the implementation of program was terminated. The condition of trigging water hammer protection is station closed, loss of power, rejection pump and station triggered ESD. Through putting the system into running, the operating pressure of regulating operator was reduced, thus ensuring safe operation of the pipeline effectively.

  15. Preliminary Study on Using Water Hammer to Clear Physical Particles in Micro-pressure Micropipe Emitter%水击清除微压微管滴头物理颗粒堵塞初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝洋

    2009-01-01

    通过自行设计装置,利用水击清除微压微管滴头物理颗粒,结果表明:在毛管尾部设置尾阀开关装置,调节尾阀开、关时间,由此在毛管沿线产生的水击脉动压强能够清除微管滴头物理颗粒堵塞.从理论角度阐述了毛管内水击脉动压强产生的机理,分析了微压微管滴头物理颗粒堵塞的成因,并用自编运算软件显现水击压强沿毛管沿线的变化过程,依此提出了水击可以作为清除微压微管滴头物理颗粒堵塞的一种解决方案.%Water hammer can be used to clear physical particles in micro-pressure micropipe emitter based on self-made device. The results showed that clogging particles can be removed by water hammer pressure which generated from a sudden open and close of the tail valve at the end of the lateral tube. The change of water hammer pressure in the lateral tube is deduced from a series of math formulas and self-edit fortran program. On the basis of the detail analysis about the cause of particle clogging, a better solution was proposed that the water hammer pressure can be used to clear the clogging.

  16. 舰船首尾移水系统水锤特性仿真与试验%The water hammer characteristic simulation and test study in warship system pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡标华

    2011-01-01

    The pipeline between stem cabin and stern cabin in warship has some characteristics, such as pipeline length,hydraulic conditions complex and high velocity. After moving water,electro-hydraulic ball valve needs to be automatically fast to cut off the system. These cause the system exists serious water hammer problem in actual operation. This paper studies the water hammer characteristic of pitch trim system in warship by simulation and test methods. The results show that when the electtic-hydraulic globe vavle is closed rapidly, the water hammer phenomena exists obviously in the system, and the peak value of pressure increases with the satuation more closer to vavle. The system water hammer can be reduced effectively through the measure to add the response time of vavle.%舰船首尾水舱移水管路具有管路长、水力条件复杂、流速较高等特点,且移水结束后,电液球阀需要被自动地快速切断系统,系统在实际运行中存在着比较严重的水锤问题.本文采用仿真与试验的方法,对舰船首尾移水系统水锤特点进行了研究.结果表明,电液球阀快速关闭时,系统存在明显的水锤现象,离阀门越近的位置,压力冲击峰值越大;延长电液球阀关闭时间,可以有效抑制系统水锤的冲击.

  17. Drilling Tests in Loose Formation with Air DTH Hammer%空气潜孔锤在松散地层中的钻进试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢予北; 王建华; 陈莹; 罗园; 程存平; 申云飞; 杜朝波

    2014-01-01

    Air DTH hammer drilling is a preferred technology in bed rock area, which by tradition is suitable for hard rock drilling(in hard, brittle and broken formations);while for loose formations, conventional mud rotary drilling or percussive drilling should be used.Based on the test on typical unconsolidated formation drilling, it is proved that normal drilling can al-so be realized in loose overburden layer by air DTH hammer with advantages of high efficiency, low cost and small labor in-tensity, the highest drilling efficiency is up to 87m/h and 72m/h in clay and moist clay drilling respectively.This result pro-vides an effective method to hole opening or the first spud section drilling for the exploration of shale gas, geothermal energy, coal seam gas and underground water in overlaying layers and solves the water shortage for drilling fluid in water scarce areas or serious leakage formations and avoids the difficulties in the complicated processes of conventional mud rotary drilling.%空气潜孔锤钻探工艺在基岩地区已是首选的一种技术。传统观念认为空气潜孔锤钻进工艺适用于坚硬岩石(硬、脆、碎地层),在松散地层中则需要常规泥浆回转钻进或冲击钻进。通过典型松散地层的试验证明:空气潜孔锤在松散覆盖地层中可以实现正常的钻进,并且具有效率高、成本低、劳动强度小等优点,在粘土和潮湿粘土地层中钻进效率最高可达87和72 m/h。为解决页岩气、地热、煤层气、地下水等能源资源勘探时上覆地层的开孔或一开钻进提供了行之有效的方法,同时,也解决了缺水地区或严重漏失地层钻井液用水困难和传统开孔或一开泥浆回转钻探工艺复杂等问题。

  18. 旋转锤式连铸坯去毛刺机故障分析与改进%Trouble analysis and improvement of hammer type deburring machines of continuous casting slab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛山; 彭艳; 孙建亮; 王超

    2013-01-01

    针对某钢厂旋转锤式连铸坯去毛刺机发生的零件大面积破坏故障,基于经典力学理论和有限元法建立了锤刀、支座、连接件和焊缝的受力模型,得到了工作过程中锤刀刀刃沿转子径向总位移量和去毛刺机各部分应力状态,确定了此去毛刺机的故障原因并提出了改进措施.仿真结果和工业验证表明改进后的去毛刺机结构有助于降低设备故障率.%Based on the classical mechanics theory and the finite element method,mechanical models of the hammers,bearings,connecting pieces and welds are established for the solution of the mechanical failure of the hammer type slab deburring machine in a steel mill.The total displacement of the hammer's knife-edge along the radial direction of the rotor and the stress state of the deburrer are derived.The causes of the failure are found and some measures for improvements are proposed.The simulation results and the industrial applications indicate that the improved structure of the deburrer helps to reduce the equipment failure rate.

  19. Influence of solenoid valve response times on water hammer in variable rate spraying system%变量喷施系统电磁阀响应时间对液压冲击的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴祥; 刘海红; 吴姝; 魏新华

    2016-01-01

    In order to study influence of solenoid valve’s response times on water hammer in PWM controlled variable rate spraying system, Solidworks software was used to build a 3D geography model of solenoid valve’s flow area based on 6013A type solenoid valve. Gambit was used to mesh the model and to define the boundary types. Fluent was to simulate the process of solenoid valve’s operating process. The solver was 3D pressure based unsteady one. Turbulent model was realizablek-ε turbulent model. Response times of solenoid valve were set as 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ms. During the simulation, the pressure of solenoid valve’s entrance was simulated and the outputs pressure curves with flow time was plotted with the output interval set as 0.001 s. According to the pressure curves, water hammer pressure in the pipe decreased while the response time increased when solenoid valve opened or closed. When the response time increased from 10 to 50 ms, water hammer pressure was reduced 78% when solenoid valve opened, while the water hammer pressure was reduced 79% when solenoid valve closed. A simplified PWM controlled variable rate spraying system was created and it consisted of pressure source (the living water supply system), pressure sensor, solenoid valve (opening time was 20 ms and closing time was 30 ms) and a hollow cone atomization nozzle. Experiments on the basis of this spraying system were carries out with the same working condition as simulation and the pressure curves were created. The results showed that the relative errors of experimental and simulated valued of water hammer pressures were below 10% with the same response times, suggesting that this model was accurate and the simulation results were reliable. Then, the solenoid valve’s closing process in theory was analyzed according to indirect water hammer pressure formula. The theoretical analysis results were consistent with the simulation results, indicating that the indirect water hammer pressure formula

  20. Analysis on the Major Influencing Factors of the Coefficient of Water Hammer Pressure Passing through the Bottom of Throttled Surge Chamber%水击穿室系数的主要影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利卿; 马跃先; 吴昊; 原文林

    2011-01-01

    针对水库调压室阀门引水系统,用特征线法计算分析了不同阻抗孔面积和引水隧洞面积情况下阀门端水击压力上升率和水击穿室系数的变化规律.通过对实例进行对比,说明阻抗式调压室不能完全反射水击波,阻抗孔面积和引水隧洞面积对水击压力、水击穿室系数影响较大,应加以考虑.%By using characteristic line method to analyze the hydraulic transient process of a typical reservoir-surge chamber-valve system, the water hammer pressures at valve and the coefficient of pressure transmission were calculated under the conditions of different areas of diversion tunnel and the throttling orifice. The case study shows that the throttled surge chamber can not fully reflect the water hammer wave and the areas of orifice and diversion tunnel have greater impact on water hammer pressure and coefficient of pressure transmission.

  1. 核电厂辅助冷却水系统水锤计算与防护%Water Hammer Calculation and Prevention of Auxiliary Cooling Water System in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学华; 熊兴才; 薛海青

    2014-01-01

    对核电厂常规岛辅助冷却水系统由板式换热器改为管壳式换热器并取消升压泵的方案特点进行了定性分析,指出了系统方案改进后的辅助冷却水系统正常停运时会产生水锤现象。通过对辅助冷却水系统建模定量计算了循环水泵停泵工况时的水锤最大压力,提出了通过调整阀门关闭时间消除水锤现象的防护方案并进行了计算验证。%ABSTRACT:This paper,first of all,qualitatively analyzes the characteristic of the auxiliary cooling water system of the conventional island of the nuclear power plant which uses the tube heater instead of the plate heater,pointing out that water hammer phenomena may be caused in the improved system. The maximum pressure of the water hammer when the circulating water pump is shut down is simulated and calculated. Finally the paper proposes the water hammer prevention solution of regulating the valve closing time and certifies the scheme by calculation.

  2. 环锤式破碎机转子系统临界转速与不平衡响应分析%Analysis on critical speed and imbalance response of rotor system in ring hammer crusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂欣; 程珩

    2013-01-01

    不平衡是旋转机械的主要故障之一,针对环锤式破碎机锤头磨损后产生的不平衡问题,建立转子系统三维模型,利用有限元分析软件对转子系统进行临界转速与不平衡响应分析,得到转子系统的各阶临界转速与各种不平衡状态下的响应情况,并将分析结果运用到配锤中来,为下一步进行动平衡优化研究提供了一定的依据.%Imbalance is one of the main faults of rotating machinery.In view of imbalance caused by wearing of hammer of ring hammer crusher,a 3D model of the rotor system was established.In addition,a finite element analysis sogtware was used to analyze the critical speed and imbalance response of the rotor system,and the critical speed of each order of the rotor system and response at various imbalance mode were obtained.Finally,the analysis results was applied to hammer arrangement,which offered references for further study of dynamic balance optimization.

  3. Fatigue lifetime of steel weldments with high resistance, rough welding, repaired by welding and hammered; Duree de vie en fatigue d'assemblages soudes en acier de construction a haute resistance, bruts de soudage, repares par soudage et marteles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, J.E.M. [Materials Technology Laboratory, Ottawa (Canada); Bell, R. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carlton University, Ottawa (Canada); Militaru, D.V. [Centre for Surface Transportation Technology, Ottawa (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    It has been shown in literature that the propagation velocity of fatigue cracks and that the ratio da/dN are relatively independent of the elasticity limit. In order to better use high resistance steels solicited in fatigue, it is necessary to improve the fatigue resistance of weldments: better design and/or post-welding treatments. The improvements obtained by grinding, TIG-refusion, shot-blasting and hammering are indicated. The most part of this study concerns the fatigue resistance of longitudinal welds on rough T assembling, repaired by welding and hammered or not. The steel test pieces are of 350 MPa (specification CSA G 4021350WT) and of 550 MPa (specification HY80). The two steels have the same behavior in fatigue at the rough-welding state. The used repair method restore the initial fatigue characteristics of the rough-welding state. Compared with the rough-welding state, the hammering improves the fatigue resistance of steel weldments (550 MPa) of 175%. (O.M.)

  4. Effect of Connection Pipe Size of Surge Chamber on Surge Wave and Water Hammer Pressure%调压室连接管尺寸对水位波动和水击压力的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祥伟; 胡明

    2013-01-01

    由于调压室涌浪和水击压力受连接管尺寸影响较大,针对水库调压室 阀门引水系统,推导了计入连接管长度与直径情况下阀门瞬间关闭时调压室波动的解析公式,利用特征线法计入斜坡项进行数值计算,验证了公式推导结果,并分析了不同连接管长度和直径下调压室水位波动幅值、周期和阀门端水击压力上升值的变化规律.对比分析结果表明,在管径较小时调压室涌浪相对值随连接管长度变化较快;连接管长一定时,阀门端水击压力在某一管径比下上升较快,应加以重视.%As a result of the surge chamber wave and water hammer pressure are influenced by the connection pipe size, this paper deduces the analytic formulas of surge chamber wave in the diversion system of reservoir-surge chamber-valve by taking into account the connection pipe length and diameter with the valve shutting down instantly. The derivation formulas are verified by using the method of characteristics including the slope entry. And then the variation rules of the surge amplitude, period and the added value of water hammer pressure in surge chamber with different connection pipe length and diameter are analyzed. The comparative analysis shows that the relative value of water hammer pressure changes rapidly with the connection pipe length in the condition of smaller connection pipe diameter; the water hammer pressure of valve-side increase rapidly in certain diameter ratio; attentions should be paid to its effects on water hammer pressure.

  5. The impalement of water drops impinging onto hydrophobic/superhydrophobic graphite surfaces: the role of dynamic pressure, hammer pressure and liquid penetration time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittoni, Paola G.; Lin, Ya-Chi; Lin, Shi-Yow

    2014-05-01

    Droplet impingement experiments at low Weber numbers were conducted by digitizing silhouettes of impacting water drops onto unlike graphite substrates, typified by different advancing water contact angles (θa): 140 and 160°. The relaxation of wetting diameter, dynamic contact angle, and drop shapes were measured. The purpose was to carefully investigate the phenomenology and possible causes of the failure of the superhydrophobicity. During impact and spreading phases, all the drops impinging onto both graphite substrates showed a similar behavior. Then, after an initial free recoil, drops impinging at lower impact velocities onto graphite substrates characterized by θa = 140° clearly exhibited time intervals in which the wetting diameter appeared to be almost constant. The duration of this pinned phase was observed decreasing with increasing the impact height and almost completely disappearing for drops impinging at higher impact velocities. This behavior has never been reported before, and, contrariwise, water droplets impinging at lower impact velocities onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been generally observed more freely retracting, and ultimately rebounding, compared to drops impacting at higher velocities. In the present study, this latter behavior was recorded just for drops impinging onto graphite surfaces characterized by θa = 160°. A theoretical description of the experimental results was proposed, specifically investigating the role of dynamic pressure, hammer pressure and liquid penetration time during the impact, spreading and recoil stages.

  6. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  7. Use of Artificial Burrows by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) at the HAMMER Facility on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2005-09-30

    In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.

  8. Use of {sup 10}Be exposure ages and Schmidt hammer data for correlation of moraines in the Krkonose Mountains, Poland/Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Zbynek; Krizek, Marek [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Traczyk, Andrzej [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Geomorphology; Braucher, Regis [CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence (France); Woronko, Barbara [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Geography and Regional Development

    2011-06-15

    Exposure ages and relative-age data are presented from eight sites in the Lomnica and Lomniczka valleys to provide essential information for reconstructing local glaciation chronology. A combination of {sup 10}Be exposure ages and Schmidt hammer data obtained for moraines indicate relatively short period of glacier accumulation lasting from 17.0{+-}0.4 ka to 13.6{+-}0.9 ka. Exposure age of 8.4{+-}0.3 ka measured on the lowermost section of the Lomnica cirque headwall further confirms the view of glacier preservation in favourable sites until the beginning of the Holocene. A comparison of the obtained chronological data with timing of mountain glaciation in the nearby Upa Valley is used to propose the first correlative model of Late Quaternary glaciation in the eastern part of the Krkonose Mountains. The correlation implies that the lowermost preserved moraines originated during the local maximum of the last glaciation whereas recessional moraines were deposited until the Lateglacial period. A subsequent melting of glaciers terminated at the beginning of the Holocene. The implications of the model are discussed and further investigations are suggested to extend its validity to the whole mountain area. (orig.)

  9. OPTIMIZING PERFORMANCE CAPACITY IN WOMEN’S HAMMER THROW, BASED ON A JUST SCHEDULING OF ACTION MEANS AND A RATIONAL DYNAMIC OF TRAINING EFFORT PARAMETERS – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Ursanu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The attaining and maintenance of maximum performance capacity level throughout the most important events of a competitive season represent major objectives of modern training methodology. Hence, I considered it necessary to conduct a study on the particularities of achieving this goal in women’s hammer throw, by analyzing a training macrocycle of the best thrower Romania has ever had in this event. My aim was to turn this research into a thorough debate topic, considering that sports performances of Romanian athletes have decreased significantly within the past few years. My scientific endeavour is designed as a case study concerning the means and methods used to develop dominant motor skills and the dynamic of the main effort parameters within the training macrocycle comprising the major competitions attended by the research subject. The starting point of this study was the following hypothesis: a correct and rational scheduling of the main training means and an optimal ratio between the main effort parameters (volume and intensity guarantee an optimal athletic form for a previously set date. Calculations made to this end were meant to highlight the training demands for each period of the macrocycle, with a focus of the main stage within the competitive season. The analysis conduct led to several conclusions, which may represent reference points for the future training of this female athlete or of other athletes. The most important of these conclusions is that the athletic form phenomenon represents the result of an optimal ratio between the main effort parameters, considering the training process as a whole (where exercise capacity recovery becomes a core component of sports training.

  10. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down

  11. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG) and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down" techniques.

  12. Study on the Protective Measures for Pump-Stopping Water Hammer of Long Distance Pipeline Engineering%某长距离管道输水工程停泵水锤安全防护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广钰; 吴辉明; 金喜来; 秦韬

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance water pipelines that operating jointly with multi-pump has the characteristics such as large flow and high lift,the sudden-stop will cause water hammer effects in the pipelines,which have huge damages to the system. In order to ensure the safe operation of water conveyance project,it is necessary to analyze the characteristics of water hammer and the corresponding protective measures of water hammer. Taking a water conveyance project as an example,combined with water hammer theory and characteristic line method,the mathematical model of the valve boundary,air valve boundary and pipeline were used to calculate and analyze the pump stopping water hammer of long-distance water pipelines respectively which used protective measures such as air valves,general check valves,slow butterfly valves or their combination. At last,the maximum head,the minimum head as well as the change rule of pump speed and flow relative value was obtained. By comparison,the study found that the operation using water hammer protection measures combined with air valve and the two phase of the butterfly valve could reduce the pipeline extreme pressure and ensure the safe operation of the pipeline and the water pump.%长距离多泵联合运行输水管线具有流量大、扬程高等特点,当突然发生事故停泵时管线会产生水锤,对系统具有很大的破坏性。为了保证输水工程的安全运行,有必要对事故停泵后的水锤特性和相应的水锤防护措施进行分析。以某输水工程为例,运用阀门边界、空气阀边界、管道等数学模型,并结合水锤理论和特征线法,分别对采用空气阀、普通止回阀、缓闭式蝶阀及其组合等防护措施的长距离运行输水管线的停泵水锤进行计算和分析,得到了管道沿程的最大水头、最小水头线以及水泵转速和流量相对值的变化规律。通过对比发现,采用空气阀、两阶段缓闭蝶阀等水锤防护措施组合运

  13. Risk Analysis of Water Hammer in Steel Penstocks Based on Monte Carlo Method%基于蒙特卡洛方法的压力钢管水锤风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 王长新

    2015-01-01

    The safety of steel penstock structure in hydropower projects has an important influence on the safe operation of the whole power plant ,and the water hammer has a great impact on the safety of the pentocks .Based on this ,a perfor-mance function was developed to calculate the risk caused by water hammer in the backfill penstock of Tewule hydropower station .Monte Carlo method was adopted to calculate the risk caused by water hammer with or without the consideration of axial stress ,and the effect of random variables on the comprehensive risks were analyzed .The results indicate that the fourth strength theorem is more suitable for the risk calculation .This will provide the theoretical basis for the design of steel penstocks .%水电工程中压力钢管的结构安全对整个电站的安全运行有着重要的影响,而水锤对管道的安全性影响非常大,因而以特吾勒水电站回填式压力钢管为例,建立了计算水锤压力风险的功能函数,利用蒙特卡洛方法计算了考虑和不考虑轴向应力两种情况下的水锤压力风险值,并具体计算分析了各随机变量对综合风险的影响,结果表明利用第四强度理论计算水锤压力风险更加符合实际,为压力钢管的设计提供了依据。

  14. 多桩锤同步振动系统及同步控制策略研究%Synchronous vibration system of multi-hammer and synchronous control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来鑫; 乌建中; 张珍; 张大兵

    2012-01-01

    随着桩径越来越大,桩长越来越长,单台振动桩锤很难达到大直径桩基施工的功率要求,多锤联动同步振动是解决这一问题的有效方法.对多锤同步振动控制的基本原理与实现方法作了分析和探讨,在此基础上设计了基于现场总线的同步控制系统,构建了一个开放的分布式控制网络.考虑振动桩锤的工作特点和机械特性,制定了速度同步与相位同步的控制策略.仿真分析和实验均表明,设计的同步控制器响应速度快,鲁棒性强,稳定性好;这种通过现场总线互连的多锤联动系统能较好地实现同步振动,速度差与相位差均能满足工程要求.%Along with the development of structural construction, piles tend to be of bigger diameter and longer length, a single vibration hammer is difficult to meet the power requirement of striking lagre-diameter piles and synchronous vibration control of multiple vibrating hammers is an effective method to solve the problem. The basis principles of synchronous vibration control and corresponding methods were introduced. Synchronous control system based on field bus was designed, and an open distributed control network was built. Considering the working characteristics and mechanical properties of vibrating pile hammer, speed and phase synchronization controller was designed. The simulation research and experimental results show that the control method is effective with rapid response speed, strong robustness and good stability, and synchronous vibration of multiple vibrating pile hammers is achieved with the assistance of controller network, the velocity and phase differences between are able to satisfy engineering demands.

  15. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    The investigation of Holocene glacier chronologies in high mountain regions is important for use of glaciers as indicators for climate change. Only detailed Holocene glacier chronologies offer the opportunity to improve our knowledge on the relationship between glaciers and climate factors, and to verify models of the future glacier development. The Southern Alps of New Zealand represent the southern hemispheric study area within the complex comparative current research project "MaMoGla" (Holocene and recent dynamics of maritime mountain glaciers). Among other goals, new methodological attempts to date the dominating lateral moraines in the Southern Alps in order to revise existing glaciers chronologies have been integrated in this project. The need for improvement of the existing Holocene glacier chronology of the Southern Alps/New Zealand is mainly caused by methodological uncertainties and the focus on Tasman Glaciers as unreliable key locality. Previously, radiocarbon (14C) dating of organic material (plant remains, organic-rich soil layers etc.) buried beneath or within the complex lateral moraines was the predominating ‘absolute' dating technique applied. In addition to older studies using the measurement of weathering rind thickness on boulders, the potential of the Schmidt-hammer as relative-age dating technique has clearly been demonstrated by the successful application on several lateral and latero-frontal moraine sequences in the Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park. The relatively homogenous and weathering/erosion-resistant bedrock yielded comparatively small standard errors and, thus, a relatively high time resolution of up to 200 - 300 years. Supported by statistical treatment of the raw field data, the Schmidt-hammer provided sufficient information to group the individual moraine ridges into moraine sequences and relate them to separate Little Ice Age-type events. However, the final ‘absolute' age dating of the moraine sequences remained open. As an

  16. 敲击锤参数对风力机叶片声振法检测深度的影响%Influence of Impact Hammer on Parameter Acoustic Vibration Detecting Depth inside Wind Turbine Blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣梅; 孙梁; 周克印

    2016-01-01

    为提高风力机叶片声振法的检测深度,利用有限元软件,对风力机叶片声振法检测过程进行动力学模拟,选取冲击过程中应力波能量辐射系数为参数,分析敲击锤参数对应力波能量辐射系数的影响,以期得到更高的应力波能量辐射系数,从而达到提高声振法检测缺陷深度的目的.有限元模拟结果表明,除了敲击锤材料的泊松比外,其直径、锤身长度、锤头材料弹性模量以及冲击速度均对应力波能量辐射系数产生影响.在模拟分析结果的基础上,通过比较不同敲击锤尺寸下的应力持续时间,得出适当选取敲击锤参数可提高结构声振法缺陷的检测深度的结论.%Acoustic vibration has been applied in nondestructive examination of wind turbine blade because of its simplicity and applicability.In order to detect the deep defect,the dynamic procedure during the acoustic vibration of the wind turbine blade was simulated by finite element method (FEM).The influence of the hammer size and impact velocity on the stress wave energy radiation coefficient (SWERC)during the vibration was studied.The larger the radiation coefficient was,the deeper delamination could be recognized experimentally.The FEM analysis indicated that the parameters,such as the diameter and the length of the hammer,elastic modulus of the hammerhead and original impact velocity,had obvious influence on the SWERC.Based on the simulated results,two examples considering different hammering parameters were studied.The study indicates that an appropriate hammer could be designed to expand the detection depth.

  17. 发电厂除灰泵浆体水击压强的计算与分析%The Calculation and Analysis of Water-hammer of Liquid-Solid Two -Phase Flow for Ash-Water Pump in Steam Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云龙; 孙斌; 蒋诚

    2001-01-01

    The calculations and analysis on water hammer pressure of liquid-solid two-phase flow and the round velocity of turning back of the pump on ash-water pump in st e am power plant have been done. Based on the calculation results, some protection s against water-hammer for ash-water pump have been presented.%对某电厂除灰泵进行了浆体水击压强及反向转速的计算与分析,根据计算结果提出了除灰泵的水击防护措施。

  18. 重探试验锤击数的杆径换算研究%Study on Rod Diameter Conversion in Hammering Numbers of DPH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范建好

    2015-01-01

    目前,国内绝大多数规范规定重探试验应采用饱42 mm钻杆,但从施工方便等因素的考虑,很多工程勘察单位趋向于采用饱50 mm的钻杆进行重探试验。通过分析重探试验要点及其影响因素,基于重探试验锤击数修正系数表,推导出杆径换算系数为0.89,并以海南省某岛礁水运工程实例加以验证。结果表明,同一地貌单元,埋深12 m以浅的珊瑚碎屑层,采用饱42 mm钻杆进行重探试验的击数与采用饱50 mm钻杆进行重探试验的击数之比值为0.875,与推导结果基本一致。%42mm rod is regulated for DPH in most standards of China, but a lot of engineering investigation units tend to use?50mm rods based on the consideration of construction convenience factors.By the analysis on the testing points of DPH and the influencing factors, based on the revision coefficient table of DPH, the derived coefficient of rod diameter conversion is 0.89, which has been verified by a waterway engineering instance in island reefs of Hainan.The results show that for the coral clast formation of buried depth less than 12m in the same geomorphic units, the ratio of hammering numbers of DPH with?42 drill pipe and DPH with?50 drill pipe is 0.875, which is in close agreement with the derived results.

  19. 对女子链球运动员冬季准备期力量训练的研究%Research on the Strength Training of Female Hammer Athletes in Winter Preparation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨; 梁士雨; 戴兴鸿

    2012-01-01

    By tracking the female hammer athlete' s training in winter preparation period, the researchers analyzed and researched the strength training in winter preparation period of two athletes and then summarized the train- ing methods and load structure of female hammer athletes. By evaluating the development and change of the ath- lete strength, the paper proposed take some tailored training methods for the strength training.%通过跟踪北京体育大学链球队女子运动员冬训期的训练,对两名运动员冬季准备期的力量训练进行分析和研究,总结出了链球运动员在冬季准备期的力量训练方法、手段和负荷结构。通过对运动员的力量素质的发展变化进行评价,根据评价结果采取针对性的力量训练手段。

  20. A kind of anvil-block vibration-isolation method for electro-hydraulic free forging hammer%电液自由锻锤的一种砧座隔振方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云

    2012-01-01

    自由锻锤设备在工作时产生的冲击载荷,激起设备基础、地基和附近建筑物的强烈振动,是一种较为严重的振动污染.本文通过对某厂锻造车间几台电液自由锻锤设备的隔振设计和实施效果,介绍了一种电液自由锻锤设备的砧座隔振方法,并与自由锻锤其他隔振方法的特点进行简要比较,旨在为今后的自由锻锤设备的隔振设计提供参考和借鉴.%A kind of anvil-block vibration-isolation method for the electro-hydraulic free forging hammer has been introduced in the text based on the isolation design and practice effect of several hammers in some forging workshop. Comparison between the new method and other isolation methods has been carried out regarding the characteristics. It is hoped to provide reference for the future isolation design.

  1. The Countermeasures for Improving the Service Life of High Manganese Steel’s Hammerhead of Hammer Crusher%提高锤式破碎机高锰钢锤头使用寿命的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李密; 姚锡严

    2013-01-01

      锤式破碎机锤头是破碎机的关键部件之一,其质量的好坏关系到使用寿命的长短,因此要求锤头不仅具有较高的硬度及耐磨损性能,还要有较高的韧性及承受冲击性能。文章分析了影响锤式破碎机高锰钢锤头破碎能力的主要因素,提出了提高锤式破碎机高锰钢锤头使用寿命的对策。%The hammerhead of hammer crusher is one of the key components of crumbling machine. Its quality is related to the length of service life, so the hammerhead not only needs high hardness and wear-resisting property, but also needs higher toughness and impact performance. The paper analyzes the major factors of affecting the breaking ability of high manganese steel's hammerhead of hammer crusher, and puts forward countermeasures for improving the service life of it.

  2. Experiencias para el incremento de la vida útil de los martillos de los desmeduladores de bagazo de caña. // Experiences for the increment of useful life of hammers for cane trash depither.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Diez Torres

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe las experiencias llevadas a cabo por la División de Desarrollo del ICIDCA (Instituto Cubano deInvestigaciones de los Derivados de la caña de Azúcar, con el objetivo de incrementar la vida útil de los martillos de losdesmeduladores de bagazo, cuyo desgaste afecta la eficiencia en separación de médula de dichos equipos, utilizando elmétodo de recargue duro por soldadura por arco eléctrico. Se explican además los mecanismos de desgaste que tienenlugar, los métodos utilizados para la evaluación del desgaste en los recubrimientos ensayados, los resultados obtenidos y sebrindan soluciones concretas para atenuar éste fenómeno.Palabras claves: Desgaste, recuperación, industria azucarera, soldadura._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper describes the experiences obtained in the Development Division of ICIDCA ( Cuban Research Institute forSugar Cane Derivatives, to increase the useful life of bagasse depither hammers using arc welding hard surfacing method.The wear of these hammers affects the efficiency directly in the pith separation in these equipment. Besides, we explain thewear mechanisms which take place, the methods used to evaluate the wear in the tested coatings and the obtained results.Concrete solutions to diminish this phenomenon are given.Key words: Wear, recovery, sugar industry, welding.

  3. Tagasivaade veebruarikuu tegevusele Ehatares / Linda Püssa ; fotod: Linda Püssa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Püssa, Linda

    2009-01-01

    tegevusjuhi Rosemarie Lindau sünnipäevast, sõbrapäevast, EV aastapäeva tähistamisest Ehatare kirikusaalis ja Vana-Andrese kirikus, Inna ja Aadu Randpalule Eesti Punase Risti III klassi teenetemärgi andmisest

  4. Tagasivaade veebruarikuu tegevusele Ehatares / Linda Püssa ; fotod: Linda Püssa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Püssa, Linda

    2009-01-01

    tegevusjuhi Rosemarie Lindau sünnipäevast, sõbrapäevast, EV aastapäeva tähistamisest Ehatare kirikusaalis ja Vana-Andrese kirikus, Inna ja Aadu Randpalule Eesti Punase Risti III klassi teenetemärgi andmisest

  5. 空气潜孔锤钻进技术在抗浮工程中的应用研究%Applied Research of Air DTH Hammer Drilling Technology in Anti-floating Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有; 冯永光; 欧阳永龙; 兰海庆; 张勇

    2012-01-01

    Existing drilling operating machineries are mainly adequate for soil categories Ⅰ to Ⅲ, only the anchor rig is used for soil categories Ⅳ to Ⅷ at present But it has unfavorable issues of slow rate, low efficiency, high cost, and long time limit for a project. Through the researches on air DTH hammer drilling technology boring principle and rock crumbling mechanism; successfully use the hammer in anchor construction in soil of categories Ⅳ to Ⅷ. Taking the anti-floating cable anchor project in the Wanda Plaza Jinan basement construction as an example, carried out borehole completion velocity, wall smoothness and volume scale comparative studies between conventional rotary drill and air DTH hammer operating in soil categories Ⅳ to Ⅷ, considered that in the relatively harder strata, using the hammer can consumedly shorten the net drilling time, improve drilling efficiency. Also due to durative percussion, creating perturbation back and forth time after time, thus expanded hole diameter and become irregular, thus can increase anchor body's lateral resistance, as well as local end bearing capacity come into being, and so can improve pull-out resistance. The analysis has demonstrated that to use the hammer in anchor construction in soil of categories Ⅳ to Ⅷ is practicable.%现有施工机械的研究主要是针对1、2、3类土的施工,对于4~8类土中锚杆的施工,现有的锚杆钻机显示出施工进度慢,施工功效低、费用高、工期长、造价高等不利问题.通过对空气潜孔锤钻进技术成孔原理及碎岩机理的研究,成功的把它应用于4~8类土中锚杆的施工中去.以济南万达广场地下室抗浮锚索工程为例,通过对常规回转钻机和空气潜孔钻机在4~8类土中成孔速度、孔壁光滑度和孔体积大小对比研究,认为在相对较硬的地层中,采用空气潜孔锤钻进能大大缩小纯钻机时间,提高钻进效率,而且由于持续的冲击作用,会对孔壁造

  6. 我国优秀女子链球运动员关键动作技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis on the Key Motion Technique of Chinese Elite Female Hammer Throwers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾谊; 张青粉

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors which influenced and restrict‐ed the performance of some Chinese elite hammer throwers by using the three‐dimensional pho‐tographic measuring method .Methods :1 ) captured the video of athletes with fixed three‐di‐mensional photography ;2) get the raw kinematics data from the video used APAS motion anal‐ysis system ;3) get the smooth data form raw analysis data used digital filtering method and the cut frequency was 8Hz .The result shows that 1 ) The double support phase of Chinese athletes was insufficient .2) The motion of Chinese throwers in the wind were insufficient and lead to excessive velocity increment in the first turn .A few throwers also experienced negative increment of hammer speed in other turns .3) Our athletes generally used the technique charac‐terized by “lift late and land early” to increase the acceleration distance of the hammer .Conclu‐sion :1) Chinese athletes should increase the hammer velocity of the last phase of swing .2 ) Throwers should keep the center of gravity as far as possible in the period of double support in order to reduce the influence of "runner" effect on the hammer speed .3 ) Throwers should prolong the double support phase .%研究目的:通过拍摄我国部分优秀女子链球运动员的动作,对影响和制约运动员成绩发挥的因素进行了分析和研究。研究方法:1)用立体定机拍摄法,获得运动员比赛视频录像;2)利用APAS运动图像分析系统对比赛视频进行解析,获得原始运动学参数;3)数字滤波法,对原始运动学参数进行低通滤波平滑,截断频率为8 Hz。研究结果:1)我国运动员双支撑时间不足;2)我国运动员普遍存在预摆动作不充分的现象,导致旋转第1圈链球速度增量过大,个别运动员在旋转过程中还出现了链球速度的负增长。3)我国运动员普遍采用“晚抬早落”的旋转技术

  7. Eesti Sisearhitektuur aastal 2007 / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuri sihtkapitali ja Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2006. a. preemiate laureaatidest ja nominentidest: Viimsi Keskkoolist (ESLi ühiskondliku ruumi preemia, H. Pihlak, K. Lents), restoranidest "Gianni" (P. Lausmäe) ja "Vertigo" (J. Roos, A. Labi), Foorumi kaubanduskeskusest (H. Praks, M. Tammik), Vene teatrist (A. Oja, R. Luuk), Koger &Partnerid büroost Fahle majas (ESLi ajaloolise intrejööri preemia, L. A. Tork), Skype'i büroost (arhitektuuri sihtkapitali sisearhitektuuri preemia, T. Piirmets) ning Velvet Creative Alliance (ESLi büroointerjööri preemia (T. Aunre) Tallinnas, Koordi mõisa peahoonest (R. Vaiksoo, K. Aren), diivanikompletist "Black" (ESLi esemepreemia, T. Mang), valgustitest "Saturn" ja "Mr. Note" (T. Luisk), lambiseeriast "Taara" (J. Roos, A. Labi)

  8. Eesti Sisearhitektuur aastal 2007 / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuri sihtkapitali ja Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2006. a. preemiate laureaatidest ja nominentidest: Viimsi Keskkoolist (ESLi ühiskondliku ruumi preemia, H. Pihlak, K. Lents), restoranidest "Gianni" (P. Lausmäe) ja "Vertigo" (J. Roos, A. Labi), Foorumi kaubanduskeskusest (H. Praks, M. Tammik), Vene teatrist (A. Oja, R. Luuk), Koger &Partnerid büroost Fahle majas (ESLi ajaloolise intrejööri preemia, L. A. Tork), Skype'i büroost (arhitektuuri sihtkapitali sisearhitektuuri preemia, T. Piirmets) ning Velvet Creative Alliance (ESLi büroointerjööri preemia (T. Aunre) Tallinnas, Koordi mõisa peahoonest (R. Vaiksoo, K. Aren), diivanikompletist "Black" (ESLi esemepreemia, T. Mang), valgustitest "Saturn" ja "Mr. Note" (T. Luisk), lambiseeriast "Taara" (J. Roos, A. Labi)

  9. Karakteriga kodu / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Enn Rajasaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    2008. aastal valminud 2-korruseline eramu Mähel. Arhitekt Enn Rajasaar. Sisearhitekt Aet Seire. Välisviimistluses on kombineeritud tumedat tellist ja heledat krohvi. Sisekujundust läbivad värvid punane ja must. Osa mööbliesemeid (raamatukapid, söögitoa laud) valmisid sisearhitekti erilahendusena

  10. Roostetav legomaja / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Laila Põdra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Betoonelementidest eramu (267 m²) Tabasalus. Arhitekt Laila Põdra, insener Indrek Laul. Sisekujundus: Laila Põdra koos omanikega. Projekt: 2005-2007, valmis: 2008. Betoon on viimistluspinnaks ka interjööris. Läbivaks tooniks sise- ja välisviimistluses on roostepunane, teiseks põhitooniks on valge. Konkursil "Aasta Betoonehitis 2008" pälvis tellija eripreemia

  11. Välismaa arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Jean Nouveli projekteeritud 142 m kõrgune hoone Barcelonas. Sotsiaalmajad Madridis. Villa Berliinis (Pott Arhitektid). Kortermaja Amsterdamis (arhit. büroo MVRDV). Trammide ootepaviljon Alicantes Hispaanias

  12. Värskeid noppeid Kopenhaagenist / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Orestadist, mida asuti kavandama 1992. a. Korterelamust VM Huset (büroode PLOT+BIG+JDS ühistöö). Silotornidest rekonstrueeritud korterelamutest (Hollandi büroo MVRDV, Taani büroo JJW Arkitekter), kus korterid on ehitatud torni välisseinte külge. Tietgeni ühiselamust (Lundgaard & Tranberg), mis on esitatud 2007. a. Mies van der Rohe arhitektuuriauhinna nominendiks

  13. Hispanos en la EPA: Karen Milians

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  14. Roostetav legomaja / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Laila Põdra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Betoonelementidest eramu (267 m²) Tabasalus. Arhitekt Laila Põdra, insener Indrek Laul. Sisekujundus: Laila Põdra koos omanikega. Projekt: 2005-2007, valmis: 2008. Betoon on viimistluspinnaks ka interjööris. Läbivaks tooniks sise- ja välisviimistluses on roostepunane, teiseks põhitooniks on valge. Konkursil "Aasta Betoonehitis 2008" pälvis tellija eripreemia

  15. Välismaa arhitektuuriuudised / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Jean Nouveli projekteeritud 142 m kõrgune hoone Barcelonas. Sotsiaalmajad Madridis. Villa Berliinis (Pott Arhitektid). Kortermaja Amsterdamis (arhit. büroo MVRDV). Trammide ootepaviljon Alicantes Hispaanias

  16. Karakteriga kodu / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Enn Rajasaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    2008. aastal valminud 2-korruseline eramu Mähel. Arhitekt Enn Rajasaar. Sisearhitekt Aet Seire. Välisviimistluses on kombineeritud tumedat tellist ja heledat krohvi. Sisekujundust läbivad värvid punane ja must. Osa mööbliesemeid (raamatukapid, söögitoa laud) valmisid sisearhitekti erilahendusena

  17. Obituary: Lynne Karen Deutsch, 1954-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Ann L.

    2004-12-01

    It is with deep sadness and regret that we note the passing of our dear friend and colleague Prof. Lynne K. Deutsch. Lynne died on 2 April 2004 after a protracted illness and lengthy battle with complications caused by the blood disease Polycythaemia Vera. Lynne was born in Chicago on 26 November 1956 to Victor and Ailsa Deutsch. She lived with her family in the town of Morton Grove, IL until she was 8 years old, when they moved to Beverly Hills, CA. She was an outgoing child who played basketball and excelled in her studies. She graduated from Beverly Hills High School at the age of 16 after completing all high school requirements in only three years. Lynne had a beautiful singing voice, and was in the chorus in high school and college. Lynne earned her first bachelor's degree in philosophy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1977. She then returned to Berkeley and received a second bachelor's degree, this time in physics, in 1981. She was a graduate student and teaching assistant at MIT and earned an MS in physics from MIT in 1983. Lynne then attended the astronomy graduate program at Harvard University, where she earned her MA in 1985 and PhD in 1990. During her degree studies she began crafting mid-infrared instrumentation. These instruments were destined to be used by a host of eager observers to discover, identify, and study many emissions from the Solar System, and galactic and extragalactic sources. Lynne was a National Research Council Post-doctoral Fellow at NASA Ames Research Center from 1990 - 1992, where she played an important role in the development of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/University of Arizona Mid-Infrared Array Camera (MIRAC), a well-known and much sought after instrument frequently used in studies of Mercury, Jupiter, the Moon, planetary nebulae, star formation regions, galactic center, young stellar objects, and extragalactic objects. After leaving NASA Ames Research Center, Lynne taught for several years (1993-96) at Smith College where she had a significant impact on undergraduate research, especially for women, whom she enjoyed mentoring. Lynne joined the faculty in the Astronomy Department of Boston University in 1996 where she taught instrumentation principles and techniques to undergraduate and graduate students. Over the course of her faculty career, she received numerous research grants and fellowships that were used to support her research, her students, and her postdoctoral associates. She was the principal investigator of Boston University's advanced technologies and instrumentation program MIRABU: A Mid-Infrared Array. As her health declined and the rigors of a full teaching schedule became unacceptably taxing, Lynne took a leave of absence from Boston University and returned to Harvard University and the Center for Astrophysics in 2001. There she became a very active member of the Infrared Group in the OIR Division and a member of the IRAC/Spitzer Space Telescope team. Her research in infrared astronomy covered many areas including star formation, planetary and protoplanetary nebulae, solar system objects, the interstellar medium and infrared-luminous galaxies. Her most recent research with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope concentrated on high-mass star formation and the related evolution of the interstellar medium. In her short life, Lynne made many devoted friends and colleagues and was active in encouraging school-age girls to pursue their interests in the sciences. In her short career, she published more than seventy-five articles. She was an outstanding observer and instrumentalist, whose promising career was tragically cut short. Lynne was also a devoted mother and wife, and, while still well, she found the time to be an active participant in her son's elementary school. She is very greatly missed by her family. She is survived by her husband Douglas Sondak, PhD and her son Reed Deutsch-Sondak who live in Acton, MA, and her parents and sister Judith who reside in California. Lynne will be forever missed by her family, friends, colleagues, and the astronomical community. Her contributions will continue to benefit the community for many years to come. We only wish she were here to share them with us. She will be remembered as a dear friend, colleague, accomplished scientist, and dedicated family member.

  18. Liiga palju raha / Karen Lowry Miller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Miller, Karen Lowry

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Spekter (vene k.) nr. 2, lk. 20-23. Autor kirjeldab, kuidas investorid rahanappusest üleküllusesse sattunud maailmas pidevalt uusi investeerimisvõimalusi otsivad ja juhib tähelepanu investorite poolt tekitatud majandusbuumides peituvatele ohtudele. Kaart: Seebimullide maakaart. Diagrammid: Raha kasvab kiiremini; Ülemaailmselt liikuv kapital

  19. Vaidlus vananemise üle / Karen Weintraub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weintraub, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, kes tegeleb vananemisvastaste uuringute läbiviimise ja vastavatoimeliste medikamentide väljatöötamisega, on suurt tähelepanu pälvinud vanamisvastaseid geene mõjutavate ensüümide sirtuiinide leidmisega. Lühidalt ka ratamütsiini eluiga pikendava toime mehhanismist

  20. Vintage-puudutusega korter / Karen Jagodin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna kesklinna kivist kortermajas 2011. aastal valminud korteris on koha leidnud Skandinaaviamaade 1950.-1960. aastate peenikeste jalgadega disainmööbel. Vineerist raamaturiiuli kavandas disainer Veiko Liis