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Sample records for kaplan-meier method results

  1. The analysis of competing events like cause-specific mortality--beware of the Kaplan-Meier method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, Marion; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Jager, Kitty J.; le Cessie, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier analysis is a popular method used for analysing time-to-event data. In case of competing event analyses such as that of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, however, the Kaplan-Meier method profoundly overestimates the cumulative mortality probabilities for each of the

  2. The Kaplan-Meier Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerds, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Survival is difficult to estimate when observation periods of individuals differ in length. Students imagine sailing the Titanic and then recording whether they "live" or "die." A clever algorithm is performed which results in the Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival.

  3. KMWin – A Convenient Tool for Graphical Presentation of Results from Kaplan-Meier Survival Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. Results On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. Conclusions We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups. PMID:22723912

  4. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  5. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  6. Modified Weighted Kaplan-Meier Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiq

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many medical studies majority of the study subjects do not reach to the event of interest during the study period. In such situations survival probabilities can be estimated for censored observation by Kaplan Meier estimator. However in case of heavy censoring these estimates are biased and over estimate the survival probabilities. For heavy censoring a new method was proposed (Bahrawar Jan, 2005 to estimate the survival probabilities by weighting the censored observations by non-censoring rate. But the main defect in this weighted method is that it gives zero weight to the last censored observation. To over come this difficulty a new weight is proposed which also gives a non-zero weight to the last censored observation.

  7. The Kaplan-Meier theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Survival probabilities are not straightforward toobtain when observation periods of individuals differ in length. The Kaplan–Meier theatre is a classroom activity, which starts by a data collection exercise where students imagine sailing on the Titanic. Several students ‘fall in the water’ where....... The Kaplan–Meier method assumes that censored individuals have the same survival chances as the individuals who are still observed. During the Kaplan–Meier theatre, students perform a clever algorithm (Efron 1967), which translates the assumption into action and results in the Kaplan–Meier estimate...

  8. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-10-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects.

  9. A review and comparison of methods for recreating individual patient data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves for economic evaluations: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaomin; Peng, Liubao; Li, Yuanjian

    2015-01-01

    In general, the individual patient-level data (IPD) collected in clinical trials are not available to independent researchers to conduct economic evaluations; researchers only have access to published survival curves and summary statistics. Thus, methods that use published survival curves and summary statistics to reproduce statistics for economic evaluations are essential. Four methods have been identified: two traditional methods 1) least squares method, 2) graphical method; and two recently proposed methods by 3) Hoyle and Henley, 4) Guyot et al. The four methods were first individually reviewed and subsequently assessed regarding their abilities to estimate mean survival through a simulation study. A number of different scenarios were developed that comprised combinations of various sample sizes, censoring rates and parametric survival distributions. One thousand simulated survival datasets were generated for each scenario, and all methods were applied to actual IPD. The uncertainty in the estimate of mean survival time was also captured. All methods provided accurate estimates of the mean survival time when the sample size was 500 and a Weibull distribution was used. When the sample size was 100 and the Weibull distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method; however, more biases were identified in the traditional methods. When a lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method generated noticeably less bias and a more accurate uncertainty compared with the Hoyle and Henley method. The traditional methods should not be preferred because of their remarkable overestimation. When the Weibull distribution was used for a fitted model, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method. However, if the lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was less biased compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.

  10. About an adaptively weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jean-François

    2009-09-01

    The minimum averaged mean squared error nonparametric adaptive weights use data from m possibly different populations to infer about one population of interest. The definition of these weights is based on the properties of the empirical distribution function. We use the Kaplan-Meier estimate to let the weights accommodate right-censored data and use them to define the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate. The proposed estimate is smoother than the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate and converges uniformly in probability to the target distribution. Simulations show that the performances of the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate on finite samples exceed that of the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate. A case study is also presented.

  11. The Kaplan-Meier Integral in the Presence of Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas A.; Beyersmann, Jan; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    In a series of papers, Winfried Stute introduced and studied the Kaplan-Meier integral as an estimator of parameters of the joint distribution of survival times and covariates based on right censored survival times. We present a review of this work and show that his estimator has an inverse...... probability of censoring weighting (IPCW) representation. We further investigate large sample bias and efficiency. As a central application in a biostatistical context, Kaplan-Meier integrals are used to estimate transition probabilities in a non-Markov illness-death model. We extend already existing...

  12. Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis Overestimates the Risk of Revision Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacny, Sarah; Wilson, Todd; Clement, Fiona; Roberts, Derek J; Faris, Peter D; Ghali, William A; Marshall, Deborah A

    2015-11-01

    Although Kaplan-Meier survival analysis is commonly used to estimate the cumulative incidence of revision after joint arthroplasty, it theoretically overestimates the risk of revision in the presence of competing risks (such as death). Because the magnitude of overestimation is not well documented, the potential associated impact on clinical and policy decision-making remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to answer the following questions: (1) To what extent does the Kaplan-Meier method overestimate the cumulative incidence of revision after joint replacement compared with alternative competing-risks methods? (2) Is the extent of overestimation influenced by followup time or rate of competing risks? We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science (1946, 1980, 1980, and 1899, respectively, to October 26, 2013) and included article bibliographies for studies comparing estimated cumulative incidence of revision after hip or knee arthroplasty obtained using both Kaplan-Meier and competing-risks methods. We excluded conference abstracts, unpublished studies, or studies using simulated data sets. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of reporting of the included studies. Among 1160 abstracts identified, six studies were included in our meta-analysis. The principal reason for the steep attrition (1160 to six) was that the initial search was for studies in any clinical area that compared the cumulative incidence estimated using the Kaplan-Meier versus competing-risks methods for any event (not just the cumulative incidence of hip or knee revision); we did this to minimize the likelihood of missing any relevant studies. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) comparing the cumulative incidence estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the competing-risks method for each study and used DerSimonian and Laird random effects models to pool these RRs. Heterogeneity was explored using stratified meta-analyses and

  13. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis overestimates cumulative incidence of health-related events in competing risk settings: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacny, Sarah; Wilson, Todd; Clement, Fiona; Roberts, Derek J; Faris, Peter; Ghali, William A; Marshall, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier survival analysis overestimates cumulative incidence in competing risks (CRs) settings. The extent of overestimation (or its clinical significance) has been questioned, and CRs methods are infrequently used. This meta-analysis compares the Kaplan-Meier method to the cumulative incidence function (CIF), a CRs method. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science (1992-2016), and article bibliographies for studies estimating cumulative incidence using the Kaplan-Meier method and CIF. For studies with sufficient data, we calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) comparing Kaplan-Meier and CIF estimates using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. We performed stratified meta-analyses by clinical area, rate of CRs (CRs/events of interest), and follow-up time. Of 2,192 identified abstracts, we included 77 studies in the systematic review and meta-analyzed 55. The pooled RR demonstrated the Kaplan-Meier estimate was 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 1.47] times higher than the CIF. Overestimation was highest among studies with high rates of CRs [RR = 2.36 (95% CI: 1.79, 3.12)], studies related to hepatology [RR = 2.60 (95% CI: 2.12, 3.19)], and obstetrics and gynecology [RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.52, 2.23)]. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the cumulative incidence across 10 clinical areas. Using CRs methods will ensure accurate results inform clinical and policy decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grybaeck, P.; Naeslund, E.; Hellstroem, P.M.; Jacobsson, H.; Backman, L.

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyot Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. Methods We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. Results The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. Conclusion The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  17. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-02-01

    The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios) with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  18. Competing risk bias was common in Kaplan-Meier risk estimates published in prominent medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl; McAlister, Finlay A

    2016-01-01

    Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves are well known to medical researchers, reviewers, and editors. In this study, we determined the proportion of Kaplan-Meier analyses published in prominent medical journals that are potentially biased because of competing events ("competing risk bias"). We randomly selected 100 studies that had at least one Kaplan-Meier analysis and were recently published in prominent medical journals. Susceptibility to competing risk bias was determined by examining the outcome and potential competing events. In susceptible studies, bias was quantified using a previously validated prediction model when the number of outcomes and competing events were given. Forty-six studies (46%) contained Kaplan-Meier analyses susceptible to competing risk bias. Sixteen studies (34.8%) susceptible to competing risk cited the number of outcomes and competing events; in six of these studies (6/16, 37.5%), the outcome risk from the Kaplan-Meier estimate (relative to the true risk) was biased upward by 10% or more. Almost half of Kaplan-Meier analyses published in medical journals are susceptible to competing risk bias and may overestimate event risk. This bias was found to be quantitatively important in a third of such studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  20. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  1. Application of Kaplan-Meier analysis in reliability evaluation of products cast from aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szymszal; A. Gierek; J. Kliś

    2010-01-01

    The article evaluates the reliability of AlSi17CuNiMg alloys using Kaplan-Meier-based technique, very popular as a survival estimation tool in medical science. The main object of survival analysis is a group (or groups) of units for which the time of occurrence of an event (failure) taking place after some time of waiting is estimated. For example, in medicine, the failure can be patient’s death. In this study, the failure was the specimen fracture during a periodical fatigue test, while the ...

  2. A versatile test for equality of two survival functions based on weighted differences of Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hajime; Tian, Lu; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2015-12-10

    With censored event time observations, the logrank test is the most popular tool for testing the equality of two underlying survival distributions. Although this test is asymptotically distribution free, it may not be powerful when the proportional hazards assumption is violated. Various other novel testing procedures have been proposed, which generally are derived by assuming a class of specific alternative hypotheses with respect to the hazard functions. The test considered by Pepe and Fleming (1989) is based on a linear combination of weighted differences of the two Kaplan-Meier curves over time and is a natural tool to assess the difference of two survival functions directly. In this article, we take a similar approach but choose weights that are proportional to the observed standardized difference of the estimated survival curves at each time point. The new proposal automatically makes weighting adjustments empirically. The new test statistic is aimed at a one-sided general alternative hypothesis and is distributed with a short right tail under the null hypothesis but with a heavy tail under the alternative. The results from extensive numerical studies demonstrate that the new procedure performs well under various general alternatives with a caution of a minor inflation of the type I error rate when the sample size is small or the number of observed events is small. The survival data from a recent cancer comparative study are utilized for illustrating the implementation of the process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béranger Lueza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in restricted mean survival time ( rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , the area between two survival curves up to time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , is often used in cost-effectiveness analyses to estimate the treatment effect in randomized controlled trials. A challenge in individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses is to account for the trial effect. We aimed at comparing different methods to estimate the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ from an IPD meta-analysis. Methods We compared four methods: the area between Kaplan-Meier curves (experimental vs. control arm ignoring the trial effect (Naïve Kaplan-Meier; the area between Peto curves computed at quintiles of event times (Peto-quintile; the weighted average of the areas between either trial-specific Kaplan-Meier curves (Pooled Kaplan-Meier or trial-specific exponential curves (Pooled Exponential. In a simulation study, we varied the between-trial heterogeneity for the baseline hazard and for the treatment effect (possibly correlated, the overall treatment effect, the time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , the number of trials and of patients, the use of fixed or DerSimonian-Laird random effects model, and the proportionality of hazards. We compared the methods in terms of bias, empirical and average standard errors. We used IPD from the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma (MAC-NPC and its updated version MAC-NPC2 for illustration that included respectively 1,975 and 5,028 patients in 11 and 23 comparisons. Results The Naïve Kaplan-Meier method was unbiased, whereas the Pooled Exponential and, to a much lesser extent, the Pooled Kaplan-Meier methods showed a bias with non-proportional hazards. The Peto-quintile method underestimated the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , except with non-proportional hazards at t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ = 5 years. In the presence of treatment effect

  4. Applying Kaplan-Meier to Item Response Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Some IRT models can be equivalently modeled in alternative frameworks such as logistic regression. Logistic regression can also model time-to-event data, which concerns the probability of an event occurring over time. Using the relation between time-to-event models and logistic regression and the relation between logistic regression and IRT, this…

  5. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients: An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Song, Yiyan; Tan, Wulin; Qiu, Zeting; Li, Si; Chen, Qinchang; Gao, Shaowei

    2017-09-01

    Marital status's prognostic impact on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) has not been rigorously studied. We aimed to explore the relationship between marital status and outcomes of PNET. We retrospectively investigated 2060 PNET cases between 2004 and 2010 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by Chi 2 test, t-test as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier methods and COX proportional hazard models were used to ascertain independent prognostic factors. Married patients had better 5-year overall survival (OS) (53.37% vs. 42.27%, Pvs. 59.82%, P=0.001) comparing with unmarried patients. Multivariate analysis revealed marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (HR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.65-0.84; Punmarried patients may be associated with a delayed diagnosis with advanced tumor stage, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

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    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the

  7. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik; Park, Seung Jin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the future prospective randomized

  8. Safety, tolerability, and initial efficacy of AZD6140, the first reversible oral adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist, compared with clopidogrel, in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: primary results of the DISPERSE-2 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Christopher P; Husted, Steen; Harrington, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    , or clopidogrel 300-mg loading dose plus 75 mg once daily for up to 12 weeks. RESULTS: The primary end point, the Kaplan-Meier rate of major or minor bleeding through 4 weeks, was 8.1% in the clopidogrel group, 9.8% in the AZD6140 90-mg group, and 8.0% in the AZD6140 180-mg group (p = 0.43 and p = 0.......96, respectively, vs. clopidogrel); the major bleeding rates were 6.9%, 7.1%, and 5.1%, respectively (p = 0.91 and p = 0.35, respectively, vs. clopidogrel). Although not statistically significant, favorable trends were seen in the Kaplan-Meier rates of myocardial infarction (MI) over the entire study period (MI: 5...

  9. Análisis de supervivencia en presencia de riesgos competitivos: estimadores de la probabilidad de suceso Survival analysis with competing risks: estimating failure probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Llorca

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Mostrar el efecto de los riesgos competitivos de muerte en el análisis de supervivencia. Métodos: Se presenta un ejemplo sobre la supervivencia libre de rechazo tras un trasplante cardíaco, en el que la muerte antes de desarrollar el rechazo actúa como riesgo competitivo. Mediante una simulación se comparan el estimador de Kaplan-Meier y el modelo de decrementos múltiples. Resultados: El método de Kaplan-Meier sobrestima el riesgo de rechazo. A continuación, se expone la aplicación del modelo de decrementos múltiples para el análisis de acontecimientos secundarios (en el ejemplo, la muerte tras el rechazo. Finalmente, se discuten las asunciones propias del método de Kaplan-Meier y las razones por las que no puede ser aplicado en presencia de riesgos competitivos. Conclusiones: El análisis de supervivencia debe ajustarse por los riesgos competitivos de muerte para evitar la sobrestimación del riesgo de fallo que se produce con el método de Kaplan-Meier.Objective: To show the impact of competing risks of death on survival analysis. Method: We provide an example of survival time without chronic rejection after heart transplantation, where death before rejection acts as a competing risk. Using a computer simulation, we compare the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement model. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the probability of rejection. Next, we illustrate the use of the multiple decrement model to analyze secondary end points (in our example: death after rejection. Finally, we discuss Kaplan-Meier assumptions and why they fail in the presence of competing risks. Conclusions: Survival analysis should be adjusted for competing risks of death to avoid overestimation of the risk of rejection produced with the Kaplan-Meier method.

  10. Prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafting: five-year results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R M; Abbott, W M; Matsumoto, T; Wheeler, J R; Miller, N; Veith, F J; Money, S; Garrett, H E

    2000-03-01

    This trial was designed to identify factors affecting patency rates of primary prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years. A multi-institutional, prospective trial randomized 240 patients to compare patency rates of Gore-tex and Hemashield above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years. Univariate comparisons of patency between levels of each prognostic variable were made with the Kaplan-Meier method. Variables that had a univariate P value less than.25 or those known to be important were submitted to a Cox regression analysis. The patient survival rate at 5 years was 59.4%. There were no differences in primary or secondary patency rates at 5 years between the two graft materials (primary, 45% vs 43% and secondary, 68% vs 68%). The risk for graft occlusion was significantly increased for patients younger than 65 years (2.1; P =.001) and for grafts with a diameter less than 7 mm (1.65; P =.0219). Variables with no apparent independent effect on patency rates were smoking status, runoff, diabetes mellitus, sex, presenting symptoms, and postoperative treatment with aspirin or Coumadin. Noninvasive test results were not predictive of subsequent graft function. Although the type of prosthetic used for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass grafts does not affect 5-year patency rates, age and graft size do influence results. These factors should be considered before a prosthetic bypass grafting procedure. Furthermore, these data should serve as a contemporary standard, with which evolving and conventional procedures can be compared.

  11. The clinical results of stereotactic irradiation for stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Kanji; Kodama, Hisayuki; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Wadasaki, Koichi; Ito, Katsuhide; Kimura, Tomoki; Akagi, Yukio

    2006-01-01

    Discussed are the results in the title in authors' hospital. Subjects are 15 patients with the stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (10 males and 5 females; median age, 77 y; 11 cases of adenocarcinoma and 4 of squamous cell carcinoma), whose progress could be followed for 6 months or longer after the stereotactic irradiation during the period of July 1999 to 2006. The 8-9-gated irradiation therapy on the primary cancer alone was conducted with Varian Clinac 2300 (6MV-Xray) with the 3D planning equipment of PHILIPS Pinnacle. For some patients, the spirometer was used to monitor the voluntary breath-hold and body was fixed by vacuum fixer. Doses were 56 (4 Gy x 14) Gy in 3 cases, 60 (7.5 Gy x 8) Gy in 2, 50 (10 Gy x 5) Gy in 1 and 48 (12 Gy x 4) Gy in 9. Kaplan-Meier method was used for calculating the local control and survival rates. The former was 93% and the latter, 86% (1 year), 78% (2 y) and 39% (3 y). Three-year survival rate was 100% in 5 cases without other cancer and 18% in 10 with the cancers. Recurrence was seen in 3 cases and remote metastases, 7. Pneumonitis less than Grade 2 was in 11 cases. The stereotactic irradiation was thus found safe and effective in the stage IA non-small cell lung cancer. (T.I.)

  12. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

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    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  13. Brain stem tumors in children - therapeutic results in patients of the University Children's Hospital of Cracow in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korab-Chrzanowska, E.; Bartoszewska, J.; Kwiatkowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    To analyse the treatment results achieved in children treated for brain stem tumours at one institution between the years 1990 and 2004. Material. 20 patients (10 girls, 10 boys) aged 2.8-15.6 years were treated for brain stem tumors at the University Children's Hospital of Cracow (UCHC) in the years 1990-2004. The tumour type was defined basing on imaging studies (CT, MRI), and, in the case of 7 patients, additionally basing on histopathological results. In the collected material the predominant tumor type was benign glioma, detected in 17 patients. Malignant gliomas were diagnosed in 3 children. 7 children were treated by radiotherapy only. Surgical procedures and adjuvant radiotherapy were employed in 3 patients. 6 children underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Combined surgical treatment followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy was employed in 4 patients. Of the 20 patients 6 have died (30%). The surviving group (70%) includes 1 patient with tumor progression (5%), 5 - with stable tumors (25%), and 8 (40%) - with tumor regression. The probability of three-year overall survival for the entire group as calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 70% while the probability of three-year progression-free survival was 65%. Conclusions. Diffuse brain stem tumors, mostly those involving the pons, and malignant gliomas have poor prognosis. In the presented material we achieved the best treatment results in patients with exophytic or focal tumors, treated surgically with adjuvant therapy. (author)

  14. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria; Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  15. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica [Department of Radiation Physics, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  16. Application of willis covered stent in the treatment of aneurysms located in the cisternal segment of the internal carotid artery: a pilot comparative study with long-term follow-up results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yueqi; Li Minghua; Fang Chun; Wang Wu; Zhang Peilei; Cheng Yingsheng; Tan Huaqiao; Wang Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Complicated aneurysms located in the cisternal segment of the internal carotid artery(ICA-CSA) present unique therapeutic difficulties. This study is to discuss the feasibility of the Willis stent-graft in treating complicated ICA-CSA by comparing its effect with that of coiling therapy. Methods: Willis covered stents were employed in 19 complicated ICA-CSAs (group A), while coils were used in 17 complicated ICA-CSAs (group B). Follow-up angiography was performed to investigate aneurysm recurrence, endoleak and parent artery (PA) stenosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare the recurrence-free and PA stenosis-free rate in both groups. Results: Total exclusion was immediately achieved in 13 ICA-CSAs and minor endoleaks presented in 5 cases in group A. Total or near-total occlusion was achieved in 7 ICA-CSAs, subtotal occlusion in 8 and partial occlusion in 2 cases in group B after coiling. Acute thrombosis occurred in 1 patient in either group and re-hemorrhage happened in 1 patient after coiling. Follow-up angiography in group A revealed that 16 ICA-CSAs were completely isolated, with two parent arteries showing mild in-stent stenosis. Eighteen months after the procedure, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the recurrence-free rate was 93.3% and 50%, while the stenosis-free rate of parent artery was 87.5% and 100% in group A and in Group B, respectively. In group A and group Bthe clinical neurological symptoms were fully recovered in 9 and 9, obviously improved in 3 and 5, unchanged in 2 and 2, and aggravated in one and 0 patients, respectively. Conclusion: The implantation of Willis stent-graft is a feasible endovascular therapy for complicated ICA-CSAs. When the parent artery is very tortuous or when the risk that a main collateral branch may be wrongly covered and occluded is present, the implantation of Willis covered stent can not be taken as the treatment of first choice. (authors)

  17. Burden and outcomes of pressure ulcers in cancer patients receiving the Kerala model of home based palliative care in India: Results from a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji M Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the prevalence and outcomes of pressure ulcers (PU seen in a cohort of cancer patients requiring home-based palliative care. Materials and Methods: All patients referred for home care were eligible for this prospective observational study, provided they were living within a distance of 35 km from the institute and gave informed consent. During each visit, caregivers were trained and educated for providing nursing care for the patient. Dressing material for PU care was provided to all patients free of cost and care methods were demonstrated. Factors influencing the occurrence and healing of PUs were analyzed using logistic regression. Duration for healing of PU was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. P < 0.05 are taken as significant. Results: Twenty-one of 108 (19.4% enrolled patients had PU at the start of homecare services. None of the patients developed new PU during the course of home care. Complete healing of PU was seen in 9 (42.9% patients. The median duration for healing of PU was found to be 56 days. Median expenditure incurred in patients with PU was Rs. 2323.40 with a median daily expenditure of Rs. 77.56. Conclusions: The present model of homecare service delivery was found to be effective in the prevention and management of PUs. The high prevalence of PU in this cohort indicates a need for greater awareness for this complication. Clinical Trial Registry Number: CTRI/2014/03/004477

  18. Long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: a European experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencioni, R.; Pinto, F.; Armillotta, N.; Bassi, A.M.; Moretti, M.; Di Giulio, M.; Marchi, S.; Uliana, M.; Della Capanna, S.; Lencioni, M.; Bartolozzi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our work was to evaluate the long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 184 cirrhotic patients with HCC underwent PEI as the only anticancer treatment over an 8-year period. Patients were followed after therapy by means of clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and US and CT studies performed at regular time intervals. Survival rates were determined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The overall survival was 67% at 3 years, 41% at 5 years, and 19% at 7 years. The 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates of patients with single HCC≤3 cm (78, 54, and 28%, respectively) were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of patients with single HCC of 3.1-5 cm (61, 32, and 16, respectively) or multiple HCCs (51, 21, and 0%, respectively). Survival of Child-Pugh A patients (79% at 3 years, 53% at 5 years, and 32% at 7 years) was significantly longer (p<0.01) than that of Child-Pugh B patients (50% at 3 years, 28% at 5 years, and 8% at 7 years). A selected group of 70 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and single HCC≤3 cm had a 7-year survival of 42%. Long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with HCC treated with PEI is comparable to that reported in published series of matched patients submitted to surgical resection. (orig.)

  19. Primary Cutting Balloon Angioplasty for Treatment of Venous Stenoses in Native Hemodialysis Fistulas: Long-Term Results from Three Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Rajesh; McBride, Kieran; Chakraverty, Sam; Vikram, Raghunandan; Severn, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the technical success and patency rates following primary cutting balloon angioplasty for venous stenoses in native dialysis fistulas. Methods. Forty-one patients (26 men, 15 women; age range 26-82 years, average age 59 years) underwent 50 (repeat procedures in 9 patients) primary cutting balloon (PCB) angioplasty procedures in three institutions by three primary operators. The indication was primary stenosis in 21 patients, recurrent lesions in 15, and immature fistulas in 5. A PCB was used alone in 17 cases, but was followed by a larger standard balloon in 33 cases. Follow-up included ultrasound, flow analysis and urea reduction ratio, and ranged from 2 to 30 months (mean 14 months). Results. The technical success rate was 98%. All procedures were relatively painless. Two PCBs burst and 4 leaked, but without causing any morbidity. Nineteen fistulas were still working at last follow-up. Primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months using Kaplan-Meier analysis were 88%, 73%, and 34%, respectively, and the primary assisted patencies were 90%, 75%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusion. PCB angioplasty has high technical success and low complication rates. The long-term patency rates are favorable for PCB angioplasty and compare favorably with other series

  20. Favorable Outcomes after Implantation of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Diabetic Population: Results from INDOLIMUS-G Diabetic Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Polavarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim is to evaluate safety, efficacy, and clinical performance of the Indolimus (Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Surat, India sirolimus-eluting stent in high-risk diabetic population with complex lesions. Methods. It was a multicentre, retrospective, non-randomized, single-arm study, which enrolled 372 diabetic patients treated with Indolimus. The primary endpoint of the study was major adverse cardiac events (MACE, which is a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization (TLR, target vessel revascularization (TVR, myocardial infarction (MI, and stent thrombosis (ST. The clinical follow-ups were scheduled at 30 days, 6 months, and 9 months. Results. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 53.4 ± 10.2 years. A total of 437 lesions were intervened successfully with 483 stents (1.1 ± 0.3 per lesion. There were 256 (68.8% male patients. Hypertension and totally occluded lesions were found in 202 (54.3% and 45 (10.3% patients, respectively. The incidence of MACE at 30 days, 6 months and 9 months was 0 (0%, 6 (1.6%, and 8 (2.2%, respectively. The event-free survival at 9-month follow-up by Kaplan Meier method was found to be 97.8%. Conclusion. The use of biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting stent is associated with favorable outcomes. The results demonstrated in our study depict its safety and efficacy in diabetic population.

  1. Cervical cancer: evaluation of our results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cola, A.; Suárez, L.; Castillo, C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer in women occupies 3rd place in incidence and 5th as a cause of cancer death in our country. The evolution is mainly determined by the stage, nodal status and histological type. The treatment of these tumors is surgical, radiant and / or systemic, depending on your choice mainly Stadium. Objective: To analyze the characteristics, evolution, treatment and survival of patients carriers of cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: The medical records were retrospectively analyzed for patients with cervical cancer treated at the Department of Oncology the Clinical Hospital in the period 1994-2004. Curves were constructed survival (sv) of total and free enfemedad sv sv by stage and after relapse by the method of Kaplan-Meier. Results: n = 75 patients, median age 45 years (24-90 years). Histological type: Epidermoid carcinomas 93% 5% 2% adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous. stadium (E) Initial: 31% IE, 38% EII, EIII 25%, 6% EIVA. Treatment was according to the stadium, considering that until 1999 was not standard concurrent chemoradiation. The median sv considering all stages was 124 months. The sv to 5 years for EI was 90% (median 188 sv months), for the ISI 65% (95 months) and the median sv CIRTs was 24 months. Followed for 13 months, 12 patients relapsed and the median after sv relapse was 8 months (95% CI 4-13 months) Conclusions: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature, however far from the optimal, so it is necessary to continue clinical trials in this regard

  2. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of obesity on surgical staging and RFS in EC according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) risk groups. Data of 729 women with EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2000 and December 2012 were abstracted from a multicenter database. RFS distributions according to body mass index (BMI) in each ESMO risk group were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival was evaluated using the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine influence of multiple variables. Distribution of the 729 women with EC according to BMI was BMI women with a BMI ≥ 35 (72 %) than for those with a BMI obese women in the low-/intermediate-risk groups, but a BMI ≥ 35 was independently correlated to a poorer RFS (hazard ratio 12.5; 95 % confidence interval 3.1-51.3) for women in the high-risk group. Severe obesity negatively impacts RFS in women with high-risk EC, underlining the importance of complete surgical staging and adapted adjuvant therapies in this subgroup of women.

  3. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Schemmer, P.; Duex, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  4. Treatments Results and Prognostic Factors in Locally Advanced Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Mee-Sun; Chung, Woong-Ki; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Nam, Taek-Keun; Song, Ju-Young; Nah, Byung-Sik; Lim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Joon Kyoo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the treatment results and to identify possible prognostic indicators in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Between October 1985 to December 2000, 90 patients who had locally advanced stage IV hypopharyngeal carcinoma were studied retrospectively. Twelve patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 65 patients were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and 13 patients were treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Total radiation dose ranged from 59.0 to 88.2 Gy (median 70 Gy) for radiotherapy alone. Most patients had ciplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and others had cisplatin and peplomycin or vincristin. Median follow-up period was 15 months. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival rate and Cox proportional hazard model for multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Results: Overall 3- and 5-year survival rates were 27% and 17%, respectively. The 2-year locoregional control rates were 33% for radiotherapy alone, 32% for combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and 81% for combined surgery and radiotherapy (p=0.006). The prognostic factors affecting overall survival were T stage, concurrent chemo radiation and treatment response. Overall 3- and 5-year laryngeal preservation rates in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy were 26% and 22%, respectively. Of these, the 5-year laryngeal preservation rates were 52% for concurrent chemo radiation group (n=11), and 16% for neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (n=54, p=0.012). Conclusion: Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy showed better results than radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy. Radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy is an effective modality to achieve organ preservation in locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. Further prospective randomized studies will be required

  5. Effect of marital status on the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with surgical resection: an analysis of 13,408 patients in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Ping; Qian, Jian-Jun; Jin, Sheng-Jie; Yao, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Bai, Dou-Sheng; Jiang, Guo-Qing

    2016-11-29

    Marital status has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for survival in various cancers, but it has been rarely studied in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by surgical resection. We retrospectively investigated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data and identified 13,408 cases of HCC with surgical treatment between 1998 and 2013. The patients were categorized according to marital status, as "married," "never married," "widowed," or "divorced/separated." The 5-year HCC cause-specific survival (HCSS) data were obtained, and Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariate Cox regression models were used to ascertain whether marital status is also an independent prognostic factor for survival in HCC. Patients in the widowed group had the higher proportion of women, a greater proportion of older (>60 years) patients, more frequency in latest year of diagnosis (2008-2013), a greater number of tumors at TNM stage I/II, and more prevalence at localized SEER Stage, all of which were statistically significant within-group comparisons (P Married patients had better 5-year HCSS than did unmarried patients (46.7% vs 37.8%) (P < 0.001); conversely, widowed patients had lowest HCSS compared with all other patients, overall, at each SEER stage, and for different tumor sizes. Marital status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with HCC treated with surgical resection. Widowed patients have the highest risk of death compared with other groups.

  6. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy; Langzeitergebnisse der interventionellen Therapie von grossen, inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen (HCC): signifikanter Ueberlebensvorteil von transarterieller Chemoembolisation (TACE) und perkutaner Ethanolinjektion (PEI) gegenueber der TACE-Monotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Schemmer, P. [Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Radiologisches Zentralinstitut Krankenhaus Nordwest Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  7. Clinical outcomes in patients with node-negative breast cancer treated based on the recurrence score results: evidence from a large prospectively designed registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Salomon M; Steiner, Mariana; Rizel, Shulamith; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Ben-Baruch, Noa; Bareket-Samish, Avital; Geffen, David B; Nisenbaum, Bella; Isaacs, Kevin; Fried, Georgeta; Rosengarten, Ora; Uziely, Beatrice; Svedman, Christer; McCullough, Debbie; Maddala, Tara; Klang, Shmuel H; Zidan, Jamal; Ryvo, Larisa; Kaufman, Bella; Evron, Ella; Karminsky, Natalya; Goldberg, Hadassah; Shak, Steven; Liebermann, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    The 21-gene Recurrence Score® (RS) assay is a validated prognostic/predictive tool in ER + early-stage breast cancer. However, clinical outcome data from prospective studies in RS ≥ 11 patients are lacking, as are relevant real-life clinical practice data. In this retrospective analysis of a prospectively designed registry, we evaluated treatments/clinical outcomes in patients undergoing RS-testing through Clalit Health Services. The analysis included N0 ER + HER2-negative breast cancer patients who were RS-tested from 1/2006 through 12/2010. Medical records were reviewed to verify treatments/recurrences/survival. The cohort included 1801 patients (median follow-up, 6.2 years). Median age was 60 years, 50.4% were grade 2 and 81.1% had invasive ductal carcinoma; 48.9% had RS < 18, 40.7% RS 18-30, and 10.4% RS ≥ 31, with chemotherapy use of 1.4, 23.7, and 87.2%, respectively. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for distant recurrence were 0.8, 3.0, and 8.6%, for patients with RS < 18, RS 18-30 and RS ≥ 31, respectively; the corresponding 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for breast cancer death were 0.0, 0.9, and 6.2%. Chemotherapy-untreated patients with RS < 11 ( n  = 304) and 11-25 ( n  = 1037) (TAILORx categorizatio n ) had 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for distant recurrence risk/breast cancer death of 1.0%/0.0% and 1.3%/0.4%, respectively. Our results extend those of the prospective TAILORx trial: the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for distant recurrence and breast cancer death rate for the RS < 18 patients were very low supporting the use of endocrine therapy alone. Furthermore, in chemotherapy-untreated patients with RS 11-25 (where TAILORx patients were randomized to chemoendocrine or endocrine therapy alone), 5-year distant recurrence rates were also very low, suggesting that chemotherapy would not have conferred clinically meaningful benefit.

  8. Metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical study and therapeutic results of 95 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanfir, A.; Frikha, M.; Ghorbel, A.; Drira, M.M.; Karray, H.; Daoud, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. -- The objective of this retrospective study was to discuss the epidemio-clinical criteria and the therapeutic results of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and methods. - The current study concerned 95 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were metastatic at diagnosis or who had developed late metastasis. We reviewed the epidemio-clinical records of all the patients. Patients were treated with chemotherapy (BEC regimen: bleomycin, epirubicin and cisplatin or PBF regimen: bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) and radiotherapy of pauci metastatic localizations (single or double) or bone metastasis with high risk of compression or fracture ±associated with locoregional radiotherapy for patients who were metastatic at diagnosis. Response was assessed according to the WHO criteria. Overall survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. A long-term disease-free survival was defined from 36 months. Results. - There were 34 patients who were metastatic at diagnosis and 61 patients who had developed late metastasis. The mean age was 41.5 years (sex-ratio: 3.1). Bone metastases were the most frequent (83%). Objective and complete response rates were respectively 75% and 70%, and 32% and 16% for BEC and PBF regimens. Twenty-five patients received radiotherapy for pauci metastatic localizations, among whom 19 patients who were metastatic at diagnosis received locoregional irradiation. The overall survival probability was of 15% for three years. Eleven patients were long survivors (extremes: 36 and 134 months). Conclusion. - Therapeutic results were comparable to those reported in other series using platin combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy of metastasis yielded to long-term survival. (authors)

  9. Dosimetric and clinical results of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaokang; Ma Jun; Chen Longhua; Xia Yunfei; Shi Yusheng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric and clinical results of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: A total of 86 patients with locally recurrent NPC were retreated with 3D CRT. The median prescribed dose was 68 Gy with 2 Gy per fractionation. Dosimetric quality was evaluated with dose distribution in planning target volume (PTV) and specified organs at risk (OAR), dose conformity index (CI) and dose homogeneity index (HI). The actuarial rate of local failure-free (LFF), overall survival (OS) and major late toxicities (MLT) were estimated with Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis for prognosis was performed using the Cox regression proportional hazards model. Results: The mean dose to PTV averaged 66.8 Gy, and the dose to specified OAR was acceptable. The average value of CI and HI was 0.59 and 9.1%. The 5-year actuarial rate of LFF and OS was 71 and 40%, respectively. The 5-year actuarial incidence of MLT≥Grade 3 and ≥Grade 4 were 100 and 49%, respectively. The major prognostic factors were T stage and the size of gross tumor volume (GTV). Advanced T stage and large GTV volume were associated with poor LFF and OS and high risk of MLT. Conclusion: The dosimetric quality of 3D CRT for locally recurrent NPC is generally excellent. A relatively high local control was achieved with this technique. However, the incidence of late toxicities were not found to decrease as originally expected. Early diagnosis of the recurrence and reasonable definition of the target volume are crucial to achieve a better outcome

  10. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  11. Long-Term Results of Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy (Targit) Boost During Breast-Conserving Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Jayant S., E-mail: jayant.vaidya@ucl.ac.uk [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Baum, Michael [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Tobias, Jeffrey S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Wenz, Frederik [Radiation Oncology and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre of Mannheim (Germany); Massarut, Samuele [Surgery and Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO), Aviano (Italy); Keshtgar, Mohammed [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Hilaris, Basil [Radiation Oncology, Our Lady of Mercy, New York Medical College, New York (United States); Saunders, Christobel [Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia (Australia); Williams, Norman R.; Brew-Graves, Chris [Research Department of Surgery, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Corica, Tammy [Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia (Australia); Roncadin, Mario [Surgery and Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico (CRO), Aviano (Italy); Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Suetterlin, Marc [Radiation Oncology and Gynaecology, University Medical Centre of Mannheim (Germany); Bulsara, Max [Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia (Australia); Joseph, David [Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and School of Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: We have previously shown that delivering targeted radiotherapy to the tumour bed intraoperatively is feasible and desirable. In this study, we report on the feasibility, safety, and long-term efficacy of TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (Targit), using the Intrabeam system. Methods and Materials: A total of 300 cancers in 299 unselected patients underwent breast-conserving surgery and Targit as a boost to the tumor bed. After lumpectomy, a single dose of 20 Gy was delivered intraoperatively. Postoperative external beam whole-breast radiotherapy excluded the usual boost. We also performed a novel individualized case control (ICC) analysis that computed the expected recurrences for the cohort by estimating the risk of recurrence for each patient using their characteristics and follow-up period. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. The median follow up was 60.5 months (range, 10-122 months). Eight patients have had ipsilateral recurrence: 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate for ipsilateral recurrence is 1.73% (SE 0.77), which compares well with that seen in the boosted patients in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer study (4.3%) and the UK STAndardisation of breast RadioTherapy study (2.8%). In a novel ICC analysis of 242 of the patients, we estimated that there should be 11.4 recurrences; in this group, only 6 recurrences were observed. Conclusions: Lumpectomy and Targit boost combined with external beam radiotherapy results in a low local recurrence rate in a standard risk patient population. Accurate localization and the immediacy of the treatment that has a favorable effect on tumour microenvironment may contribute to this effect. These long-term data establish the long-term safety and efficacy of the Targit technique and generate the hypothesis that Targit boost might be superior to an external beam boost in its efficacy and justifies a randomized trial.

  12. Evaluation of anterior chest wall implanted port: technical aspects, results, and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Si Young

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the technical aspects, results and complications of patients with implanted anterior chest wall port. Between April 1997 and June 1999, a total of 63 implanted ports were placed at the anterior chest wall of 63 consecutive patients by interventional radiologists. The indications were chemotherapy in 61 patients and total parenteral nutrition in two. The peripheral portion of the subclavian vein was punctured under fluoroscopic guidance via ipsilateral peripheral vein during venography. A central venous catheter was placed in the superior vena cava, and using the subcutaneous tunneling method, a connected infusion port was implanted at the anterior chest wall. Results and complications were reviewed, and by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the expected patency of the port was determined. The technical success rate for implanted port at the anterior chest wall was 100% (63/63 patients). In two patients, hematoma and oozing were treated by compression. The duration of port implantation ranged from 12 to 855 (mean, 187) days, and the port patency rate was 305.7±47.6 days. In seven patients (completed chemotherapy (n=3D3), central venous thrombosis (n=3D3) catheter-related infection (n=3D1)), the port was removed. Catheter obstruction occurred in two patients, and in one, the use of urokinase led to successful recanalization. Sixteen patients died of an underlying malignancy, but no catheter-related death was noted. Implantation of an anterior chest wall port is a safe and useful procedure, with long patency, for patients requiring chemotherapy and long-term venous access. (author)

  13. Evaluation of anterior chest wall implanted port: technical aspects, results, and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Young Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Si Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the technical aspects, results and complications of patients with implanted anterior chest wall port. Between April 1997 and June 1999, a total of 63 implanted ports were placed at the anterior chest wall of 63 consecutive patients by interventional radiologists. The indications were chemotherapy in 61 patients and total parenteral nutrition in two. The peripheral portion of the subclavian vein was punctured under fluoroscopic guidance via ipsilateral peripheral vein during venography. A central venous catheter was placed in the superior vena cava, and using the subcutaneous tunneling method, a connected infusion port was implanted at the anterior chest wall. Results and complications were reviewed, and by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the expected patency of the port was determined. The technical success rate for implanted port at the anterior chest wall was 100% (63/63 patients). In two patients, hematoma and oozing were treated by compression. The duration of port implantation ranged from 12 to 855 (mean, 187) days, and the port patency rate was 305.7{+-}47.6 days. In seven patients (completed chemotherapy (n=3D3), central venous thrombosis (n=3D3) catheter-related infection (n=3D1)), the port was removed. Catheter obstruction occurred in two patients, and in one, the use of urokinase led to successful recanalization. Sixteen patients died of an underlying malignancy, but no catheter-related death was noted. Implantation of an anterior chest wall port is a safe and useful procedure, with long patency, for patients requiring chemotherapy and long-term venous access. (author)

  14. Risk stratification of patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer. Results of the MSDS trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemann, B.; Kraemer, J.A.; Schober, O.; Schmid, K.W.; Dralle, H.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Sauerland, C.; Frankewitsch, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Multicentre Study Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (MSDS) collective represents a well defined group of patients with locally aggressive thyroid carcinomas (pT4; AJCC/UICC 1997). The aim of the present study was to compare the survival of patients with minimum and extensive extrathyroidal growth according to the new AJCC/UICC TNM staging system 2009. Patients, methods: The follow-up data of 347 patients were analysed. Patients were reclassified according to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification. The event-free and overall survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. In addition, postoperative complications and status of disease were documented. Results: 327 patients were assigned to stage pT3 and 20 patients to stage pT4a, respectively. Median follow-up was 6.1 years (range 0.04-9.8 years). 92.5% of patients reached complete remission. There were 7.8% recurrences in the thyroid bed, in locoregional lymph nodes and/or in distant sites. The overall survival was >98% both in pT3 and pT4a patients (p = n. s.). In contrast, the event-free survival was significantly less favourable in pT4a patients (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis the following parameters were significant predictors of event-free survival: histological tumour type, degree of extrathyroidal extension and nodal metastasis (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The MSDS patients with locally aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer showed an excellent overall survival during a median follow-up of 6.1 years. According to the current AJCC/UICC 2009 classification, pT3 patients with minimal extrathyroidal extension revealed a significantly better event-free survival than pT4a patients with extensive extrathyroidal growth. (orig.)

  15. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Phillip J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin [Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fedewa, Stacey A. [Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kibel, Adam S. [Division of Urology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rosenberg, Jonathan E. [Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kamat, Ashish M. [Division of Surgery, Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Virgo, Katherine S. [Department of Health Policy and Management, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Blute, Michael L. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  16. Treatment Results of PDR Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy in 106 Patients With Intermediate- to High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieters, Bradley R.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Koedooder, Kees; Blank, Leo E.C.M.; Rezaie, Elisa; Grient, Johan N.B. van der; Reijke, Theo M. de; Koning, Caro C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment outcome of pulsed dose-rate brachytherapy (PDR) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2007, 106 patients were treated by EBRT combined with PDR and followed prospectively. Two, 38, and 66 patients were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease respectively according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. PDR dose was increased stepwise from 24.96 to 28.80 Gy. Biochemical disease free survival and overall survival were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cumulative incidence of late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were scored, according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Results: The 3- and 5-year biochemical nonevidence of disease (bNED) were 92.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.1-98.5) and 89.5% (95% CI, 85.2-93.8), respectively. Overall survival at 3 and 5 years was 99% (95% CI, 96-100) and 96% (95% CI, 90-100), respectively. The 3- and 5-year Grade 2 GI toxicity was 5.3% (95% CI, 0-10.6) and 12.0% (95% CI, 1.4-22.6), respectively. No Grade 3 or higher GI toxicity was observed. The 3- and 5-year Grade 2 or higher GU toxicity was 18.7% (95% CI, 10.3-27.1) and 26.9% (95% CI, 15.1-38.7), respectively. Conclusion: Results on tumor control and late toxicity of EBRT combined with PDR are good and comparable to results obtained with EBRT combined with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Molecular profiles of screen detected vs. symptomatic breast cancer and their impact on survival: results from a clinical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispo, Anna; Esposito, Emanuela; Amore, Alfonso; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Botti, Gerardo; Montella, Maurizio; Barba, Maddalena; D’Aiuto, Giuseppe; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Grimaldi, Maria; Rinaldo, Massimo; Caolo, Giuseppina; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Capasso, Immacolata

    2013-01-01

    Stage shift is widely considered a major determinant of the survival benefit conferred by breast cancer screening. However, factors and mechanisms underlying such a prognostic advantage need further clarification. We sought to compare the molecular characteristics of screen detected vs. symptomatic breast cancers and assess whether differences in tumour biology might translate into survival benefit. In a clinical series of 448 women with operable breast cancer, the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to estimate the likelihood of cancer recurrence and death. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for the multivariate analyses including mode of detection, age at diagnosis, tumour size, and lymph node status. These same models were applied to subgroups defined by molecular subtypes. Screen detected breast cancers tended to show more favourable clinicopathological features and survival outcomes compared to symptomatic cancers. The luminal A subtype was more common in women with mammography detected tumours than in symptomatic patients (68.5 vs. 59.0%, p=0.04). Data analysis across categories of molecular subtypes revealed significantly longer disease free and overall survival for screen detected cancers with a luminal A subtype only (p=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). For women with a luminal A subtype, the independent prognostic role of mode of detection on recurrence was confirmed in Cox proportional hazard models (p=0.03). An independent role of modality of detection on survival was also suggested (p=0.05). Molecular subtypes did not substantially explain the differences in survival outcomes between screened and symptomatic patients. However, our results suggest that molecular profiles might play a role in interpreting such differences at least partially. Further studies are warranted to reinterpret the efficacy of screening programmes in the light of tumour biology

  18. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R. [Istituto di radiologia Universita Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m{sup 2} day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate(Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  19. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m 2 day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m 2 days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m 2 days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m 2 day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  20. Marital status and survival in patients with rectal cancer: An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Cao, Weilan; Zheng, Chenguo; Hu, Wanle; Liu, Changbao

    2018-06-01

    Marital status has been validated as an independent prognostic factor for survival in several cancer types, but is controversial in rectal cancer (RC). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of marital status on the survival outcomes of patients with RC. We extracted data of 27,498 eligible patients diagnosed with RC between 2004 and 2009 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were categorized into married, never married, divorced/separated and widowed groups.We used Chi-square tests to compare characteristics of patients with different marital status.Rectal cancer specific survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method,and multivariate Cox regression analyses was used to analyze the survival outcome risk factors in different marital status. The widowed group had the highest percentage of elderly patients and women,higher proportion of adenocarcinomas, and more stage I/II in tumor stage (P married group (76.7% VS 85.4%). Compared with the married patients, the never married (HR 1.40), widowed (HR 1.61,) and divorced/separated patients (HR 1.16) had an increased overall 5-year mortality. A further analysis showed that widowed patients had an increased overall 5-year cause-specific survival(CSS) compared with married patients at stage I(HR 1.92),stage II (HR 1.65),stage III (HR 1.73),and stage IV (HR 1.38). Our study showed marriage was associated with better outcomes of RC patients, but unmarried RC patients, especially widowed patients,are at greater risk of cancer specific mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Results of radiotherapy for meningeomas with high risk for local recurrence. A retrospective analysis; Ergebnisse der Strahlentherapie bei Meningeomen mit hohem Rezidivrisiko. Eine retrospektive Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, C.; Dornfeld, S.; Friedrich, S.; Baumann, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuerStrahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Schwarz, R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie

    1998-12-01

    Aim: Retrospective assessment of the efficacy of radiatiotherapy for meningeomas with high risk for local recurrence. Patients and methods: Records of 67 patients with meningeomas treated from 1974 to 1995 at 2 centres were analyzed. Follow-up time ranged from 0.8 to 213 months (median: 61 months). Radiation therapy was given either after local failure or after biopsy or subtotal resection. The ratio between malignant (n=20) and benign (n=47) meningenoma was 1:2.4. Median age of the patients was 55 years (7 to 77 years). Radiation treatment was given at 1.5 to 2 Gy per fraction to 36 to 79.5 Gy. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Statistical comparisons were performed with the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model. The Bonferroni method was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Results: Five- and 10-year disease-free survival rates were 82%{+-}5% (standard error) and 70%{+-}9%. Local control rates at 5 and 10 years were 78%{+-}5% and 68%{+-}9%. In uni- and multivariate analysis histology, sex, total dose and center showed no significant influence on the results. Patients age was significant for local control (univariate p=0.02; multivariate p=0.03) and disease-free survival (univariate/multivariate p=0.04). The postoperative tumor burden had a significant influence of disease-free survival (multivariate P=0.04). After Bonferroni correction no significant influenc e was observed. We did not observe late side effects, especially brain necrosis. Conclusions: Despite of the negative selection of our patients we observed high survival- and local control rates after radiation therapy. This underscores the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of meningeomas with high risk of local failure. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Retrospektive Auswertung der Behandlungsergebnisse der Bestrahlung von Meningeomen mit hohem Rezidivrisiko. Patienten und Methode: Im Zeitraum zwischen 1974 und 1995 wurden an zwei Zentren insgesamt 67

  2. Results of primary central nervous system lymphoma treated by radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis of twelve institutions in the Tokai district of Japan, 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the therapeutic results and prognostic factors of 46 primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients who were treated at twelve institutions in the Tokai district of Japan between 1995 and 1999. We compared the results with those of a Japanese nationwide survey performed in the past. We sent each institution a questionnaire about the state of patients' disease, pathological type, method and doses of radiotherapy, regimen and intensity of chemotherapy, and patients' prognoses. The range of patients' ages was 33 to 93 years (median, 61 years). Thirty-one were men and 15 were women. The most prevalent histology was diffuse large B cell type (33 patients). We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate the survival rate and Cox's proportional hazards model to analyze the prognostic factors. The five-year cumulative survival rate was 25%, and the median survival time was 22.7 months. The five-year disease-free survival rate was 23%. In monovariate analysis, patients who were both younger than 60 years old and had a World Health Organization (WHO) performance status (PS) score equal to or less than 2 showed a better survival rate. Furthermore, the patients receiving systemic chemotherapy showed a significantly better local control rate. In addition, patients who received systemic chemotherapy achieved a higher complete remission rate than those not receiving it. However, no factors that significantly influenced survival rate were identified in multivariate analysis. We demonstrated that the therapeutic outcome of PCNSL patients has recently improved. In particular, patients with good PS showed better local control than those with poor PS. However, we could not identify any significant prognostic factors in PCNSL patients. (author)

  3. Eleven-year follow-up results in the delay of breast irradiation after conservative breast surgery in node-negative breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective review was conducted to determine if delay in the start of radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery had any detrimental effect on local recurrence or disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1 and T2, N0 breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation, without adjuvant systemic therapy, between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1992 at the London Regional Cancer Centre. The time intervals from definitive breast surgery to breast irradiation used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), greater than 8 to 12 weeks (235 patients), greater than 12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and greater than 16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local-recurrence and disease-free survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 11.2 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of age and pathologic features. No statistically significant difference was seen between the 4 groups in local recurrence or disease-free survival with surgery radiotherapy interval (p = 0.521 and p = 0.222, respectively). The overall local-recurrence rate at 5 and 10 years was 4.6% and 11.3%, respectively. The overall disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.6% and 67.0%, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective study suggests that delay in the start of breast irradiation of up to 16 weeks from definitive surgery does not increase the risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancer patients. The certainty of these results is limited by the retrospective nature of this analysis

  4. Survival rates of IPS empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures: results of a 5-year prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Pascal; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival rates of IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent) all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) after an observation period of up to 5 years. Forty-three patients (19 women and 24 men) were included in this study. The patients were treated with a total of 58 adhesive bonded IPS Empress 2 restorations. A total of 27 single crowns were placed on molars and premolars, and 31 three-unit FPDs were placed in the anterior and premolar regions. Clinical follow-up examinations took place at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after insertion. Statistical analysis of the data was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results of the 50-month analysis (interquartile range, 33 to 61 months) showed that the survival rate was 100% for crowns and 70% for FPDs. Six failures that occurred exclusively in the three-unit FPDs were observed. Framework fractures were recorded in three FPD units where the connector dimensions did not meet the manufacturer specifications. Only one FPD exhibited an irreparable partial veneer fracture, and 2 FPDs showed evidence of biologic failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetic parameters were clinically satisfactory for crowns and FPDs. The results of this 5-year clinical evaluation suggest that IPS Empress 2 ceramic is an appropriate material for the fabrication of single crowns. Because of the reduced survival rates, strict conditions should be considered before the use of IPS Empress 2 material for the fabrication of three-unit FPDs.

  5. LONG-TERM RESULTS OF TARGET THERAPY WITH FIRST AND * SECOND-LINE TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Vysotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess long-term efficacy of firstand second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-selected patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in a real-life clinical setting.Materials and methods: The assessment is based on long-term results of a prospective single center comparative clinical trial that was based on non-selected groups of 116 patients with various stages of chronic myeloid leukemia being treated with a first generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, and of 44 patients being treated with a second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib. We analyzed all-cause mortality, progression-free survival from April 2005 to April 2013, with a median of the follow-up of 128 months.Results: In 116 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib, the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate was 120 months. In 44 patients at an early chronic phase, 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival was 93.2% and 8-year overall and progression-free survival was 79.5%. In 44 patients at a late chronic stage, 5-year overall and progression-free survival was 95.5%, 8-year overall and progression-free survival, 72.7%. In 28 patients at acceleration phase, 5-years overall survival was 78.6% and 8-year overall survival, 46%. Median of overall survival in patients treated with nilotinib was not reached. During 78.6 months of combination treatment with cytotoxic agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the first (imatinib and second line (nilotinib, overall survival was 100%.Conclusion: In clinical practice, inclusion of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and imatinib resistance (disease relapse or imatinib intolerance into the treatment program with frontline therapy with general cytotoxic agents and thereafter with firstand second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors significantly improves overall survival.

  6. INTRAPERITONEAL AEROSOL CHEMOTHERAPY UNDER PRESSURE (IACUP – AN INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer, in fact, is the end-stage of the disease. The survival median of patients is no more than 3–6 months. Development of various methods of intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of this category of patients.Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis.Materials and methods. The treatment Protocol consisted of a laparotomy or laparoscopy for the staging of the tumor process, 3–4 courses of systemic chemotherapy scheme XELOX followed by conducting at least 3 sessions of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP with an interval of 6 weeks on the background of chemotherapy. In the case of progression the patient was excluded from the study. Currently, the study included 27 patients with disseminated gastric cancer who underwent 46 procedures of IACUP. There were 8 men and 19 women. The average age of patients was 50.6 years.Results. In the framework of the safety assessment of IACUP there were 3 cases of adverse effects. Two patients (7,4% noted nausea for the first 2 days after running the session of IACUP. In one patient the iatrogenic perforation of the diaphragm during biopsy of the peritoneum with the development of carbonetworks occurred. The survival median was 11 months. One-year survival rate (by KaplanMeier was 50.7%. 14 patients are alive and continue to participate in the study during the first year of observation.Conclusion. Intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP is a simple, minimally invasive and safe method for the palliative treatment of patients with disseminated carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. We developed the treatment Protocol that allows us to achieve one-year survival of more than half of patients.

  7. [Indication for limited surgery on small lung cancer tumors measuring 1cm or less in diameter on preoperative computed tomography and long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, K; Koike, T; Emura, I; Usuda, H

    2008-07-01

    Non-invasive lung cancers showed a good prognosis after limited surgery. But it is still uncertain about invasive lung cancers. We investigated the indications for limited surgery for small lung cancer tumors measuring 1 cm or less in diameter on preoperative computed tomography (CT). This study retrospectively analyzed of 1,245 patients who underwent complete resection of lung cancer between 1989 and 2004 in our hospital. Sixty-two patients (5%) had tumors measuring 1 cm or less in diameter. The probability of survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All diseases were detected by medical checkup, 52 % of the patients were not definitively diagnosed with lung cancer before surgery. Adenocarcinoma was histologically diagnosed in 49 patients (79%). Other histologic types included squamous cell carcinoma (8), large cell carcinoma (1), small cell carcinoma (1), carcinoid (2), and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (1). Fifty-seven patients (92%) showed pathologic stage IA. The other stages were IB (2), IIA (1), and IIIB (2). There were 14 bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (25% of IA diseases). The 5-year survival rates of IA patients were 90%. The 5-year survival rate of patients with tumors measuring 1cm or less diameter was 91% after lobectomy or pneumonectomy, and 90% after wedge resection or segmentectomy. There were 3 deaths from cancer recurrence, while there were no deaths in 14 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma After limited surgery, non-invasive cancer showed good long-term results, while invasive cancer showed a recurrence rate of 2.3% to 79% even though the tumor measured 1 cm or less in diameter on preoperative CT.

  8. Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle PO{sub 2} Ratio Predicts for Outcome in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaka, Aruna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To correlate tumor oxygenation status with long-term biochemical outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Custom-made Eppendorf PO{sub 2} microelectrodes were used to obtain PO{sub 2} measurements from the prostate (P), focused on positive biopsy locations, and normal muscle tissue (M), as a control. A total of 11,516 measurements were obtained in 57 men with localized prostate cancer immediately before prostate brachytherapy was given. The Eppendorf histograms provided the median PO{sub 2}, mean PO{sub 2}, and % <5 mm Hg or <10 mm Hg. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using both the former American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (three consecutive raises) and the current Phoenix (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) definitions. A Cox proportional hazards regression model evaluated the influence of hypoxia using the P/M mean PO{sub 2} ratio on BF. Results: With a median follow-up time of 8 years, 12 men had ASTRO BF and 8 had Phoenix BF. On multivariate analysis, P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 emerged as the only significant predictor of ASTRO BF (p = 0.043). Hormonal therapy (p = 0.015) and P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 (p = 0.046) emerged as the only independent predictors of the Phoenix BF. Kaplan-Meier freedom from BF for P/M ratio <0.10 vs. {>=}0.10 at 8 years for ASTRO BF was 46% vs. 78% (p = 0.03) and for the Phoenix BF was 66% vs. 83% (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Hypoxia in prostate cancer (low mean P/M PO{sub 2} ratio) significantly predicts for poor long-term biochemical outcome, suggesting that novel hypoxic strategies should be investigated.

  9. Validation of the Social Security Administration Life Tables (2004-2014) in Localized Prostate Cancer Patients within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Felix; Bandini, Marco; Mazzone, Elio; Nazzani, Sebastiano; Marchioni, Michele; Tian, Zhe; Saad, Fred; Pompe, Raisa S; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Heinzer, Hans; Montorsi, Francesco; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Tilki, Derya; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2018-05-22

    Accurate life expectancy estimation is crucial in clinical decision-making including management and treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). We hypothesized that Social Security Administration (SSA) life tables' derived survival estimates closely follow observed survival of PCa patients. To test this relationship, we examined 10-yr overall survival rates in patients with clinically localized PCa and compared it with survival estimates derived from the SSA life tables. Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004), we identified patients aged >50-patients who did not die of disease or other causes. Monte Carlo method was used to define individual survival in years, according to the SSA life tables (2004-2014). Subsequently, SSA life tables' predicted survival was compared with observed survival rates in Kaplan-Meier analyses. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to treatment type and D'Amico risk classification. Overall, 39191 patients with localized PCa were identified. At 10-yr follow-up, the SSA life tables' predicted survival was 69.5% versus 73.1% according to the observed rate (ppatients. Conversely, the smallest differences were recorded for external beam radiotherapy (1.7%) and unknown treatment type (1.6%) patients. Overall, SSA life tables' predicted life expectancy closely approximate observed overall survival rates. However, SSA life tables' predicted rates underestimate by as much as 9.1% the survival in brachytherapy patients, as well as in D'Amico low-risk and radical prostatectomy patients. In these patient categories, an adjustment for the degree of underestimation might be required when counseling is provided in clinical practice. Social Security Administration (SSA) life tables' predicted life expectancy closely approximate observed overall survival rates. However, SSA life tables' predicted rates underestimate by as much as 9.1% the survival in brachytherapy patients, as well as in D'Amico low

  10. Application of the standard lymphadenectomy in gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Fernandez, Roberto Eduardo; LLera Dominguez, Gerardo de la; Pennon Guerra, Maria; Alvarez Perez, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    The 5-years postoperative survival of 132 patients operated on due to gastric adenocarcinoma that underwent lymphadenectomy of the two first ganglionic levels. The results of the epidemiological parameters were determined and the survival by Kaplan-Meier method was defined

  11. Evaluation of the AJCC 8th Edition Staging System for Pathologically Versus Clinically Staged Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA): a Time to Revisit a Dogma? A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajah, Sivesh K

    2018-03-07

    Recently, the AJCC has released its 8th edition changes to the staging system for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). This study sought to validate the proposed changes to the 8th edition of AJCC system for T and N classification of iCCA using a population-based data set. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1998-2013), patients undergoing resection or non-surgical management for non-metastatic iCCA were identified. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Concordance indices (c-indices) calculated from Cox proportional hazards models were calculated to evaluate discriminatory power. The study included 2630 patients resected (37%) or non-surgically managed (63%) for iCCA. Nodal staging was performed in 56%, of whom 31% had positive nodes. For all patients with iCCA, the median 5-year survival by AJCC T classification for T1a, T1b, T2, T3, and T4 was 32, 21, 14, 10, and 10 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The concordance index for the staging system was 0.57 for all patients, 0.62 for those who underwent resection, and 0.54 for patients who did not undergo resection. In summary, the new AJCC 8th edition staging system is comparable to the 7th edition and valid in stratifying patients with iCCA. However, the performance of the staging system is better in patients undergoing surgical resection than those undergoing non-surgical management. These findings further highlight the need for improved accuracy of radiological imaging in clinically staging patients to guide prognosis.

  12. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  13. Regional Lymph Node Uptake of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Predicts Local-Regional Failure of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovina, Stephanie [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Snyder, Bradley S. [Center for Statistical Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Siegel, Barry A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jbradley@radonc.wustl.edu [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0235 study demonstrated that standardized uptake values (SUV) on post-treatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlated with survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This secondary analysis determined whether SUV of regional lymph nodes (RLNs) on post-treatment FDG-PET correlated with patient outcomes. Methods and Materials: Included for analysis were patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy, using radiation doses ≥60 Gy, with identifiable FDG-avid RLNs (distinct from primary tumor) on pretreatment FDG-PET, and post-treatment FDG-PET data. ACRIN core laboratory SUV measurements were used. Event time was calculated from the date of post-treatment FDG-PET. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank test), and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: Of 234 trial-eligible patients, 139 (59%) had uptake in both primary tumor and RLNs on pretreatment FDG-PET and had SUV data from post-treatment FDG-PET. Maximum SUV was greater for primary tumor than for RLNs before treatment (P<.001) but not different post-treatment (P=.320). Post-treatment SUV of RLNs was not associated with overall survival. However, elevated post-treatment SUV of RLNs, both the absolute value and the percentage of residual activity compared to the pretreatment SUV were associated with inferior local-regional control (P<.001). Conclusions: High residual metabolic activity in RLNs on post-treatment FDG-PET is associated with worse local-regional control. Based on these data, future trials evaluating a radiation therapy boost should consider inclusion of both primary tumor and FDG-avid RLNs in the boost volume to maximize local

  14. Subintimal angioplasty in femoropopliteal region-Mid-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koecher, Martin; Cerna, Marie; Utikal, Petr; Kozak, Jiri; Sisola, Ivan; Thomas, Rohit P.; Bachleda, Petr; Drac, Petr; Sekanina, Zdenek; Langova, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Subintimal angioplasty is becoming more frequently used treatment option for patients with long arterial occlusions or diffuse atherosclerotic changes as an alternative to surgical treatment in claudicants especially in patients with critical limb ischemia. The aim of our article is to retrospectively assess mid-term outcomes of subintimal angioplasty of chronic arterial occlusions in femoropopliteal region followed clinically and by Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: From May 2002 to December 2007, 133 femoropopliteal artery occlusions in 123 patients were indicated for subintimal recanalisation. The indications for treatment were intermittent claudications in 84 patients (63.15%) and critical limb ischemia in 49 patients (36.85%). The median length of lesions was 11.4 cm, range 2-30 cm. Except doppler ultrasonographic examination done 24 h after the procedure and clinical examination before discharge, both clinical and ultrasonographic examinations were performed 6 and 12 months after the procedure and yearly thereafter. Statistical analysis of our cohort was performed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test and Cox regression. Results: Technical success was achieved in 86.46%. Primary patency rate was 83.1% (SE: 3.9%), 67.5% (SE: 5%), 58% (SE: 5.9%) a 48.4% (SE: 7.1%) at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months respectively. No statistically significant difference of primary patency was found between the group of claudicants and the group of patient with critical limb ischemia. Statistically significant prediction factors for primary patency were only the quality of the run off and the length of the occlusion. Limb salvage rate in our group of patients with critical limb ischemia was 80.8% at 12 months. Conclusion: Subintimal recanalisation is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of chronic peripheral arterial occlusions with high primary technical success rate, acceptable primary patency rate, low percentage of complications and mortality is as low as

  15. ["That flesh, pink and perishable": analysis of disease-free survival analysis in breast cancer in Gipuzkoa (Spain) in the presence of competing risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Mitxelena, María José; Basterretxea, Mikel

    2009-01-01

    To analyze time of disease-free survival and relative survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer in the province of Gipuzkoa within the context of competing risks by assessing differences between the direct use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement method on the one hand, and relative survival on the other. All registered breast cancer cases in Gipuzkoa in 1995 and 1996 with stages other than stage IV were included. An 8-year follow-up for recurrence and a 10-year follow-up for survival were performed. Time of disease-free survival was studied by the multiple decrement model. Observed survival and survival corrected by the expected mortality in the population (relative survival) were also studied. Estimation of the probability of recurrence at 8 years with the multiple decrement method was 8.8% lower than that obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method. The difference between the observed and relative survival rates at 10 years was 10.8%. Both results show how, in this case, the Kaplan-Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality from the disease. Two issues are often overlooked when performing survival analyses: firstly, because of the lack of independence between survival time and censoring time, the results obtained by the Kaplan-Meier estimator are uninterpretable; secondly, it is an incontrovertible fact that one way or another, everyone causes failures. In this approach, survival analyses must take into account the probability of failure in the general population of reference. The results obtained in this study show that superficial use of the Kaplan Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality caused by the disease.

  16. Reporting of loss to follow-up information in randomised controlled trials with time-to-event outcomes: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the reporting of loss to follow-up (LTFU information in articles on randomised controlled trials (RCTs with time-to-event outcomes, and to assess whether discrepancies affect the validity of study results. Methods Literature survey of all issues of the BMJ, Lancet, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine published between 2003 and 2005. Eligible articles were reports of RCTs including at least one Kaplan-Meier plot. Articles were classified as "assessable" if sufficient information was available to assess LTFU. In these articles, LTFU information was derived from Kaplan-Meier plots, extracted from the text, and compared. Articles were then classified as "consistent" or "not consistent". Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the validity of study results. Results 319 eligible articles were identified. 187 (59% were classified as "assessable", as they included sufficient information for evaluation; 140 of 319 (44% presented consistent LTFU information between the Kaplan-Meier plot and text. 47 of 319 (15% were classified as "not consistent". These 47 articles were included in sensitivity analyses. When various imputation methods were used, the results of a chi2-test applied to the corresponding 2 × 2 table changed and hence were not robust in about half of the studies. Conclusions Less than half of the articles on RCTs using Kaplan-Meier plots provide assessable and consistent LTFU information, thus questioning the validity of the results and conclusions of many studies presenting survival analyses. Authors should improve the presentation of both Kaplan-Meier plots and LTFU information, and reviewers of study publications and journal editors should critically appraise the validity of the information provided.

  17. Treatment of malignant biliary occlusion by means of transhepatic percutaneous biliary drainage with insertion of metal stents - results of an 8-year follow-up and analysis of the prognostic parameters; Behandlung der malignen Gallenwegsstenose mittels perkutaner transhepatischer Metallendoprothesenimplantation: 8 Jahres-Ergebnisse und Analyse prognostischer Faktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfke, H.; Alfke, B.; Froelich, J.J.; Klose, K.J.; Wagner, H.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcome and predictive factors for patient survival and patency rates of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction treated with percutaneous transhepatic insertion of metal stents. Materials and Methods: This is a retroselective analysis of 130 patients treated in one interventional radiological center with data collected from patient records and by telephone interviews. The procedure-related data had been prospectively documented in a computer data base. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for univariate and multivariate comparison of survival and patency rates with the log-rank test used for different tumor types. Predictive factors for survival and 30-day mortality were analyzed by a stepwise logistic regression. Results: Underlying causes of malignant biliary obstructions were cholangiocarcinoma in 50, pancreatic carcinoma in 29, liver metastases in 27, gallbladder carcinoma in 20, and other tumors in 4 patients. The technical success rate was 99%, the complication rate 27% and the 30-day mortality 11%. Primary patency rates (406 days with a median of 207 days) did not differ significantly for different tumor types. The survival rates were significantly (p = 0.03 by log-rank test) better for patients with cholangiocarcinoma than for patients with pancreatic carcinoma and liver metastases. Multiple regression analysis revealed no predictive factor for patient survival and 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic insertion of metal biliary endoprostheses offers a good initial and long-term relief of jaundice caused by malignant biliary obstruction. Although survival rates for patients with cholangiocarcinoma are better than for other causes of malignant biliary obstruction, a clear predictive factor is lacking for patients undergoing palliative biliary stent insertion. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ergebnisse der perkutanen transhepatischen Metallendoprothesenimplantation bei malignen Gallenwegsverschluessen zu evaluieren und

  18. Satisfactory Results of the Exeter Revision Femoral Stem Used for Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy, Nicholas M; Johnson, Joshua D; Sierra, Rafael J

    2017-02-01

    The Exeter cemented femoral stem has demonstrated excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes as well as long-term survivorship free from aseptic loosening. A shorter revision stem (125 mm) with a 44 offset became available for the purpose of cement-in-cement revision situations. In certain cases, this shorter revision stem may be used for various primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) where the standard length stem would require distally reaming the femoral canal. We sought to report on the early to midterm results of this specific stem when used for primary THA regarding (1) clinical and radiographic outcomes, (2) complications, and (3) survivorship. Twenty-nine patients (33 hips) underwent a hybrid THA using the smaller revision Exeter cemented femoral stem. Twenty-five patients (28 hips) had at least 2 years of follow-up and were assessed for clinical and radiographic outcomes. All 33 hips were included in the analysis of complications and survivorship. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship was performed using revision for all causes and for aseptic loosening as the end points. The average clinical follow-up was 4 years (range, 2-7). Harris Hip Scores improved from a mean preoperative value of 56 (range, 23-96) to 90 (range, 51-100) at the latest follow-up. All patients demonstrated superior cement mantles with no signs of loosening. One patient suffered a B2 periprosthetic fracture and 1 patient experienced 2 episodes of instability. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 96.7% for all causes of revision and was 100% using aseptic loosening as the end point. The shorter Exeter revision cemented femoral stem has favorable early to midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes when used for primary THA with a low complication rate and is a viable option in patients with narrow femoral canals where uncemented stem fixation is not desired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  20. New methods for estimating follow-up rates in cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Xue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The follow-up rate, a standard index of the completeness of follow-up, is important for assessing the validity of a cohort study. A common method for estimating the follow-up rate, the “Percentage Method”, defined as the fraction of all enrollees who developed the event of interest or had complete follow-up, can severely underestimate the degree of follow-up. Alternatively, the median follow-up time does not indicate the completeness of follow-up, and the reverse Kaplan-Meier based method and Clark’s Completeness Index (CCI also have limitations. Methods We propose a new definition for the follow-up rate, the Person-Time Follow-up Rate (PTFR, which is the observed person-time divided by total person-time assuming no dropouts. The PTFR cannot be calculated directly since the event times for dropouts are not observed. Therefore, two estimation methods are proposed: a formal person-time method (FPT in which the expected total follow-up time is calculated using the event rate estimated from the observed data, and a simplified person-time method (SPT that avoids estimation of the event rate by assigning full follow-up time to all events. Simulations were conducted to measure the accuracy of each method, and each method was applied to a prostate cancer recurrence study dataset. Results Simulation results showed that the FPT has the highest accuracy overall. In most situations, the computationally simpler SPT and CCI methods are only slightly biased. When applied to a retrospective cohort study of cancer recurrence, the FPT, CCI and SPT showed substantially greater 5-year follow-up than the Percentage Method (92%, 92% and 93% vs 68%. Conclusions The Person-time methods correct a systematic error in the standard Percentage Method for calculating follow-up rates. The easy to use SPT and CCI methods can be used in tandem to obtain an accurate and tight interval for PTFR. However, the FPT is recommended when event rates and

  1. Bias Correction Methods Explain Much of the Variation Seen in Breast Cancer Risks of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Janet R; Hsu, Li; Brohet, Richard M; Mourits, Marian J E; de Vries, Jakob; Malone, Kathleen E; Oosterwijk, Jan C; de Bock, Geertruida H

    2015-08-10

    Recommendations for treating patients who carry a BRCA1/2 gene are mainly based on cumulative lifetime risks (CLTRs) of breast cancer determined from retrospective cohorts. These risks vary widely (27% to 88%), and it is important to understand why. We analyzed the effects of methods of risk estimation and bias correction and of population factors on CLTRs in this retrospective clinical cohort of BRCA1/2 carriers. The following methods to estimate the breast cancer risk of BRCA1/2 carriers were identified from the literature: Kaplan-Meier, frailty, and modified segregation analyses with bias correction consisting of including or excluding index patients combined with including or excluding first-degree relatives (FDRs) or different conditional likelihoods. These were applied to clinical data of BRCA1/2 families derived from our family cancer clinic for whom a simulation was also performed to evaluate the methods. CLTRs and 95% CIs were estimated and compared with the reference CLTRs. CLTRs ranged from 35% to 83% for BRCA1 and 41% to 86% for BRCA2 carriers at age 70 years width of 95% CIs: 10% to 35% and 13% to 46%, respectively). Relative bias varied from -38% to +16%. Bias correction with inclusion of index patients and untested FDRs gave the smallest bias: +2% (SD, 2%) in BRCA1 and +0.9% (SD, 3.6%) in BRCA2. Much of the variation in breast cancer CLTRs in retrospective clinical BRCA1/2 cohorts is due to the bias-correction method, whereas a smaller part is due to population differences. Kaplan-Meier analyses with bias correction that includes index patients and a proportion of untested FDRs provide suitable CLTRs for carriers counseled in the clinic. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  3. Mechanics of Nanostructures: Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2003-03-01

    We continue to develop and use new tools to measure the mechanics and electromechanics of nanostructures. Here we discuss: (a) methods for making nanoclamps and the resulting: nanoclamp geometry, chemical composition and type of chemical bonding, and nanoclamp strength (effectiveness as a nanoclamp for the mechanics measurements to be made); (b) mechanics of carbon nanocoils. We have received carbon nanocoils from colleagues in Japan [1], measured their spring constants, and have observed extensions exceeding 100% relative to the unloaded length, using our scanning electron microscope nanomanipulator tool; (c) several new devices that are essentially MEMS-based, that allow for improved measurements of the mechanics of psuedo-1D and planar nanostructures. [1] Zhang M., Nakayama Y., Pan L., Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1242-L1244 (2000).

  4. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children: prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Holubkov, Richard; Browd, Samuel R; Cochrane, D Douglas; Drake, James M; Limbrick, David D; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Simon, Tamara D; Tamber, Mandeep S; Wellons, John C; Whitehead, William E; Kestle, John R W

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is now established as a viable treatment option for a subgroup of children with hydrocephalus. Here, the authors report prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) to provide the most accurate determination of morbidity, complication incidence, and efficacy of ETV in children and to determine if intraoperative predictors of ETV success add substantially to preoperative predictors. METHODS All children undergoing a first ETV (without choroid plexus cauterization) at 1 of 7 HCRN centers up to June 2013 were included in the study and followed up for a minimum of 18 months. Data, including detailed intraoperative data, were prospectively collected as part of the HCRN's Core Data Project and included details of patient characteristics, ETV failure (need for repeat hydrocephalus surgery), and, in a subset of patients, postoperative complications up to the time of discharge. RESULTS Three hundred thirty-six eligible children underwent initial ETV, 18.8% of whom had undergone shunt placement prior to the ETV. The median age at ETV was 6.9 years (IQR 1.7-12.6), with 15.2% of the study cohort younger than 12 months of age. The most common etiologies were aqueductal stenosis (24.8%) and midbrain or tectal lesions (21.2%). Visible forniceal injury (16.6%) was more common than previously reported, whereas severe bleeding (1.8%), thalamic contusion (1.8%), venous injury (1.5%), hypothalamic contusion (1.5%), and major arterial injury (0.3%) were rare. The most common postoperative complications were CSF leak (4.4%), hyponatremia (3.9%), and pseudomeningocele (3.9%). New neurological deficit occurred in 1.5% cases, with 0.5% being permanent. One hundred forty-one patients had documented failure of their ETV requiring repeat hydrocephalus surgery during follow-up, 117 of them during the first 6 months postprocedure. Kaplan-Meier rates of 30-day, 90-day, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year failure

  5. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfke, H.; Marburg Univ.; Vannucchi, A.; Froelich, J.J.; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J.; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 ± 66 to 284 ± 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  6. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia; Langzeitergebnisse nach Ballonangioplastie kruraler Arterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfke, H. [Klinikum Luedenscheid (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vannucchi, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Froelich, J.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 {+-} 66 to 284 {+-} 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  7. Clinical results of Intracoronary Brachytherapy (ICBT) for multiple in-stent restenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, P.; Schaefer, C.; Chaber, S.; Putnik, K.; Treutwein, M.; Koelbl, O.; Muders, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone is often followed by early re-restenosis. The present study focused on the effect of intracoronary brachytherapy (ICBT) on multiple in-stent restenosis (MISR) after repeated PCI. Patients and methods: 40 patients (27 male, 13 female, age: 66 ± 9 years) with MISR (two to six ISRs, median three ISRs) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by using the Novoste registered Beta-Cath trademark 3.5F System after PCI. The target vessel received 18.4-25.3 Gy of radiation at a depth of 2 mm from the center of the source. The restenosis-free survival and overall survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank). The time interval between last PCI without ICBT and the consecutive recurrence was compared with the follow-up time after PCI with ICBT. Results: the 3-year overall survival rate after ICBT was 93%. The 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 3-year ISR-free survival rates after PCI + ICBT were 81%, 72%, 52%, and 38%, respectively. After PCI alone, the 0.5-, 1-, and 2-year ISR-free survival rates were 30%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. This difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Patients with more than three ISRs before ICBT had a better outcome (3-year ISR-free survival: 80%) than patients with only two or three ISRs before ICBT (3-year ISR-free survival: 25%; p < 0.05). Conclusion: ICBT is highly effective and safe in patients with ISR. The results of this study are in accordance with the WRIST and BETA-WRIST data. After 6 months both studies revealed an ISR-free survival rate of 86% (WRIST) and 66% (BETA-WRIST), respectively. The ISR rates in the own control group (70%) were comparable to the placebo groups in WRIST (68%) and BETA-WRIST (72%). Interestingly, patients with more than three ISRs before ICBT had the lowest ISR rate after ICBT. (orig.)

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery. Early results and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibl, Bernhard J. [Klinikum Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany); Vitz, Stephanie; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Alfrink, Martin; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. [DiCura Coburg, Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany); Geschwendtner, Andreas [Klinikum Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate treatment results and toxicity following a combined approach consisting of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery in advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Patients and Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 41 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction were evaluated, of whom 23 received neoadjuvant radiochemo-therapy (RCT). A total dose of 50.4 Gy with 2 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (FU) or Taxol/FU-chemotherapy were applied. A radical transthoracic subtotal esophageal and proximal gastric resection through a right thoracoabdominal laparotomy with intrathoracic anastomosis was performed 6-8 weeks following RCT. This was combined with a two-field lymphadenectomy of mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. Standard histopathological evaluation included the application of regression grading according to Werner and Hoefler. Toxicity was recorded on the basis of CTC criteria; survival curves were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier. V10, V15, and V20 data were correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: Overall survival for all 23 patients was 61% at 3 years. Of the original 23 patients, 18 (78%) patients proceeded to radical surgery. Reasons for no surgery included advanced age of 79, 82, and 86 years (n = 3), severe comorbidity (n = 1), and progression during radiochemotherapy (n = 1). Surgical morbidity (grade 3-4) and mortality rates were 35% and 6%, respectively. Resurgery was necessary in 3 cases (18%). Clear resection margins were achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94%). Twelve of 18 (67%) patients initially diagnosed with T3 tumors and 3 of 3 patients with T4 tumors experienced downstaging. The ypN0 rate was 12 of 18 patients (67%). Out of a total of 18 patients, regression grading revealed < 10% viable cells in 8 (44%) including 3 cases (17%) with complete regression, 10-50% viable

  9. Controlled, prospective, randomized, clinical split-mouth evaluation of partial ceramic crowns luted with a new, universal adhesive system/resin cement: results after 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Vanessa; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Federlin, Marianne; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2016-12-01

    A new universal adhesive with corresponding luting composite was recently marketed which can be used both, in a self-etch or in an etch-and-rinse mode. In this study, the clinical performance of partial ceramic crowns (PCCs) inserted with this adhesive and the corresponding luting material used in a self-etch or selective etch approach was compared with a self-adhesive universal luting material. Three PCCs were placed in a split-mouth design in 50 patients. Two PCCs were luted with a combination of a universal adhesive/resin cement (Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE) with (SB+E)/without (SB-E) selective enamel etching. Another PCC was luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem 2, 3M ESPE). Forty-eight patients were evaluated clinically according to FDI criteria at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months. For statistical analyses, the chi-square test (α = 0.05) and Kaplan-Meier analysis were applied. Clinically, no statistically significant differences between groups were detected over time. Within groups, clinically significant increase for criterion "marginal staining" was detected for SB-E over 18 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly higher retention rates for SB+E (97.8 %) and SB-E (95.6 %) in comparison to RXU2 (75.6 %). The 18-month clinical performance of a new universal adhesive/composite combination showed no differences with respect to bonding strategy and may be recommended for luting PCCs. Longer-term evaluation is needed to confirm superiority of SB+E over SB-E. At 18 months, the new multi-mode adhesive, Scotchbond Universal, showed clinically reliable results when used for luting PCCs.

  10. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneville, L.

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author)

  11. Mid-term clinical results of tissue-engineered vascular autografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Goki; Shin'oka, Toshiharu; Hibino, Narutoshi; Saito, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ichihara, Yuki; Hobo, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Shin'ka; Kurosawa, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Prosthetic and bioprosthetic materials currently in use lack growth potential and therefore must be repeatedly replaced in pediatric patients as they grow. Tissue engineering is a new discipline that offers the potential for creating replacement structures from autologous cells and biodegradable polymer scaffolds. In May 2000, we initiated clinical application of tissue-engineered vascular grafts seeded with cultured cells. However, cell culturing is time-consuming, and xenoserum must be used. To overcome these disadvantages, we began to use bone marrow cells, readily available on the day of surgery, as a cell source. Since September 2001, tissue-engineered grafts seeded with autologous bone marrow cells have been implanted in 44 patients. The patients or their parents were fully informed and had given consent to the procedure. A 3 to 10 ml/kg specimen of bone marrow was aspirated with the patient under general anesthesia before the skin incision. The polymer tube serving as a scaffold for the cells was composed of a copolymer of lactide and ε-caprolactone (50:50) which degrades by hydrolysis. Polyglycolic or poly-l-lactic acid woven fabric was used for reinforcement. Twenty-six tissue-engineered conduits and 19 tissue-engineered patches were used for the repair of congenital heart defects. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 24 years (median 7.4 years). All patients underwent a catheterization study, CT scan, or both, for evaluation after the operation. There were 4 late deaths due to heart failure with or without multiple organ failure or brain bleeding in this series; these were unrelated to the tissue-engineered graft function. One patient required percutaneous balloon angioplasty for tubular graft-stenosis and 4 patients for the stenosis of the patch-shaped tissue engineered material. Two patients required re-do operation; one for recurrent pulmonary stenosis and another for a resulting R-L shunt after the lateral tunnel method. Kaplan-Meier analysis in

  12. The results of palliative radiation therapy in patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Yeon Sil; Chung, Su Mi

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment results and prognostic factors of palliative radiation therapy in the patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer. Thirty-seven evaluable patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer who were treated by palliative radiation therapy for pain relief at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangnam St. Mary's hospital, the Catholic University of Korea between March 1984 and February 2005 were analysed retrospectively. There were 22 men and 15 women. Age at diagnosis ranged from 30 to 80 (median 57) years. Twelve patients (32.4%) had liver metastases and 22 patients (59.5%) had lymph node metastases. Radiation therapy was delivered to primary tumor and regional lymph nodes with 1 ∼ 2 cm margin, and total dose was 3,240 ∼ 5,580 cGy (median 5,040 cGy). Chemotherapy with radiotherapy was delivered in 30 patients (81%) with 5-FU alone (21 patients) or gemcitabine (9 patients). The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 44 months. Survival and prognostic factors were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test respectively. Overall mean and median survival were 11 and 8 months and 1-year survival rate was 20%. Among 33 patients who were amenable for response evaluation, 7 patients had good response and 22 patients had fail response with overall response rate of 87.9%. Mild to moderate toxicity were observed in 14 patients with nausea, vomiting, and indigestion, but severe toxicity requiring interruption of treatment were not observed. Chemotherapy didn't influence the survival and symptomatic palliation, but the group containing gemcitabine showed a tendency of longer survival (median 12 months) than 5-FU alone group (median 5.5 months) without statistical significance (ρ > 0.05). The significant prognostic factors were Karnofsky performance status and liver metastasis (ρ 0.05). Radiation therapy was effective for symptomatic palliation in the patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer and would play an

  13. Perioperative and mid-term oncologic outcomes of robotic assisted radical cystectomy with totally intracorporeal neobladder: Results of a propensity score matched comparison with open cohort from a single-centre series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppe; Tuderti, Gabriele; Misuraca, Leonardo; Anceschi, Umberto; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Minisola, Francesco; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Gallucci, Michele

    2018-04-17

    In this study, we compared perioperative and oncologic outcomes of patients treated with either open or robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder at a tertiary care center. The institutional prospective bladder cancer database was queried for "cystectomy with curative intent" and "neobladder". All patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder or open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer or muscle invasive bladder cancer with a follow-up length ≥2 years were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was used. Kaplan-Meier method was performed to compare oncologic outcomes of selected cohorts. Survival rates were computed at 1,2,3 and 4 years after surgery and the log rank test was applied to assess statistical significance between the matched groups. Overall, 363 patients (299 open and 64 robotic) were included. Open radical cystectomy patients were more frequently male (p = 0.08), with higher pT stages (p = 0.003), lower incidence of urothelial histologies (p = 0.05) and lesser adoption of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (open radical cystectomy cases (all p ≥ 0.22). Open cohort showed a higher rate of perioperative overall complications (91.3% vs 42.2%, p 0.001). At Kaplan-Meier analysis robotic and open cohorts displayed comparable disease-free survival (log-rank p = 0.746), cancer-specific survival (p = 0.753) and overall-survival rates (p = 0.909). Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder provides comparable oncologic outcomes of open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder at intermediate term survival analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella; Zaiden, Robert; Slayton, William; Sandler, Eric; Ozdemir, Savas; Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W.; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes were similar

  15. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Zaiden, Robert [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Slayton, William [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Sandler, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology Nemours Children' s Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ozdemir, Savas [Department of Radiology, Division of Functional and Molecular Imaging, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes

  16. Hepatocellular Carcinoma within Milan Criteria: No-Touch Multibipolar Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment-Long-term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Olivier; N'Kontchou, Gisèle; Nault, Jean-Charles; Rabahi, Yacine; Nahon, Pierre; Ganne-Carrié, Nathalie; Grando, Véronique; Zentar, Nora; Beaugrand, Michel; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Diallo, Abou; Sellier, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the long-term outcome in 108 consecutive patients treated with no-touch multibipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that met the Milan criteria. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the ethical review board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. Between November 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, 132 HCC tumors (diameter, 10-45 mm; 39 tumors ≥ 30 mm) in 108 consecutive patients (106 with cirrhosis) that met Milan criteria were treated with no-touch multibipolar RFA, which consisted of activating, in bipolar mode, three or four electrodes inserted just beyond the tumor margins. Follow-up was performed every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter with computed tomographic or magnetic resonance imaging. Survival probabilities were computed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Predictive factors of tumor progression and overall survival were assessed by using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results No technical failure occurred, and complete ablation was achieved for all the nodules. After a median of 40.5 months (range, 2-84 months) of follow-up, 3- and 5-year local and overall tumor progression-free survival were 96%, 94%, 52%, and 32%, respectively. Neither tumor diameter greater than 30 mm nor location abutting a large vessel were associated with local tumor progression. Tumor diameter greater than 30 mm was the only parameter predictive of overall tumor progression (P = .0036). Independent factors associated with shorter overall survival were Child-Pugh class B disease, age greater than 65 years, and platelet count of less than 150 g/L (P touch multibipolar RFA for HCC tumors that meet Milan criteria provides a high local tumor progression-free survival rate. An ongoing randomized trial might help to clarify the role of this new approach for the treatment of early HCC. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. An earlier

  17. Traditional values of virginity and sexual behaviour in rural Ethiopian youth: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delaying sexual initiation has been promoted as one of the methods of decreasing risks of HIV among young people. In traditional countries, such as Ethiopia, retaining virginity until marriage is the norm. However, no one has examined the impact of this traditional norm on sexual behaviour and risk of HIV in marriage. This study examined the effect of virginity norm on having sex before marriage and sexual behaviour after marriage among rural Ethiopian youth. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey in 9 rural and 1 urban area using a probabilistic sample of 3,743 youth, 15–24 years of age. Univariate analysis was used to assess associations between virginity norm and gender stratified by area, and between sexual behaviour and marital status. We applied Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to estimate age at sexual debut and assessed the predictors of premarital sex among the never-married using SPSS. Results We found that maintaining virginity is still a way of securing marriage for girls, especially in rural areas; the odds of belief and intention to marry a virgin among boys was 3–4 times higher among rural young males. As age increased, the likelihood of remaining a virgin decreased. There was no significant difference between married and unmarried young people in terms of number of partners and visiting commercial sex workers. Married men were twice more likely to have multiple sexual partners than their female counterparts. A Cox regression show that those who did not believe in traditional values of preserving virginity (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.91 [1.92–4.40], alcohol drinkers (AHR = 2.91 [1.97–4.29], Khat chewers (AHR = 2.36 [1.45–3.85], literates (AHR = 18.01 [4.34–74.42], and the older age group (AHR = 1.85 [1.19–2.91] were more likely to have premarital sex than their counterparts. Conclusion Although virginity norms help delay age at sexual debut among rural Ethiopian youth, and thus

  18. Project Oriented Immersion Learning: Method and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Icaza, José I.; Heredia, Yolanda; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    A pedagogical approach called “project oriented immersion learning” is presented and tested on a graduate online course. The approach combines the Project Oriented Learning method with immersion learning in a virtual enterprise. Students assumed the role of authors hired by a fictitious publishing...... house that develops digital products including e-books, tutorials, web sites and so on. The students defined the problem that their product was to solve; choose the type of product and the content; and built the product following a strict project methodology. A wiki server was used as a platform to hold...

  19. Learning phacoemulsification. Results of different teaching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Albrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the learning curves of three eye surgeons converting from sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification using different teaching methods. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR as a per-operative complication and visual outcome of the first 100 operations were analysed. The PCR rate was 4% and 15% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively. Likewise, an uncorrected visual acuity of > or = 6/18 on the first postoperative day was seen in 62 (62% of patients and in 22 (22% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively.

  20. Impact of reconstruction methods and pathological factors on survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Binziad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy for pancreatic head (PH and periampullary carcinoma (PC and provides the only chance of cure. Improvements of surgical technique, increased surgical experience and advances in anesthesia, intensive care and parenteral nutrition have substantially decreased surgical complications and increased survival. We evaluate the effects of reconstruction type, complications and pathological factors on survival and quality of life. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate the impact of various reconstruction methods of the pancreatic remnant after pancreaticoduodenectomy and the pathological characteristics of PC patients over 3.5 years. Patient characteristics and descriptive analysis in the three variable methods either with or without stent were compared with Chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was performed with the logistic regression analysis test and multinomial logistic regression analysis test. Survival rate was analyzed by use Kaplan-Meier test. Results: Forty-one consecutive patients with PC were enrolled. There were 23 men (56.1% and 18 women (43.9%, with a median age of 56 years (16 to 70 years. There were 24 cases of PH cancer, eight cases of PC, four cases of distal CBD cancer and five cases of duodenal carcinoma. Nine patients underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ, 17 patients underwent telescoping pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ and 15 patients pancreaticogastrostomy (PG. The pancreatic duct was stented in 30 patients while in 11 patients, the duct was not stented. The PJ duct-to-mucosa caused significantly less leakage, but longer operative and reconstructive times. Telescoping PJ was associated with the shortest hospital stay. There were 5 postoperative mortalities, while postoperative morbidities included pancreatic fistula-6 patients, delayed gastric emptying in-11, GI fistula-3, wound infection-12, burst abdomen-6 and pulmonary infection-2. Factors

  1. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: ANALYSIS METHODS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Five-yearly review of employment conditions   Article S V 1.02 of our Staff Rules states that the CERN “Council shall periodically review and determine the financial and social conditions of the members of the personnel. These periodic reviews shall consist of a five-yearly general review of financial and social conditions;” […] “following methods […] specified in § I of Annex A 1”. Then, turning to the relevant part in Annex A 1, we read that “The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain the staff members required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. […] these staff members must be of the highest competence and integrity.” And for the menu of such a review we have: “The five-yearly review must include basic salaries and may include any other financial or soc...

  2. Radiation therapy improves survival in rectal small cell cancer - Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Aram S; Hsu, Howard C; Leichman, Cynthia G; Du, Kevin L

    2015-04-24

    Small cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare neoplasm with scant literature to guide treatment. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of this cancer. The SEER database (National Cancer Institute) was queried for locoregional cases of small cell rectal cancer. Years of diagnosis were limited to 1988-2010 (most recent available) to reduce variability in staging criteria or longitudinal changes in surgery and radiation techniques. Two month conditional survival was applied to minimize bias by excluding patients who did not survive long enough to receive cancer-directed therapy. Patient demographics between the RT and No_RT groups were compared using Pearson Chi-Square tests. Overall survival was compared between patients who received radiotherapy (RT, n = 43) and those who did not (No_RT, n = 28) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate important covariates. Median survival was significantly longer for patients who received radiation compared to those who were not treated with radiation; 26 mo vs. 8 mo, respectively (log-rank P = 0.009). We also noted a higher 1-year overall survival rate for those who received radiation (71.1% vs. 37.8%). Unadjusted hazard ratio for death (HR) was 0.495 with the use of radiation (95% CI 0.286-0.858). Among surgery, radiotherapy, sex and age at diagnosis, radiation therapy was the only significant factor for overall survival with a multivariate HR for death of 0.393 (95% CI 0.206-0.750, P = 0.005). Using SEER data, we have identified a significant survival advantage with the use of radiation therapy in the setting of rectal small cell carcinoma. Limitations of the SEER data apply to this study, particularly the lack of information on chemotherapy usage. Our findings strongly support the use of radiation therapy for patients with locoregional small cell rectal cancer.

  3. Prospective assessment of CAD/CAM zirconia abutment and lithium disilicate crown restorations: 2.4 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Stanford, Clark; Feine, Jocelyne; McGuire, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Single-tooth implant restorations are commonly used to replace anterior maxillary teeth. The esthetic, functional, and biologic outcomes are, in part, a function of the abutment and crown. The purpose of this clinical study was to describe the implant, abutment, and crown survival and complication rates for CAD/CAM zirconia abutment and lithium disilicate crown restorations for single-tooth implants. As part of a broader prospective investigation that enrolled and treated 141 participants comparing tissue responses at the conical interface (CI; AstraTech OsseoSpeed), flat-to-flat interface (FI; NobelSpeedy), and platform-switch interface (PS; NanoTite Certain Prevail) of single-tooth implants, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments (ATLANTIS Abutment) and cemented lithium disilicate (e.max) crowns were used in the restoration of all implants. After 2.4 years in function (3 years after implant placement), the implant, abutment, and crown of 110 participants were evaluated. Technical and biologic complications were recorded. Demographic results were tabulated as percentages with mean values and standard deviations. Abutment survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. After 2.4 years, no abutments or crowns had been lost. Abutment complications (screw loosening, screw fracture, fracture) were absent for all 3 implant groups. Crown complications were limited to 2 crowns debonding and 1 with excess cement (2.5%). Five biological complications (4.0%) were recorded. The overall complication rate was 6.5%. CAD/CAM zirconia abutments restored with cemented lithium disilicate crowns demonstrated high survival on 3 different implant-abutment interface designs. No abutment or abutment screw fracture occurred. The technical complications observed after 2.4 years were minor and reversible. The use of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments with cemented lithium disilicate crowns is associated with high technical and biologic success at 2

  4. External beam and HDR intracavitary irradiation: an effective tool in the primary treatment of cervical cancer - excellent 10 year results and low side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.; Zoidl, J.P.; Track, C.; Seewald, D.H.; Labeck, W.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to present our 15 years experience in the primary treatment of cervical cancer with a combination of external beam irradiation and high dose rate brachytherapy. Survival data will be presented and the safe use of intrauterine HDR applications will be demonstrated. Material and Methods: From August 1980 to December 1990, 303 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent primary irradiation in a combination of external beam and HDR intracavitary treatment at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Sisters of Mercy Hospital in Linz, Austria. All patients were classified according to the FIGO rules: Stage I 54 patients, stage II 171, stage III 75 and stage IV 3 patients. 8 patients were lost to follow up. The mean follow up time of survivors is 110 months. Results and Discussion: A complete remission could be achieved in 282 patients, which is 93%; persistent tumour was found in 21 patients at the first follow up check 3 to 5 months after completion of irradiation. The actuarial overall survival probability for all patients at 5 and 10 years is 62 % and 42 % respectively, the disease specific survival probability is 68 % and 64 %. The local control rate at 5 and 10 years is 73 % and 72 % respectively. According to stage, disease specific survival lies at 90 % for stage I, 69 % for stage II, and 48 % for stage III and IV at 5 years, and at 10 years 87 %, 66 % and 41 % respectively. The actuarial local control probability for stages I, II, and III/IV is 90 %, 74 %, and 60 % respectively at 5 yr, and 88 %, 74 %, and 56 % at 10 yr. (Kaplan-Meier calculations). From all 303 patients 34 suffered from 40 severe and moderate side effects (glossary of Chassagne and Sismondi). The rate for grade II complications is 10 % and for grade III 3 %. Conclusion: Intrauterine HDR brachycurietherapy in addition to external beam irradiation for primary treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix provides the same treatment

  5. External beam and HDR intracavitary irradiation: an effective tool in the primary treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix - excellent 10 year results and low side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Josef; Zoidl, Johann P.; Track, Christine; Seewald, Dietmar H.; Labeck, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present our 15 years experience in the primary treatment of cervical cancer with a combination of external beam irradiation and high dose rate brachytherapy. Survival data will be presented and the safe use of intrauterine HDR applications will be demonstrated. Material and Methods: From August 1980 to December 1990, 303 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent primary irradiation in a combination of external beam and HDR intracavitary treatment at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Sisters of Mercy Hospital in Linz, Austria. All patients were classified according to the FIGO rules: Stage I 54 patients, stage II 171, stage III 75 and stage IV 3 patients. 8 patients were lost to follow up. The mean follow up time of survivors is 110 months. Results: A complete remission could be achieved in 282 patients (93%); persistent tumour was found in 21 patients at the first follow up check 3 to 5 months after completion of irradiation. The actuarial overall survival probability for all patients at 5 and 10 years is 62 % and 49 % respectively, the disease specific survival probability is 68 % and 64 %. The local control rate at 5 and 10 years is 73 % and 72 % respectively. According to stage, disease specific survival lies at 90 % for stage I, 69 % for stage II, and 49 % for stage III and IV at 5 years, and at 10 years 87 %, 66 % and 41 % respectively. The actuarial local control probability for stages I, II, and III/IV is 90 %, 74 %, and 60 % respectively at 5 years, and 88 %, 74 %, and 57 % at 10 years (Kaplan-Meier calculations). From all 303 patients 34 suffered from 40 severe and moderate side effects (glossary of Chassagne and Sismondi). The rate for grade II complications is 10 % and for grade III 3 %. Conclusion: Intrauterine HDR brachycurietherapy in addition to external beam irradiation for primary treatment of invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix provides the same treatment results as LDR

  6. Thymoma - prognostic factors and treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripp, S.; Hilgers, K.; Schmitt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To assess the prognostic factors and treatment results of thymoma with emphasis on surgery and radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Thymoma patients treated at Duesseldorf University Hospital from 1954 to 1991 were studied in this retrospective analysis. Depending on stage and residual disease, treatment was surgery (sternotomy or thoracotomy) with and without radiotherapy and chemotherapy (Holoxan, Endoxan, Vinblastin, Adriamycin, Bleomycin, CDDP, Vepesid). 70 patients (38f, 32m) were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 46,5 years. At presentation the median Karnofsky's index was 90%. In 19% thymoma was accidentally diagnosed, 81% presented symptoms at diagnosis. Masaoka's staging system was used (I: intact capsule; II: invasion of the capsule; III: invasion of neighboring organs; IV: dissemination). Stage at presentation was I:21%; II: 26%; III: 43%; IV: 10%. All histologic slices were peer reviewed. Histologic classification according to Lewis (predominantly lymphocytic: 36%; predominantly epithelial: 23%; mixed type: 33%, spindle cell thymoma: 9%) was applied. All available paraffin embedded specimens (36) were studied with DNA cytometric analysis after Feulgen staining. Occasionally thymoma was accompanied by Myasthenia gravis (23%) or other paraneoplastic syndromes (19%). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and logrank-tests. Multivariate analysis was also performed. Results: From 70 patients treated surgically, 68% were radically resected (R0), 26% incompletely resected (R1,2) and 6% had biopsy only. The median cause specific survival (CSS) was 132 months. All patients with localized disease (stage I and II) were completely resected and received no further therapy, whereas only 50% (15 pat) in stage III and 0% in stage IV were amenable to radical resection. 36% (25 pat) received an additional therapy (CMT): 31% (22 pat) postoperative irradiation and 4% (3 pat) combined radio-chemotherapy. The radiation

  7. Survival chance in papillary thyroid cancer in Hungary: individual survival probability estimation using the Markov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esik, Olga; Tusnady, Gabor; Daubner, Kornel; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Fuezy, Marton; Szentirmay, Zoltan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The typically benign, but occasionally rapidly fatal clinical course of papillary thyroid cancer has raised the need for individual survival probability estimation, to tailor the treatment strategy exclusively to a given patient. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was performed on 400 papillary thyroid cancer patients with a median follow-up time of 7.1 years to establish a clinical database for uni- and multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors related to survival (Kaplan-Meier product limit method and Cox regression). For a more precise prognosis estimation, the effect of the most important clinical events were then investigated on the basis of a Markov renewal model. The basic concept of this approach is that each patient has an individual disease course which (besides the initial clinical categories) is affected by special events, e.g. internal covariates (local/regional/distant relapses). On the supposition that these events and the cause-specific death are influenced by the same biological processes, the parameters of transient survival probability characterizing the speed of the course of the disease for each clinical event and their sequence were determined. The individual survival curves for each patient were calculated by using these parameters and the independent significant clinical variables selected from multivariate studies, summation of which resulted in a mean cause-specific survival function valid for the entire group. On the basis of this Markov model, prediction of the cause-specific survival probability is possible for extrastudy cases, if it is supposed that the clinical events occur within new patients in the same manner and with the similar probability as within the study population. Results: The patient's age, a distant metastasis at presentation, the extent of the surgical intervention, the primary tumor size and extent (pT), the external irradiation dosage and the degree of TSH suppression proved to be

  8. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  9. Five Year Results of US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 With Postoperative CA 19-9 {<=}90 U/mL and Comparison to the CONKO-001 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Safran, Howard [Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Alan B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); MacDonald, John [St. Vincent' s Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of {<=}90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable ({<=}90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of {>=}90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 {>=}90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values {>=}90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848).

  10. Phase 1/2 Trials of Temozolomide, Motexafin Gadolinium, and 60-Gy Fractionated Radiation for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme: Final Results of RTOG 0513

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachman, David G., E-mail: david.brachman@dignityhealth.org [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ashby, Lynn S. [Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Thomas, Theresa A. [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Dunbar, Erin M. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Narayan, Samir [St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bovi, Joseph A. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Rockhill, Jason K. [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Won, Minhee [Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Curran, Walter P. [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) given concurrently with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Phase 2 determined whether this combination improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in GBM recursive partitioning analysis class III to V patients compared to therapies for recently published historical controls. Methods and Materials: Dose escalation in phase 1 progressed through 3 cohorts until 2 of 6 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity or a dose of 5 mg/kg was reached. Once MTD was established, a 1-sided 1-sample log-rank test at significance level of .1 had 85% power to detect a median survival difference (13.69 vs 18.48 months) with 60 deaths over a 12-month accrual period and an additional 18 months of follow-up. OS and PFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In phase 1, 24 patients were enrolled. The MTD established was 5 mg/kg, given intravenously 5 days a week for the first 10 RT fractions, then 3 times a week for the duration of RT. The 7 patients enrolled in the third dose level and the 94 enrolled in phase 2 received this dose. Of these 101 patients, 87 were eligible and evaluable. Median survival time was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.9-17.6 months), not significantly different from that of the historical control (P=.36). Median PFS was 7.6 months (95% CI: 5.7-9.6 months). One patient (1%) experienced a grade 5 adverse event possibly related to therapy during the concurrent phase, and none experience toxicity during adjuvant TMZ therapy. Conclusions: Treatment was well tolerated, but median OS did not reach improvement specified by protocol compared to historical control, indicating that the combination of standard RT with TMZ and MGd did not achieve a significant survival advantage.

  11. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gotti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC diagnosis in the modern cART era. METHODS: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51% were ADCs and 431 (49% were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001. Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14% than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%, liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4% or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%. Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. CONCLUSIONS: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  12. Single-Fraction Versus 5-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Limited Survival Prognoses: Results of a Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Šegedin, Barbara; Perpar, Ana [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Conde, Antonio J.; Garcia, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Consorcio Hospital Provincial de Castellón, Castellón (Spain); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacicedo, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study compared single-fraction to multi-fraction short-course radiation therapy (RT) for symptomatic metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients with limited survival prognosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients who received 8 Gy × 1 fraction were matched (1:1) to 121 patients treated with 4 Gy × 5 fractions for 10 factors including age, sex, performance status, primary tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, interval between tumor diagnosis and MESCC, pre-RT ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits prior to RT. Endpoints included in-field repeated RT (reRT) for MESCC, overall survival (OS), and impact of RT on motor function. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for in-field reRT for MESCC and OS and with the ordered-logit model for effect of RT on motor function. Results: Doses of 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 4 Gy × 5 fractions were not significantly different with respect to the need for in-field reRT for MESCC (P=.11) at 6 months (18% vs 9%, respectively) and 12 months (30% vs 22%, respectively). The RT regimen also had no significant impact on OS (P=.65) and post-RT motor function (P=.21). OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively, after 8 Gy × 1 fraction versus 25% and 13%, respectively, after 4 Gy × 5 fractions. Improvement of motor function was observed in 17% of patients after 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% after 4 Gy × 5 fractions, respectively. Conclusions: There were no significant differences with respect to need for in-field reRT for MESCC, OS, and motor function by dose fractionation regimen. Thus, 8 Gy × 1 fraction may be a reasonable option for patients with survival prognosis of a few months.

  13. Improved Survival With Radiation Therapy in Stage I-II Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Matthew W., E-mail: matthew.jackson@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rusthoven, Chad G.; Jones, Bernard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kamdar, Manali [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an uncommon lymphoma for which trials are few with small patient numbers. The role of radiation therapy (RT) after standard immunochemotherapy for early-stage disease has never been studied prospectively. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to evaluate PMBCL and the impact of RT on outcomes. Methods and Materials: We queried the SEER database for patients with stage I-II PMBCL diagnosed from 2001 to 2011. Retrievable data included age, gender, race (white/nonwhite), stage, extranodal disease, year of diagnosis, and use of RT as a component of definitive therapy. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) estimates, univariate (UVA) log-rank and multivariate (MVA) Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. Results: Two hundred fifty patients with stage I-II disease were identified, with a median follow-up time of 39 months (range, 3-125 months). The median age was 36 years (range, 18-89 years); 61% were female; 76% were white; 45% had stage I disease, 60% had extranodal disease, and 55% were given RT. The 5-year OS for the entire cohort was 86%. On UVA, OS was improved with RT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.446, P=.029) and decreased in association with nonwhite race (HR 2.70, P=.006). The 5-year OS was 79% (no RT) and 90% (RT). On MVA, white race and RT remained significantly associated with improved OS (P=.007 and .018, respectively). The use of RT decreased over time: 61% for the 67 patients whose disease was diagnosed from 2001 to 2005 and 53% in the 138 patients treated from 2006 to 2010. Conclusion: This retrospective population-based analysis is the largest PMBCL dataset to date and demonstrates a significant survival benefit associated with RT. Nearly half of patients treated in the United States do not receive RT, and its use appears to be declining. In the absence of phase 3 data, the use of RT should be strongly considered for its survival benefit in early

  14. Primary colectomy in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases improves overall survival: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Mehdi; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Mesli, Farida; Mitry, Emmanuel; Aparicio, Thomas; Des Guetz, Gaetan; DesGuetz, Gaetan; Louvet, Christophe; Landi, Bruno; Tiret, Emmanuel; Sobhani, Iradj

    2011-08-01

    Whether patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases should be managed by primary colectomy followed by chemotherapy or immediate chemotherapy without resection of the primary tumor is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors associated with survival in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases. This large retrospective multicentric study included 6 academic hospitals. This study was conducted at 6 Paris University Hospitals (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Saint Antoine, Henri Mondor, Ambroise Paré, Hôpital Europeen Gorges Pompidou, Bichat, and Avicenne). Between 1998 and 2007, 208 patients with good performance status and stage IV colon cancer with unresectable distant metastases received chemotherapy, either as initial management or after primary tumor resection. Survival was estimated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with survival were tested by means of a log-rank test. Results were expressed as median values with 95% confidence intervals. Factors independently related to survival were tested using a Cox regression model adjusted for a propensity score. Of the 208 patients, 85 underwent colectomy before chemotherapy, whereas 123 were treated with use of primary chemotherapy with or without biotherapy. At univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with survival: primary colectomy (P = .031), secondary curative surgery (P < .001), well-differentiated primary tumor (P < .001), exclusive liver metastases (P < .027), absence of need for colonic stent (P = .009), and addition of antiangiogenic (P = .001) or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (P = .013) drugs to chemotherapy. After Cox multivariate analysis and after adjusting for the propensity score, all of these factors, with the exception of two, colonic stent and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drug, were found to be independently associated with overall

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 5-year Mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  17. Treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma. The role of external and endoluminal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Gagel, B.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In a retrospective study the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma was investigated. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1997, 25 patients with primary tracheal carcinoma were treated with external beam radiotherapy (17 squamous-cell carcinoma [SCC], 8 adenoid cystic carcinoma [ACC], median dose SCC 60 Gy, ACC 55 Gy). An additional brachytherapy boost was carried out in 10/25 patients (median dose SCC 18 Gy, ACC 15 Gy). Ten patients underwent operative treatment. Results: The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC was 33 months (ACC 94.2). The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC were 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), and 26% (ACC 85.7%). Patients with ACC and patients with a complete remission after treatment had a significantly better survival probability (log rank test, p [de

  18. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.

    2008-01-01

    -Meier probability plots showed a significantly improved overall survival after PMRT for the BCL2 positive subgroup, whereas practically no survival improvement was seen after PMRT for the BCL2 negative subgroup. In multivariate analysis of OS, however, no significant interaction was found between BCL2......Purpose. To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and methods. The present analysis included 1000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b&c studies. Tissue microarray......, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test, and Cox univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results. p53 accumulation was not significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM or LRR probability in univariate or multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier probability plots...

  19. Challenges in risk estimation using routinely collected clinical data: The example of estimating cervical cancer risks from electronic health-records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Cheung, Li C; Schiffman, Mark; Gage, Julia C; Hyun, Noorie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Sasieni, Peter D; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2018-06-01

    Electronic health-records (EHR) are increasingly used by epidemiologists studying disease following surveillance testing to provide evidence for screening intervals and referral guidelines. Although cost-effective, undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval censoring (in which asymptomatic disease is only observed at the time of testing) raise substantial analytic issues when estimating risk that cannot be addressed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Based on our experience analysing EHR from cervical cancer screening, we previously proposed the logistic-Weibull model to address these issues. Here we demonstrate how the choice of statistical method can impact risk estimates. We use observed data on 41,067 women in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2003-2013, as well as simulations to evaluate the ability of different methods (Kaplan-Meier, Turnbull, Weibull and logistic-Weibull) to accurately estimate risk within a screening program. Cumulative risk estimates from the statistical methods varied considerably, with the largest differences occurring for prevalent disease risk when baseline disease ascertainment was random but incomplete. Kaplan-Meier underestimated risk at earlier times and overestimated risk at later times in the presence of interval censoring or undiagnosed prevalent disease. Turnbull performed well, though was inefficient and not smooth. The logistic-Weibull model performed well, except when event times didn't follow a Weibull distribution. We have demonstrated that methods for right-censored data, such as Kaplan-Meier, result in biased estimates of disease risks when applied to interval-censored data, such as screening programs using EHR data. The logistic-Weibull model is attractive, but the model fit must be checked against Turnbull non-parametric risk estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A retrospective study of a new n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue ablation catheter incorporated with application guiding light for the treatment of venous insufficiency: Twelve-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Turhan; Acar, Altay Nihat; Aydın, Huseyin; Ekingen, Evren

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aims to present the early results of a retrospective study of the use of novel n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (VenaBlock)-based nontumescent endovenous ablation with a guiding light for the treatment of patients with varicose veins. Methods Patients with lower limb venous insufficiency were treated with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (VenaBlock Venous Closure System) between April 2016 and July 2016. The study enrolled adults aged 21-70 years with symptomatic moderate to severe varicosities (C2-C4b) and great saphenous vein reflux lasting longer than 0.5 s with great saphenous vein diameter between 5.5 and 15 mm assessed in the standing position. No compression stockings were used after the procedure. Duplex ultrasound imaging and clinical follow-up were performed on the third day, first month, sixth month, and 12th month. Clinical, etiological, anatomical, pathophysiological classification; venous clinical severity score; and completed Aberdeen varicose vein questionnaire were recorded. Results Five hundred thirty-eight patients with great saphenous vein incompetency underwent n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate ablation. The mean ablation length was 25.69 ± 4.8 cm, and the average amount of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate delivered was 0.87 ± 0.15 ml. The mean procedure time was 11.7 ± 4.9 min. Procedural success was 100%, and complete occlusion was observed after treatment and at the third-day follow-up. We observed ecchymosis in five patients (1.00%) at the entry site at the third-day follow-up. Phlebitis was encountered with six (1.20%) patients. No skin pigmentation, hematoma, paresthesia, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism was observed. Kaplan-Meier analysis yielded an occlusion rate of 99.4% at the 12-month follow-up. All patients had significant improvement in venous clinical severity score and Aberdeen varicose vein questionnaire scores postoperatively ( p <0.0001). Venous clinical severity score scores decreased from 5.43 ± 0.87 to

  1. Censoring: a new approach for detection limits in total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the detection limits in the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), which restrict quantification of very low concentrations of trace elements in the samples, can be accounted for using the statistical concept of censoring. We demonstrate that the incomplete TXRF measurements containing the so-called 'nondetects', i.e. the non-measured concentrations falling below the detection limits and represented by the estimated detection limit values, can be viewed as the left random-censored data, which can be further analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method correcting for nondetects. Within this approach, which uses the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator to obtain the cumulative distribution function corrected for the nondetects, the mean value and median of the detection limit censored concentrations can be estimated in a non-parametric way. The Monte Carlo simulations performed show that the Kaplan-Meier approach yields highly accurate estimates for the mean and median concentrations, being within a few percent with respect to the simulated, uncensored data. This means that the uncertainties of KM estimated mean value and median are limited in fact only by the number of studied samples and not by the applied correction procedure for nondetects itself. On the other hand, it is observed that, in case when the concentration of a given element is not measured in all the samples, simple approaches to estimate a mean concentration value from the data yield erroneous, systematically biased results. The discussed random-left censoring approach was applied to analyze the TXRF detection-limit-censored concentration measurements of trace elements in biomedical samples. We emphasize that the Kaplan-Meier approach allows one to estimate the mean concentrations being substantially below the mean level of detection limits. Consequently, this approach gives a new access to lower the effective detection limits for TXRF method, which is of prime interest for

  2. The development of a new algorithm to calculate a survival function in non-parametric ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Yoon Ik; Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a generalized formula of the Kaplan-Meier method is developed. The idea of this algorithm is that the result of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is the same as that of the redistribute-to-the right algorithm. Hence, the result of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is used when we redistribute to the right. This can be explained as the following steps, at first, the same mass is distributed to all the points. At second, when you reach the censored points, you must redistribute the mass of that point to the right according to the following rule; to normalize the masses, which are located to the right of the censored point, and redistribute the mass of the censored point to the right according to the ratio of the normalized mass. Until now, we illustrate the main idea of this algorithm.The meaning of that idea is more efficient than PL-estimator in the sense that it decreases the mass of after that area. Just like a redistribute to the right algorithm, this method is enough for the probability theory

  3. Effectiveness of the Dader Method for Pharmaceutical Care on Patients with Bipolar I Disorder: Results from the EMDADER-TAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Amariles, Pedro; Hincapié-García, Jaime A; González-Avendaño, Sebastián; Benjumea, Dora M; Faus, Maria José; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar I disorder (BD-I) is a chronic illness characterized by relapses alternating with periods of remission. Pharmacists can contribute to improved health outcomes in these patients through pharmaceutical care in association with a multidisciplinary health team; however, more evidence derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is needed to demonstrate the effect of pharmaceutical care on patients with BD-I. To assess the effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention using the Dader Method on patients with BD-I, measured by the decrease in the number of hospitalizations, emergency service consultations, and unscheduled outpatient visits from baseline through 1 year of follow-up. This study is based on the EMDADER-TAB trial, which was an RCT designed to compare pharmaceutical care with the usual care given to outpatients with BD-I in a psychiatric clinic. The main outcome was the use of health care services, using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. The trial protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT01750255). 92 patients were included in the EMDADER-TAB study: 43 pharmaceutical care patients (intervention group) and 49 usual care patients (control group). At baseline, no significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were found across the 2 groups. After 1 year of follow-up, the risk of hospitalizations and emergencies was higher for the control group than for the intervention group (HR = 9.03, P = 0.042; HR = 3.38, P = 0.034, respectively); however, the risk of unscheduled outpatient visits was higher for the intervention group (HR = 4.18, P = 0.028). There was no "placebo" treatment, and patients in the control group might have produced positive outcomes and reduced the magnitude of differences compared with the intervention group. Compared with usual care, pharmaceutical care significantly reduced hospitalizations and emergency service consultations by outpatients with BD-I. This study received funding from

  4. Late Urinary Side Effects 10 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Population-Based Results From a Multiphysician Practice Treating With a Standardized Protocol and Uniform Dosimetric Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Mira; Miller, Stacy; Pickles, Tom; Halperin, Ross; Kwan, Winkle; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid; Pai, Howard; Chan, Elisa K.; Morris, W. James

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine late urinary toxicity (>12 months) in a large cohort of uniformly treated low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2009, 2709 patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–defined low-risk and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with Iodine 125 ( 125 I) low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy; 2011 patients with a minimum of 25 months of follow-up were included in the study. Baseline patients, treatment, implant factors, and late urinary toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grading system and International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) were recorded prospectively. Time to IPSS resolution, late RTOG genitourinary toxicity was examined with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression was done for individual covariates and multivariable models. Results: Median follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 2-13 years). Actuarial toxicity rates reached 27% and 10% (RTOG ≥2 and ≥3, respectively) at 9-13 years. Symptoms resolved quickly in the majority of patients (88% in 6-12 months). The prevalence of RTOG 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 toxicity with a minimum of 7 years' follow-up was 70%, 21%, 6.4%, 2.3%, and 0.08%, respectively. Patients with a larger prostate volume, higher baseline IPSS, higher D90, acute toxicity, and age >70 years had more late RTOG ≥2 toxicity (all P≤.02). The IPSS resolved slower in patients with lower baseline IPSS and larger ultrasound prostate volume, those not receiving androgen deprivation therapy, and those with higher D90. The crude rate of RTOG 3 toxicity was 6%. Overall the rate of transurethral resection of the prostate was 1.9%; strictures, 2%; incontinence, 1.3%; severe symptoms, 1.8%; late catheterization, 1.3%; and hematuria, 0.8%. The majority (80%) resolved their symptoms in 6-12 months. Conclusion: Long-term urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is low. Although actuarial rates increase with longer follow

  5. Regional Lymph Node Uptake of ["1"8F]Fluorodeoxyglucose After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy Predicts Local-Regional Failure of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of ACRIN 6668/RTOG 0235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovina, Stephanie; Duan, Fenghai; Snyder, Bradley S.; Siegel, Barry A.; Machtay, Mitchell; Bradley, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0235 study demonstrated that standardized uptake values (SUV) on post-treatment ["1"8F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlated with survival in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This secondary analysis determined whether SUV of regional lymph nodes (RLNs) on post-treatment FDG-PET correlated with patient outcomes. Methods and Materials: Included for analysis were patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy, using radiation doses ≥60 Gy, with identifiable FDG-avid RLNs (distinct from primary tumor) on pretreatment FDG-PET, and post-treatment FDG-PET data. ACRIN core laboratory SUV measurements were used. Event time was calculated from the date of post-treatment FDG-PET. Local-regional failure was defined as failure within the treated RT volume and reported by the treating institution. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank test), and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Results: Of 234 trial-eligible patients, 139 (59%) had uptake in both primary tumor and RLNs on pretreatment FDG-PET and had SUV data from post-treatment FDG-PET. Maximum SUV was greater for primary tumor than for RLNs before treatment (P<.001) but not different post-treatment (P=.320). Post-treatment SUV of RLNs was not associated with overall survival. However, elevated post-treatment SUV of RLNs, both the absolute value and the percentage of residual activity compared to the pretreatment SUV were associated with inferior local-regional control (P<.001). Conclusions: High residual metabolic activity in RLNs on post-treatment FDG-PET is associated with worse local-regional control. Based on these data, future trials evaluating a radiation therapy boost should consider inclusion of both primary tumor and FDG-avid RLNs in the boost volume to maximize local-regional control.

  6. Late Urinary Side Effects 10 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Population-Based Results From a Multiphysician Practice Treating With a Standardized Protocol and Uniform Dosimetric Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca; Miller, Stacy; Pickles, Tom; Halperin, Ross; Kwan, Winkle; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid; Pai, Howard; Chan, Elisa K.; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine late urinary toxicity (>12 months) in a large cohort of uniformly treated low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2009, 2709 patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–defined low-risk and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy; 2011 patients with a minimum of 25 months of follow-up were included in the study. Baseline patients, treatment, implant factors, and late urinary toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grading system and International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) were recorded prospectively. Time to IPSS resolution, late RTOG genitourinary toxicity was examined with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression was done for individual covariates and multivariable models. Results: Median follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 2-13 years). Actuarial toxicity rates reached 27% and 10% (RTOG ≥2 and ≥3, respectively) at 9-13 years. Symptoms resolved quickly in the majority of patients (88% in 6-12 months). The prevalence of RTOG 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 toxicity with a minimum of 7 years' follow-up was 70%, 21%, 6.4%, 2.3%, and 0.08%, respectively. Patients with a larger prostate volume, higher baseline IPSS, higher D90, acute toxicity, and age >70 years had more late RTOG ≥2 toxicity (all P≤.02). The IPSS resolved slower in patients with lower baseline IPSS and larger ultrasound prostate volume, those not receiving androgen deprivation therapy, and those with higher D90. The crude rate of RTOG 3 toxicity was 6%. Overall the rate of transurethral resection of the prostate was 1.9%; strictures, 2%; incontinence, 1.3%; severe symptoms, 1.8%; late catheterization, 1.3%; and hematuria, 0.8%. The majority (80%) resolved their symptoms in 6-12 months. Conclusion: Long-term urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is low. Although actuarial rates increase with longer

  7. Clinical Significance of Preoperative Albumin and Globulin Ratio in Patients with Gastric Cancer Undergoing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jie Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pretreatment albumin and globulin ratio (AGR was an inflammation-associated factor which was related to the overall survival in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with gastric cancer. Method. This retrospective study included 862 cases pathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer. All patients were randomly divided into the testing group (431 cases and validation group (431 cases. The relationships of AGR with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results. In the testing group, the median overall survival was 26.90 months and the cutoff value of AGR was 1.50 based on R language. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower AGR was correlated with poorer overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AGR was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.584, 95% CI = 0.351–0.973, and p = 0.039. In the validation group, the median overall survival was 24.10 months. Lower AGR (≤1.50 also had a significantly poorer overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. According to multivariate analysis, the AGR was also confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.578, 95% CI = 0.373–0.897, and p = 0.015. Conclusions. Our study suggested that the pretreatment AGR could be a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in patients with gastric cancer.

  8. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T

    2015-01-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed

  9. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer in the oldest old: results beyond clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anasooya; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary; Weinberg, Armin D; Parsons, Helen M; Gupta, Pankaj; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2013-01-15

    Randomized trials demonstrating the benefits of chemotherapy in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III colon cancer underrepresent persons aged ≥ 75 years. The generalizability of these studies to a growing elderly population remains unknown. Using the California Cancer Registry for 1994 through 2008, the authors conducted a population-based study of postcolectomy patients aged 50 years to 94 years with stage III (N1M0) colon adenocarcinoma. A 2-sided chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage test for trend were used to compare patient and tumor characteristics associated with receipt of chemotherapy across age groups. Multivariate regression was used to assess the association between older age and receipt of chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to evaluate the association between chemotherapy and mortality, with propensity score adjustment. Approximately 44% (12,382 patients) of the study cohort was aged ≥ 75 years. Persons aged ≥ 75 years were found to be less likely to have received adjuvant chemotherapy than those aged colon cancer in the elderly. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  11. EQUITY SHARES EQUATING THE RESULTS OF FCFF AND FCFE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Cegłowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the method of establishing equity shares in weight average cost of capital (WACC, in which the value of loan capital results from the fixed assumptions accepted in the financial plan (for example a schedule of loan repayment and own equity is evaluated by means of a discount method. The described method causes that, regardless of whether cash flows are calculated as FCFF or FCFE, the result of the company valuation will be identical.

  12. Nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS) in pediatric and young adult patients: Results from a prospective study using limited-margin radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkle, Christopher L; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Sykes, April; Lu, Zhaohua; Hua, Chia-Ho; Neel, Michael D; Bahrami, Armita; Shulkin, Barry L; Kaste, Sue C; Pappo, Alberto; Spunt, Sheri L; Krasin, Matthew J

    2017-11-15

    Indications for and delivery of adjuvant therapies for pediatric nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS) have been derived largely from adult studies; therefore, significant concern remains regarding radiation exposure to normal tissue. The authors report long-term treatment outcomes and toxicities for pediatric and young adult patients with high-grade NRSTS who were treated on a prospective trial using limited-margin radiotherapy. Sixty-two patients (ages 3-22 years) with predominantly high-grade NRSTS requiring radiation were treated on a phase 2 institutional study of conformal external-beam radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy using a 1.5-cm to 2-cm anatomically constrained margin. The estimated cumulative incidence of local failure, Gray's method estimated cumulative incidence of local failure, Kaplan-Meier method estimated survival, competing-risk regression model determined predictors of disease outcome, and toxicity was reported according to CTCAE v2.0. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 0.2-10.9 years), 9 patients had experienced local failure. The 5-year overall cumulative incidence of local failure was 14.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-25%), and all but 1 local failure occurred outside the highest-dose irradiation volume. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for event-free and overall survival were 49.3% (95% CI, 36.3%-61.1%) and 67.9% (95% CI, 54.2%-78.3%), respectively. Multivariable analysis indicated that younger age was the only independent predictor of local recurrence (P = .004). The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxicity was 15% (95% CI, 7.2%-25.3%). The delivery of limited-margin radiotherapy using conformal external-beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy provides a high rate of local tumor control without an increase in marginal failures and with acceptable treatment-related morbidity. Cancer 2017;123:4419-29. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Evaluation of percutaneous radiologic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters: technical aspects, results, and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yub; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the technical aspects, results and complications of the percutaneous radiologic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters. Between December 1999 and April 2001, 26 peritoneal dialysis catheters were placed percutaneously in 26 consecutive patients by interventional radiologists. The patient group consisted of 16 men and ten women with a mean age of 55 (range, 30-77) years. The results and complications arising were reviewed, and the expected patency of the catheters was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The technical success rate for catheter placement was 100% (26/26 patients). Severe local bleeding occurred in one patient due to by inferior epigastric artery puncture, and was treated by compression and electronic cautery. The duration of catheter implantation ranged from 1 to 510 days and the patency rate was 416±45 days. Catheter malfunction occurred in four patients. In two, this was restored by manipulation in the intervention room, and in one, through the use of urokinase. In three patients, peritonitis occurred. Catheters were removed from four patients due to malfunction (n=2), peritonitis (n=1), and death (n=1). Percutaneous radiologic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter is a relatively simple procedure that reduces the complication rate and improves catheter patency

  14. Evaluation of percutaneous radiologic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters: technical aspects, results, and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yub; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo [Kyunghee University Hospital, seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the technical aspects, results and complications of the percutaneous radiologic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters. Between December 1999 and April 2001, 26 peritoneal dialysis catheters were placed percutaneously in 26 consecutive patients by interventional radiologists. The patient group consisted of 16 men and ten women with a mean age of 55 (range, 30-77) years. The results and complications arising were reviewed, and the expected patency of the catheters was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The technical success rate for catheter placement was 100% (26/26 patients). Severe local bleeding occurred in one patient due to by inferior epigastric artery puncture, and was treated by compression and electronic cautery. The duration of catheter implantation ranged from 1 to 510 days and the patency rate was 416{+-}45 days. Catheter malfunction occurred in four patients. In two, this was restored by manipulation in the intervention room, and in one, through the use of urokinase. In three patients, peritonitis occurred. Catheters were removed from four patients due to malfunction (n=2), peritonitis (n=1), and death (n=1). Percutaneous radiologic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter is a relatively simple procedure that reduces the complication rate and improves catheter patency.

  15. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  16. [Survival rate of IPS-Empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and bridges: three year's results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Doris; Gerds, Thomas; Strub, Jörg R

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to calculate the survival rate of IPS-Empress2 crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPD) over a three-year period. In 43 patients 27 IPS-Empress2 crowns and 31 fixed partial dentures were adhesively luted. Crowns were placed on premolars and molars and FPDs were inserted in the anterior and premolar area. Abutments were prepared with a circular 1.2 mm wide shoulder. The clinical follow-up examination took place after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. After a mean of 38 months, the survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) of all-ceramic crowns was 100% and of the three unit FDP 72.4%. There were a total of six complete failures which occurred only with the three-unit IPS-Empress2 FPDs. Three FPDs exhibited fractures of the framework for which the manufacturer's instructions of connector-dimension was not satisfied, and one FPD exhibited an irreparable incomplete veneer fracture. Further two FPDs showed biological failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetics were clinically satisfactory. The three-year results showed the IPS-Empress2-ceramic as an adequate all-ceramic material for single crowns. The use for FPD needs further critical consideration.

  17. Convergence results for a class of abstract continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for the minimization of Lipschitzian functions defined on a general Banach space. We establish convergence theorems for those methods which are generated by approximate solutions to evolution equations governed by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  18. Oncological, surgical and functional results of the treatment of patients after hemipelvectomy due to metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Guzik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic lesions localized in the pelvis cause pain, pathological fractures and decrease quality of patients life. Limited data are avaliable to compare the oncological, surgical and functional outcomes after different surgeries in patients with metastatic pelvic tumors. Most of the works presents the results of hemipelvectomy performed in patients with primary malignant bone tumors. The objectives of this study were to assess the outcome of patients after internal hemipelvectomy due to cancer metastases. Methods Over the period 2010–2015 at the Department of Orthopaedic Oncology in Brzozów, 34 patients with metastases to the pelvis were treated. This study group comprised of 21 men and 13 women. The mean age was 67 (range: 51–79 for men and 56 (range: 41–77 for women. The majority of the treated patients suffered from myeloma (12 patients and breast cancer (8 patients. Following the Enneking system classification guidelines, tumours were found in zone I (5 cases, zone II (18 cases, zone III (4 cases. Tumour involvement of both zones (II and III considered 7 patients. The following resections were accomplished: wide in 11 cases, marginal in 17 cases, and intralesional in 6 cases. 18 patients were postoperatively treated with 8 Gy single-dose radiotherapy. 25 patients underwent bone reconstruction using either Lumic prostheses (9 cases or the Harrington technique (16 cases. The mean follow-up period was 2.1 years (range: 1.2–6 years. The analysis covered patients’ survival, number of local recurrences, functional results and effectiveness of surgical treatment, considering the type, number and reason of complications. Results Eight patients died. Overal survival calculated with Kaplan- Meier curve was 48.2% for 34 patients. Mean survival was 3.85 years. There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival depending on the type of metastasis resection. In this group, local tumour recurrences

  19. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  20. Life cycle analysis of electricity systems: Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Marheineke, T.

    1996-01-01

    The two methods for full energy chain analysis, process analysis and input/output analysis, are discussed. A combination of these two methods provides the most accurate results. Such a hybrid analysis of the full energy chains of six different power plants is presented and discussed. The results of such analyses depend on time, site and technique of each process step and, therefore have no general validity. For renewable energy systems the emissions form the generation of a back-up system should be added. (author). 7 figs, 1 fig

  1. [Survival analysis with competing risks: estimating failure probability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Javier; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    To show the impact of competing risks of death on survival analysis. We provide an example of survival time without chronic rejection after heart transplantation, where death before rejection acts as a competing risk. Using a computer simulation, we compare the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement model. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the probability of rejection. Next, we illustrate the use of the multiple decrement model to analyze secondary end points (in our example: death after rejection). Finally, we discuss Kaplan-Meier assumptions and why they fail in the presence of competing risks. Survival analysis should be adjusted for competing risks of death to avoid overestimation of the risk of rejection produced with the Kaplan-Meier method.

  2. Local control and functional results after twice-daily radiotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolek, Timothy W.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price; Scarborough, Mark T.; Graham-Pole, John

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) has been the predominant local treatment for Ewing's sarcoma of bone at the University of Florida. Twice-daily hyperfractionated RT was initiated in 1982 to improve local control and functional outcome. This retrospective review compares the results of once-daily vs. twice-daily RT in patients with primary Ewing's sarcoma of an extremity, with emphasis on functional outcome. Methods and Materials: Between June 1971 and January 1990, 37 patients were treated at the University of Florida for nonmetastatic Ewing's sarcoma of bone with a primary lesion in an extremity. Three patients underwent amputation. Of 34 patients treated with RT, 31 had RT alone and 3 had a combination of RT and local excision. Before 1982, 14 patients received once-daily RT; since 1982, 17 patients have received twice-daily RT. Doses of once-daily RT varied from 47 to 61 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy per fraction. Doses of twice-daily RT varied, depending on the response of the soft-tissue component of the tumor to chemotherapy, and ranged from 50.4 to 60 Gy at 1.2 Gy per fraction. Some patients in the twice-daily RT group also received total body irradiation 1-3 months after local RT as part of a conditioning regimen before marrow-ablative therapy with stem cell rescue. They received either 8 Gy in two once-daily fractions or 12 Gy in six twice-daily fractions. The six patients who received surgery were excluded from local control analysis. Local control rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method. Fifteen patients had a formal functional evaluation. Results: In the 31 patients treated with RT alone, the actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 81% for patients treated twice daily and 77% for those treated once daily (p = NS). No posttreatment pathologic fractures occurred in patients treated twice daily, whereas five fractures occurred in those treated once daily (p = 0.01). On functional evaluation, less loss in range of motion (15 deg. vs. 28 deg. of loss

  3. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  4. A Fuzzy Logic Based Method for Analysing Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Vinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Network operators must perform many tasks to ensure smooth operation of the network, such as planning, monitoring, etc. Among those tasks, regular testing of network performance, network errors and troubleshooting is very important. Meaningful test results will allow the operators to evaluate network performanceof any shortcomings and to better plan for network upgrade. Due to the diverse and mainly unquantifiable nature of network testing results, there is a needs to develop a method for systematically and rigorously analysing these results. In this paper, we present STAM (System Test-result Analysis Method which employs a bottom-up hierarchical processing approach using Fuzzy logic. STAM is capable of combining all test results into a quantitative description of the network performance in terms of network stability, the significance of various network erros, performance of each function blocks within the network. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated in assisting the testing of a VoIP system at the Research Instiute of Post and Telecoms in Vietnam. The paper is organized as follows. The first section gives an overview of fuzzy logic theory the concepts of which will be used in the development of STAM. The next section describes STAM. The last section, demonstrating STAM’s capability, presents a success story in which STAM is successfully applied.

  5. Evaluating rehabilitation methods - some practical results from Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1987-01-01

    Research and analysis of the following aspects of rehabilitation have been conducted at the Rum Jungle mine site over the past three years: drainage structure stability; rock batter stability; soil fauna; tree growth in compacted soils; rehabilitation costs. The results show that, for future rehabilitation projects adopting refined methods, attention to final construction detail and biospheric influences is most important. The mine site offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the success of a variety of rehabilitation methods to the benefit of the industry in Australia overseas. It is intended that practical, economic, research will continue for some considerable time

  6. Long-term side-effects of intermittent androgen suppression therapy in prostate cancer: results of a phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shawn; Perry, Gad; Segal, Roanne; Dahrouge, Simone; Crook, Juanita

    2005-09-01

    To assess the feasibility and tolerability of intermittent androgen suppression therapy (IAS) in prostate cancer. Patients with recurrent or metastic prostate cancer received cyclical periods of treatment with leuprolide acetate and nilutamide for 8 months, and rest periods. Cycles were repeated at progression until the treatment failed to achieve normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Patients were followed with PSA level, testosterone level, haemoglobin level, weight and bone mineral density evaluations. The median time to treatment failure, recovery from anaemia, or normalization of testosterone level was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. In all, 95 patients received 245 cycles; the median duration of rest periods was 8 months and median time to treatment failure 47 months. Testosterone recovery during rest periods was documented in 117 (61%) of cycles. Anaemia was mild and reported in 33%, 44% and 67% of cycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Sexual function recovered during the rest periods in 47% of cycles. There was no significant overall change in body mass index at the end of the treatment period. Osteoporosis was documented in at least one site evaluated in 41 patients (37%). IAS has the potential to reduce side-effects, including recovery of haemoglobin level, return of sexual function and absence of weight gain at the end of the study period.

  7. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described in the first part of this presentation: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. In this, the second and concluding part of the presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  8. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  9. [Long term results of exclusive chemotherapy for glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachin, F; Hans, S; Atlan, D; Brasnu, D; Menard, M; Laccourreye, O

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of exclusive chemotherapy for T1-T3N0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy. Between 1985 and 2000, 69 patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy were managed with exclusive chemotherapy at our department. Chemotherapy associated platinum and fluorouracil. This retrospective analysis evaluated actuarial survival, treatment morbidity, oncologic events and laryngeal preservation. Various independent factors were tested for potential correlation with survival and local recurrence. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival, local control, lymph node control estimate were 83,6%, 64,8%, 98,6% respectively. Chemotherapy never resulted in death. The 10-year actuarial metachronous second primary tumors estimate was 32%. The overall laryngeal preservation rate was 98,6%. Altogether our data and the review of the literature suggest that in patients achieving a complete clinical response after and induction based chemotherapy regimen, the completion of an exclusive chemotherapy regimen appears to be a valid alternative to the conventional use of radiotherapy or chemo-radiation protocols.

  10. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  11. How to interpret the results of medical time series data analysis: Classical statistical approaches versus dynamic Bayesian network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, Agnieszka; Druzdzel, Marek J; Austin, R Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Classical statistics is a well-established approach in the analysis of medical data. While the medical community seems to be familiar with the concept of a statistical analysis and its interpretation, the Bayesian approach, argued by many of its proponents to be superior to the classical frequentist approach, is still not well-recognized in the analysis of medical data. The goal of this study is to encourage data analysts to use the Bayesian approach, such as modeling with graphical probabilistic networks, as an insightful alternative to classical statistical analysis of medical data. This paper offers a comparison of two approaches to analysis of medical time series data: (1) classical statistical approach, such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the Cox proportional hazards regression model, and (2) dynamic Bayesian network modeling. Our comparison is based on time series cervical cancer screening data collected at Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center over 10 years. The main outcomes of our comparison are cervical cancer risk assessments produced by the three approaches. However, our analysis discusses also several aspects of the comparison, such as modeling assumptions, model building, dealing with incomplete data, individualized risk assessment, results interpretation, and model validation. Our study shows that the Bayesian approach is (1) much more flexible in terms of modeling effort, and (2) it offers an individualized risk assessment, which is more cumbersome for classical statistical approaches.

  12. Shunting outcomes in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus: results of a Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, John C; Shannon, Chevis N; Holubkov, Richard; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Whitehead, William; Browd, Samuel; Rozzelle, Curtis; Simon, Tamara D; Tamber, Mandeep S; Oakes, W Jerry; Drake, James; Luerssen, Thomas G; Kestle, John

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) retrospective studies have shown a 15% difference in rates of conversion to permanent shunts with the use of ventriculosubgaleal shunts (VSGSs) versus ventricular reservoirs (VRs) as temporization procedures in the treatment of hydrocephalus due to high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of prematurity. Further research in the same study line revealed a strong influence of center-specific decision-making on shunt outcomes. The primary goal of this prospective study was to standardize decision-making across centers to determine true procedural superiority, if any, of VSGS versus VR as a temporization procedure in high-grade IVH of prematurity. METHODS The HCRN conducted a prospective cohort study across 6 centers with an approximate 1.5- to 3-year accrual period (depending on center) followed by 6 months of follow-up. Infants with premature birth, who weighed less than 1500 g, had Grade 3 or 4 IVH of prematurity, and had more than 72 hours of life expectancy were included in the study. Based on a priori consensus, decisions were standardized regarding the timing of initial surgical treatment, upfront shunt versus temporization procedure (VR or VSGS), and when to convert a VR or VSGS to a permanent shunt. Physical examination assessment and surgical technique were also standardized. The primary outcome was the proportion of infants who underwent conversion to a permanent shunt. The major secondary outcomes of interest included infection and other complication rates. RESULTS One hundred forty-five premature infants were enrolled and met criteria for analysis. Using the standardized decision rubrics, 28 infants never reached the threshold for treatment, 11 initially received permanent shunts, 4 were initially treated with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), and 102 underwent a temporization procedure (36 with VSGSs and 66 with VRs). The 2 temporization cohorts were similar in terms of sex, race

  13. Processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkovich, O.I.; Suleimanov, N.I.; Tokhtasjev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed

  14. Method of vacuum correlation functions: Results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    Basic results obtained within the QCD method of vacuum correlation functions over the past 20 years in the context of investigations into strong-interaction physics at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) are formulated Emphasis is placed primarily on the prospects of the general theory developed within QCD by employing both nonperturbative and perturbative methods. On the basis of ab initio arguments, it is shown that the lowest two field correlation functions play a dominant role in QCD dynamics. A quantitative theory of confinement and deconfinement, as well as of the spectra of light and heavy quarkonia, glueballs, and hybrids, is given in terms of these two correlation functions. Perturbation theory in a nonperturbative vacuum (background perturbation theory) plays a significant role, not possessing drawbacks of conventional perturbation theory and leading to the infrared freezing of the coupling constant α s

  15. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar probabilistic risk assessments in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry risk management programs is discussed. Risk management is more comprehensive than the commonly used term accident management. Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed

  16. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1990-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar Probabilistic Risk Assessments in NRC and industry risk management programs is discussed. ''Risk management'' is more comprehensive than the commonly used term ''accident management.'' Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed. 2 refs., 3 figs

  17. PALEOEARTHQUAKES IN THE PRIBAIKALIE: METHODS AND RESULTS OF DATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg P. Smekalin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Pribaikalie and adjacent territories, seismogeological studies have been underway for almost a half of the century and resulted in discovery of more than 70 dislocations of seismic or presumably seismic origin. With commencement of paleoseismic studies, dating of paleo-earthquakes was focused on as an indicator useful for long-term prediction of strong earthquakes. V.P. Solonenko [Solonenko, 1977] distinguished five methods for dating paleoseismogenic deformations, i.e. geological, engineering geological, historico-archeological, dendrochronological and radiocarbon methods. However, ages of the majority of seismic deformations, which were subject to studies at the initial stage of development of seismogeology in Siberia, were defined by methods of relative or correlation age determination.Since the 1980s, studies of seismogenic deformation in the Pribaikalie have been widely conducted with trenching. Mass sampling, followed with radiocarbon analyses and definition of absolute ages of paleo-earthquakes, provided new data on seismic regimes of the territory and rates of and recent displacements along active faults, and enhanced validity of methods of relative dating, in particular morphometry. Capacities of the morphometry method has significantly increased with introduction of laser techniques in surveys and digital processing of 3D relief models.Comprehensive seismogeological studies conducted in the Pribaikalie revealed 43 paleo-events within 16 seismogenic structures. Absolute ages of 18 paleo-events were defined by the radiocarbon age determination method. Judging by their ages, a number of dislocations were related with historical earthquakes which occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, yet any reliable data on epicenters of such events are not available. The absolute and relative dating methods allowed us to identify sections in some paleoseismogenic structures by differences in ages of activation and thus provided new data for

  18. Performance of various mathematical methods for calculation of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandel, P.; Vogt, W.

    1977-01-01

    Interpolation and regression methods are available for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. We compared the performance of eight algorithms (weighted and unweighted linear logit-log regression, quadratic logit-log regression, Rodbards logistic model in the weighted and unweighted form, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor and polygonal interpolation) on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotropin = HCS). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, ie. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results while the weighted logit-log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (orig.) [de

  19. Methodics of computing the results of monitoring the exploratory gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available At building site of motorway tunnel Višòové-Dubná skala , the priority is given to driving of exploration galley that secures in detail: geologic, engineering geology, hydrogeology and geotechnics research. This research is based on gathering information for a supposed use of the full profile driving machine that would drive the motorway tunnel. From a part of the exploration gallery which is driven by the TBM method, a fulfilling information is gathered about the parameters of the driving process , those are gathered by a computer monitoring system. The system is mounted on a driving machine. This monitoring system is based on the industrial computer PC 104. It records 4 basic values of the driving process: the electromotor performance of the driving machine Voest-Alpine ATB 35HA, the speed of driving advance, the rotation speed of the disintegrating head TBM and the total head pressure. The pressure force is evaluated from the pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the machine. Out of these values, the strength of rock mass, the angle of inner friction, etc. are mathematically calculated. These values characterize rock mass properties as their changes. To define the effectivity of the driving process, the value of specific energy and the working ability of driving head is used. The article defines the methodics of computing the gathered monitoring information, that is prepared for the driving machine Voest – Alpine ATB 35H at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS. It describes the input forms (protocols of the developed method created by an EXCEL program and shows selected samples of the graphical elaboration of the first monitoring results obtained from exploratory gallery driving process in the Višòové – Dubná skala motorway tunnel.

  20. Comparison of clinical outcomes between total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the knee: a retrospective analysis of preoperative and postoperative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Akira; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Shimada, Yoichi; Kodama, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-28

    Excellent results have recently been reported for both total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), but there have been few reports about which has a better long-term outcome. The preoperative and postoperative results of TKA and UKA for osteoarthritis of the knee were thus compared. The results of 48 patients who underwent TKA and 25 patients who underwent UKA were evaluated based on clinical scores and survivorship in the middle long-term period. Preoperative, latest postoperative, and changes in the femoro-tibial angle (FTA), range of motion (ROM), Japanese Orthopedic Association score (JOA score), and Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) were compared. The patients' mean age was 73 years. The mean follow-up period was 9 years (TKA: mean, 10.5 years; range, 7-12 years; UKA: mean, 9 years; range, 6-11 years). Preoperative FTA and ROM were significantly higher in the UKA group than in the TKA group. Total changes in all scores were similar among the two groups, as were changes in scores for all JOA and JKOM domains. The cumulative revision rate was higher for UKA than for TKA (7 versus 4%). Kaplan-Meier survivorship at 10 years was 84% for UKA and 92% for TKA. This clinical study found no significant differences between TKA and UKA, except in long-term survivorship.

  1. Third-line Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J Connor; Stukalin, Igor; Norton, Craig

    2017-01-01

    and were included in the analysis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Patients were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival using Kaplan-Meier curves, and were evaluated for overall response. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the statistical association...

  2. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  3. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  4. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  5. «Esa corporeidad mortal y rosa»: análisis del tiempo libre de enfermedad del cáncer de mama en Gipuzkoa en presencia de riesgos competitivos "That deadly and pink corporeity": Analysis of disease-free survival analysis in breast cancer in Gipuzkoa (Spain in the presence of competing risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez-Camblor

    2009-12-01

    sobrestimación tanto de la probabilidad de recidiva como de la mortalidad debida a la enfermedad.Objective: To analyze time of disease-free survival and relative survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer in the province of Gipuzkoa within the context of competing risks by assessing differences between the direct use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement method on the one hand, and relative survival on the other. Methods: All registered breast cancer cases in Gipuzkoa in 1995 and 1996 with stages other than stage IV were included. An 8-year follow-up for recurrence and a 10-year follow-up for survival were performed. Time of disease-free survival was studied by the multiple decrement model. Observed survival and survival corrected by the expected mortality in the population (relative survival were also studied. Results: Estimation of the probability of recurrence at 8 years with the multiple decrement method was 8.8% lower than that obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method. The difference between the observed and relative survival rates at 10 years was 10.8%. Both results show how, in this case, the Kaplan-Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality from the disease. Conclusions: Two issues are often overlooked when performing survival analyses: firstly, because of the lack of independence between survival time and censoring time, the results obtained by the Kaplan-Meier estimator are uninterpretable; secondly, it is an incontrovertible fact that one way or another, everyone causes failures. In this approach, survival analyses must take into account the probability of failure in the general population of reference. The results obtained in this study show that superficial use of the Kaplan Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality caused by the disease.

  6. A novel method for assessing elbow pain resulting from epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorn, Bradley S.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a novel orthopedic test (Polk's test) which can assist the clinician in differentiating between me- dial and lateral epicondylitis, 2 of the most common causes of elbow pain. This test has not been previously described in the literature. Clinical Features The testing procedure described in this paper is easy to learn, simple to perform and may provide the clinician with a quick and effective method of differentiating between lateral and medial epicondylitis. The test also helps to elucidate normal activities of daily living that the patient may unknowingly be performing on a repetitive basis that are hindering recovery. The results of this simple test allow the clinician to make immediate lifestyle recommendations to the patient that should improve and hasten the response to subsequent treatment. It may be used in conjunction with other orthopedic testing procedures, as it correlates well with other clinical tests for assessing epicondylitis. Conclusion The use of Polk's Test may help the clinician to diagnostically differentiate between lateral and medial epicondylitis, as well as supply information relative to choosing proper instructions for the patient to follow as part of their treatment program. Further research, performed in an academic setting, should prove helpful in more thoroughly evaluating the merits of this test. In the meantime, clinical experience over the years suggests that the practicing physician should find a great deal of clinical utility in utilizing this simple, yet effective, diagnostic procedure. PMID:19674572

  7. [Results of surgical treatment in ampullary and pancreatic carcinoma and its prognostic parameters after R0-resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwelski, K; Meyer, F; Schmidt, U; Lippert, H

    2005-08-01

    Resection is currently the only established reasonable therapeutic option with curative potential in pancreatic and ampullary carcinoma. The aim of the study was i) to analyze value and results of surgical therapy and ii) to detect the prognostic parameters, which determine significantly higher survival rates. Two-hundred-twenty patients with pancreatic and ampullary carcinoma (mean age, 61.4 years; 104 females/116 males) underwent surgery. Histologic investigation revealed 19 carcinomas of the papilla of Vater and 201 ductal pancreatic carcinomas. In 126 patients, stage IV a or b tumors were found, in addition, stage I (n =26), II (n = 17) and III (n = 51). Survival-rate was determined according to the method by Kaplan/Meier. Survival was compared using log-rank test. Association of several or multiple parameters with survival was tested using Cox model. Hundred-ten patients underwent tumor resection with primary curative intention (50 %): 96 resections of the pancreatic head, 2 total pancreatectomies and 12 left resections of the pancreas. R0-resection was achieved in 94 patients (42.7 %), whereas intervention was classified R1 in 10 and R2 in 6 cases. In addition, 60 palliative interventions (28 gastroenterostomies, 17 biliodigestive anastomoses, 15 anastomoses at both sites) and 50 explorative laparotomies were performed. In 42.3 % of patients, postoperative complications were found, but only 12/220 individuals died (overall letality, 5.4 %). Postoperative letality of curative pancreatic resections was 3.6 % (palliative intervention, 6.7 %; explorative laparotomy, 8.8 %). Five-year survival-rate of carcinoma of the papilla of Vater and pancreatic carcinoma was 73.3 % and 16.2 %, respectively (median survival time was 66.0 and 14.0 months, respectively). Taken together all other interventions, median survival time ranged between 4.0 (palliative intervention) to 10.0 months (R1-resection). No patient survived 5 years. Therefore, the most relevant prognostic

  8. The results of definitive radiation therapy and the analysis of prognostic factors for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seung Hee; Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soon Nam

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study was tried to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients, patterns of failure, survival rates, prognostic factors affecting survival, and treatment related toxicities when non-small cell lung cancer patients was treated by definitive radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the treatment results of 70 patients who were treated by definitive radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer at the Department of Radiation Oncology. Ewha Womans University Hospital, between March 1982 and April 1996. The number of patients of each stage was 2 in stage 1. 6 in stage II, 30 in stage III-A, 29 in stage III-B, 3 in stage IV. Radiation therapy was administered by 6 MV linear accelerator and daily dose was 1.8-2.0 Gy and total radiation dose was ranged from 50.4 Gy to 72.0 Gy with median dose 59.4 Gy. Thirty four patients was treated with combined therapy with neoadjuvant or concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and most of them were administered with the multi-drug combined chemotherapy including etoposide and cisplatin. The survival rate was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier methods. The overall 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 63%, 29%, and 26%, respectively. The median survival time of all patients was 17 months. The disease-free survival rate for 1-year and 2-year were 23% and 16%, respectively. The overall 1-year survival rates according to the stage was 100% for stage I, 80% for stage II, 61% for stage III, and 50% for stage IV. The overall 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates for stage III patients only were 61%, 23%, and 20%, respectively. The median survival time of stage III patients only was 15 months. The complete response rates by radiation therapy was 16% and partial response rate was 50%, patients (43%) among 70 patients assessed local control at initial 3 months follow-up duration. Twenty four (80%) of these 30 patients was possible to evaluate the pattern of failure after achievement

  9. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  10. The review and results of different methods for facial recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, facial recognition draws much attention due to its wide potential applications. As a unique technology in Biometric Identification, facial recognition represents a significant improvement since it could be operated without cooperation of people under detection. Hence, facial recognition will be taken into defense system, medical detection, human behavior understanding, etc. Several theories and methods have been established to make progress in facial recognition: (1) A novel two-stage facial landmark localization method is proposed which has more accurate facial localization effect under specific database; (2) A statistical face frontalization method is proposed which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for face landmark localization; (3) It proposes a general facial landmark detection algorithm to handle images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses; (4) There are three methods proposed on Face Alignment including shape augmented regression method, pose-indexed based multi-view method and a learning based method via regressing local binary features. The aim of this paper is to analyze previous work of different aspects in facial recognition, focusing on concrete method and performance under various databases. In addition, some improvement measures and suggestions in potential applications will be put forward.

  11. Resource costing for multinational neurologic clinical trials: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, K; Burke, J; Drummond, M; Davies, L; Carlsson, P; Gruger, J; Harris, A; Lucioni, C; Gisbert, R; Llana, T; Tom, E; Bloom, B; Willke, R; Glick, H

    1998-11-01

    We present the results of a multinational resource costing study for a prospective economic evaluation of a new medical technology for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage within a clinical trial. The study describes a framework for the collection and analysis of international resource cost data that can contribute to a consistent and accurate intercountry estimation of cost. Of the 15 countries that participated in the clinical trial, we collected cost information in the following seven: Australia, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. The collection of cost data in these countries was structured through the use of worksheets to provide accurate and efficient cost reporting. We converted total average costs to average variable costs and then aggregated the data to develop study unit costs. When unit costs were unavailable, we developed an index table, based on a market-basket approach, to estimate unit costs. To estimate the cost of a given procedure, the market-basket estimation process required that cost information be available for at least one country. When cost information was unavailable in all countries for a given procedure, we estimated costs using a method based on physician-work and practice-expense resource-based relative value units. Finally, we converted study unit costs to a common currency using purchasing power parity measures. Through this costing exercise we developed a set of unit costs for patient services and per diem hospital services. We conclude by discussing the implications of our costing exercise and suggest guidelines to facilitate more effective multinational costing exercises.

  12. Combined modality therapy for localized prostate carcinoma using Iridium-192 brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy: results, morbidity, and the lack of value of surgical lymph node staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, Michael; Ordorica, Edward; Dawson, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: (1) To quantitate the morbidity and 5 and 10 year bNED survival of Ir-192 temporary implant combined with external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of clinically localized Prostate Carcinoma. (2) To determine the need for nodal staging prior to implant. Materials and Methods: 335 consecutively treated patients seen between 8/17/84 and 8/13/93 were analyzed. All patents had retropertoneal nodal dissection and were implanted with Ir-192 using the Syed-Neblett template. Thirteen percent who completed treatment per protocol were found to have microscopically involved nodes on permanent section. 277 patients had completed the entire treatment protocol and had at least 2 years follow-up with DRE and serial serum PSAs. All patients were evaluated for morbidity using the standard RTOG morbidity scales. The bNED survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier methods with a non-rising PSA value of < 1.0 used as an indicator of disease control. All patients received 30 Gy in 50 hrs. to the implant volume, followed in two weeks by 34.2 Gy external beam (19 fx/ 25 days). The median follow up for the group is 55 months. Results: Morbidity: 69.2% of the patients experienced no reportable morbidity. Urinary morbidity was usually transient and mild (Grade 1 or 2 in 9.7%). 4.9 % experienced grade 3 urinary complaints (6.6% stress incontinence) and the incidence of grade 4 urinary complaints was 0.6%. Urinary complications were 2.5 times more common in patients who had previously undergone a TURP. Rectal complications were mild or moderate in 10.5% and usually consisted of asymptomatic rectal bleeding (6.9%). Severe rectal ulcer requiring temporary colostomy occurred in 1.4% and always healed after colostomy. Other morbidity consisted of mild, self-limited edema (2.1%). One patient had persistent edema post treatment, and there was one death from a CVA perioperatively (0.3%). 75% of patients who were potent prior to treatment maintained useful sexual function post

  13. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable 15 N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism. (M.D.)

  14. Results from the Application of Uncertainty Methods in the CSNI Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a - best estimate - concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI, has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced -best estimate- thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges.

  15. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy

  16. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  17. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  18. Hospital volume and the risk of revision in Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries -an observational study of 14,496 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawy, Mona; Fenstad, Anne M.; Bartz-Johannessen, Christoffer A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High procedure volume and dedication to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been suggested to improve revision rates. This study aimed to quantify the annual hospital volume effect on revision risk in Oxfordu? nicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries. Methods......). The outcome was revision risk after 2 and 10 years calculated using Kaplan Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the Hazard Ratio (HR) of any revision due to specific reasons with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The implant survival was 80% at 10 years in the volume...

  19. Determination of the most appropriate method for extrapolating overall survival data from a placebo-controlled clinical trial of lenvatinib for progressive, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Livings, Christopher; Crowe, Lydia; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness models for the treatment of long-term conditions often require information on survival beyond the period of available data. This paper aims to identify a robust and reliable method for the extrapolation of overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer receiving lenvatinib or placebo. Data from 392 patients (lenvatinib: 261, placebo: 131) from the SELECT trial are used over a 34-month period of follow-up. A previously published criterion-based approach is employed to ascertain credible estimates of OS beyond the trial data. Parametric models with and without a treatment covariate and piecewise models are used to extrapolate OS, and a holistic approach, where a series of statistical and visual tests are considered collectively, is taken in determining the most appropriate extrapolation model. A piecewise model, in which the Kaplan-Meier survivor function is used over the trial period and an extrapolated tail is based on the Exponential distribution, is identified as the optimal model. In the absence of long-term survival estimates from clinical trials, survival estimates often need to be extrapolated from the available data. The use of a systematic method based on a priori determined selection criteria provides a transparent approach and reduces the risk of bias. The extrapolated OS estimates will be used to investigate the potential long-term benefits of lenvatinib in the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients and populate future cost-effectiveness analyses.

  20. Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-04-01

    Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.

  1. Viscous wing theory development. Volume 1: Analysis, method and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. R.; Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Steinhoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Viscous transonic flows at large Reynolds numbers over 3-D wings were analyzed using a zonal viscid-inviscid interaction approach. A new numerical AFZ scheme was developed in conjunction with the finite volume formulation for the solution of the inviscid full-potential equation. A special far-field asymptotic boundary condition was developed and a second-order artificial viscosity included for an improved inviscid solution methodology. The integral method was used for the laminar/turbulent boundary layer and 3-D viscous wake calculation. The interaction calculation included the coupling conditions of the source flux due to the wing surface boundary layer, the flux jump due to the viscous wake, and the wake curvature effect. A method was also devised incorporating the 2-D trailing edge strong interaction solution for the normal pressure correction near the trailing edge region. A fully automated computer program was developed to perform the proposed method with one scalar version to be used on an IBM-3081 and two vectorized versions on Cray-1 and Cyber-205 computers.

  2. Algorithms for monitoring warfarin use: Results from Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Eunice Kazue; Borges, Jessica Bassani; Scomparini, Erika Burim; Curi, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Eliane

    2017-10-01

    Warfarin stands as the most prescribed oral anticoagulant. New oral anticoagulants have been approved recently; however, their use is limited and the reversibility techniques of the anticoagulation effect are little known. Thus, our study's purpose was to develop algorithms for therapeutic monitoring of patients taking warfarin based on the opinion of physicians who prescribe this medicine in their clinical practice. The development of the algorithm was performed in two stages, namely: (i) literature review and (ii) algorithm evaluation by physicians using a Delphi Method. Based on the articles analyzed, two algorithms were developed: "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy" and "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy: dose adjustment and bleeding control." Later, these algorithms were analyzed by 19 medical doctors that responded to the invitation and agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 16 responded to the first round, 11 to the second and eight to the third round. A 70% consensus or higher was reached for most issues and at least 50% for six questions. We were able to develop algorithms to monitor the use of warfarin by physicians using a Delphi Method. The proposed method is inexpensive and involves the participation of specialists, and it has proved adequate for the intended purpose. Further studies are needed to validate these algorithms, enabling them to be used in clinical practice.

  3. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.

    2008-01-01

    patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years...... of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 69% among 3 758 patients who received the recommended treatment. Within the first 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of loco-regional recurrences, distant metastases or other malignant disease, or death as a first event were 9...

  4. Further results for crack-edge mappings by ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.N.; Achenbach, J.D.; Ahlberg, L.; Tittman, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses further extensions of the local edge mapping method to the pulse-echo case and to configurations of water-immersed specimens and transducers. Crack edges are mapped by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals. Topics considered include local edge mapping in a homogeneous medium, local edge mapping algorithms, local edge mapping through an interface, and edge mapping through an interface using synthetic data. Local edge mapping is iterative, with two or three iterations required for convergence

  5. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  6. The Accident Sequence Precursor program: Methods improvements and current results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarick, J.W.; Manning, F.M.; Harris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the US NRC Accident Sequence Precursor program methods since the initial program evaluations of 1969-81 operational events are described, along with insights from the review of 1984-85 events. For 1984-85, the number of significant precursors was consistent with the number observed in 1980-81, dominant sequences associated with significant events were reasonably consistent with PRA estimates for BWRs, but lacked the contribution due to small-break LOCAs previously observed and predicted in PWRs, and the frequency of initiating events and non-recoverable system failures exhibited some reduction compared to 1980-81. Operational events which provide information concerning additional PRA modeling needs are also described

  7. Use of results from microscopic methods in optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, C.

    1985-11-01

    A concept of vectorization for coupled-channel programs based upon conventional methods is first presented. This has been implanted in our program for its use on the CRAY-1 computer. In a second part we investigate the capabilities of a semi-microscopic optical model involving fewer adjustable parameters than phenomenological ones. The two main ingredients of our calculations are, for spherical or well-deformed nuclei, the microscopic optical-model calculations of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux and nuclear densities from Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the density-dependent force D1. For transitional nuclei deformation-dependent nuclear structure wave functions are employed to weigh the scattering potentials for different shapes and channels [fr

  8. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors' method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors' method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.

  9. Assessment of South African uranium resources: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; De Klerk, W.J.; Van der Merwe, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals primarily with the methods used by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, in arriving at the assessment of the South African uranium resources. The Resource Evaluation Group is responsible for this task, which is carried out on a continuous basis. The evaluation is done on a property-by-property basis and relies upon data submitted to the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa by the various companies involved in uranium mining and prospecting in South Africa. Resources are classified into Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional (EAR) and Speculative (SR) categories as defined by the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources. Each category is divided into three categories, viz, resources exploitable at less than $80/kg uranium, at $80-130/kg uranium and at $130-260/kg uranium. Resources are reported in quantities of uranium metal that could be recovered after mining and metallurgical losses have been taken into consideration. Resources in the RAR and EAR categories exploitable at costs of less than $130/kg uranium are now estimated at 460 000 t uranium which represents some 14 per cent of WOCA's (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area) resources. The evaluation of a uranium venture is carried out in various steps, of which the most important, in order of implementation, are: geological interpretation, assessment of in situ resources using techniques varying from manual contouring of values, geostatistics, feasibility studies and estimation of recoverable resources. Because the choice of an evaluation method is, to some extent, dictated by statistical consderations, frequency distribution curves of the uranium grade variable are illustrated and discussed for characteristic deposits

  10. UV spectroscopy applied to stratospheric chemistry, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    The publication from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) deals with an investigation done on stratospheric chemistry by UV spectroscopy. The scientific goals are briefly discussed, and it gives the results from the measuring and analysing techniques used in the investigation. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Creep in rock salt with temperature. Testing methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Berest, P.

    1985-01-01

    The growing interest shown in the delayed behaviour of rocks at elevated temperature has led the Solid Mechanics Laboratory to develop specific equipment designed for creep tests. The design and dimensioning of these units offer the possibility of investigating a wide range of materials. The article describes the test facilities used (uni-axial and tri-axial creep units) and presents the experimental results obtained on samples of Bresse salt [fr

  12. TMI-2 core debris analytical methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of six grab samples was taken from the debris bed of the TMI-2 core in early September 1983. Five of these samples were sent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for analysis. Presented is the analysis strategy for the samples and some of the data obtained from the early stages of examination of the samples (i.e., particle size-analysis, gamma spectrometry results, and fissile/fertile material analysis)

  13. Studies of LMFBR: method of analysis and some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1983-01-01

    Some results of recent studies of LMFBR characteristics are summarized. A two-dimensional model of the LMFBR is taken from a publication and used as the base model for the analysis. Axial structures are added to the base model and a three-dimensional (Δ - Z) calculation has been done. Two dimensional (Δ and RZ) calculations are compared with the three-dimensional and published results. The eigenvalue, flux and power distributions, breeding characteristics, control rod worth, sodium-void and Doppler reactivities are analysed. Calculations are done by CITATION using six-group cross sections collapsed regionwise by EXPANDA in one-dimensional geometries from the 70-group JFS library. Burnup calculations of a simplified thorium-cycle LMFBR have also been done in the RZ geometry. Principal results of the studies are: (1) the JFS library appears adequate for predicting overall characteristics of an LMFBR, (2) the sodium void reactivity is negative within - 25 cm from the outer boundary of the core, (3) the halflife of Pa-233 must be considered explicitly in burnup analyses, and (4) two-dimensional (RZ and Δ) calculations can be used iteratively to analyze three-dimensional reactor systems. (Author) [pt

  14. Methods and results of radiotherapy in case of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, M.; Sauerwein, W.; Scherer, E.

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of the medulloblastoma with its marked tendency towards early formation of metastases by way of liquor circulation can be decisively improved by post-surgical homogenous irradiation. A successful radiotherapy is only possible by means of new irradiation methods which have been developed for high-voltage units during recent years and which require great experience and skill on the part of the radiotherapeutist. At the Radiological Centre of Essen, 26 patients with medulloblastoma have been submitted to such a specially developed post-surgical radiotherapy since 1974. After a follow-up period of at most seven years, 16 patients have survived (two of them with recurrences) and 10 patients died because of a local recurrence. In dependence on the patient's state of health after surgery and before irradiation, the neurologic state and physical condition of these patients seem favorable after unique post-operative radiotherapy. New therapeutic possibilities are provided by radiosensitizing substances. The actually most effective radiosensitizer Misonidazol, however, could not respond hitherto to clinical expectances. (orig.) [de

  15. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable

  16. Association of versican turnover with all-cause mortality in patients on haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Karsdal, Morten A; Leeming, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of versican turnover assessed in plasma with survival in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: A specific matrix metalloproteinase-generated neo-epitope fragment of versican (VCANM) was measured in plasma of 364 haemodialysis...... patients with a 5-years follow-up, using a robust competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Association between VCANM plasma concentration and survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: Haemodialysis patients with plasma VCANM concentrations in the lowest quartile...

  17. Epidemiology of Massive Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Chiesa, Flaminia; Vasan, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    in Sweden from 1987 and in Denmark from 1996. A total of 92,057 patients were included. Patients were followed until the end of 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patients and indications. Post transfusion mortality was expressed as crude 30-day...... mortality and as long-term mortality using the Kaplan-Meier method and using standardized mortality ratios. The incidence of massive transfusion was higher in Denmark (4.5 per 10,000) than in Sweden (2.5 per 10,000). The most common indication for massive transfusion was major surgery (61.2%) followed...

  18. The prognostic value of the suPARnosticTM ELISA assay in HIV-1 infected individuals is not affected by uPAR promoter polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Uffe; Nielsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Court

    2007-01-01

    . METHODS: DNA samples were collected retrospectively from 145 Danes infected with HIV-1 with known seroconversion times. In addition, plasma was collected retrospectively from 81 of these participants for use in the suPAR analysis. Survival was analysed using Kaplan Meier analysis. RESULTS: Survival...... to A transition at -118 and an A to G transition at -465 comparative to the transcription start site. These promoter transitions did not influence neither the suPAR levels nor patient survival. CONCLUSION: Plasma suPAR levels, as measured by the suPARnosticTM assay, were strongly predictive of survival in ART...

  19. Prognostic role of syncytin expression in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Holck, Susanne; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer cells were recently found to produce syncytin, an endogenous retroviral protein implicated in cell fusion, immune regulation, and nitric oxide synthase expression. To determine whether syncytin has a prognostic role in breast cancer, we investigated a series of 165 premenopausal lymph...... node-negative women for syncytin expression using an immunocytochemical scoring system. Results were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and with the Cox proportional hazard model. Syncytin expression was observed in 38% of the patients, and the degree of syncytin expression constituted a positive...

  20. Detection of angiogenesis-dependent parameters by functional MRI: Correlation between histomorphology and evaluation of clinical relevance as prognostic factor for the example of cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawighorst, H.; Knopp, M.V.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Essig, M.; Kaick, G. van; Schaeffer, U.; Knapstein, P.G.; Weikel, W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare functional MRI parameters with histomorphological markers of tumor microvessel density (MVD) and permeability (vascular endothelial growth factor) and to determine the ultimate value of both approaches by correlation with disease outcome in patients with primary cancer of the uterine cervix. Method: Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging series in 37 patients with biopsy-proven primary cervical cancer. On the operative whole mount specimens, histomorphological markers of tumor angiogenesis (MVD, VEGF) were compared with the MRI-derived parameters. For MRI and histomorphological data, Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated and compared using logrank statistics. Results: Significant (p [de

  1. Renal replacement therapy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spithoven, Edwin M; Kramer, Anneke; Meijer, Esther

    2014-01-01

    on RRT prevalence and survival on RRT in 12 European countries with 208 million inhabitants. We studied four 5-year periods (1991-2010). Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: From the first to the last study period, the prevalence...... for non-ADPKD subjects. Improved survival was noted for all RRT modalities: haemodialysis [adjusted hazard ratio for mortality during the last versus first time period 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.91), peritoneal dialysis 0.55 (0.38-0.80) and transplantation 0.52 (0.32-0.74)]. Cardiovascular...

  2. Restaging and Survival Analysis of 4036 Ovarian Cancer Patients According to the 2013 FIGO Classification for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Høgdall, Claus Kim; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With the 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer, the number of substages changed from 10 to 14. Any classification of a malignancy should easily assign patients to prognostic groups, refer....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, surgical, histological, and survival data from 4036 ovarian cancer patients were used in the analysis. Five-year survival rates (5YSR) and hazard ratios for the old and revised FIGO staging were calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. RESULTS: A total...

  3. Cementless One-Stage Revision in Chronic Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection. Ninety-One Percent Infection Free Survival in 56 Patients at Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Solgaard, Søren

    2018-01-01

    was re-revision performed due to infection and was evaluated by competing risk analysis, with death and aseptic revision as competing events. All-cause mortality was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Oxford Hip Score (OHS) was used as disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Cementless 1-stage revision in chronic periprosthetic hip joint infections is limited evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a specific treatment protocol in this patient group. METHODS: The study was performed as a multicenter, proof-of-concept, observational study...

  4. Increased 30-day mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransgaard, T; Thygesen, L C; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    with the use of antidiabetic drugs identified through the Danish National Prescription Registry and DCCG. The 30-day mortality was examined by the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test and the Cox regression model used to test statistical significance. RESULTS: The study included 29 353 patients, of whom...... 3250 had preexisting diabetes. The 30-day mortality was significantly increased in patients with CRC and preexisting diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35, P = 0.03). The type of antidiabetic medication used was not associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Preexisting diabetes...

  5. Experience of the Casablanca radiotherapy-oncology centre on radiotherapy in the treatment of the adult Hodgkin lymphoma; Experience du centre de radiotherapie-oncologie de Casablanca sur la radiotherapie dans le traitement du lymphome de Hodgkin de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Sellai, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Service radiotherapie-oncologie, CHU Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the local control, global survival and survival without recurrence, and also late complications, based on retrospective study over 8 years of 169 cases Hodgkin lymphoma in patients older than 18 (average age of 34) and who had been submitted to radiotherapy. Survival has been computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The authors notice that the recurrence rate is slightly higher than in the literature. During the considered period, radiotherapy was two-dimensional with higher doses than those corresponding to current standards. The improvement of radiotherapy techniques and the decrease of doses within the standards should improve the therapeutic results. Short communication

  6. Clinical Features in a Danish Population-Based Cohort of Probable Multiple System Atrophy Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starhof, Charlotte; Korbo, Lise; Lassen, Christina Funch

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, sporadic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We aimed to describe the clinical features of Danish probable MSA patients, evaluate their initial response to dopaminergic therapy and examine mortality. Methods: From the Danish National...... the criteria for probable MSA. We recorded clinical features, examined differences by MSA subtype and used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to examine mortality. Results: The mean age at onset of patients with probable MSA was 60.2 years (range 36-75 years) and mean time to wheelchair dependency was 4.7 years...

  7. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  8. Diamagnetic measurements on ISX-B: method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.

    1983-10-01

    A diamagnetic loop is used on the ISX-B tokamak to measure the change in toroidal magnetic flux, sigma phi, caused by finite plasma current and perpendicular pressure. From this measurement, the perpendicular poloidal beta β/sub I perpendicular to/ is determined. The principal difficulty encountered is in identifying and making corrections for various noise components which appear in the measured flux. These result from coupling between the measuring loops and the toroidal and poloidal field windings, both directly and through currents induced in the vacuum vessel and coils themselves. An analysis of these couplings is made and techniques for correcting them developed. Results from the diamagnetic measurement, employing some of these correction techniques, are presented and compared with other data. The obtained values of β/sub I perpendicular to/ agree with those obtained from the equilibrium magnetic analysis (β/sub IΔ/) in ohmically heated plasmas, indicating no anisotropy. However, with 0.3 to 2.0 MW of tangential neutral beam injection, β/sub IΔ/ is consistently greater than β/sub I pependicular to/ and qualitatively consistent with the formation of an anisotropic ion velocity distribution and with toroidal rotation. Quantitatively, the difference between β/sub IΔ/ and β/sub I perpendicular to/ is more than can be accounted for on the basis of the usual classical fast ion calculations and spectroscopic rotation measurements

  9. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  10. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  11. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  12. Therapeutic evaluation of sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: Preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Kazue; Watanabe, Manabu; Ikehara, Takashi; Kogame, Michio; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid in evaluating the therapeutic response to sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In total, 26 patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib and were followed up by CEUS were enrolled in the present study. CEUS was performed prior to and within 2-4 weeks of treatment, and the images of the target lesion in the post-vascular phase with a re-injection method were analyzed. The presence (+) or absence (-) of intratumoral necrosis and the intratumoral vascular architecture on micro-flow imaging (MFI) were compared prior to and subsequent to treatment. Target lesions that exhibited non-enhancement after re-injection were considered to indicate intratumoral necrosis. The intratumoral vascular architecture was classified into three groups, as follows: Vd, the intratumoral vessels visually narrowed or decreased; Vnc, the vessels remained unchanged; and Vi, the vessels were thickened or increased. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test between the intratumoral necrosis (+) and (-) groups, and among the Vd, Vnc and Vi groups. PVnc group and 5 patients in the Vi group. The MSTs in the Vd, Vnc and Vi groups were 15.6 months (95% CI, 5.0-23.3), 11.0 months (95% CI, 3.5-17.6) and 3.6 months (95% CI: 1.2-6.0), respectively. The P-value for the differences between the Vd and Vnc groups, Vd and Vi groups, and Vnc and Vi groups were 0.78, 0.016 and 0.047, respectively, which indicated that the survival time decreased significantly in the Vi group. Evaluation of intratumoral vascular architecture using MFI demonstrates promise for assessing the therapeutic response to sorafenib in patients with HCC.

  13. Ilmenite exploration on the Senegal continental shelf. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Le Lann, F.; Scolari, G.; Tixeront, M.

    1975-01-01

    From the results of a study based on geomorphology, geophysics and sedimentology, it has been possible to point out, South of Dakar, the existence of a fossil lagoon (peat dated 8400 years BP) partly isolated from the open sea by a littoral sand bar at -25m and strongly eroded. To the North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North to South. This pattern reflect the action of the longshore current which overstates the drainage effect to the Cayar canyon. The distribution of ilmenites in the sediments is studied in terms of a possible exploitation however, the grades are too low in the present economic conditions [fr

  14. Climate Action Gaming Experiment: Methods and Example Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Singer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An exercise has been prepared and executed to simulate international interactions on policies related to greenhouse gases and global albedo management. Simulation participants are each assigned one of six regions that together contain all of the countries in the world. Participants make quinquennial policy decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, recapture of CO2 from the atmosphere, and/or modification of the global albedo. Costs of climate change and of implementing policy decisions impact each region’s gross domestic product. Participants are tasked with maximizing economic benefits to their region while nearly stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by the end of the simulation in Julian year 2195. Results are shown where regions most adversely affected by effects of greenhouse gas emissions resort to increases in the earth’s albedo to reduce net solar insolation. These actions induce temperate region countries to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. An example outcome is a trajectory to the year 2195 of atmospheric greenhouse emissions and concentrations, sea level, and global average temperature.

  15. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H 2 gas fraction (f H 2 ), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A O = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f H 2 can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A O -D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A O is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H 2 and stellar masses and higher f H 2 . Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z

  16. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  17. Prospective Validation of 18F-FDG Brain PET Discriminant Analysis Methods in the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weehaeghe, Donatienne; Ceccarini, Jenny; Delva, Aline; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Van Laere, Koen

    2016-08-01

    nearly identical and not separable on an individual basis. Extensive frontotemporal hypometabolism was predictive for a lower survival using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (P < 0.001). On the basis of a previously acquired training set, (18)F-FDG PET with advanced discriminant analysis methods is able to accurately distinguish ALS from controls and aids in assessing individual prognosis. Further validation on multicenter datasets and ALS-mimicking disorders is needed to fully assess the general applicability of this approach. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Early results of a prospective quality of life analysis using the lung cancer symptom scale (LCSS) in patients receiving radiation therapy (XRT) for lung cancer in the community hospital setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Stephen T.; Norrell, Ruth; Johnson, Christopher R.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Arthur, Douglas W.; Huang, David T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To prospectively determine symptom response in patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three consecutive lung cancer patients were evaluated between March 1996 and February 1997 at the Medical College of Virginia satellite facility which serves a local community hospital. The LCSS, a validated quality of life scale, was used prospectively during the consultation and upon subsequent follow-up. The scale allowed scoring of symptom improvement, worsening, or stability following therapy. One patient declined therapy, while another was not offered XRT. The 31 remaining patients received a median dose of 54 Gy. Eleven patients received radiotherapy with curative intent to doses between 60 and 70 Gy, 5 small cell lung carcinoma (SmCCa) patients received 54 Gy consolidative therapy, and 13 patients received 15 to 30 Gy with palliative intent. Eight patients received chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment course, including all of those diagnosed with SmCCa. Twenty-one patients completed the LCSS at least once in the three month interval after therapy, while 6 died prior to follow-up, 2 were under treatment at the time of this analysis, and 2 were lost to follow-up. Survival analysis was completed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 4 months (range = 1 to 14), with an estimated median survival of 5 months. Fourteen patients died of lung cancer, 12 are alive with disease, 6 are alive without disease, and 1 died without disease. Patient characteristics were median age of 69 years (range = 43 to 91), male to female ratio of 4.5 to 1, mean weight loss of 12 pounds (range = 0 to 27), and mean duration of symptoms of 3 months (range = 0 to 12). Stage was: I 9%, II = 0%, IIIA = 6%, IIIB = 43%, IV = 27%, and limited stage SmCCa = 15%. Histology was: squamous cell carcinoma = 21%, adenocarcinoma = 23%, large cell carcinoma = 23%, poorly differentiated carcinoma = 15%, mesothelioma

  19. Simplified tools for measuring retention in care in antiretroviral treatment program in Ethiopia: cohort and current retention in care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal Assefa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patient retention in care is a critical challenge for antiretroviral treatment programs. This is mainly because retention in care is related to adherence to treatment and patient survival. It is therefore imperative that health facilities and programs measure patient retention in care. However, the currently available tools, such as Kaplan Meier, for measuring retention in care have a lot of practical limitations. The objective of this study was to develop simplified tools for measuring retention in care. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data were collected from patient registers in nine health facilities in Ethiopia. Retention in care was the primary outcome for the study. Tools were developed to measure "current retention" in care during a specific period of time for a specific "ART-age group" and "cohort retention" in care among patients who were followed for the last "Y" number of years on ART. "Probability of retention" based on the tool for "cohort retention" in care was compared with "probability of retention" based on Kaplan Meier. RESULTS: We found that the new tools enable to measure "current retention" and "cohort retention" in care. We also found that the tools were easy to use and did not require advanced statistical skills. Both "current retention" and "cohort retention" are lower among patients in the first two "ART-age groups" and "ART-age cohorts" than in subsequent "ART-age groups" and "ART-age cohorts". The "probability of retention" based on the new tools were found to be similar to the "probability of retention" based on Kaplan Meier. CONCLUSION: The simplified tools for "current retention" and "cohort retention" will enable practitioners and program managers to measure and monitor rates of retention in care easily and appropriately. We therefore recommend that health facilities and programs start to use these tools in their efforts to improve retention in care and patient outcomes.

  20. Long-Term Survivors Using Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Recurrent Gynecologic Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Phuoc T.; Su Zheng; Hara, Wendy; Husain, Amreen; Teng, Nelson; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of therapy and identify prognostic factors for patients treated with surgery followed by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for gynecologic malignancies at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 36 consecutive patients treated with IORT to 44 sites with mean follow-up of 50 months. The primary site was the cervix in 47%, endometrium in 31%, vulva in 14%, vagina in 6%, and fallopian tubes in 3%. Previous RT had failed in 72% of patients, and 89% had recurrent disease. Of 38 IORT sessions, 84% included maximal cytoreductive surgery, including 18% exenterations. The mean age was 52 years (range, 30-74), mean tumor size was 5 cm (range, 0.5-12), previous disease-free interval was 32 months (range, 0-177), and mean IORT dose was 1,152 cGy (range, 600-1,750). RT and systemic therapy after IORT were given to 53% and 24% of the cohort, respectively. The outcomes measured were locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and treatment-related complications. Results: The Kaplan-Meier 5-year LRC, DMFS, and DSS probability for the whole group was 44%, 51%, and 47%, respectively. For cervical cancer patients, the Kaplan-Meier 5-year LRC, DMFS, and DSS estimate was 45%, 60%, and 46%, respectively. The prognostic factors found on multivariate analysis (p ≤ 0.05) were the disease-free interval for LRC, tumor size for DMFS, and cervical primary, previous surgery, and locoregional relapse for DSS. Our cohort had 10 Grade 3-4 complications associated with treatment (surgery and IORT) and a Kaplan-Meier 5-year Grade 3-4 complication-free survival rate of 72%. Conclusions: Survival for pelvic recurrence of gynecologic cancer is poor (range, 0-25%). IORT after surgery seems to confer long-term local control in carefully selected patients

  1. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyndi, M.; Alsner, J.; Nielsen, H.M.; Overgaard, J.; Soerensen, F.B.; Knudsen, H.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and methods. The present analysis included 1 000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b and c studies. Tissue microarray sections were stained with immunohistochemistry for p53 and BCL2. Median potential follow-up was 17 years. Clinical endpoints were locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DM), overall mortality, and overall survival (OS). Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, χ2 or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test, and Cox univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results. p53 accumulation was not significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM or LRR probability in univariate or multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier probability plots showed reduced OS and improved DM and LRR probabilities after PMRT within subgroups of both p53 negative and p53 positive patients. Negative BCL2 expression was significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM and LRR probability in multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier probability plots showed a significantly improved overall survival after PMRT for the BCL2 positive subgroup, whereas practically no survival improvement was seen after PMRT for the BCL2 negative subgroup. In multivariate analysis of OS, however, no significant interaction was found between BCL2 and randomization status. Significant reductions in LRR probability after PMRT were recorded within both the BCL2 positive and BCL2 negative subgroups. Conclusion. p53 was not associated with survival after radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer, but BCL2 might be

  2. PROSPECT Eligibility and Clinical Outcomes: Results From the Pan-Canadian Rectal Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Dominick; Mercer, Jamison; Raissouni, Soundouss; Dennis, Kristopher; Goodwin, Rachel; Jiang, Di; Powell, Erin; Kumar, Aalok; Lee-Ying, Richard; Price-Hiller, Julie; Heng, Daniel Y C; Tang, Patricia A; MacLean, Anthony; Cheung, Winson Y; Vickers, Michael M

    2016-09-01

    The PROSPECT trial (N1048) is evaluating the selective use of chemoradiation in patients with cT2N1 and cT3N0-1 rectal cancer undergoing sphincter-sparing low anterior resection. We evaluated outcomes of PROSPECT-eligible and -ineligible patients from a multi-institutional database. Data from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received chemoradiation and low anterior resection from 2005 to 2014 were retrospectively collected from 5 Canadian centers. Overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and time to local recurrence (LR) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a multivariate analysis was performed adjusting for prognostic factors. A total of 566 (37%) of 1531 patients met the PROSPECT eligibility criteria. Eligible patients were more likely to have better PS (P = .0003) and negative circumferential resection margin (P PROSPECT eligibility was associated with improved DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.91), overall survival (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95), and RFS (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.86) in univariate analyses. In multivariate analysis, only RFS remained significantly improved for PROSPECT-eligible patients (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-1.00, P = .0499). The 3-year DFS and freedom from LR for PROSPECT-eligible patients were 79.1% and 97.4%, respectively, compared to 71.1% and 96.8% for PROSPECT-ineligible patients. Real-world data corroborate the eligibility criteria used in the PROSPECT study; the criteria identify a subgroup of patients in whom risk of recurrence is lower and in whom selective use of chemoradiation should be actively examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: results and prognostic factors in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungbook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) in the management of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and predictive factors for long-term survival in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. A total of 49 patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis underwent TIPS over a recent three-year period. Forty-five had a history of hepatitis B viral infection, and four, of hepatitis C viral infection. In all patients, the indication for the procedure was variceal bleeding. Child-Pugh class was A in seven patients, B in 16 and C in 26 patients at the time of the last bleeding. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Long-term survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and predictive factors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The procedure was technically successful in all cases. The portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 21.4 {+-} 6.4 mmHg to 12.0 {+-} 5.1 mmHg(N=45). Active variceal bleeding was controlled in 34 of the 37 emergency patients. The total length of follow-up was from one day to three and a half years(mean : 383 {+-} 357 days). Rebleeding developed in 17 patients (35%). Hepatic encephalopathy, either newly developed or aggravated, occurred in 16 (32.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 20.4%, and the one-year survival rate was 63.8%. The significant predictive factors for poor prognosis were Child-Pugh class C and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS is effective in portal decompression in the patients with variceal bleeding due to post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS are considered to be significant predictive factors for long-term survival.

  4. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: results and prognostic factors in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Yong Joo

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) in the management of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and predictive factors for long-term survival in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. A total of 49 patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis underwent TIPS over a recent three-year period. Forty-five had a history of hepatitis B viral infection, and four, of hepatitis C viral infection. In all patients, the indication for the procedure was variceal bleeding. Child-Pugh class was A in seven patients, B in 16 and C in 26 patients at the time of the last bleeding. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Long-term survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and predictive factors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The procedure was technically successful in all cases. The portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 21.4 ± 6.4 mmHg to 12.0 ± 5.1 mmHg(N=45). Active variceal bleeding was controlled in 34 of the 37 emergency patients. The total length of follow-up was from one day to three and a half years(mean : 383 ± 357 days). Rebleeding developed in 17 patients (35%). Hepatic encephalopathy, either newly developed or aggravated, occurred in 16 (32.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 20.4%, and the one-year survival rate was 63.8%. The significant predictive factors for poor prognosis were Child-Pugh class C and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS is effective in portal decompression in the patients with variceal bleeding due to post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS are considered to be significant predictive factors for long-term survival

  5. Trends in study design and the statistical methods employed in a leading general medicine journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosho, M; Sato, Y; Nagashima, K; Takahashi, S

    2018-02-01

    Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature. This was an extension study of Sato et al. (N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1086-1087), which reviewed 238 articles published in 2015 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and briefly summarized the statistical methods employed in NEJM. Using the same database, we performed a new investigation of the detailed trends in study design and individual statistical methods that were not reported in the Sato study. Due to the CONSORT statement, prespecification and justification of sample size are obligatory in planning intervention studies. Although standard survival methods (eg Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression model) were most frequently applied, the Gray test and Fine-Gray proportional hazard model for considering competing risks were sometimes used for a more valid statistical inference. With respect to handling missing data, model-based methods, which are valid for missing-at-random data, were more frequently used than single imputation methods. These methods are not recommended as a primary analysis, but they have been applied in many clinical trials. Group sequential design with interim analyses was one of the standard designs, and novel design, such as adaptive dose selection and sample size re-estimation, was sometimes employed in NEJM. Model-based approaches for handling missing data should replace single imputation methods for primary analysis in the light of the information found in some publications. Use of adaptive design with interim analyses is increasing

  6. Bentall operation in 375 patients: long-term results and predictors of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, Alessandro; Satriano, Angela; de Vincentiis, Carlo; Biondi, Andrea; Trimarchi, Santi; Ranucci, Marco; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Bentall operation is a 40-year-old standardized procedure for treating aortic valve diseases and aneurysms involving the aortic root. The study aim was to analyze the results and predictors of long-term outcome after the Bentall procedure for aortic root diseases. Between January 1990 and December 2007, a total of 375 patients (296 males, 79 females) underwent the Bentall operation at the authors' institution. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was present in 91 patients, and Marfan syndrome in 13. Thirty-six patients were treated as emergencies, and 30 for acute dissection. A concomitant surgical procedure was performed in 78 patients. The operative procedure included both classic Bentall and button techniques. Follow up data were obtained from hospital and office records and from telephone contacts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to investigate the predictors of long-term outcome. The overall in-hospital mortality was 4.5%, and after elective operations was 2.3%. A 20-year long-term follow up included 32 late deaths, of which 14 were cardiac-related. Freedom from late all-cause mortality at 5, 10, and 15 years was 97.1%, 81.9%, and 53.9%, respectively. At univariate analysis, long-term mortality was associated with age, diabetes, BAV, NYHA class III/IV, emergency treatment, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and coronary artery bypass grafting. Independent predictors of long-term mortality were age (OR 1.16; CI: 1.08-1.23), emergency surgery (OR 28; CI: 4-192) and BAV (OR 3; CI: 1.3-6.9). The Bentall procedure is a safe and durable operation, with a very good early and long-term results and a low rate of reoperation. In the present series, age, BAV and emergency surgery were important independent predictors of mortality.

  7. Radial Artery as a Coronary Artery Bypass Conduit: 20-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Mario; Tondi, Paolo; Benedetto, Umberto; Milazzo, Valentina; Flore, Roberto; Glieca, Franco; Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Luciani, Nicola; Girardi, Leonard N; Crea, Filippo; Massetti, Massimo

    2016-08-09

    There is a lack of evidence for the choice of the second conduit in coronary surgery. The radial artery (RA) is a possible option, but few data on very-long-term outcomes exist. This study describes 20-year results of RA grafts used for coronary artery bypass grafting and the effects of RA removal on forearm circulation. We report the results of the prospective 20-year follow-up of the first 100 consecutive patients who received the RA as a coronary bypass conduit at our institution. Follow-up was 100% complete. There were 64 deaths, 23 (35.9%) from cardiovascular causes. Kaplan-Meier 20-year survival was 31%. Of the 36 survivors, 33 (91.6%) underwent RA graft control at a mean of 19.0 ± 2.5 years after surgery. The RA was found to be patent in 24 cases (84.8% patency). In the overall population, probability of graft failure at 20 years was 19.0 ± 0.2% for the left internal thoracic artery (ITA), 25.0 ± 0.2% for the RA, and 55.0 ± 0.2% for the saphenous vein (p = 0.002 for RA vs. saphenous vein, 0.11 for RA vs. ITA, and p 90%, but not location of distal anastomosis, significantly influenced long-term RA graft patency. No patients reported hand or forearm symptoms. The ulnar artery diameter was increased in the operated arm (2.44 ± 0.43 mm vs. 2.01 ± 0.47 mm; p 90% stenosis. RA harvesting does not lead to hand or forearm symptoms, even at a very-long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of long-term results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis and tibial bone keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrook, Victor; Michael, Ralph; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Temprano, José; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2018-04-01

    To compare the anatomical and the functional results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft (Tibial bone KPro). We reviewed the charts of 258 patients; 145 had OOKP whereas 113 had Tibial bone KPro implanted. Functional success was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≥0.05 on decimal scale and anatomical success as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for anatomical and functional survival as well as to estimate the probability of post-op complications. The anatomical survival for both KPro groups was not significantly different and was estimated as 67% for OOKP and 54% for Tibial bone KPro at 10 years after surgery. There was also no difference found after subdividing for primary diagnosis groups such as chemical injury, thermal burn, trachoma and all autoimmune cases combined. Estimated functional survival at 10 years post-surgery was 49% for OOKP and 25% for Tibial bone KPro, which was significantly different. The probability of patients with Tibial bone KPro developing one or more post-operative complications at 10 years after surgery (65%) was significantly higher than those with OOKP (40%). Mucous membrane necrosis and retroprosthetic membrane formation were more common in Tibial bone KPro than OOKP. Both types of autologous biological KPro, OOKP and Tibial bone KPro, had statistically similar rate of keratoprosthesis extrusion. Although functional success rate was significantly higher in OOKP, it may have been influenced by a better visual potential in the patients in this group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents; Interdisziplinaere interventionelle Therapie tracheobronchialer Stenosen mit modernen Metallmaschenstents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abteilung Pulmonologie, Medizinische Klinik

    2002-08-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erfassung des therapeutischen Potenzials der Stentbehandlung bei tracheobronchialen Stenosen, in-vivo Vergleich verschiedener Stenttypen und Erarbeitung von geeigneten Kriterien zur Stentwahl. Material und Methodik: Prospektive Fallanalyse. Zwischen 1993 und 1999 wurden insgesamt 53 Stents in das Tracheobronichalsystem von 39 konsekutiven Patienten implantiert. Jeder einzelne Stent (26 Streckerstents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Nitinolstents, ein Dumonstent

  10. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results; Methode multibande aux ordonnees discretes: formalisme et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luneville, L

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author) 15 refs.

  11. Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer with salvage interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy. Long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strnad, Vratislav; Lotter, Michael; Kreppner, Stephan; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-10

    To assess the long-term results of protocol-based interstitial pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy as reirradiation combined with simultaneous chemotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia in selected patients with recurrent head and neck tumors. A total of 104 patients with biopsy-proven recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with interstitial PDR brachytherapy. Salvage surgery had also been undergone by 53/104 (51 %) patients (R1 or R2 resection in > 80 % of patients). Salvage brachytherapy alone was administered in 81 patients (78 %), with a median total dose of 56.7 Gy. Salvage brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was performed in 23/104 patients (32 %), using a median total dose of D{sub REF} = 24 Gy. Simultaneously to PDR brachytherapy, concomitant chemotherapy was administered in 58/104 (55.8 %) patients. A single session of interstitial hyperthermia was also used to treat 33/104 (31.7 %) patients. The analysis was performed after a median follow-up of 60 months. Calculated according to Kaplan-Meier, local tumor control rates after 2, 5, and 10 years were 92.5, 82.4, and 58.9 %, respectively. Comparing results of salvage PDR brachytherapy with or without simultaneous chemotherapy, the 10-year local control rates were 76 vs. 39 % (p= 0014), respectively. No other patient- or treatment-related parameters had a significant influence on treatment results. Soft tissue necrosis or bone necrosis developed in 18/104 (17.3 %) and 11/104 (9.6 %) patients, respectively, but only 3 % of patients required surgical treatment. PDR interstitial brachytherapy with simultaneous chemotherapy is a very effective and, in experienced hands, also a safe treatment modality in selected patients with head and neck cancer in previously irradiated areas. (orig.) [German] Es erfolgte die Analyse der Langzeitergebnisse einer protokollbasierten interstitiellen Brachytherapie (Re-Bestrahlung) mit simultaner Chemotherapie und interstitieller Hyperthermie

  12. Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone After Surgery: A Clinicopathological Study of 80 Cases from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-dong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This aim of the present study was to identify specific markers determining the recurrence of the giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB. Methods: This study involved the clinicopathological analysis of 80 cases. All of the clinical features, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade, histological features and surgical methods were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Ki-67, CD147, mutant p53 and p63 in GCTB. Comparisons between different groups were performed using the Chi-square test. The risk factors affecting recurrence were analyzed using a binary logistic model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was employed for the survival analysis between the groups. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were used to detect the function of CD147 on GCTB in vitro. Results: The univariate analysis showed that Ki-67 and CD147 expression, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade and surgical method were associated with recurrence. The multivariate analysis revealed that CD147 expression, Campanacci grade and surgical method were the factors affecting GCTB recurrence. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that these factors affected tumor-free survival time. In vitro study revealed that the CD147 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA technique dramatically reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of GCTB. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CD147 may serve as an adequate marker for GCTB recurrence. Campanacci grade is a risk factor for GCTB recurrence, which is also affected by the surgical method used.

  13. Interval estimation methods of the mean in small sample situation and the results' comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changli; Guo Chunying; Jiang Meng; Lin Yuangen

    2009-01-01

    The methods of the sample mean's interval estimation, namely the classical method, the Bootstrap method, the Bayesian Bootstrap method, the Jackknife method and the spread method of the Empirical Characteristic distribution function are described. Numerical calculation on the samples' mean intervals is carried out where the numbers of the samples are 4, 5, 6 respectively. The results indicate the Bootstrap method and the Bayesian Bootstrap method are much more appropriate than others in small sample situation. (authors)

  14. Breastfeeding in Mexico was stable, on average, but deteriorated among the poor, whereas complementary feeding improved: results from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Reyes-Vázquez, Horacio; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2013-05-01

    We present: 1) indicators of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) and median age of introduction of foods analyzed by geographic and socioeconomic variables for the 2006 national probabilistic Health Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006); and 2) changes in IYCFP indicators between the 1999 national probabilistic Nutrition Survey and ENSANUT-2006, analyzed by the same variables. Participants were women 12-49 y and their <2-y-old children (2953 in 2006 and 3191 in 1999). Indicators were estimated with the status quo method. The median age of introduction of foods was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using recall data. The national median duration of breastfeeding was similar in both surveys, 9.7 mo in 1999 and 10.4 mo in 2006, but decreased in the vulnerable population. In 1999 indigenous women breastfed 20.8 mo but did so for only 13.0 mo in 2006. The national percentage of those exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo also remained stable: 20% in 1999 and 22.3% in 2006. Nevertheless, exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo changed within the indigenous population, from 46% in 1999 to 34.5% in 2006. Between surveys, most breastfeeding indicators had lower values in vulnerable populations than in those better-off. Complementary feeding, however, improved overall. Complementary feeding was inadequately timed: median age of introduction of plain water was 3 mo, formula and non-human milk was 5 mo, and cereals, legumes, and animal foods was 5 mo. Late introduction of animal foods occurred among vulnerable indigenous population when 50% consumed these products at 8 mo. Mexican IYCFP indicate that public policy must protect breastfeeding while promoting the timely introduction of complementary feeding.

  15. Censoring approach to the detection limits in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.; Kubala-Kukus, A.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate that the effect of detection limits in the X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), which limits the determination of very low concentrations of trace elements and results in appearance of the so-called 'nondetects', can be accounted for using the statistical concept of censoring. More precisely, the results of such measurements can be viewed as the left random censored data, which can further be analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method correcting the data for the presence of nondetects. Using this approach, the results of measured, detection limit censored concentrations can be interpreted in a nonparametric manner including the correction for the nondetects, i.e. the measurements in which the concentrations were found to be below the actual detection limits. Moreover, using the Monte Carlo simulation technique we show that by using the Kaplan-Meier approach the corrected mean concentrations for a population of the samples can be estimated within a few percent uncertainties with respect of the simulated, uncensored data. This practically means that the final uncertainties of estimated mean values are limited in fact by the number of studied samples and not by the correction procedure itself. The discussed random-left censoring approach was applied to analyze the XRF detection-limit-censored concentration measurements of trace elements in biomedical samples

  16. Correlations of Hemoglobin Level and Perioperative Blood Transfusion with the Prognosis of Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dai-Yang; Duan, Yu-Han; Zhang, Ying-Qiong; Cui, Xian-Nian; Luo, Zheng

    2017-05-23

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the correlations of hemoglobin level (Hb) and perioperative blood transfusion with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study consisted of 210 patients with GC who all received a D2 radical operation. These patients were assigned into three groups: 68 cases in group A (blood transfusion >5 U); 59 cases in group B (blood transfusion blood transfusion). A 5-year follow-up was conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival of the patients. Univariate analysis was performed to reveal the relationship between the indicators and the patients with GC. Kaplan-Meier method was employed to analyze the survival rate of patients, and Cox regression analysis was applied to determine the independent prognostic factors of GC. RESULTS The univariate analysis indicated that age, perioperative blood transfusion amount, TNM staging, maximal tumor diameter, differentiation degree and invasion degree were associated with the prognosis of GC. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the disease-free survival rate was declined in the patients who were older, those received more amount of blood transfusion, those in advanced TNM staging, those had larger tumor diameter, and those with decreased degree of differentiation and invasion. Cox regression analysis indicated that perioperative blood transfusion, maximal tumor diameter and invasion degree were the independent factors affecting disease-free survival of the GC. CONCLUSIONS Our study revealed that large amount of perioperative blood transfusion leads to poor prognosis of GC.

  17. Metastatic volume: an old oncologic concept and a new prognostic factor for stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiti, V; Curzio, M; Roberti, V; Lieto, P; Devirgiliis, V; Gobbi, S; Naspi, A; Coppola, R; Lopez, T; di Meo, N; Gatti, A; Trevisan, G; Londei, P; Calvieri, S

    2013-01-01

    The last melanoma staging system of the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer takes into account, for stage IV disease, the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the site of distant metastases. Our aim was to compare the significance of metastatic volume, as evaluated at the time of stage IV melanoma diagnosis, with other clinical predictors of prognosis. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study. To establish which variables were statistically correlated both with death and survival time, contingency tables were evaluated. The overall survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Metastatic volume and number of affected organs were statistically related to death. In detail, patients with a metastatic volume >15 cm(3) had a worse prognosis than those with a volume lower than this value (survival probability at 60 months: 6.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier method confirmed that survival time was significantly related to the site(s) of metastases, to elevated LDH serum levels and to melanoma stage according to the latest system. Our results suggest that metastatic volume may be considered as a useful prognostic factor for survival among melanoma patients.

  18. Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Køber Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens. Results The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26 and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62 for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06. Conclusions We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.

  19. An electronic health record-enabled obesity database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of weight loss therapies is commonly measured using body mass index and other obesity-related variables. Although these data are often stored in electronic health records (EHRs and potentially very accessible, few studies on obesity and weight loss have used data derived from EHRs. We developed processes for obtaining data from the EHR in order to construct a database on patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Methods Clinical data obtained as part of standard of care in a bariatric surgery program at an integrated health delivery system were extracted from the EHR and deposited into a data warehouse. Data files were extracted, cleaned, and stored in research datasets. To illustrate the utility of the data, Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate length of post-operative follow-up. Results Demographic, laboratory, medication, co-morbidity, and survey data were obtained from 2028 patients who had undergone RYGB at the same institution since 2004. Pre-and post-operative diagnostic and prescribing information were available on all patients, while survey laboratory data were available on a majority of patients. The number of patients with post-operative laboratory test results varied by test. Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, over 74% of patients had post-operative weight data available at 4 years. Conclusion A variety of EHR-derived data related to obesity can be efficiently obtained and used to study important outcomes following RYGB.

  20. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  1. Technique and results of femoral bifurcation endarterectomy by eversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufranc, Julie; Palcau, Laura; Heyndrickx, Maxime; Gouicem, Djelloul; Coffin, Olivier; Felisaz, Aurélien; Berger, Ludovic

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated, in a contemporary prospective series, the safety and efficacy of femoral endarterectomy using the eversion technique and compared our results with results obtained in the literature for the standard endarterectomy with patch closure. Between 2010 and 2012, 121 patients (76% male; mean age, 68.7 years; diabetes, 28%; renal insufficiency, 20%) underwent 147 consecutive femoral bifurcation endarterectomies using the eversion technique, associating or not inflow or outflow concomitant revascularization. The indications were claudication in 89 procedures (60%) and critical limb ischemia in 58 (40%). Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency of the femoral bifurcation, clinical improvement, limb salvage, and survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis. Factors associated with those primary end-points were evaluated with univariate analysis. The technical success of eversion was of 93.2%. The 30-day mortality was 0%, and the complication rate was 8.2%; of which, half were local and benign. Median follow-up was 16 months (range, 1.6-31.2 months). Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patencies were, respectively, 93.2%, 97.2%, and 98.6% at 2 years. Primary, primary assisted, and secondary maintenance of clinical improvement were, respectively, 79.9%, 94.6%, and 98.6% at 2 years. The predictive factors for clinical degradation were clinical stage (Rutherford category 5 or 6, P = .024), platelet aggregation inhibitor treatment other than clopidogrel (P = .005), malnutrition (P = .025), and bad tibial runoff (P = .0016). A reintervention was necessary in 18.3% of limbs at 2 years: 2% involving femoral bifurcation, 6.1% inflow improvement, and 9.5% outflow improvement. The risk factors of reintervention were platelet aggregation inhibitor (other than clopidogrel, P = .049) and cancer (P = .011). Limb preservation at 2 years was 100% in the claudicant population. Limb salvage was 88.6% in the critical limb ischemia population

  2. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate

  3. Phosphorus-32 therapy for cystic craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriger, Robert Bryan; Chang, Andrew; Lo, Simon S.; Timmerman, Robert D.; DesRosiers, Colleen; Boaz, Joel C.; Fakiris, Achilles J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine control rates for predominantly cystic craniopharyngiomas treated with intracavitary phosphorus-32 (P-32). Material and methods: 22 patients with predominantly cystic craniopharyngiomas were treated at Indiana University between October 1997 and December 2006. Nineteen patients with follow-up of at least 6 months were evaluated. The median patient age was 11 years, median cyst volume was 9 ml, a median dose of 300 Gy was prescribed to the cyst wall, and median follow-up was 62 months. Results: Overall cyst control rate after the initial P-32 treatment was 67%. Complete tumor control after P-32 was 42%. Kaplan-Meier 1-, 3-, and 5-year initial freedom-from-progression rates were 68%, 49%, and 31%, respectively. Following salvage therapy, the Kaplan-Meier 1-, 3-, and 5-year ultimate freedom-from-progression rates were 95%, 95%, and 86%, respectively. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. Visual function was stable or improved in 81% when compared prior to P-32 therapy. Pituitary function remained stable in 74% of patients following P-32 therapy. Conclusions: Intracystic P-32 can be an effective and tolerable treatment for controlling cystic components of craniopharyngiomas as a primary treatment or after prior therapies, but frequently allows for progression of solid tumor components. Disease progression in the form of solid tumor progression, re-accumulation of cystic fluid, or development of new cysts may require further radiotherapy or surgical intervention for optimal long-term disease control.

  4. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [de

  5. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  6. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate.

  7. Comparison of long-term results between laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy and open gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabe, Atsushi; Omori, Takeshi; Tanaka, Koji; Nishida, Toshirou

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) has been established as a low-invasive surgery for early gastric cancer. However, it remains unknown whether it is applicable also for advanced gastric cancer, mainly because the long-term results of LAG with D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer have not been well validated compared with open gastrectomy (OG). A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare LAG and OG with D2 lymph node dissection. For this study, 167 patients (66 LAG and 101 OG patients) who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for advanced gastric cancer were reviewed. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival time were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Stratified log-rank statistical evaluation was used to compare the difference between the LAG and OG groups stratified by histologic type, pathologic T status, N status, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of LAG. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 89.6% in the LAG group and 75.8% in the OG group (nonsignificant difference; stratified log-rank statistic, 3.11; P = 0.0777). The adjusted HR of recurrence for LAG compared with OG was 0.389 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.131-1.151]. The 5-year overall survival rate was 94.4% in the LAG group and 78.5% in the OG group (nonsignificant difference; stratified log-rank statistic, 0.4817; P = 0.4877). The adjusted HR of death for LAG compared with OG was 0.633 (95% CI 0.172-2.325). The findings show that LAG with D2 lymph node dissection is acceptable in terms of long-term results for advanced gastric cancer cases and may be applicable for advanced gastric cancer treatment.

  8. The Use of Data Mining Methods to Predict the Result of Infertility Treatment Using the IVF ET Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The IVF ET method is a scientifically recognized infertility treat- ment method. The problem, however, is this method’s unsatisfactory efficiency. This calls for a more thorough analysis of the information available in the treat- ment process, in order to detect the factors that have an effect on the results, as well as to effectively predict result of treatment. Classical statistical methods have proven to be inadequate in this issue. Only the use of modern methods of data mining gives hope for a more effective analysis of the collected data. This work provides an overview of the new methods used for the analysis of data on infertility treatment, and formulates a proposal for further directions for research into increasing the efficiency of the predicted result of the treatment process.

  9. Assessing the effect of quantitative and qualitative predictors on gastric cancer individuals survival using hierarchical artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Zohreh; Mohammad, Kazem; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Zeraati, Hojjat

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous unanswered questions in the application of artificial neural network models for analysis of survival data. In most studies, independent variables have been studied as qualitative dichotomous variables, and results of using discrete and continuous quantitative, ordinal, or multinomial categorical predictive variables in these models are not well understood in comparison to conventional models. This study was designed and conducted to examine the application of these models in order to determine the survival of gastric cancer patients, in comparison to the Cox proportional hazards model. We studied the postoperative survival of 330 gastric cancer patients who suffered surgery at a surgical unit of the Iran Cancer Institute over a five-year period. Covariates of age, gender, history of substance abuse, cancer site, type of pathology, presence of metastasis, stage, and number of complementary treatments were entered in the models, and survival probabilities were calculated at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months using the Cox proportional hazards and neural network models. We estimated coefficients of the Cox model and the weights in the neural network (with 3, 5, and 7 nodes in the hidden layer) in the training group, and used them to derive predictions in the study group. Predictions with these two methods were compared with those of the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator as the gold standard. Comparisons were performed with the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Survival probabilities at different times were determined using the Cox proportional hazards and a neural network with three nodes in the hidden layer; the ratios of standard errors with these two methods to the Kaplan-Meier method were 1.1593 and 1.0071, respectively, revealed a significant difference between Cox and Kaplan-Meier (P neural network, and the neural network and the standard (Kaplan-Meier), as well as better accuracy for the neural network (with 3 nodes in the hidden layer

  10. Clinical prospective evaluation of zirconia-based three-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses: Up-to ten-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Alexis; Bindl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Only a few studies exist, which assess the clinical long-term behavior of all-ceramic FDPs in the posterior region. The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of posterior three-unit FDPs manufactured from Y-TZP after a service period up to 10 years. 55 patients received 59 three-unit FDPs in the posterior region of the maxilla or mandible. Abutment teeth were prepared and full-arch impressions were taken. Definitive casts were fabricated and optically scanned. Frameworks were fabricated with computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) technology. Y-TZP frameworks were veneered and adhesively luted to the abutment teeth. Baseline and follow-up examinations (service time: ≥ 48 months) were recorded by applying modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) rating criteria. Cumulative survival rate was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier. Percentage of biological and technical complication was calculated. Fifty-three patients with 57 FDPs attended the last follow-up visit and a mean observation period of the remaining was 6.3 ± 1.9 years was calculated. Biological complications occurred in 17.5%, technical complications in 28% of the FDPs. The 10-year cumulative survival rate amounted 85.0%. Three FDPs failed to survive, two due to a root fracture of the abutment tooth and one due to secondary caries. Three-unit FDPs made from Y-TZP, veneered with ceramic offer a treatment option with a high rate of chipping. However, the manufacturing processes nowadays are modified in order to avoid this complication. The results of the present investigation suggest that three-unit Y-TZP posterior FDPs may are a possible treatment option. However, a high rate of chipping can be expected. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Results of total knee replacement with a cruciate-retaining model for severe valgus deformity--a study of 48 patients followed for an average of 9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Esa; Remes, Ville; Paavolainen, Pekka; Harilainen, Arsi; Sandelin, Jerker; Tallroth, Kaj; Kettunen, Jyrki; Ylinen, Pekka

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to find out the results and the factors affecting survival after primary knee arthroplasty with a cruciate-retaining prosthesis in severe valgus deformity. Forty-eight patients (52 knees) participated in the current follow-up study. All patients were followed at least 5 years or to first revision. Mean follow-up time was 9 years (range, 1 to 17 years).The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed 79% (95% CI 68% to 91%) survival rate with revision for any reason and 81% (95% CI 70% to 93%) survival rate with revision for instability as an endpoint at 10 years. Preoperatively TFA was 23° (range, 15°-51°) in valgus and 7° (range, 21° valgus-4° varus) in valgus postoperatively. Of the 14 re-operated patients, eight were revised because of progressive postoperative medial collateral ligament instability. All re-operations were performed during the first 4 years of the follow-up. The mean TFA was 15.5° valgus postoperatively for those eight and the odds ratio for a revision was 2 (95% CI 1-3, p = 0.025) when compared to the rest of the study population. The residual valgus deformity increases the risk of re-operation and it should be avoided. If proper soft-tissue balance cannot be achieved or there is no functional medial collateral ligament present more constrained implants should be used. In selected cases where both bony correction and ligament balancing have properly been achieved the use of a cruciate-retaining type of prosthesis is justified. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. HLA antibodies and soluble CD30 are associated with poor renal graft outcome: updated results of a single-center cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Leanne L; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Park, Lawrence P; Hughes, Tiffany L; Irish, Ashley; Luxton, Grant; Witt, Campbell S; Christiansen, Frank T

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we have shown that HLA class II antibodies and a high soluble CD30 (sCD30) measured at least 1 year post-transplant predict subsequent graft failure. We have now updated the results of this same cohort of 208 patients 15 months later. HLA-specific antibodies (class I and class II) were detected by ELISA LAT-M and Luminex LabScreen assays. Data on graft outcome was collected with a median follow-up of 4.7 years. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, class II antibody was again associated with a poorer outcome, with an estimated 6-year graft survival of 67% and 71% when detected by ELISA and Luminex, respectively, compared with 92% for those without class II antibody (p soluble CD30 level of > or = 100 U/ml was also associated with a poorer estimated 6-year graft survival (p = 0.02). HLA antibodies and high sCD30 (> or = 100 U/ml) had an additive effect such that those with both high sCD30 and class II antibodies had a hazard ratio for subsequent graft failure of 18.1 (p = 0.0008) and 8.6 (p = 0.007) when detected by ELISA and Luminex, respectively. These data show that detection of HLA class II antibodies and serum sCD30 measured at least 1 year post-transplant continues to predict a subsequent outcome up to 6 years after the initial measurement; they also show that such measures provide important information that may allow for modification of ongoing therapy.

  13. Real-world outcomes of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia during adolescence in a financially restricted environment: Results at a single center in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Pérez, José C; Jiménez-Castillo, Raúl A; Pinzón-Uresti, Mónica A; Cantú-Rodríguez, Olga G; Herrera-Garza, José L; Marfil-Rivera, Luis J; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2017-07-01

    There is a paucity of the studies of adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This is more noticeable in low- and middle-income countries. The international 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for this age group is around 80%, with pediatric-inspired protocols offering better results. A retrospective analysis of adolescents aged 16-20 diagnosed with ALL during the period 2004-2015 treated with a high-risk pediatric protocol at an academic center from a middle-income country was performed. Five-year OS and EFS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Hazard ratios of relapse and death were estimated by the Cox regression model. Five-year EFS and OS for 57 adolescents were 23.3% and 48.9%, respectively. From the 41 patients who achieved complete remission, 24 (58.5%) relapsed. Bone marrow and central nervous system were the most frequent sites of relapse. Hazard ratio of treatment failure and death for patients with organomegaly at diagnosis was 2.026 and 2.970, respectively. Treatment-related toxicity developed in 31 (54.4%) patients and febrile neutropenia was the most frequent in 14 (24.6%) cases. Twelve patients (21.1%) had poor adherence to treatment. High relapse rate and low 5-year EFS compared with international standards, was documented. Use of intensified pediatric regimens, adherence to proven effective medications, improved supportive care, and prevention of abandonment are necessary to improve survival rates in these patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparison results on preconditioned SOR-type iterative method for Z-matrices linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Zhong; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Fu, Ying-Ding

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present some comparison theorems on preconditioned iterative method for solving Z-matrices linear systems, Comparison results show that the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Seidel-type method is faster than the rate of convergence of the SOR-type iterative method.

  15. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  16. Comparison of multiple-criteria decision-making methods - results of simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, both researchers and practitioners have many methods for supporting the decision-making process. Due to the conditions in which supply chains function, the most interesting are multi-criteria methods. The use of sophisticated methods for supporting decisions requires the parameterization and execution of calculations that are often complex. So is it efficient to use sophisticated methods? Methods: The authors of the publication compared two popular multi-criteria decision-making methods: the  Weighted Sum Model (WSM and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. A simulation study reflects these two decision-making methods. Input data for this study was a set of criteria weights and the value of each in terms of each criterion. Results: The iGrafx Process for Six Sigma simulation software recreated how both multiple-criteria decision-making methods (WSM and AHP function. The result of the simulation was a numerical value defining the preference of each of the alternatives according to the WSM and AHP methods. The alternative producing a result of higher numerical value  was considered preferred, according to the selected method. In the analysis of the results, the relationship between the values of the parameters and the difference in the results presented by both methods was investigated. Statistical methods, including hypothesis testing, were used for this purpose. Conclusions: The simulation study findings prove that the results obtained with the use of two multiple-criteria decision-making methods are very similar. Differences occurred more frequently in lower-value parameters from the "value of each alternative" group and higher-value parameters from the "weight of criteria" group.

  17. Menacalc, a quantitative method of metastasis assessment, as a prognostic marker for axillary node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, Catherine L.; Agarwal, Seema; Pinnaduwage, Dushanthi; Gertler, Frank; Condeelis, John S.; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Johung, Kimberly; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Rohan, Thomas E.; Bull, Shelley B.; Andrulis, Irene L.

    2015-01-01

    Mena calc is an immunofluorescence-based, quantitative method in which expression of the non-invasive Mena protein isoform (Mena11a) is subtracted from total Mena protein expression. Previous work has found a significant positive association between Mena calc and risk of death from breast cancer. Our goal was to determine if Mena calc could be used as an independent prognostic marker for axillary node-negative (ANN) breast cancer. Analysis of the association of Mena calc with overall survival (death from any cause) was performed for 403 ANN tumors using Kaplan Meier survival curves and the univariate Cox proportional hazards (PH) model with the log-rank or the likelihood ratio test. Cox PH models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of Mena calc with risk of death after adjustment for HER2 status and clinicopathological tumor features. High Mena calc was associated with increased risk of death from any cause (P = 0.0199, HR (CI) = 2.18 (1.19, 4.00)). A similarly elevated risk of death was found in the subset of the Mena calc cohort which did not receive hormone or chemotherapy (n = 142) (P = 0.0052, HR (CI) = 3.80 (1.58, 9.97)). There was a trend toward increased risk of death with relatively high Mena calc in the HER2, basal and luminal molecular subtypes. Mena calc may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for the ANN breast cancer patient population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1468-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  18. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  19. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  20. Tetranectin positive expression in tumour tissue leads to longer survival in Danish women with ovarian cancer. Results from the 'Malova' ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeran, Mel C; Rask, Lene; Høgdall, Claus K

    2015-01-01

    of the disease. Using tissue arrays we analysed the expression levels in tissues from 166 women with borderline ovarian tumours (BOTs) and 592 women with ovarian cancer (OC). A panel of three antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry: a polyclonal and two monoclonal antibodies. Serum TN was measured using...... found to imply longer OS (p Kaplan-Meier survival analysis performed on all OC cases showed a significantly longer OS (p = 0...

  1. Labral Reattachment in Femoroacetabular Impingement Surgery Results in Increased 10-year Survivorship Compared With Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwander, Helen; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz; Steppacher, Simon D

    2017-04-01

    Since the importance of an intact labrum for normal hip function has been shown, labral reattachment has become the standard method for open or arthroscopic treatment of hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, no long-term clinical results exist evaluating the effect of labral reattachment. A 2-year followup comparing open surgical treatment of FAI with labral resection versus reattachment was previously performed at our clinic. The goal of this study was to report a concise followup of these patients at a minimum of 10 years. We asked if patients undergoing surgical hip dislocation for the treatment of mixed-type FAI with labral reattachment compared with labral resection had (1) improved hip pain and function based on the Merle d'Aubigné-Postel score; and (2) improved survival at 10-year followup. Between June 1999 and July 2002, we performed surgical hip dislocation with femoral neck osteoplasty and acetabular rim trimming in 52 patients (60 hips) with mixed-type FAI. In the first 20 patients (25 hips) until June 2001, a torn labrum or a detached labrum in the area of acetabular rim resection was resected. In the next 32 patients (35 hips), reattachment of the labrum was performed. The same indications were used to perform both procedures during the periods in question. Of the 20 patients (25 hips) in the first group, 19 patients (95%) (24 hips [96%]) were available for clinical and/or radiographic followup at a minimum of 10 years (mean, 13 years; range, 12-14 years). Of the 32 patients (35 hips) in the second group, 29 patients (91%) (32 hips [91%]) were available for clinical and/or radiographic followup at a minimum of 10 years (mean, 12 years; range, 10-13 years). We used the anterior impingement test to assess pain. Function was assessed using the Merle d'Aubigné- Postel score and ROM. Survivorship calculation was performed using the method of Kaplan-Meier with failure defined as conversion to THA, progression of osteoarthritis (of one

  2. Immunohistochemical subtypes predict the clinical outcome in high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant FEC regimen: results of a single-center retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, S.; Boher, J M; Extra, J M; Tarpin, C.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Lambaudie, E.; Sabatier, R.; Thomassin-Piana, J.; Tallet, A.; Resbeut, M.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Laborde, L.; Bertucci, F.; Viens, P.; Gonçalves, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with high-risk node-negative breast cancer (BC). In this setting, prognostic factors predicting for treatment failure might help selecting among the different available cytotoxic combinations. Between 1998 and 2008, 757 consecutive patients with node-negative BC treated in our institution with adjuvant FEC (5FU, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy were identified. Data collection included demographic, clinico-pathological characteristics and treatment information. Molecular subtypes were derived from estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade. Disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier Method, and prognostic factors were examined by multivariate Cox analysis. After a median follow-up of 70 months, the 5-year DFS, DDFS and OS were 90.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 88.2–93.1), 92.8 % (95 % CI: 90.7–95) and 95.1 % (95 % CI, 93.3–96.9), respectively. In the multivariate analysis including classical clinico-pathological parameters, only grade 3 maintained a significant and independent adverse prognostic impact. In an alternative multivariate model where ER, PR and grade were replaced by molecular subtypes, only luminal B/HER2-negative and triple-negative subtypes were associated with reduced DFS and DDFS. Node-negative BC patients receiving adjuvant FEC regimen have a favorable outcome. Luminal B/HER2-negative and triple-negative subtypes identify patients with a higher risk of treatment failure, which might warrant more aggressive systemic treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1746-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  3. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Kontani, Teiji; Katsuo, Shinichi; Takei, Yoshinori; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Asaka, Masahiro; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Soen, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Hiraishi, Hideyuki; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Low-dose lansoprazole has not been intensively evaluated for its efficacy in the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in patients receiving long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy for pain relief in such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain. This multi-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled study involving 99 sites in Japan was designed to compare the efficacy of lansoprazole (15 mg daily) with gefarnate (50 mg twice daily). Patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 185) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 181) and followed up for 12 months or longer prospectively. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcer at days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 3.3, 5.9, and 12.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 18.7, 28.5, and 36.9%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk for ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.2510 (95% CI 0.1400-0.4499). A long-term follow-up study showed an acceptable safety profile for low-dose lansoprazole therapy, with diarrhea as the most frequent adverse event. Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term NSAID therapy.

  4. Lansoprazole for secondary prevention of gastric or duodenal ulcers associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy: results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Abe, Sumihisa; Sakaki, Nobuhiro; Ashida, Kiyoshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsui, Shigeyuki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Uemura, Naomi; Hiramatsu, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole has not been established for the prevention of recurrent gastric or duodenal ulcers in those receiving long-term low-dose aspirin (LDA) for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection. This study sought to examine the efficacy of low-dose lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) for the secondary prevention of LDA-associated gastric or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomized to receive lansoprazole 15 mg daily (n = 226) or gefarnate 50 mg twice daily (n = 235) for 12 months or longer in a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized active-controlled trial, followed by a 6-month follow-up study with open-label lansoprazole treatment. The study utilized 94 sites in Japan and 461 Japanese patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric or duodenal ulcers. The cumulative incidence of gastric or duodenal ulcers on days 91, 181, and 361 from the start of the study was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method as 1.5, 2.1, and 3.7%, respectively, in the lansoprazole group versus 15.2, 24.0, and 31.7%, respectively, in the gefarnate group. The risk of ulcer development was significantly (log-rank test, P lansoprazole group than in the gefarnate group, with the hazard ratio being 0.099 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.042-0.230). Lansoprazole was superior to gefarnate in reducing the risk of gastric or duodenal ulcer recurrence in patients with a definite history of gastric or duodenal ulcers who required long-term LDA therapy.

  5. Long-term results and prognostic factors in patients with stage III-IVA squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy from a single institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudaka, Wataru; Nagai, Yutaka; Toita, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the longer-term efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) incorporating high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a lower cumulative radiotherapy (RT) protocol and analyzed prognostic risk factors for survival among patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III-IVA squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. Ninety-nine patients with FIGO stage III-IVA SCC of the cervix between 1997 and 2008 were treated with CCRT using cisplatin 20 mg/m 2 for 5 days every 3 weeks or 40 mg/m 2 weekly. Acute and late toxicities were evaluated. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. Median age was 53.5 years. Median follow-up period was 58 months (range 6-170 months). Pathologically complete response was achieved in 93 patients (96.9%). The 5-year OS and DFS were 72.0 and 69.3%, respectively. The 5-year local and distant DFS were 83.0 and 75.1%, respectively. Thirty-one patients (31.3%) experienced recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and pretreatment hemoglobin level remained an independent risk factor for OS and DFS. Acute toxicity was moderate. In terms of late adverse effects, 2 patients (2.0%) suffered from grade 4 late intestinal toxicity because of radiation enterocolitis, with both requiring intestinal surgery. Our study demonstrates that the CCRT schedule in patients with FIGO stage III-IVA SCC is efficacious and safe. In addition, the assessment of tumor size and pretreatment anemia can provide valuable prognostic information. (author)

  6. Tensile strength of concrete under static and intermediate strain rates: Correlated results from different testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengxing; Chen Xudong; Zhou Jikai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of concrete increases with increase in strain rate. ► Strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength of concrete depends on test method. ► High stressed volume method can correlate results from various test methods. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparative experiment and analysis of three different methods (direct tension, splitting tension and four-point loading flexural tests) for determination of the tensile strength of concrete under low and intermediate strain rates. In addition, the objective of this investigation is to analyze the suitability of the high stressed volume approach and Weibull effective volume method to the correlation of the results of different tensile tests of concrete. The test results show that the strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength depends on the type of test, splitting tensile strength of concrete is more sensitive to an increase in the strain rate than flexural and direct tensile strength. The high stressed volume method could be used to obtain a tensile strength value of concrete, free from the influence of the characteristics of tests and specimens. However, the Weibull effective volume method is an inadequate method for describing failure of concrete specimens determined by different testing methods.

  7. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method Based On Dynamic Invariant Stress Resultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the vibration based damage detection methods are based on changes in frequencies, mode shapes, mode shape curvature, and flexibilities. These methods are limited and typically can only detect the presence and location of damage. Current methods seldom can identify the exact severity of damage to structures. This paper will present research in the development of a new non-destructive evaluation method to identify the existence, location, and severity of damage for structural systems. The method utilizes the concept of invariant stress resultants (ISR. The basic concept of ISR is that at any given cross section the resultant internal force distribution in a structural member is not affected by the inflicted damage. The method utilizes dynamic analysis of the structure to simulate direct measurements of acceleration, velocity and displacement simultaneously. The proposed dynamic ISR method is developed and utilized to detect the damage of corresponding changes in mass, damping and stiffness. The objectives of this research are to develop the basic theory of the dynamic ISR method, apply it to the specific types of structures, and verify the accuracy of the developed theory. Numerical results that demonstrate the application of the method will reflect the advanced sensitivity and accuracy in characterizing multiple damage locations.

  8. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  9. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  10. Short-term Clinical Course of Knee Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Feasibility Study Using Electronic Methods of Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien; Henschke, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders, such as knee pain, are common in children and adolescents, but there is a lack of high quality research that evaluates the clinical course of these conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a prospective study of children and adolescents with knee pain using electronic methods of data collection. Children and adolescents with knee pain that presented to primary care physiotherapy clinics were enrolled and followed-up on a weekly basis via short messaging service (SMS) until their knee pain had recovered (i.e. two consecutive weeks of no pain). Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment, retention and response rates to SMS and an online questionnaire. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measures included pain, disability, physical function, physical activity and health related quality of life. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median time to knee pain recovery. Thirty participants (mean age 13.0 ± 2.2 years, 53% boys) were recruited over 26 months. The overall response rate to weekly SMS follow-up was 71.3% (809 received/1135 sent). One third of participants stopped responding to SMS prior to recovery, and these participants typically had a much lower response rate during the time they remained in the study. At 6-month follow-up, 80% of the cohort completed the final online questionnaire, and 29% of participants still reported current knee pain (≥1/10 VAS). The median time for knee pain recovery was 8 weeks (95%CI: 5, 10). Electronic data collection alone seems insufficient to track pain recovery in young people and may need to be supplemented with more traditional data collection methods. Researchers should consider further measures to address slow recruitment rates and high attrition when designing large prospective studies of children and adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: longterm treatment results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Claire Y; Kachnic, Lisa A; Daly, William; Younger, Jerry; Harris, Nancy L; Graeme-Cook, Fiona

    1995-07-01

    Objective: In recent years, a large proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the stomach are recognized as low grade tumors of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Since the MALT morphological subtype has only gained acceptance as a malignant lymphoma after the establishment of the Working Formulation, there is limited information about its natural history, disease pattern, and longterm treatment outcome. This study is an analysis of these parameters in patients with primary MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma who received definitive treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between (4(78)) and (2(95)) were included in the study. The diagnosis was pathologically verified in all cases. Clinical staging studies included chest X-ray +/- chest CT, abdomino-pelvic CT or bipedal lymphangiogram, barium swallow, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment strategies included combinations of partial or total gastrectomy, radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (chemo). RT was given via multifield technique, with 10-25MV photons, to doses of 36-50.4 Gy (1.1-1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Results: There were twenty-two patients between the ages of 45 - 93 years, with a mean follow-up of 67 months. Ten were male and 12 female. The most frequent presenting symptoms were epigastric pain (77%), dyspepsia (65%), and melena (41%). The mean duration of symptoms was 27 months. Eighteen cases were clinical stage (cs)I, two csII, one csIII, and one csIV. The treatment approaches were: 1) csI:6 gastrectomy alone, 7 gastrectomy and RT, 1 gastrectomy and chemo, 2 RT alone, 1 chemo and RT, 1 no therapy; 2) csII: 2 gastrectomy and RT; 3) csIII: 1 gastrectomy and chemo; 4) csIV: 1 chemo and RT. Among 16 gastrectomy specimens, multifocal gastric involvement was evident in 50%. The most frequently involved sites were the body (63%) and antrum

  12. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  13. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  14. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE - WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; D IMPERIO, N.; MACHIDA, S.

    2002-01-01

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed

  15. Application of the DSA preconditioned GMRES formalism to the method of characteristics - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.

    2004-01-01

    The method of characteristics is well known for its slow convergence; consequently, as it is often done for SN methods, the Generalized Minimal Residual approach (GMRES) has been investigated for its practical implementation and its high reliability. GMRES is one of the most effective Krylov iterative methods to solve large linear systems. Moreover, the system has been 'left preconditioned' with the Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA) a variant of the Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) based on I. Suslov's former works. This paper presents the first numerical results of these methods in 2D geometries with material discontinuities. Indeed, previous investigations have shown a degraded effectiveness of Diffusion Synthetic Accelerations with this kind of geometries. Results are presented for 9 x 9 Cartesian assemblies in terms of the speed of convergence of the inner iterations (fixed source) of the method of characteristics. It shows a significant improvement on the convergence rate. (authors)

  16. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE - WANG,J.; LUCCIO,A.U.; D IMPERIO,N.; MACHIDA,S.

    2002-06-03

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  17. A result-driven minimum blocking method for PageRank parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Wei; Huang, Gan

    2017-01-01

    Matrix blocking is a common method for improving computational efficiency of PageRank, but the blocking rules are hard to be determined, and the following calculation is complicated. In tackling these problems, we propose a minimum blocking method driven by result needs to accomplish a parallel implementation of PageRank algorithm. The minimum blocking just stores the element which is necessary for the result matrix. In return, the following calculation becomes simple and the consumption of the I/O transmission is cut down. We do experiments on several matrixes of different data size and different sparsity degree. The results show that the proposed method has better computational efficiency than traditional blocking methods.

  18. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and other X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic methods, etc. This algorithm, when properly applied, does not distort the form nor the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for all kind of spectroscopic techniques. This method is extremely effective at reducing high-frequency noise in the signal much more efficient than a single rectangular smooth of the same width. As all of smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but in this case we found also a systematic improvement on the accuracy of the results. We still have to evaluate the improvement on the quality of the results when this method is applied over real experimental results. We expect better characterization of the net area quantification of the peaks, and smaller Detection and Quantification Limits. We have applied this method to signals that obey Poisson statistics, but with the same ideas and criteria, it could be applied to time series. In a general case, when this algorithm is applied over experimental results, also it would be required that the sought characteristic functions, required for this weighted smoothing method, should be obtained from a system with strong stability. If the sought signals are not perfectly clean, this method should be carefully applied

  19. Dynamics of malaria transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes following treatment of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic carriers: results of a cluster-randomized study of community-wide screening and treatment, and a parallel entomology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbeogo, Moussa W; Sagnon, N Falé; Nébié, Issa; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Mukhopadhyay, Amitava; Hamed, Kamal

    2013-11-12

    In malaria-endemic countries, large proportions of individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are asymptomatic and constitute a reservoir of parasites for infection of newly hatched mosquitoes. Two studies were run in parallel in Burkina Faso to evaluate the impact of systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum, detected by rapid diagnostic test, on disease transmission and susceptibility to clinical malaria episodes. A clinical study assessed the incidence of symptomatic malaria episodes with a parasite density >5,000/μL after three screening and treatment campaigns ~1 month apart before the rainy season; and an entomological study determined the effect of these campaigns on malaria transmission as measured by entomological inoculation rate. The intervention arm had lower prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of asexual parasites and lower prevalence of gametocyte carriers during campaigns 2 and 3 as compared to the control arm. During the entire follow-up period, out of 13,767 at-risk subjects, 2,516 subjects (intervention arm 1,332; control arm 1,184) had symptomatic malaria. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the incidence of first symptomatic malaria episode with a parasite density >5,000/μL showed that, in the total population, the two treatment arms were similar until Week 11-12 after campaign 3, corresponding with the beginning of the malaria transmission season, after which the probability of being free of symptomatic malaria was lower in the intervention arm (logrank p entomological inoculation rate was comparable in both arms, with September peaks in both indices. Community screening and targeted treatment of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum had no effect on the dynamics of malaria transmission, but seemed to be associated with an increase in the treated community's susceptibility to symptomatic malaria episodes after the screening campaigns had finished. These results highlight the importance of further

  20. Impact of the New American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Definition of Stroke on the Results of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kasab, Sami; Lynn, Michael J; Turan, Tanya N; Derdeyn, Colin P; Fiorella, David; Lane, Bethany F; Janis, L Scott; Chimowitz, Marc I

    2017-01-01

    An American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) writing committee has recently recommended that tissue evidence of cerebral infarction associated with temporary symptoms (CITS) lasting Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial. We compared outcomes in the medical (n = 227) and stenting (n = 224) groups in SAMMPRIS using the following primary end point (new components in bold): any stroke, CITS, or death within 30 days after enrollment or within 30 days after a revascularization procedure for the qualifying lesion during follow-up; or ischemic stroke or CITS in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days. We also compared the use of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in both treatment groups. By considering CITS as equivalent to stroke, the number of primary end points increased from 34 to 43 in the medical group and from 52 to 66 in the stenting group of SAMMPRIS. The Kaplan-Meier curves for the primary end points in the 2 groups were significantly different (P = .009). The percentage of patients with reported TIAs who underwent brain MRI was 69% in the medical group and 61% in the stenting group (P = .40). Using the AHA/ASA definition of stroke resulted in a substantially higher primary end point rate in both treatment groups and an even higher benefit from medical therapy over stenting than originally shown in SAMMPRIS. The higher rate of CITS in the stenting group was not due to ascertainment bias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Malignant central nervous system tumors among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years old) in 14 Southern-Eastern European registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program: Mortality and survival patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Themistocleous, Marios; Tolia, Maria; Tzanis, Spyridon; Alexiou, George A; Papanikolaou, Panagiotis G; Nomikos, Panagiotis; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni T

    2017-11-15

    Unique features and worse outcomes have been reported for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years old). The aim of this study was to explore the mortality and survival patterns of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors among AYAs in Southern-Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison with the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Malignant CNS tumors diagnosed in AYAs during the period spanning 1990-2014 were retrieved from 14 population-based cancer registries in the SEE region (n = 11,438). Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated and survival patterns were evaluated via Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses, and they were compared with respective 1990-2012 figures from SEER (n = 13,573). Mortality rates in SEE (range, 11.9-18.5 deaths per million) were higher overall than the SEER rate (9.4 deaths per million), with decreasing trends in both regions. Survival rates increased during a comparable period (2001-2009) in SEE and SEER. The 5-year survival rate was considerably lower in the SEE registries (46%) versus SEER (67%), mainly because of the extremely low rates in Ukraine; this finding was consistent across age groups and diagnostic subtypes. The highest 5-year survival rates were recorded for ependymomas (76% in SEE and 92% in SEER), and the worst were recorded for glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (28% in SEE and 37% in SEER). Advancing age, male sex, and rural residency at diagnosis adversely affected outcomes in both regions. Despite definite survival gains over the last years, the considerable outcome disparities between the less affluent SEE region and the United States for AYAs with malignant CNS tumors point to health care delivery inequalities. No considerable prognostic deficits for CNS tumors are evident for AYAs versus children. Cancer 2017;123:4458-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  3. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" >Anton, Alin; th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" >Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit ® [1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms

  4. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Alin [Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2" n" d Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania); Muntean, Sebastian [Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24" t" h Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  5. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (analysis is done according to laser diffractometry. The advantages of laser diffraction method comprise the short analysis time, usage of small sample amount, application for the various grain size fraction and soil type classification systems, and a wide range of determined fractions. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on this issue further to address the

  6. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  7. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  8. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  9. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods.......The quality of RNA is crucial in gene expression experiments. RNA degradation interferes in the measurement of gene expression, and in this context, microRNA quantification can lead to an incorrect estimation. In the present study, two different RNA isolation methods were used to perform micro...

  10. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Numerical proceessing of radioimmunoassay results using logit-log transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textoris, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical model and algorithm are described of the numerical processing of the results of a radioimmunoassay by the logit-log transformation method and by linear regression with weight factors. The limiting value of the curve for zero concentration is optimized with regard to the residual sum by the iterative method by multiple repeats of the linear regression. Typical examples are presented of the approximation of calibration curves. The method proved suitable for all hitherto used RIA sets and is well suited for small computers with internal memory of min. 8 Kbyte. (author)

  12. A comparison of short-term dispersion estimates resulting from various atmospheric stability classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Four methods of classifying atmospheric stability class are applied at four sites to make short-term (1-h) dispersion estimates from a ground-level source based on a model consistent with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission practice. The classification methods include vertical temperature gradient, standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuations (sigma theta), Pasquill-Turner, and modified sigma theta which accounts for meander. Results indicate that modified sigma theta yields reasonable dispersion estimates compared to those produced using methods of vertical temperature gradient and Pasquill-Turner, and can be considered as a potential economic alternative in establishing onsite monitoring programs. (author)

  13. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  14. Short overview of PSA quantification methods, pitfalls on the road from approximate to exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banov, Reni; Simic, Zdenko; Sterc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Over time the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have become an invaluable companion in the identification and understanding of key nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit for plant safety can be obtained. PSA has quickly become an established technique to numerically quantify risk measures in nuclear power plants. As complexity of PSA models increases, the computational approaches become more or less feasible. The various computational approaches can be basically classified in two major groups: approximate and exact (BDD based) methods. In recent time modern commercially available PSA tools started to provide both methods for PSA model quantification. Besides availability of both methods in proven PSA tools the usage must still be taken carefully since there are many pitfalls which can drive to wrong conclusions and prevent efficient usage of PSA tool. For example, typical pitfalls involve the usage of higher precision approximation methods and getting a less precise result, or mixing minimal cuts and prime implicants in the exact computation method. The exact methods are sensitive to selected computational paths in which case a simple human assisted rearrangement may help and even switch from computationally non-feasible to feasible methods. Further improvements to exact method are possible and desirable which opens space for a new research. In this paper we will show how these pitfalls may be detected and how carefully actions must be done especially when working with large PSA models. (authors)

  15. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  16. Comparative study of methods on outlying data detection in experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.S.; Munita, C.S.; Hazenfratz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of experimental results through multivariate statistical methods might reveal the outliers existence, which is rarely taken into account by the analysts. However, their presence can influence the results interpretation, generating false conclusions. This paper shows the importance of the outliers determination for one data base of 89 samples of ceramic fragments, analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The results were submitted to five procedures to detect outliers: Mahalanobis distance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and standardized residual. The results showed that although cluster analysis is one of the procedures most used to identify outliers, it can fail by not showing the samples that are easily identified as outliers by other methods. In general, the statistical procedures for the identification of the outliers are little known by the analysts. (author)

  17. A holographic method for investigating cylindrical symmetry plasmas resulting from electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, N.; Ralea, M.; Foca, M.; Iova, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new method based on holographic interferometry in real time with reference fringes for diagnosing gas electric discharges in cylindrical symmetry tubes is presented. A method for obtaining and quantitatively investigating interferograms obtained with a video camera is described. By studying the resulting images frame by frame and introducing the measurements into an adequate computer programme one gets a graphical recording of the radial distribution of the charged particle concentration in the plasma in any region of the tube at a given time, as well as their axial distribution. The real time evolution of certain phenomena occurring in the discharge tube can also be determined by this non-destructive method. The method is used for electric discharges in Ar at average pressures in a discharge tube with hollow cathode effect. (Author)

  18. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  19. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  20. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  1. [Do different interpretative methods used for evaluation of checkerboard synergy test affect the results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseven, Ayşe Gül; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozseven, Levent

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, owing to the presence of multi-drug resistant nosocomial bacteria, combination therapies are more frequently applied. Thus there is more need to investigate the in vitro activity of drug combinations against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Checkerboard synergy testing is among the most widely used standard technique to determine the activity of antibiotic combinations. It is based on microdilution susceptibility testing of antibiotic combinations. Although this test has a standardised procedure, there are many different methods for interpreting the results. In many previous studies carried out with multi-drug resistant bacteria, different rates of synergy have been reported with various antibiotic combinations using checkerboard technique. These differences might be attributed to the different features of the strains. However, different synergy rates detected by checkerboard method have also been reported in other studies using the same drug combinations and same types of bacteria. It was thought that these differences in synergy rates might be due to the different methods of interpretation of synergy test results. In recent years, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been the most commonly encountered nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units. For this reason, multidrug resistant A.baumannii has been the subject of a considerable amount of research about antimicrobial combinations. In the present study, the in vitro activities of frequently preferred combinations in A.baumannii infections like imipenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam, and meropenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam were tested by checkerboard synergy method against 34 multi-drug resistant A.baumannii isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for imipenem, meropenem and ampicillin/sulbactam were determined by the broth microdilution method. Subsequently the activity of two different combinations were tested in the dilution range of 4 x MIC and 0.03 x MIC in

  2. Comparison of midterm results for the Talent and Endurant stent graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Mannetje, Yannick W; Cuypers, Philippe W M; Saleem, Ben R; Bode, Aron S; Teijink, Joep A W; van Sambeek, Marc R H M

    2017-09-01

    Stent graft evolution is often addressed as a cause for improved outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair for patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. In this study, we directly compared the midterm result of Endurant stent graft with its predecessor, the Talent stent graft (both Medtronic, Santa Rosa, Calif). Patient treated from January 2005 to December 2010 in a single tertiary center in The Netherlands with a Talent or Endurant stent graft were eligible for inclusion. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms or patients with previous aortic surgery were excluded. The primary end point was the Kaplan-Meier estimated freedom from secondary interventions. Secondary end points were perioperative outcomes and indications for secondary interventions. In total, 221 patients were included (131 Endurant and 90 Talent). At baseline, the median aortic bifurcation was narrower for the Endurant (30 mm vs 39 mm; P Talent and Endurant, respectively. The estimated freedom from secondary interventions at 30 days, 1 year, 5 years, and 7 years was 94.3%, 89.4%, 72.2%, and 64.1% for Talent and 96.8%, 89.3%, 75.2%, and 69.2% for Endurant (P = .528). The indication for secondary interventions does differ; more patients required an intervention for a proximal neck-related complication (type Ia endoleak or migration) in the Talent group (18.2% vs 4.8%; P = .001), whereas more interventions for iliac limb stenosis were seen in the Endurant group (0.0% vs 4.8%; P = .044). In a binomial regression analysis, suprarenal angulation, infrarenal neck length, and type of stent graft were independent predictors of neck-related complications. Evolution from the Talent stent graft into the Endurant has resulted in significant reduction of infrarenal neck-related complications; on the other hand, iliac interventions increased. The overall midterm secondary intervention rate was comparable. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A semantics-based method for clustering of Chinese web search results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wang, Li; Bi, Zhuming; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Information explosion is a critical challenge to the development of modern information systems. In particular, when the application of an information system is over the Internet, the amount of information over the web has been increasing exponentially and rapidly. Search engines, such as Google and Baidu, are essential tools for people to find the information from the Internet. Valuable information, however, is still likely submerged in the ocean of search results from those tools. By clustering the results into different groups based on subjects automatically, a search engine with the clustering feature allows users to select most relevant results quickly. In this paper, we propose an online semantics-based method to cluster Chinese web search results. First, we employ the generalised suffix tree to extract the longest common substrings (LCSs) from search snippets. Second, we use the HowNet to calculate the similarities of the words derived from the LCSs, and extract the most representative features by constructing the vocabulary chain. Third, we construct a vector of text features and calculate snippets' semantic similarities. Finally, we improve the Chameleon algorithm to cluster snippets. Extensive experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has outperformed over the suffix tree clustering method and other traditional clustering methods.

  4. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E dep ) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated

  5. Comments on Brodsky's statistical methods for evaluating epidemiological results, and reply by Brodsky, A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Khare, M.

    1980-01-01

    Brodsky's paper 'A Statistical Method for Testing Epidemiological Results, as applied to the Hanford Worker Population', (Health Phys., 36, 611-628, 1979) proposed two test statistics for use in comparing the survival experience of a group of employees and controls. This letter states that both of the test statistics were computed using incorrect formulas and concludes that the results obtained using these statistics may also be incorrect. In his reply Brodsky concurs with the comments on the proper formulation of estimates of pooled standard errors in constructing test statistics but believes that the erroneous formulation does not invalidate the major points, results and discussions of his paper. (author)

  6. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  7. Development and application of a new deterministic method for calculating computer model result uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.; Worley, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in research into the field of uncertainty analysis has recently been stimulated as a result of a need in high-level waste repository design assessment for uncertainty information in the form of response complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) to show compliance with regulatory requirements. The solution to this problem must obviously rely on the analysis of computer code models, which, however, employ parameters that can have large uncertainties. The motivation for the research presented in this paper is a search for a method involving a deterministic uncertainty analysis approach that could serve as an improvement over those methods that make exclusive use of statistical techniques. A deterministic uncertainty analysis (DUA) approach based on the use of first derivative information is the method studied in the present procedure. The present method has been applied to a high-level nuclear waste repository problem involving use of the codes ORIGEN2, SAS, and BRINETEMP in series, and the resulting CDF of a BRINETEMP result of interest is compared with that obtained through a completely statistical analysis

  8. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  9. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar

    2004-03-02

    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  10. Testing the ISP method with the PARIO device: Accuracy of results and influence of homogenization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Huber, Magdalena; Yangxu, Li; Steins, Andi; Pertassek, Thomas; Göttlein, Axel; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is one of the main properties of soils. To determine the proportions of the fine fractions silt and clay, sedimentation experiments are used. Most common are the Pipette and Hydrometer method. Both need manual sampling at specific times. Both are thus time-demanding and rely on experienced operators. Durner et al. (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold (2017): The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830) recently developed the integral suspension method (ISP) method, which is implemented in the METER Group device PARIOTM. This new method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of new method with a variety of materials, to answer the following research questions: (1) Are the results obtained by PARIO reliable and stable? (2) Are the results affected by the initial mixing technique to homogenize the suspension, or by the presence of sand in the experiment? (3) Are the results identical to the one that are obtained with the Pipette method as reference method? The experiments were performed with a pure quartz silt material and four real soil materials. PARIO measurements were done repetitively on the same samples in a temperature-controlled lab to characterize the repeatability of the measurements. Subsequently, the samples were investigated by the pipette method to validate the results. We found that the statistical error for silt fraction from replicate and repetitive measurements was in the range of 1% for the quartz material to 3% for soil materials. Since the sand fractions, as in any sedimentation method, must

  11. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  12. First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer HER2 positive - Observational institutional study. ... The progression free survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, from the date of first cycle to the date of progression or at the last consultation, and the median was 12.8 months. Trastuzumab ...

  13. Survival of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Helena; Dawson, Victoria S; Frisk, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess survival in the Swedish population of teeth treated by nonsurgical root canal treatment during 2009. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess cumulative tooth survival during a period of 5-6 years o...

  14. STAT3 inhibitor enhances chemotherapy drug efficacy by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier method of survival analysis were used to determine chemoresistance trends in patients. STAT3 inhibitor treatment, RNAi or ectopic overexpression of STAT3 or MUC1 in NSCLC cells were used to determine their inter-molecular relation and for modulating stemness-related genes.

  15. Survival analysis II: Cox regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards regression can provide an effect estimate by quantifying the difference in survival between patient groups and can adjust for confounding effects of other variables. The purpose of this article is to explain the basic concepts of the

  16. Modelling the survivorship of Nigeria children in their first 10 years of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fagbamigbe

    Conflict of Interest: Authors declared no conflict of interest ... Keywords: Survivorship, Nigeria, children mortality, Kaplan Meier, Brass Indirect method, Prediction ... variables or sex of older siblings, post- neonatal mortality is 12% higher and 2nd ... Relationship between maternal education and child survival in developing ...

  17. The influence of obesity on response to tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Glintborg, Bente; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of obesity on response to the first TNF-α inhibitor (TNFI) treatment course in patients with PsA followed in routine care. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study based on the Danish and Icelandic biologics registries. Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox and ...

  18. Clinical outcome among HIV-infected patients starting saquinavir hard gel compared to ritonavir or indinavir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Pradier, C

    2001-01-01

    -up within the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: Changes in plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 cell count from baseline were compared between treatment groups. Time to new AIDS-defining events and death were compared in Kaplan--Meier models, and Cox models were established to further assess differences in clinical...

  19. Early perioperative results and surgical recurrence after strictureplasty and miniresection for complicated Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, G M; Cristaldi, M; Porretta, T; Montecamozzo, G; Danelli, P; Taschieri, A M

    2000-01-01

    Strictureplasty (SP) or miniresective 'bowel-sparing' techniques (MR) can prevent the risk of intestinal stomia and short bowel syndrome in patients affected by Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of this study was to analyze the perioperative morbidity and mortality in 104 of 138 consecutive patients treated for CD complications using bowel-sparing techniques. We also considered the factors that may be related to the risk of perioperative complications and the long-term outcome. One hundred and four patients were treated with SP and/or MR and then included in a prospectively maintained database. The factors claimed to influence perioperative complications were analyzed using Fisher's exact test for categorical observations and the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. A multivariate analysis, using logistic regression, and a long-term time-to-event analysis using the Kaplan-Meier function, were also performed. Perioperative mortality was nil. In relation to the 6 postoperative complications (5.8%), 4 patients underwent minimal bowel resection (MR), 1 a MR with SP, and 1 SP alone. Three of these patients (2.9%) needed reoperation for septic complications, and 3 (2.9%) were treated as outpatients for enterocutaneous fistulas. A correlation (p < 0.05) was found between low serum hemoglobin levels and postoperative complications at univariate and multivariate analyses. The 5-year surgical recurrence-free rate was 75% overall, 73% for patients treated with SP, 78% with MR, and 77% with MR + SP. Postoperative complications are not related to conservative or miniresective surgery even when active disease is present at the resection margins or the site of SP. The higher risk reported for patients with low serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels suggests that surgeons should consider using preoperative iron and vitamin support, parenteral nutrition and erythropoietin therapy, when necessary, in those cases. Our postoperative morbidity, mortality and long-term surgical

  20. Mid-term results of the BIOLOX delta ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y K; Ha, Y C; Yoo, J-I; Jo, W L; Kim, K-C; Koo, K H

    2017-06-01

    We conducted a prospective study of a delta ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) to determine the rate of ceramic fracture, to characterise post-operative noise, and to evaluate the mid-term results and survivorship. Between March 2009 and March 2011, 274 patients (310 hips) underwent cementless THA using a delta ceramic femoral head and liner. At each follow-up, clinical and radiological outcomes were recorded. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was undertaken to estimate survival. Four patients (four hips) died and 18 patients (20 hips) were lost to follow-up within five years. The remaining 252 patients (286 hips) were followed for a mean of 66.5 months (60 to 84). There were 144 men (166 hips) and 108 women (120 hips) with a mean age of 49.7 years (16 to 83) at surgery. The mean pre-operative Harris Hip Score of 47.1 points improved to 93.8 points at final follow-up. Six patients reported squeaking in seven hips; however, none were audible. Radiolucent lines involving Gruen zones one and/or seven were seen in 52 hips (18.2%). No hip had detectable wear, focal osteolysis or signs of loosening. One hip was revised because of fracture of the ceramic liner, which occurred due to an undetected malseating of the ceramic liner at the time of surgery. One hip was revised for a periprosthetic fracture of the femur, and one hip was treated for periprosthetic joint infection. The six-year survivorship with re-operation for any reason as the endpoint was 99.0% (95% confidence interval 97.8% to 100%). The rate of delta ceramic fracture was 0.3% (one of 286). While ceramic head fracture was dominant in previous ceramic-on-ceramic THA, fracture of the delta ceramic liner due to malseating is a concern. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:741-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Is there racial/ethnic variance in cervical cancer- specific survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incident cervical carcinoma, between 1992 and 1999, in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Data was linked with Medicare to examine the impact of race/ethnicity on overall and cancer-specific survival, using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and multivariable Cox Regression model. Results: There was ...

  2. Improved Method of Detection Falsification Results the Digital Image in Conditions of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern level of information technologies development has led to unheard ease embodiments hitherto unauthorized modifications of digital content. At the moment, very important question is the effective expert examination of authenticity of digital images, video, audio, development of the methods for identification and localization of violations of their integrity using these contents for purposes other than entertainment. Present paper deals with the improvement of the detection method of the cloning results in digital images - one of the most frequently used in the software tools falsification realized in all modern graphics editors. The method is intended for clone detection areas and pre-image in terms of additional disturbing influences in the image after the cloning operation for "masking" of the results, which complicates the search process. The improvement is aimed at reducing the number of "false alarms", when the area of the clone / pre-image detected in the original image or the localization of the identified areas do not correspond to the real clone and pre-image. The proposed improvement, based on analysis of different sizes per-pixel image blocks with the least difference from each other, has made it possible efficient functioning of the method, regardless of the specificity of the analyzed digital image.

  3. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  4. No Results? No Problem! Why We Are Publishing Methods of a Landmark Study With Results Still Pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States, and screening for CRC is a national health-care priority. In this issue, investigators from the CONFIRM study group report on the aims and study design of a large, multicenter, randomized prospective study of whether screening colonoscopy is superior to an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). CONFRIM hopes to enroll 50,000 individuals, aged 50-75 years, from 46 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and monitor them for 10 years. This article is unique in that no results are presented as the study is not yet complete. We have taken this unusual step as we believe the topic of CRC screening is critically important for our readers and that the results of this massive study have the potential to change clinical practice throughout all fields of medicine.

  5. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  6. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  7. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  8. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  9. Comparison of the analysis result between two laboratories using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Agus Taftazani

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of the analysis result of volcano ash sample between two laboratories using different analysis methods. The research aims to improve the testing laboratory quality and cooperate with the testing laboratory from other country. Samples were tested at the Center for Accelerator of Science and Technology (CAST)-NAA laboratory using NAA, while at the University of Texas (UT) USA using ICP-MS and ENAA method. From 12 elements of target, CAST-NAA able to present 11 elements of data analysis. The comparison results shows that the analysis of the K, Mn, Ti and Fe elements from both laboratories have a very good comparison and close one to other. It is known from RSD values and correlation coefficients of the both laboratories analysis results. While observed of the results difference known that the analysis results of Al, Na, K, Fe, V, Mn, Ti, Cr and As elements from both laboratories is not significantly different. From 11 elements were reported, only Zn which have significantly different values for both laboratories. (author)

  10. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  11. A method of estimating conceptus doses resulting from multidetector CT examinations during all stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis; Perisinakis, Kostas; Papadakis, Antonios E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Current methods for the estimation of conceptus dose from multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations performed on the mother provide dose data for typical protocols with a fixed scan length. However, modified low-dose imaging protocols are frequently used during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for the estimation of conceptus dose from any MDCT examination of the trunk performed during all stages of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study to model the Siemens Sensation 16 and Sensation 64 MDCT scanners. Four mathematical phantoms were used, simulating women at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months of gestation. The contribution to the conceptus dose from single simulated scans was obtained at various positions across the phantoms. To investigate the effect of maternal body size and conceptus depth on conceptus dose, phantoms of different sizes were produced by adding layers of adipose tissue around the trunk of the mathematical phantoms. To verify MCNP results, conceptus dose measurements were carried out by means of three physical anthropomorphic phantoms, simulating pregnancy at 0, 3, and 6 months of gestation and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) crystals. Results: The results consist of Monte Carlo-generated normalized conceptus dose coefficients for single scans across the four mathematical phantoms. These coefficients were defined as the conceptus dose contribution from a single scan divided by the CTDI free-in-air measured with identical scanning parameters. Data have been produced to take into account the effect of maternal body size and conceptus position variations on conceptus dose. Conceptus doses measured with TLD crystals showed a difference of up to 19% compared to those estimated by mathematical simulations. Conclusions: Estimation of conceptus doses from MDCT examinations of the trunk performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be made

  12. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Hill, Patrick M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark [Division of Medical Physics, CDH Proton Center, 4455 Weaver Parkway, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ{sub x1},σ{sub x2},σ{sub y1},σ{sub y2}) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ{sub x},μ{sub y}). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets.

  13. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ x1 ,σ x2 ,σ y1 ,σ y2 ) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ x ,μ y ). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets

  14. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Hill, Patrick M.; Flynn, Ryan T.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σx1,σx2,σy1,σy2) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μx,μy). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets. PMID:25735287

  15. Decision making with consonant belief functions: Discrepancy resulting with the probability transformation method used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinicioglu Esma Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dempster−Shafer belief function theory can address a wider class of uncertainty than the standard probability theory does, and this fact appeals the researchers in operations research society for potential application areas. However, the lack of a decision theory of belief functions gives rise to the need to use the probability transformation methods for decision making. For representation of statistical evidence, the class of consonant belief functions is used which is not closed under Dempster’s rule of combination but is closed under Walley’s rule of combination. In this research, it is shown that the outcomes obtained using both Dempster’s and Walley’s rules do result in different probability distributions when pignistic transformation is used. However, when plausibility transformation is used, they do result in the same probability distribution. This result shows that the choice of the combination rule and probability transformation method may have a significant effect on decision making since it may change the choice of the decision alternative selected. This result is illustrated via an example of missile type identification.

  16. Epilepsy in Rett syndrome--lessons from the Rett networked database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissenkorn, Andreea; Levy-Drummer, Rachel S; Bondi, Ori

    2015-01-01

    collected. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS Version 21 software, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Epilepsy was present in 68.1% of the patients, with uncontrolled seizures in 32.6% of the patients with epilepsy. Mean age of onset of epilepsy was 4...

  17. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.

    2008-01-01

    -points were loco-regional recurrence, distant metastases, disease-specific survival and overall survival. Statistical analyses included kappa statistics, chi(2) or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. Results CA IX was assessable in 945 cores. The percentage...

  18. Results of the determination of He in cenozoic aquifers using the GC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Tomasz; Najman, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Applications of the Helium (He) method known so far consisted mainly of 4He measurements using a special mass spectrometer. 4He measurements for groundwater dating purposes can be replaced by total He (3He+4He) concentration measurements because the content of 3He can be ignored. The concentrations of 3He are very low and 3He/4 He ratios do not exceed 1.0·10(-5) in most cases. In this study, the total He concentrations in groundwater were determined using the gas chromatographic (GC) method as an alternative to methods based on spectrometry measurement. He concentrations in groundwater were used for the determination of residence time and groundwater circulation. Additionally, the radiocarbon method was used to determine the value of the external He flux (JHe) in the study area. Obtained low He concentrations and their small variation within the ca. 65 km long section along which groundwater flows indicate that it is likely there is relatively short residence time and a strong hydraulic connection between the aquifers. The estimated residence time (ca. 3000 years) is heavily dependent on the great uncertainty of the He concentration resulting from the low concentrations of He, the external 4He flux value adopted for calculation purposes and the 14C ages used to estimate the external 4He flux. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  19. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Kauffmann, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [de

  20. A method for purifying air containing radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the extraction of radioactive isotopes from air. It refers to a method for withdrawing the radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon from air, said method of the type comprising filtrating the air contaminated by the radon daughter products in a filter wetted with water in order to trap said substances in water. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of causing the water contaminated by the radon daughter products to flow through a filtrating substance containing a non hydrosoluble granular substrate, the outer surface of which has been dried then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning the thus filtrated water so that it wets again the air filter and entraps further radon daughter products. This can be applied to the purification of the air in uranium mines [fr

  1. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally

  2. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  3. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  4. Effective methods of protection of the intellectual activity results in infosphere of global telematics networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lovtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is perfection of using metodology of technological and organization and legal protect of intellectual activity results and related intellectual rights in information sphere of Global Telematics Networks (such as of «Internet», «Relkom», «Sitek», «Sedab», «Remart», and others. On the conduct analysis base of the peculiarities and possibilities of using of different technological, organization and legal methods and ways protection of information objects the offers of perfection of corresponding organization and legal safeguarding are formulated. The effectiveness of the protection is provided on the basis of rational aggregation technological, organization and legal methods and ways possible in a particular situation.

  5. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Glasgow, Amy E.; Jacob, Jeffrey T.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.; Link, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS were identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000 cases

  6. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Matthew L., E-mail: carlson.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Glasgow, Amy E. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research and the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jacob, Jeffrey T. [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Habermann, Elizabeth B. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research and the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS were identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000 cases

  7. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  8. Some results about the dating of pre hispanic mexican ceramics by the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.; Mendoza A, D.; Ramirez L, A.; Schaaf, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most frequently recurring questions in Archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. The some first dating methods were based in historical narrations, style of buildings manufacture techniques. However, has been observed that as consequence the continuous irradiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays some materials, such as archaeological ceramic, accumulate certain quantity of energy. These types of material can, in principle, be dated through the analysis of these accumulate energy. In that case, ceramic dating can be realized by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. In this work, results obtained by our research group about TL dating of ceramic belonging to several archaeological zones like to Edzna (Campeche), Calixtlahuaca and Teotenango (Mexico State) and Hervideros (Durango) are presented. The analysis was realized using the fine grained mode in a Daybreak model 1100 reader TL system. The radioisotopes that contribute in the accumulate annual dose in ceramic samples ( 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th) were determined by means of techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (AAN). Our results are agree with results obtained through other methods. (Author) 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Influence of Meibomian Gland Expression Methods on Human Lipid Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Carolina M E; Brown, Simon H J; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Holden, Brien A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Papas, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the lipid composition of human meibum across three different meibum expression techniques. Meibum was collected from five healthy non-contact lens wearers (aged 20-35 years) after cleaning the eyelid margin using three meibum expression methods: cotton buds (CB), meibomian gland evaluator (MGE) and meibomian gland forceps (MGF). Meibum was also collected using cotton buds without cleaning the eyelid margin (CBn). Lipids were analyzed by chip-based, nano-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Comparisons were made using linear mixed models. Tandem MS enabled identification and quantification of over 200 lipid species across ten lipid classes. There were significant differences between collection techniques in the relative quantities of polar lipids obtained (P<.05). The MGE method returned smaller polar lipid quantities than the CB approaches. No significant differences were found between techniques for nonpolar lipids. No significant differences were found between cleaned and non-cleaned eyelids for polar or nonpolar lipids. Meibum expression technique influences the relative amount of phospholipids in the resulting sample. The highest amounts of phospholipids were detected with the CB approaches and the lowest with the MGE technique. Cleaning the eyelid margin prior to expression was not found to affect the lipid composition of the sample. This may be a consequence of the more forceful expression resulting in cell membrane contamination or higher risk of tear lipid contamination as a result of reflex tearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the Pierrelatte industrial complex. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, Jacques.

    1978-05-01

    A 13 year experience gained from daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the PIERRELATTE industrial complex is presented. This study is divided into two parts: part one is theoretical: bibliographical synthesis of all scattered documents and publications; a homogeneous survey of all literature on the subject is thus available. Part two reviews the experience gained in professional surroundings: laboratory measurements and analyses (development of methods and daily applications); mathematical formulae to answer the first questions which arise before an individual liable to be contaminated; results obtained at PIERRELATTE [fr

  11. Does surgery or radiation provide the best overall survival in Ewing's sarcoma? A review of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin J; Gao, Yubo; Duchman, Kyle R

    2017-09-01

    There is continuing debate regarding the ideal modality for local control of the primary tumor for patients with Ewing's sarcoma. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the method of local control on overall survival in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients Ewing's sarcoma of bone. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed at 2, 5, and 10 years. Factors with a level of significance of P 8 cm, and male sex while controlling for tumor site. Surgery alone was consistently the method of local control that resulted in the highest overall survival. Surgery alone resulted in the best overall survival for patients with Ewing's sarcoma of bone. The results of this investigation provide support to the approach of surgical resection with negative margins when possible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  13. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2018-05-22

    A series of semiempirical PM6* and PM7 methods has been tested in reproducing of relative conformational energies of 27 realistic-size complexes of 16 different transition metals (TMs). An analysis of relative energies derived from single-point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation, we compared fully optimized PM7 and respective DFT conformers. For many complexes, differences in PM7 and DFT conformational energies have been confirmed often manifesting themselves in false coordination of some atoms (H, O) to TMs and chemical transformations/distortion of coordination center geometry in PM7 structures. Despite geometry optimization with fixed coordination center geometry leads to some improvements in conformational energies, the resulting accuracy is still too low to recommend explored semiempirical methods for out-of-the-box conformational search/sampling: careful testing is always needed.

  14. Application of X-ray methods to assess grain vulnerability to damage resulting from multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobecki, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work is to describe wheat grain behavior under multiple dynamic loads with various multipliers. The experiments were conducted on Almari variety grain. Grain moisture was 11, 16, 21 and 28%. A special ram stand was used for loading the grain. The experiments were carried out using an 8 g weight, equivalent to impact energy of 4,6 x 10 -3 [J]. The X-ray method was used to assess damage. The exposure time was 8 minutes with X-ray lamp voltage equal to 15 kV. The position index was used as the measure of the damage. The investigation results were elaborated statistically. Based on the results of analysis of variance, regression analysis, the d-Duncan test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the damage number was shown to depend greatly on the number of impacts for the whole range of moisture of the grain loaded. (author)

  15. (Re)interpreting LHC New Physics Search Results : Tools and Methods, 3rd Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    The quest for new physics beyond the SM is arguably the driving topic for LHC Run2. LHC collaborations are pursuing searches for new physics in a vast variety of channels. Although collaborations provide various interpretations for their search results, the full understanding of these results requires a much wider interpretation scope involving all kinds of theoretical models. This is a very active field, with close theory-experiment interaction. In particular, development of dedicated methodologies and tools is crucial for such scale of interpretation. Recently, a Forum was initiated to host discussions among LHC experimentalists and theorists on topics related to the BSM (re)interpretation of LHC data, and especially on the development of relevant interpretation tools and infrastructure: https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/view/LHCPhysics/InterpretingLHCresults Two meetings were held at CERN, where active discussions and concrete work on (re)interpretation methods and tools took place, with valuable cont...

  16. GRS Method for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation of Code Results and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years, an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis is to replace the conservative evaluation model calculations by best estimate calculations supplemented by uncertainty analysis of the code results. The evaluation of the margin to acceptance criteria, for example, the maximum fuel rod clad temperature, should be based on the upper limit of the calculated uncertainty range. Uncertainty analysis is needed if useful conclusions are to be obtained from best estimate thermal-hydraulic code calculations, otherwise single values of unknown accuracy would be presented for comparison with regulatory acceptance limits. Methods have been developed and presented to quantify the uncertainty of computer code results. The basic techniques proposed by GRS are presented together with applications to a large break loss of coolant accident on a reference reactor as well as on an experiment simulating containment behaviour

  17. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  18. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  19. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  20. Sobrevivência após acidentes de trânsito: impacto das variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares Sobrevida después de accidentes de tránsito: impacto de las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias Survival after motor vehicle crash: impact of clinical and prehospital variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares associadas à sobrevivência de vítimas de acidente de trânsito. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no município de São Paulo, SP, de 1999 a 2003. Foram analisados dados de 175 pacientes, entre 12 e 65 anos, vitimados por acidente de trânsito. A Análise de Sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier foi utilizada na abordagem dos resultados na cena do acidente com as vítimas de escore OBJETIVO: Analizar las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias asociadas a la sobrevida de víctimas de accidentes del tránsito. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado en el municipio de São Paulo (Sudeste de Brasil, de 1999 a 2003. Fueron analizados datos de 175 pacientes, entre 12 y 65 años, victimas de accidentes de tránsito. El análisis de Sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier fue utilizado en el abordaje de los resultados en la escena del accidente con las víctimas de score OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and prehospital variables associated with survival of motor vehicle crash victims. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. Data from 175 patients, who were aged between 12 and 65 years and had been motor vehicle crash victims, were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis was used to approach the results at the accident scene with victims scoring <11, according to the Revised Trauma Score. Variables analyzed were: sex, age, injury mechanisms, basic and advanced support procedures, Revised Trauma Score parameters and fluctuations, time elapsed in the prehospital phase and trauma severity according to the Injury Severity Score and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that victims who were less likely to survive during the hospitalization period showed serious lesions in the abdomen, thorax, or lower limbs, with negative fluctuation of respiratory frequency and Revised Trauma Score in the prehospital phase. In addition, they needed specialized

  1. Improving the accuracy of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy results by machine learning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groselj, C.; Kukar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Machine learning (ML) as rapidly growing artificial intelligence subfield has already proven in last decade to be a useful tool in many fields of decision making, also in some fields of medicine. Its decision accuracy usually exceeds the human one. To assess applicability of ML in interpretation the results of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for CAD diagnosis. The 327 patient's data of planar stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were reevaluated in usual way. Comparing them with the results of coronary angiography the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the investigation was computed. The data were digitized and the decision procedure repeated by ML program 'Naive Bayesian classifier'. As the ML is able to simultaneously manipulate of whatever number of data, all reachable disease connected data (regarding history, habitus, risk factors, stress results) were added. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for scintigraphy were expressed in this way. The results of both decision procedures were compared. With ML method 19 patients more out of 327 (5.8 %) were correctly diagnosed by stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. ML could be an important tool for decision making in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (author)

  2. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  3. A study of HPV typing for the management of HPV-positive ASC-US cervical cytologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Vaughan, Laurence M; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Castle, Philip E; Katki, Hormuzd A; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Befano, Brian; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1187 with Kaplan-Meier methods. The 3-year CIN3+ risk for all HC2-positive women with ASC-US was 5.2%; this establishes the "benchmark" risk for colposcopic referral. Hierarchically, 3-year cumulative risks for each typing channel were 16.0% for HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.3% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  5. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: Hardware setup, reconstruction methods and first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmeke, Hartmut; Hopp, Torsten; Zapf, Michael; Kaiser, Clemens; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2017-11-01

    A promising candidate for improved imaging of breast cancer is ultrasound computer tomography (USCT). Current experimental USCT systems are still focused in elevation dimension resulting in a large slice thickness, limited depth of field, loss of out-of-plane reflections, and a large number of movement steps to acquire a stack of images. 3D USCT emitting and receiving spherical wave fronts overcomes these limitations. We built an optimized 3D USCT, realizing for the first time the full benefits of a 3D system. The point spread function could be shown to be nearly isotropic in 3D, to have very low spatial variability and fit the predicted values. The contrast of the phantom images is very satisfactory in spite of imaging with a sparse aperture. The resolution and imaged details of the reflectivity reconstruction are comparable to a 3 T MRI volume. Important for the obtained resolution are the simultaneously obtained results of the transmission tomography. The KIT 3D USCT was then tested in a pilot study on ten patients. The primary goals of the pilot study were to test the USCT device, the data acquisition protocols, the image reconstruction methods and the image fusion techniques in a clinical environment. The study was conducted successfully; the data acquisition could be carried out for all patients with an average imaging time of six minutes per breast. The reconstructions provide promising images. Overlaid volumes of the modalities show qualitative and quantitative information at a glance. This paper gives a summary of the involved techniques, methods, and first results.

  6. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Full Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    In light of the above, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the methods of calculating full costs (economic or traditional, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  7. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  8. Clinical and echocardiographic assessment of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis: the Scandinavian multicentre, prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaverstad, Rune; Vitale, Nicola; Karevold, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is the prospective, multicentre evaluation of clinical results and haemodynamic performance of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis. METHODS: From April 2001 to June 2003, 166 patients (male:female 125:41; mean (SD) age 61.8 (11.8) years) received...... an aortic advantage valve prosthesis. Complete cumulative follow-up was 242.7 patient-years (maximum 3.2; mean 1.6 years). Postoperatively, patients underwent early (within 30 days) and 1 year transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: 30 day mortality was 2.4% (n = 4). Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from...... echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodynamic performance and early clinical results of Medtronic advantage in the aortic position were satisfactory and comparable with those of other bileaflet valves in current clinical use....

  9. Rainfall assimilation in RAMS by means of the Kuo parameterisation inversion: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, A.; Ortolani, A.; Meneguzzo, F.; Levizzani, V.; Torricella, F.; Turk, F. J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve high-resolution forecasts, a specific method for assimilating rainfall rates into the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System model has been developed. It is based on the inversion of the Kuo convective parameterisation scheme. A nudging technique is applied to 'gently' increase with time the weight of the estimated precipitation in the assimilation process. A rough but manageable technique is explained to estimate the partition of convective precipitation from stratiform one, without requiring any ancillary measurement. The method is general purpose, but it is tuned for geostationary satellite rainfall estimation assimilation. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, both through totally simulated experiments and through experiments assimilating real satellite-based precipitation observations. For every case study, Rainfall data are computed with a rapid update satellite precipitation estimation algorithm based on IR and MW satellite observations. This research was carried out in the framework of the EURAINSAT project (an EC research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme within the topic 'Development of generic Earth observation technologies', Contract number EVG1-2000-00030).

  10. Implantable central venous chemoport: camparision of results according to approach routes and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Ahn, Moon Sang

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the results and complications of placement of implantable port according to approach routes and methods. Between April 2001 and October 2002, a total of 103 implantable chemoport was placed in 95 patients for chemotherapy using preconnected type (n=39) and attachable type (n=64). Puncture sites were left subclavian vein (n=35), right subclavian vein (n=5), left internal jugular vein (n=9), right internal jugular vein (n=54). We evaluated duration of catheterization days, complications according to approach routes and methods. Implantable chemoport was placed successfully in all cases. Duration of catheterization ranged from 8 to 554 days(mean 159, total 17,872 catheter days). Procedure related complications occurred transient pulmonary air embolism (n=1), small hematoma (n=1) and malposition in using preconnected type (n=2). Late complications occurred catheter migration (n=5), catheter malfunction (n=3), occlusion (n=1) and infection (n=11). Among them 15 chemoport was removed (14.5%). Catheter migration was occured via subclavian vein in all cases (13%, p=.008). Infection developed in 10.7% of patients(0.61 per 1000 catheter days). There were no catheter-related central vein thrombosis. Implantation of chemoport is a safe procedure. Choice of right internal jugular vein than subclavian vain vein for puncture site has less complications. And selection of attachable type of chemoport is convenient than preconnected type. Adequate care of chemoport is essential for long patency

  11. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  12. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance

  13. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  14. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  15. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    During the 'Workshop on R and D needs' at the 3rd Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-III), the participants agreed that it would be useful to compile a survey of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods various organizations use to verify and validate their codes and libraries. Five organizations, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, Canada), China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE, People's Republic of China), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI, Japan), Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL, USA), and Siemens (Germany) responded to the survey. The results of the survey are compiled in this report. (author) 36 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  17. Hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Tessier, A.; Cossement, D.; Lafi, L.; Bose, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    We present high sensitivity gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen sorption measurement systems adapted for in situ conditioning under high temperature and high vacuum. These systems, which allow for precise measurements on small samples and thorough degassing, are used for sorption measurements on carbon nanostructures. We developed one volumetric system for the pressure range 0-1 bar, and two gravimetric systems for 0-1 bar and 0-100 bars. The use of both gravimetric and volumetric methods allows for the cross-checking of the results. The accuracy of the systems has been determined from hydrogen absorption measurements on palladium. The accuracies of the 0-1 bar volumetric and gravimetric systems are about 10 μg and 20 μg respectively. The accuracy of the 0-100 bars gravimetric system is about 20 μg. Hydrogen sorption measurements on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal-incorporated- SWNTs are presented. (author)

  18. Method validation in plasma source optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) - From samples to results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Fabien; Vielle, Karine; Birolleau, Jean-Claude; Vigneau, Olivier; Labet, Alexandre; Arnal, Nadege; Adam, Christelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Amiel, Jeanine; Granier, Guy; Faure, Joel; Arnaud, Regine; Beres, Andre; Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Broudic, Veronique; Marques, Caroline; Augeray, Celine; Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bienvenu, Philippe; Delteil, Nicole; Boulet, Beatrice; Bourgarit, David; Brennetot, Rene; Fichet, Pascal; Celier, Magali; Chevillotte, Rene; Klelifa, Aline; Fuchs, Gilbert; Le Coq, Gilles; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Even though ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy) is now a routine analysis technique, requirements for measuring processes impose a complete control and mastering of the operating process and of the associated quality management system. The aim of this (collective) book is to guide the analyst during all the measurement validation procedure and to help him to guarantee the mastering of its different steps: administrative and physical management of samples in the laboratory, preparation and treatment of the samples before measuring, qualification and monitoring of the apparatus, instrument setting and calibration strategy, exploitation of results in terms of accuracy, reliability, data covariance (with the practical determination of the accuracy profile). The most recent terminology is used in the book, and numerous examples and illustrations are given in order to a better understanding and to help the elaboration of method validation documents

  19. Labelling of blood cells with radioactive indium-201: method, results, indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Brendel, A.; Nouel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A modification of the method of Thakur et al. for labelling polynuclear cells with 8-hydroxyquinolein-indium-complexe utilising the water soluble sulfate of the substance was applied. The labelling procedure gave a yield over 98% with erthrocytes and over 80% with platelets and polynuclear cells using at least 1 x 10 8 plasma free cells. Functional capacity of the labelled cells remained unaltered. Injection double labelled ( 111 In, 51 Cr) red cells correlation of values for the red cell volume amounted to r = 0,98 (n=20); red cell life-spane measurements gave comparable results in 5 patients. After injecting labelled platelets a life-spane between 6,5 and 11 days was measured. Scintigraphic visualisation of pulmonary embolism was obtained 30 minutes after injecting labelled platelets. Injection of labelled polynuclear cells allows life-spane measurements as well as detection of abscesses. (author)

  20. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  1. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  2. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  3. Age at hysterectomy as a predictor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    from 1977 to 2009 from the Danish National Patient Registry. The cohort consisted of 154,882 hysterectomized women, who were followed up for up to 32 years. Survival analysis for each age group at hysterectomy was performed using Kaplan-Meier product limit methods. RESULTS: For all hysterectomized......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patient age at the time of hysterectomy and subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery. METHODS: We gathered data on all benign hysterectomies and POP surgeries performed in Denmark on Danish women...... women, we found that low age at hysterectomy yielded a lower risk of subsequent POP surgery than did hysterectomy at an older age. This difference diminished after stratification by indication; all non-POP hysterectomies had a low cumulative incidence at 8-11 % at the end of the follow-up period...

  4. Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Sorensen, Rikke; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2010-01-01

    with patients not treated with clopidogrel. Similarly, 2 groups without HF were identified. Risks of all-cause death were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: We identified 56,944 patients with first-time AMI. In the matched cohort with HF (n = 5,050) and a mean follow......OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Use of clopidogrel after AMI is low in patients with HF, despite the fact that clopidogrel...... is associated with absolute mortality reduction in AMI patients. METHODS: All patients hospitalized with first-time AMI (2000 through 2005) and not undergoing PCI within 30 days from discharge were identified in national registers. Patients with HF treated with clopidogrel were matched by propensity score...

  5. Breast conserving treatment of breast carcinoma T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy, high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, external beam radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: local control and overall survival analysis; Tratamento conservador do cancer de mama T2 ({<=} 4 cm) e T3 por quimioterapia neoadjuvante, quadrantectomia, braquiterapia com alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante: analise de controle local e sobrevida global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Celia Regina; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Baraldi, Helena Espindola; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: celiarsoares@terra.com.br; Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia; Paes, Roberto Pinto [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering local control and overall survival. Material and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 88 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIb and IIIa, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated from June/1995 to December/2006. Median follow-up was 58 months. Using clinical methods the tumor was evaluated before and after three or four cycles of chemotherapy based on anthracyclines. Overall survival and local control were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Local control and overall survival in five years were 90% and 73.5%, respectively. Conclusion: local control and overall survival were comparable to other forms of treatment. (author)

  6. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro studies suggest basal breast cancers are more sensitive to gemcitabine relative to other intrinsic subtypes. The main objective of this study was to use specimens from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether the basal-like subtype identifies patients with advanced...... breast cancer who benefit from gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) compared to single agent docetaxel (D). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From patients randomly assigned to GD or D, RNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and used for PAM50 intrinsic subtyping...... chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...

  7. LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL ESTİMATİON FOR RIGHT CENSORED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Yılmaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, firstly we will define a right censored data. If we say shortly right-censored data is censoring values that above the exact line. This may be related with scaling device. And then  we will use response variable acquainted from right-censored explanatory variables. Then the linear regression model will be estimated. For censored data’s existence, Kaplan-Meier weights will be used for  the estimation of the model. With the weights regression model  will be consistent and unbiased with that.   And also there is a method for the censored data that is a semi parametric regression and this method also give  useful results  for censored data too. This study also might be useful for the health studies because of the censored data used in medical issues generally.

  8. The prognostic value of lymph node metastases and tumour regression grade in rectal cancer patients treated with long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, J; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Ploen, J

    2009-01-01

    to the tumour regression grade system and lymph node status in the surgical specimen was assessed. The prognostic value of clinico-pathological parameters was analysed using univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier methods for comparison of groups. RESULTS: All patients responded to treatment and 47% had a major......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of tumour regression and the post-treatment lymph node status on the prognosis of rectal cancer treated by preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-five patients with locally advanced T3.......01). CONCLUSION: The combined assessment of lymph-node status and tumour response has strong prognostic value in locally advanced rectal cancer patient treated with preoperative long-course chemoradiation....

  9. Effect of intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dezhong; Li Huai; Zeng Huiying; Yang Ling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer. Methods: 1993-1998 years, Thirty four patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer had received epi-adriamycin, cisplatin, mitomycin and 5-fluorouracil by intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Twelve patients had received embolization. Results: Six patients (17.65%) had a complete response, 12 patients (35.29%) had a partial response. The overall response rate was 52.94%. Cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years were 56.90%, 25.00%, 5.00% and 5.00% respectively (Kaplan-Meier method). The median overall survival time was 11.5 months. Conclusion: Intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy is safe and effective for liver metastasis from breast cancer and should be the first choice of treatment for these patients

  10. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2016-01-01

    physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient......OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... Register and The Danish Civil Registration System of 742 eligible patients. Physical activity was quantified with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression and logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Patients with a moderate to high physical...

  11. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy have a better survival than the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreas Røder, Martin; Brasso, Klaus; Drimer Berg, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    underwent radical prostatectomy. Patients were followed prospectively per protocol. No patients were lost to follow-up. Overall and cause-specific survival were described using Kaplan-Meier plots. Standardized relative survival and mortality ratio were calculated based on expected survival in the age......INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate standardised relative survival and mortality ratio for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer at our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2010, a total of 1,350 consecutive patients......-matched Danish population using the methods and macros described by Dickmann. The country-specific population mortality rates used for calculation of the expected survival were based on data from The Human Mortality Database. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 3.4 years (range: 0-14.3 years). A total of 59 (4...

  12. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of foetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies...... between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were...... computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without...

  13. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN PUBLIC SPACE PARTICIPATIVE PROJECTS: METHODS AND RESULTS IN PRACTICE AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2015-06-01

    • In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration  with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear

  14. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  15. Third-line Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J Connor; Stukalin, Igor; Norton, Craig; Srinivas, Sandy; Lee, Jae Lyun; Donskov, Frede; Bjarnason, Georg A; Yamamoto, Haru; Beuselinck, Benoit; Rini, Brian I; Knox, Jennifer J; Agarwal, Neeraj; Ernst, D Scott; Pal, Sumanta K; Wood, Lori A; Bamias, Aristotelis; Alva, Ajjai S; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Choueiri, Toni K; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2017-02-01

    The use of third-line targeted therapy (TTT) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is not well characterized and varies due to the lack of robust data to guide treatment decisions. This study examined the use of third-line therapy in a large international population. To evaluate the use and efficacy of targeted therapy in a third-line setting. Twenty-five international cancer centers provided consecutive data on 4824 mRCC patients who were treated with an approved targeted therapy. One thousand and twelve patients (21%) received TTT and were included in the analysis. Patients were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival using Kaplan-Meier curves, and were evaluated for overall response. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the statistical association between OS and the six factors included in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic model. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients stratified by their IMDC prognostic risk status. Everolimus was the most prevalent third-line therapy (27.5%), but sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, temsirolimus, and axitinib were all utilized in over ≥9% of patients. Patients receiving any TTT had an OS of 12.4 mo, a progression-free survival of 3.9 mo, and 61.1% of patients experienced an overall response of stable disease or better. Patients not receiving TTT had an OS of 2.1 mo. Patients with favorable- (7.2%) or intermediate-risk (65.3%) disease had the highest OS with TTT, 29.9 mo and 15.5 mo, respectively, while poor-risk (27.5%) patients survived 5.5 mo. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study. TTT remains highly heterogeneous. The IMDC prognostic criteria can be used to stratify third-line patients. TTT use in favorable- and intermediate-risk patients was associated with the greatest OS. Patients with favorable- and intermediate-prognostic criteria disease treated with third-line targeted therapy have an associated

  16. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Partial Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    Looking from this perspective, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the full cost calculation methods based on partial costs (direct-costing on the product or direct-costing evolved, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  17. A New Method for a Virtue-Based Responsible Conduct of Research Curriculum: Pilot Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Eric; McLeskey, Chet; O'Rourke, Michael; Pennock, Robert T

    2018-02-03

    Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e.g., curiosity and objectivity. During these structured discussions, small groups of scientists explore the roles they think the focus virtue plays and should play in the practice of science. Preliminary results have shown that participants strongly prefer this virtue-based model over traditional methods of RCR training. While we cannot yet definitively say that participation in these RCR sessions contributes to responsible conduct, these pilot results are encouraging and warrant continued development of this virtue-based approach to RCR training.

  18. First characterization of the expiratory flow increase technique: method development and results analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maréchal, L; Barthod, C; Jeulin, J C

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an important contribution to the definition of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT). So far, no measuring means were suited to assess the manual EFIT performed on infants. The proposed method aims at objectively defining the EFIT based on the quantification of pertinent cognitive parameters used by physiotherapists when practicing. We designed and realized customized instrumented gloves endowed with pressure and displacement sensors, and the associated electronics and software. This new system is specific to the manoeuvre, to the user and innocuous for the patient. Data were collected and analysed on infants with bronchiolitis managed by an expert physiotherapist. The analysis presented is realized on a group of seven subjects (mean age: 6.1 months, SD: 1.1; mean chest circumference: 44.8 cm, SD: 1.9). The results are consistent with the physiotherapist's tactility. In spite of inevitable variability due to measurements on infants, repeatable quantitative data could be reported regarding the manoeuvre characteristics: the magnitudes of displacements do not exceed 10 mm on both hands; the movement of the thoracic hand is more vertical than the movement of the abdominal hand; the maximum applied pressure with the thoracic hand is about twice higher than with the abdominal hand; the thrust of the manual compression lasts (590 ± 62) ms. Inter-operators measurements are in progress in order to generalize these results

  19. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  20. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation : Practical Methods, Useful Results : Proceedings of the 1987 Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argonne National Laboratory; International Conference on Energy Conservation Program Evaluation (3rd : 1987 : Chicago, ILL.)

    1987-01-01

    The success of cutting-edge evaluation methodologies depends on our ability to merge, manage, and maintain huge amounts of data. Equally important is presenting results of the subsequent analysis in a meaningful way. These topics are addressed at this session. The considerable amounts of data that have been collected about energy conservation programs are rarely used by other researchers, either because they are not available in computerized form or, if they are, because of the difficulties of interpreting someone else's data, format inconsistencies, incompatibility of computers, lack of documentation, data entry errors, and obtaining data use agreements. Even census, RECS, and AHS data can be best used only by a researcher who is intimately familiar with them. Once the data have been accessed and analyzed, the results need to be put in a format that can be readily understood by others. This is a particularly difficult task when submetered data is the basis of the analysis. Stoops and Gilbride will demonstrate their methods of using off-the-shelf graphics software to illustrate complex hourly data from nonresidential buildings.

  1. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  2. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  3. Major Results of the OECD BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods; Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reventos, F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of computer code models of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is to demonstrate that these are designed to respond safely at postulated accidents. Models and codes are an approximation of the real physical behaviour occurring during a hypothetical transient and the data used to build these models are also known with certain accuracy. Therefore code predictions are uncertain. The BEMUSE programme is focussed on the application of uncertainty methodologies to large break LOCAs. The programme intends to evaluate the practicability, quality and reliability of best-estimate methods including uncertainty evaluations in applications relevant to nuclear reactor safety, to develop common understanding and to promote/facilitate their use by the regulator bodies and the industry. In order to fulfil its objectives BEMUSE is organized in to steps and six phases. The first step is devoted to the complete analysis of a LB-LOCA (L2-5) in an experimental facility (LOFT) while the second step refers to an actual Nuclear Power Plant. Both steps provide results on thermalhydraulic Best Estimate simulation as well as Uncertainty and sensitivity evaluation. At the time this paper is prepared, phases I, II and III are fully completed and the corresponding reports have been issued. Phase IV draft report is by now being reviewed while participants are working on Phase V developments. Phase VI consists in preparing the final status report which will summarizes the most relevant results of the whole programme.

  4. Direct visual internal urethrotomy: Is it a durable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Ghosh, Bastab

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for anterior urethral strictures. We retrospectively analyzed the results for patients who underwent internal urethrotomy from January 2009 to January 2014 for anterior urethral strictures. Patients were followed till January 2016. Patients with complicated urethral strictures with a history of previous urethroplasty, hypospadias repair, or previous radiation were excluded from the study, as anticipated low success rate of direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in these patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, and third urethrotomy. A total of 186 patients were included in this study. Stricture-free rates after first, second, and third urethrotomy were 29.66%, 22.64%, and 13.33%, respectively. Although DVIU may be a management option for anterior urethral stricture disease, it seems that long-term results are disappointing.

  5. Association between poor clinical prognosis and sleep duration among breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between clinical progression and the quality and duration of sleep in women with breast cancer. Method: longitudinal study, with 114 participants, conducted in a hospital in Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Beck Depression Inventory and Herth Hope Scale. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and survival analyses (outcome: poor clinical progression, using the Kaplan-Meier curve, Log-rank test and Cox proportional model. Results: a higher probability of poor clinical progression was verified in women with sleep durations of less than six hours or nine hours and over (p=.0173. Conclusion: the results suggest the importance of further studies that seek to verify whether the quantitative management of sleep disorders would have an impact on the progression of breast cancer. Women should be encouraged to report sleep problems to nurses.

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  7. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  8. Comparison of Pathologic Response Evaluation Systems after Anthracycline with/without Taxane-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy among Different Subtypes of Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to assess the pathologic response of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC to predict clinical outcome. However, the clinical utility of these systems for each molecular subtype of breast cancer is unclear. Therefore, we applied six pathologic response assessment systems to specific subtypes of breast cancer and compared the results.Five hundred and eighty eight breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC were retrospectively analyzed, and the ypTNM stage, residual cancer burden (RCB, residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN, tumor response ratio, Sataloff's classification, and Miller-Payne grading system were evaluated. The results obtained for each assessment system were analyzed in terms of patient survival.In triple-negative tumors, all systems were significantly associated with disease-free survival and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for disease-free survival were clearly separated by all assessment methods. For HR+/HER2- tumors, systems assessing the residual tumor (ypTNM stage, RCB, and RDBN had prognostic significance. However, for HER2+ tumors, the association between patient survival and the pathologic response assessment results varied according to the system used, and none resulted in distinct Kaplan-Meier curves.Most of the currently available pathologic assessment systems used after anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC effectively classified triple-negative breast cancers into groups showing different prognoses. The pathologic assessment systems evaluating residual tumors only also had prognostic significance in HR+/HER2- tumors. However, new assessment methods are required to effectively evaluate the pathologic response of HR+/HER2+ and HR-/HER2+ tumors to anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC.

  9. Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars. I. Description of the methods and individual results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Morel, Thierry; Nazé, Yaël; Rauw, Gregor; Semaan, Thierry; Daflon, Simone; Oey, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing. Methods: We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity. Results: This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way. Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope

  10. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  11. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Cancer Trials Designed to Delay or Avoid Radiotherapy: I. Basic Concepts and First Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard G.; Machin, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, although irradiation after disease progression is an important event, patients who have disease progression may decline radiotherapy (RT), or those without disease progression may opt for elective RT. To accurately describe the cumulative need for RT in such instances, it is crucial to account for these distinct events and to evaluate how each contributes to the delay or advancement of irradiation via a competing risks analysis. Methods and Materials: We describe the summary of competing events in such trials using competing risks methods based on cumulative incidence functions and Gray's test. The results obtained are contrasted with standard survival methods based on Kaplan-Meier curves, cause-specific hazard functions and log-rank test. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimates all event-specific rates. The cause-specific hazard analysis showed reduction in hazards for all events (A: RT after progression; B: no RT after progression; C: elective RT) among children with ependymoma. For event A, a higher cumulative incidence was reported for ependymoma. Although Gray's test failed to detect any difference (p = 0.331) between histologic subtypes, the log-rank test suggested marginal evidence (p = 0.057). Similarly, for event C, the log-rank test found stronger evidence of reduction in hazard among those with ependymoma (p = 0.005) as compared with Gray's test (p = 0.086). Conclusions: To evaluate treatment differences, failing to account for competing risks using appropriate methodology may lead to incorrect interpretations.

  12. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  13. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  14. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF 6 in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF 6 is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF 6 may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF 6 cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail

  15. Methods and introductory results of the Greek national health and nutrition survey - HYDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Martimianaki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  According to a large prospective cohort study (with baseline examination in the 1990s and smaller studies that followed, the population in Greece has been gradually deprived of the favorable morbidity and mortality indices recorded in the 1960s. The HYDRIA survey conducted in 2013-14 is the first nationally representative survey, which collected data related to the health and nutrition of the population in Greece. Methods: The survey sample consists of 4011 males (47% and females aged 18 years and over. Data collection included interviewer-administered questionnaires on personal characteristics, lifestyle choices, dietary habits and medical history; measurements of somatometry and blood pressure; and, blood drawing. Weighting factors were applied to ensure national representativeness of results. Results: Three out of five adults in Greece reported suffering of a chronic disease, with diabetes mellitus and chronic depression being the more frequent ones among older individuals. The population is also experiencing an overweight/obesity epidemic, since seven out of 10 adults are either overweight or obese. In addition, 40% of the population bears indications of hypertension. Smoking is still common and among women the prevalence was higher in younger age groups. Social disparities were observed in the prevalence of chronic diseases and mortality risk factors (hypertension, obesity, impaired lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Excess body weight, hypertension, the smoking habit and the population’s limited physical activity are the predominant challenges that public health officials have to deal with in formulating policies and designing actions for the population in Greece.

  16. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.

  17. Methods for improving mechanical properties of partially stabilized zirconia and the resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for improving mechanical surface properties of a rigid body comprising partially stabilized zirconia as a constituent is described comprising the following steps: (i) providing a rigid body having an exposed surface and an interior volume; (ii) subjecting the exposed surface region of partially stabilized zirconia to external heating to heat the exposed surface region to 1100 0 C-1600 0 C without heating the interior volume above 500 0 C-800 0 C; and (iii) cooling the rigid body to a temperature of less than 500 0 C to cause a portion of the exposed surface region to transform from the tetragonal lattice modification to the monoclinic lattice modification, thereby creating a compressive stress field in the exposed surface region and improving the mechanical surface properties of the exposed surface region. In a ceramic body comprising a first exposed region of a partially stabilized zirconia, and a second region of a partially stabilized zirconia at an interior portion of the ceramic body, the improvement is described comprising the ceramic body having in the first, exposed region a greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification than in the second region; having in the first, exposed region 5 percent to 100 percent in the monoclinic lattice modification; and having a molded surface finish in the first, exposed region; the first, exposed region being subjected to a compressive field resulting from the greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification

  18. New results to BDD truncation method for efficient top event probability calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuchang; Zhong, Farong; Zhao, Xiangfu; Yang, Quansheng; Cui, Gang

    2012-01-01

    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since its memory consumption is very high. Recently, in order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, Jung presented an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. In this paper, it is first identified that Jung's BDD truncation algorithm can be improved for a more practical use. Then, a more efficient truncation algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can generate truncated BDD with smaller size and approximate TEP with smaller truncation error. Empirical results showed this new algorithm uses slightly less running time and slightly more storage usage than Jung's algorithm. It was also found, that designing a truncation algorithm with ideal features for every possible fault tree is very difficult, if not impossible. The so-called ideal features of this paper would be that with the decrease of truncation limits, the size of truncated BDD converges to the size of exact BDD, but should never be larger than exact BDD.

  19. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  20. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: Preliminary results of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreli, Heloise F; Peduzzi, Marina; Bailey, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 professionals in 18 interprofessional teams based in São Paulo, Brazil. In Stage 2, data were collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of team members who participated in the first stage of the study. Results from Stage 1 provided an overview of factors relevant to teamwork, which in turn informed our exploration of the relationship between team climate and IPC. Preliminary findings from Stage 2 indicated that teams with a more positive team climate (in particular, greater participative safety) also reported more effective communication and mutual support. In conclusion, team climate provided insights into IPC, especially regarding aspects of communication and interaction in teams. Further research will provide a better understanding of differences and areas of overlap between team climate and IPC. It will potentially contribute for an innovative theoretical approach to explore interprofessional work in primary care settings.

  1. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y. [Bloomington, IN; Hieftje, Gary M [Bloomington, IN

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  2. 3D MRI of the colon: methods and first results of 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Pelkonen, P.; Steiner, P.; Krestin, G.P.; Debatin, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: 'Exoscopic' and endoscopic identification of colorectal pathologies via MRI. Methods: 5 patients (36-88 years), two normal and three with different colorectal pathologies (diverticular disease, polyps and carcinoma of the colon), were examined by MRI after colonoscopy. Subsequent to filling of the colon with a gadolinium-water mixture under MRI-monitoring, 3D-data sets of the colon were acquired in prone and supine positions over a 28 sec breathold interval. Subsequently multiplanar T 1 -weighted 2D-sequences were acquired before and following i.v. administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg BW). All imaging was performed in the coronal orientation. The 3D-data were interactively analysed based on various displays: Maximum intensity projection (MIP), surface shadowed display (SSD), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), virtual colonoscopy (VC). Results: All of the colorectal pathologies could be interactively diagnosed by MPR. On MIP images some pathologies were missed. VC presented the morphology of colon haustra as well as of all endoluminally growing lesions in a manner similar to endoscopy. The colon masses showed uptake of contrast media and could thus be differentiated from air or faeces. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin D; Wender, Ben A; Seager, Thomas P; Kennedy, Alan J; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-04

    Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties. Nonetheless, the emergence of nanotechnology presents a serious challenge to both perspectives. Because the pace of nanomaterial innovation far outstrips acquisition of environmentally relevant data, it is now clear that a further integration of RA and LCA based on dataset completion will remain futile. In fact, the two approaches are suited for different purposes and answer different questions. A more pragmatic approach to providing better guidance to decision-makers is to apply the two methods in parallel, integrating only after obtaining separate results.

  4. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  5. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  6. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Median age was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During...

  7. A nationwide study of serous “borderline” ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978–2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the study population and estimate overall survival of women with a serous "borderline" ovarian tumor (SBT) in Denmark over 25 years relative to the general population. METHODS: The Danish Pathology Data Bank and the Danish Cancer Registry were used to identify 1487 women...... as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected from hospital departments and reviewed. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and relative survival was estimated with follow-up through September 2, 2013. RESULTS: A cohort of 1042 women with a confirmed SBT diagnosis was identified. Women with stage I...... had an overall survival similar to the overall survival expected from the general population (p=0.3), whereas women with advanced stage disease had a poorer one (pwomen with noninvasive (pwomen with advanced stage...

  8. Registry of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: first official solid organ and tissue transplantation report - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Azeka

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future.

  9. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... diagnosis. RESULTS: Survival improved over the period studied. The use of active treatment varied between geographical areas, with inter-quintile ranges of 9%-17% for surgical resection, 4%-13% for radical radiotherapy, and 22%-35% for chemotherapy. At 2 years, there were 188 potentially avoidable deaths...

  10. Simpson's atherectomy in peripheral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, G.; Spengel, F.A.; Hansen, R.; Pfluger, T.; Nathrath, W.; Muenchen Univ.; Muenchen Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Over a seventeen-month period, a percutaneous transluminal removal of stenosing plaque material from leg and pelvic arteries was performed successfully and without complication in 43 patients. A complete atherectomy in the femoropopliteal vessels succeeded in 99% of cases. In the pelvic region, the primary results were much lower (58%). After six months, the angiographically checked restenosis rate was 17% for femoropopliteal vessels and 11% for iliac arteries, and the corresponding Kaplan-Meier cumulative patency rates were 73.8 and 78.7% respectively. Simpson's atherectomy is the only method of its kind that is therapeutically effective and diagnostically significant, since the removed plaque can be used for further tests. (orig.) [de

  11. Whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romestaing, P.; Gallo, C.; Gerard, J.F.; Ardiet, J.M.; Carrie, C.

    1989-01-01

    The prognosis of ovarian cancers, which are frequently diagnosed at a late stage, can probably be improved by whole abdominal radiotherapy. 45 patients in Lyon and 8 patients in Montelimar (7 stage I or C, 10 stage II and 36 stage III) were treated by whole abdominal radiotherapy, generally after 6 courses of chemotherapy (46 cases). The overall 5-year survival of this group of patients was 48% (Kaplan-Meier method). When the patients treated by complete resection at 1st look surgery (19 cases) are compared with those in whom 1st look surgery was incomplete (34 cases), the actuarial survival was 83% versus 27%. This study demonstrates that whole abdominal radiotherapy is feasible without any serious long-term complications after two operations and 6 courses of chemotherapy. These encouraging results need to be confirmed by randomized prospective studies [fr

  12. Mortality and secular trend in the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. All first......-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates......, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased...

  13. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus Hedebo

    2014-01-01

    in the feasibility study cohort were reviewed with respect to the effect of screening participation on stages and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of CRC in a feasibility study cohort diagnosed from the beginning of the study until two years after the study ended were identified. Differences...... in the distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers...... detected through screening were diagnosed at significantly lower stages than among screening non-responders. There were relatively fewer locally advanced rectal cancers among patients diagnosed through positive FOBT than among non-responders. Survival among screening cancer patients was superior...

  14. Increased risk of revision for infection in rheumatoid arthritis patients with total hip replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, Johannes Cornelis; Fenstad, Anne M; Dale, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose-Medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed dramatically over the last 15 years, including immune modulation. We investigated the risk of revision for infection after primary total hip replacement (THR) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over a 16-year...... period, and compared it with that in THR patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Patients and methods-We identified 13,384 THRs in RA patients and 377,287 THRs in OA patients from 1995 through 2010 in a dataset from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA). Kaplan-Meier survival curves......, with revision for infection as the endpoint, were constructed. Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate the relative risk (RR) of revision for infection adjusted for age, sex, fixation technique, and year of primary surgery.Results-RA patients had a 1.3 times (95% CI 1.0-1.6) higher risk of revision...

  15. The association of donor and recipient age with graft survival in paediatric renal transplant recipients in a European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplantation Association Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Bonthuis, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. The effect of donor and recipient age combinations on 5-year graft-failure risk, stratified by donor source, was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression, while adjusting for sex, primary renal diseases with a high risk of recurrence, pre......Background The impact of donor age in paediatric kidney transplantation is unclear. We therefore examined the association of donor-recipient age combinations with graft survival in children. Methods Data for 4686 first kidney transplantations performed in 13 countries in 1990-2013 were extracted......-emptive transplantation, year of transplantation and country. Results The risk of graft failure in older living donors (50-75 years old) was similar to that of younger living donors {adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.47]}. Deceased donor (DD) age was non-linearly associated with graft...

  16. Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...

  17. Radical prostatectomy in clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    ) is regarded as primary therapy by others. This study examined the outcome for high-risk localized PCa patients treated with RP. Material and methods. Of 1300 patients who underwent RP, 231 were identified as high-risk. Patients were followed for biochemical recurrence (BCR) (defined as prostate-specific......Abstract Objective. The optimal therapeutic strategy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Supported by randomized trials, the combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and endocrine therapy (ET) is advocated by many, while radical prostatectomy (RP...... antigen ≥ 0.2 ng/ml), metastatic disease and survival. Excluding node-positive patients, none of the patients received adjuvant therapy before BCR was confirmed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Median follow-up was 4.4 years...

  18. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b&c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    -Meier probability plots showed a significantly improved overall survival after PMRT for the BCL2 positive subgroup, whereas practically no survival improvement was seen after PMRT for the BCL2 negative subgroup. In multivariate analysis of OS, however, no significant interaction was found between BCL2......PURPOSE: To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present analysis included 1 000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b&c studies. Tissue...... tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test, and Cox univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: p53 accumulation was not significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM or LRR probability in univariate or multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan...

  19. The influence of unilateral oophorectomy on the age of menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, M; Simonsen, M K; Kjer, J J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of menopause after premenopausal unilateral oophorectomy (UO) and to establish whether UO at a young age leads to menopause at a younger age than if UO occurs at an older age. METHODS: A cohort of 28 731 women, of whom 17 781 (62%) were menopausal, was investigated....... Information on menopause was obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Surgical data were obtained from the National Patient Register to avoid recollection bias. Age of menopause after UO/not UO was determined using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression was used to identify factors of importance for early...... menopause. RESULTS: UO was performed in 1148 women. Women with UO after the age of 45 years, premenopausal hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and cancer were excluded, leaving 236 in the analysis. Menopause occurred 1.8 years earlier after UO compared to women with two intact ovaries (mean 49.5 vs. 51...

  20. Long-term mortality in patients with atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Camilla; Karunanithi, Zarmiga; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In this nationwide cohort of atrial septal defect (ASD) patients, the largest to date, we report the longest follow-up time with and without closure in childhood and adulthood compared with a general population cohort. Methods and results: Using population-based registries, we included Danish...... individuals born before 1994 who received an ASD diagnosis between 1959 and 2013. All diagnoses were subsequently validated (n = 2277). Using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for sex, birth year, and a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, we compared the mortality...... of ASD patients with that of a birth year and sex matched general population cohort. The median follow-up from ASD diagnosis was 18.1 years (range 1-53 years). Patients with ASD had a higher mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-1.9] compared with the general...

  1. Analyzing survival curves at a fixed point in time for paired and clustered right-censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Shyr, Yu; Liao, Yi-De

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials, information about certain time points may be of interest in making decisions about treatment effectiveness. Rather than comparing entire survival curves, researchers can focus on the comparison at fixed time points that may have a clinical utility for patients. For two independent samples of right-censored data, Klein et al. (2007) compared survival probabilities at a fixed time point by studying a number of tests based on some transformations of the Kaplan-Meier estimators of the survival function. However, to compare the survival probabilities at a fixed time point for paired right-censored data or clustered right-censored data, their approach would need to be modified. In this paper, we extend the statistics to accommodate the possible within-paired correlation and within-clustered correlation, respectively. We use simulation studies to present comparative results. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of these methods using two real data sets. PMID:29456280

  2. Genital lesions after consensual sexual intercourse: They are frequent and they last for several days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Ravn, Pernille

    , respectively. The median survival time for lacerations was 24 hours (n=19) seen with the naked eye, 40 hours seen with the colposcope (n=28) and 80 hours seen with toluidine blue dye (n=26). Several important pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions using the three techniques were identified. We propose a model...... insight into the duration of lesions, frequency of lesions seen with different investigative techniques and to identify pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions. Materials and Methods: 98 women were examined within 48 hours of consensual sexual intercourse using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine...... blue dye application. 50 of the women were re-examined after 3 or 4 days and again after 6 or 7 days, and Kaplan-Meier plots of the duration of lacerations were produced. Results: Lacerations were the most frequent lesion seen with all three techniques, seen in 31%, 41% and 49% of participants...

  3. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis: A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term mortality, the causes of death and the incidence of cancer in listeria meningitis patients. METHODS: Nationwide, population-based cohort study including all adult patients diagnosed with listeria meningitis from 1977 to 2006 and alive 1 year after diagnosis......, and an age-and gender-matched, population control cohort. Kaplan-Meier tables, Cox regression analysis and cumulative incidence function were used as outcome analyses. RESULTS: We identified 114 listeria meningitis patients and 1026 population controls. The adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for listeria...... meningitis patients the first 5 years of follow-up was 2.35(95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-3.45) thereafter the MRR was 0.93(95% CI: 0.56-1.55). Listeria meningitis patients had an increased risk of death due to cancer the first 5 years of follow-up, and in the same period patients above 50 years of age...

  4. Demographic, Clinical, and Prognostic Factors of Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinomas According to Endometriosis Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Høgdall, Estrid; Thomsen, Lotte Nedergaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with endometriosis carry an increased risk for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCCs). Clear cell adenocarcinoma may develop from endometriosis lesions. Few studies have compared clinical and prognostic factors and overall survival in patients diagnosed as having CCC according...... to endometriosis status. METHODS: Population-based prospectively collected data on CCC with coexisting pelvic (including ovarian; n = 80) and ovarian (n = 46) endometriosis or without endometriosis (n = 95) were obtained through the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. χ Test, independent-samples t test, logistic...... regression, Kaplan-Meier test, and Cox regression were used. Statistical tests were 2 sided. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Patients with CCC and pelvic or ovarian endometriosis were significantly younger than CCC patients without endometriosis, and a higher...

  5. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Up to a third of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between...... CT and survival in CF patients screened for LTX. Methods: Clinical data and chest CTs of 411 CF patients screened for LTX between 1990 and 2005 were collected from 17 centers. CTs were scored with the Severe Advanced Lung Disease (SALD) 4-category scoring system, including the components "infection....../inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411...

  7. A method for calculating Bayesian uncertainties on internal doses resulting from complex occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating uncertainties on doses from bioassay data is of interest in epidemiology studies that estimate cancer risk from occupational exposures to radionuclides. Bayesian methods provide a logical framework to calculate these uncertainties. However, occupational exposures often consist of many intakes, and this can make the Bayesian calculation computationally intractable. This paper describes a novel strategy for increasing the computational speed of the calculation by simplifying the intake pattern to a single composite intake, termed as complex intake regime (CIR). In order to assess whether this approximation is accurate and fast enough for practical purposes, the method is implemented by the Weighted Likelihood Monte Carlo Sampling (WeLMoS) method and evaluated by comparing its performance with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The MCMC method gives the full solution (all intakes are independent), but is very computationally intensive to apply routinely. Posterior distributions of model parameter values, intakes and doses are calculated for a representative sample of plutonium workers from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy cohort using the WeLMoS method with the CIR and the MCMC method. The distributions are in good agreement: posterior means and Q 0.025 and Q 0.975 quantiles are typically within 20 %. Furthermore, the WeLMoS method using the CIR converges quickly: a typical case history takes around 10-20 min on a fast workstation, whereas the MCMC method took around 12-hr. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (authors)

  8. The Method for Assessing and Forecasting Value of Knowledge in SMEs – Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007. Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effectiveness of investing in human resources, taking into consideration existing methods. The method presented is focusing on SMEs (taking into consideration their importance for, especially, regional development. It consists of four parts: an SME reference model, an indicator matrix to assess investments into knowledge, innovation indicators, and the GMDH algorithm for decision making. The method presented is exemplified by a case study including 10 companies.

  9. A Review of Spectral Methods for Variable Amplitude Fatigue Prediction and New Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Irvine, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available methods for estimating fatigue damage from variable amplitude loading is presented. The dependence of fatigue damage accumulation on power spectral density (psd) is investigated for random processes relevant to real structures such as in offshore or aerospace applications. Beginning with the Rayleigh (or narrow band) approximation, attempts at improved approximations or corrections to the Rayleigh approximation are examined by comparison to rainflow analysis of time histories simulated from psd functions representative of simple theoretical and real world applications. Spectral methods investigated include corrections by Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, the Dirlik formula, and the Single-Moment method, among other more recent proposed methods. Good agreement is obtained between the spectral methods and the time-domain rainflow identification for most cases, with some limitations. Guidelines are given for using the several spectral methods to increase confidence in the damage estimate.

  10. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011 among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and "charity for kidney patients" of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients′ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.47 (1.02-2.13]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of green taxes in the Nordic countries. Results and method question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Dengsoee, N.; Branth Pedersen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Green taxes have over the past 10 years become a significant part of environmental regulation in the Nordic countries. The present report is a literature study of the effects of green taxes with regard to CO 2 and pesticides. The authors have identified 68 studies of CO 2 -taxes and 20 studies of the pesticide taxes. The report presents a summary of the results from these studies and assesses the methodologies employed for examining the effects of the green taxes. The majority of the reviewed studies are ex-ante studies, which have been carried out in advance of the implementation of the taxes, and which are often based on simplified economic models. Ex-post studies, which are based on the actual historical data for the adjustment to the taxes, are relatively few. 20 ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes have been identified, while there are not any ex-post studies of the pesticide taxes. With regard to the environmental effects of green taxes, the ex-post studies can be relied on for the procurement of the most reliable data. The completed ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes do not present unambiguous results, because focus and methodology differ. Most studies are partial in their focus and relate to one or more sectors of the economy. Some studies have been carried out few tears after the introduction of the taxes, and do not present an updated assessment of the effects of the taxes. To the extent that it is possible to summarise the present knowledge about the effects of the CO 2 -taxes, there seems to be indications for relatively marked effects in Denmark as compared to the other Nordic countries, since Denmark is the only country whose taxed CO 2 -emissions have been reduced in absolute figures. With regard to Norway and Sweden, effects of the CO 2 -taxes can be identified in particular sectors in relation to business-as-usual scenarios. Finland's CO 2 -tax has not been comprehensively evaluated ex-post, but has reached a tax level which gives expectations of

  12. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  13. Establishing Upper Limits for Item Ratings for the Angoff Method: Are Resulting Standards More 'Realistic'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jerry B.

    This report investigates an area of uncertainty in using the Angoff method for setting standards, namely whether or not a judge's conceptualizations of borderline group performance are realistic. Ratings are usually made with reference to the performance of this hypothetical group, therefore the Angoff method's success is dependent on this point.…

  14. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  15. Communicating patient-reported outcome scores using graphic formats: results from a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Michael D; Smith, Katherine C; Little, Emily A; Bantug, Elissa T; Snyder, Claire F

    2015-10-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) promote patient-centered care by using PRO research results ("group-level data") to inform decision making and by monitoring individual patient's PROs ("individual-level data") to inform care. We investigated the interpretability of current PRO data presentation formats. This cross-sectional mixed-methods study randomized purposively sampled cancer patients and clinicians to evaluate six group-data or four individual-data formats. A self-directed exercise assessed participants' interpretation accuracy and ratings of ease-of-understanding and usefulness (0 = least to 10 = most) of each format. Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored helpful and confusing format attributes. We reached thematic saturation with 50 patients (44 % < college graduate) and 20 clinicians. For group-level data, patients rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 8.0; 33 % selected for easiest to understand/most useful) and clinicians rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 9.0, 8.5) but most often selected line graphs with confidence limits or norms (30 % for each format for easiest to understand/most useful). Qualitative results support that clinicians value confidence intervals, norms, and p values, but patients find them confusing. For individual-level data, both patients and clinicians rated line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding (median 8.0 patients, 8.5 clinicians) and usefulness (median 8.0, 9.0) and selected them as easiest to understand (50, 70 %) and most useful (62, 80 %). The qualitative interviews supported highlighting scores requiring clinical attention and providing reference values. This study has identified preferences and opportunities for improving on current formats for PRO presentation and will inform development of best practices for PRO presentation. Both patients and clinicians prefer line graphs across group-level data and individual

  16. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  17. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and

  18. Could Daylight Glare Be Defined Mathematically?Results of Testing the DGIN Method in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Ali; Oki, Masato

    Discomfort glare from daylight is a common problem without valid prediction methods so far. A new mathematical DGIN (New Daylight Glare Index) method tries to respond the challenge. This paper reports on experiments carried out in daylit office environment in Japan to test applicability of the method. Slight positive correlation was found between the DGIN and the subjective evaluation. Additionally, a high Ladaptation value together with the small ratio of Lwindow to Ladaptation was obviously experienced sufficient to neutralize the effect of glare discomfort. However, subjective assessments are poor glare indicators and not reliable in testing glare prediction methods. DGIN is a good indicator of daylight glare, and when the DGIN value is analyzed together with the measured illuminance ratios, discomfort glare from daylight can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The DGIN method could serve architects and lighting designers in testing daylighting systems, and also guide the action of daylight responsive lighting controls.

  19. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, φ76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. T