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  1. A comparison between Kaplan-Meier and weighted Kaplan-Meier methods of five-year survival estimation of patients with gastric cancer.

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    Zare, Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hosseini, Mostafa; Holakouie Naieni, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    The 5-year survival rate is a good prognostic indicator for patients with Gastric cancer that is usually estimated based on Kaplan-Meier. In situations where censored observations are too many, this method produces biased estimations. This study aimed to compare estimations of Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier as an alternative method to deal with the problem of heavy-censoring. Data from 330 patients with Gastric cancer who had undergone surgery at Iran Cancer Institute from 1995- 1999 were analyzed. The Survival Time of these patients was determined after surgery, and the 5-year survival rate for these patients was evaluated based on Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 239 (72.4%) patients passed away by the end of the study and 91(27.6%) patients were censored. The mean and median of survival time for these patients were 24.86±23.73 and 16.33 months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year, and five-year survival rates of these patients with standard error estimation based on Kaplan-Meier were 0.66 (0.0264), 0.42 (0.0284), 0.31 (0.0274), 0.26 (0.0264) and 0.21 (0.0256) months, respectively. The estimations of Weighted Kaplan-Meier for these patients were 0.62 (0.0251), 0.35 (0.0237), 0.24 (0.0211), 0.17 (0.0172), and 0.10 (0.0125) months, consecutively. In cases where censoring assumption is not made, and the study has many censored observations, estimations obtained from the Kaplan-Meier are biased and are estimated higher than its real amount. But Weighted Kaplan-Meier decreases bias of survival probabilities by providing appropriate weights and presents more accurate understanding.

  2. A comparison between Kaplan-Meier and weighted Kaplan-Meier methods of five-year survival estimation of patients with gastric cancer.

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    Ali Zare

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 5-year survival rate is a good prognostic indicator for patients with Gastric cancer that is usually estimated based on Kaplan-Meier. In situations where censored observations are too many, this method produces biased estimations. This study aimed to compare estimations of Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier as an alternative method to deal with the problem of heavy-censoring. Data from 330 patients with Gastric cancer who had undergone surgery at Iran Cancer Institute from 1995- 1999 were analyzed. The Survival Time of these patients was determined after surgery, and the 5-year survival rate for these patients was evaluated based on Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan-Meier methods. A total of 239 (72.4% patients passed away by the end of the study and 91(27.6% patients were censored. The mean and median of survival time for these patients were 24.86±23.73 and 16.33 months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year, and five-year survival rates of these patients with standard error estimation based on Kaplan-Meier were 0.66 (0.0264, 0.42 (0.0284, 0.31 (0.0274, 0.26 (0.0264 and 0.21 (0.0256 months, respectively. The estimations of Weighted Kaplan-Meier for these patients were 0.62 (0.0251, 0.35 (0.0237, 0.24 (0.0211, 0.17 (0.0172, and 0.10 (0.0125 months, consecutively. In cases where censoring assumption is not made, and the study has many censored observations, estimations obtained from the Kaplan-Meier are biased and are estimated higher than its real amount. But Weighted Kaplan-Meier decreases bias of survival probabilities by providing appropriate weights and presents more accurate understanding.

  3. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

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    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  4. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate

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    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects. PMID:21455458

  5. A review and comparison of methods for recreating individual patient data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves for economic evaluations: a simulation study.

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    Xiaomin Wan

    Full Text Available In general, the individual patient-level data (IPD collected in clinical trials are not available to independent researchers to conduct economic evaluations; researchers only have access to published survival curves and summary statistics. Thus, methods that use published survival curves and summary statistics to reproduce statistics for economic evaluations are essential. Four methods have been identified: two traditional methods 1 least squares method, 2 graphical method; and two recently proposed methods by 3 Hoyle and Henley, 4 Guyot et al. The four methods were first individually reviewed and subsequently assessed regarding their abilities to estimate mean survival through a simulation study.A number of different scenarios were developed that comprised combinations of various sample sizes, censoring rates and parametric survival distributions. One thousand simulated survival datasets were generated for each scenario, and all methods were applied to actual IPD. The uncertainty in the estimate of mean survival time was also captured.All methods provided accurate estimates of the mean survival time when the sample size was 500 and a Weibull distribution was used. When the sample size was 100 and the Weibull distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method; however, more biases were identified in the traditional methods. When a lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method generated noticeably less bias and a more accurate uncertainty compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.The traditional methods should not be preferred because of their remarkable overestimation. When the Weibull distribution was used for a fitted model, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method. However, if the lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was less biased compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.

  6. On an exponential bound for the Kaplan-Meier estimator.

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    Wellner, Jon A

    2007-12-01

    We review limit theory and inequalities for the Kaplan-Meier Kaplan and Meier (J Am Stat Assoc 53:457-481, 1958) product limit estimator of a survival function on the whole line [Formula: see text] . Along the way we provide bounds for the constant in an interesting inequality due to Biotouzé et al. (Ann Inst H Poincaré Probab Stat 35:735-763, 1999), and provide some numerical evidence in support of one of their conjectures.

  7. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A Berry-Essen Inequality for the Kaplan-Meier L-Estimator

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    Qi Hua WANG; Li Xing ZHU

    2001-01-01

    LetFn be the Kaplan-Meier estimator of distribution function F. Let J(.) be a measureablereal-valued function. In this paper, a U-statistic representation for the Kaplan-Meier L-estimator,T(Fn) = xJ(Fn(x))dFn(x), is derived. Furthermore, the representation is also used to establish aBerry-Essen inequality for T(Fn).

  9. Application of Kaplan-Meier analysis in reliability evaluation of products cast from aluminium alloys

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    J. Szymszal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the reliability of AlSi17CuNiMg alloys using Kaplan-Meier-based technique, very popular as a survival estimation tool in medical science. The main object of survival analysis is a group (or groups of units for which the time of occurrence of an event (failure taking place after some time of waiting is estimated. For example, in medicine, the failure can be patient’s death. In this study, the failure was the specimen fracture during a periodical fatigue test, while the survival time was either the test duration to specimen failure (complete observations, or the test end time (censored observations. The parameters of theoretical survival function were estimated with procedures based on the method of least squares, while typical survival time distribution followed either an exponential or two-parameter Weibull distribution. The goodness of fit of a model survival function was estimated with an incremental chi-square test, based on the values of the log likelihood ratio. The effect of alloy processing history on the run of a survival function was examined. The factors shaping the alloy processing history included: mould type (sand or metal mould, alloy modification process, and heat treatment type (solution heat treatment and ageing.

  10. THE LAW OF THE ITERATED LOGARITHM OF THE KAPLAN-MEIER INTEGRAL AND ITS APPLICATION

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    HE SHUYUAN; WANG YANHUA

    2004-01-01

    For right censored data, the law of the iterated logarithm of the Kaplan-Meier integral is established. As an application, the authors prove the law of the iterated logarithm for weighted least square estimates of randomly censored linear regression model.

  11. Kaplan-Meier analysis on seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: do gender and race influence it?

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    Burneo, Jorge G; Villanueva, Vicente; Knowlton, Robert C; Faught, R Edward; Kuzniecky, Ruben I

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate seizure outcome following epilepsy surgery for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and evaluate is gender and race/ethnicity influence it. Data were obtained from the discharge database of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Epilepsy Center, between 1985 and 2001. The sample consisted of all patients with a primary diagnosis of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. Seizure recurrence was tabulated at 7 days, 2 months, 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 years following surgery. Logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of seizure recurrence after anterior temporal lobectomy for all patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to obtain estimates and 95% CIs of seizure freedom from baseline. Baseline variables--age at surgery, age at seizure onset, sex, side of resection, immediate postoperative seizures, and pathology results--were assessed as potential predictors of each outcome by comparing the survival curves within each variable with a log rank test. Three hundred sixty-eight patients underwent surgical treatment for TLE, mean age of 30.2 years. Thirty-five patients were African American, 43% were men. Immediate postoperative seizures were seen in 23 patients, while seizure recurrence occurred in 27.3% patients within a year after surgery, and in 33.6% within 6 years. Logistic regression results showed no differences between African Americans and whites, between males and females. The occurrence of immediate postoperative seizures was a strong predictor of late seizure recurrence only at 1 year after surgery. The occurrence of seizures in the immediate postoperative period is a strong predictor of later seizure recurrence. Sex and race/ethnicity do not appear to be predictors of long-term outcome following surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

  12. A practical divergence measure for survival distributions that can be estimated from Kaplan-Meier curves.

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    Cox, Trevor F; Czanner, Gabriela

    2016-06-30

    This paper introduces a new simple divergence measure between two survival distributions. For two groups of patients, the divergence measure between their associated survival distributions is based on the integral of the absolute difference in probabilities that a patient from one group dies at time t and a patient from the other group survives beyond time t and vice versa. In the case of non-crossing hazard functions, the divergence measure is closely linked to the Harrell concordance index, C, the Mann-Whitney test statistic and the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve. The measure can be used in a dynamic way where the divergence between two survival distributions from time zero up to time t is calculated enabling real-time monitoring of treatment differences. The divergence can be found for theoretical survival distributions or can be estimated non-parametrically from survival data using Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survivor functions. The estimator of the divergence is shown to be generally unbiased and approximately normally distributed. For the case of proportional hazards, the constituent parts of the divergence measure can be used to assess the proportional hazards assumption. The use of the divergence measure is illustrated on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Total Ankle Replacement Survival Rates Based on Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis of National Joint Registry Data.

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    Bartel, Annette F P; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    National joint registry data provides unique information about primary total ankle replacement (TAR) survival. We sought to recreate survival curves among published national joint registry data sets using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Overall, 5152 primary and 591 TAR revisions were included over a 2- to 13-year period with prosthesis survival for all national joint registries of 0.94 at 2-years, 0.87 at 5-years and 0.81 at 10-years. National joint registry datasets should strive for completion of data presentation including revision definitions, modes and time of failure, and patients lost to follow-up or death for complete accuracy of the Kaplan-Meier estimator.

  14. Quantitative estimation of the stability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain-typing systems by use of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

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    O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge concerning stability is important in the development and assessment of microbial molecular typing systems and is critical for the interpretation of their results. Typing system stability is usually measured as the fraction of isolates that change type after several in vivo passages, but this does not necessarily reflect in vivo stability. The aim of this study was to utilize survival analysis to provide an informative quantitative measure of in vivo stability and to compare the stabilities of various techniques employed in typing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We identified 100 MRSA pairs (isolated from the same patient ≥ 1 month apart) and typed them using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), phage-derived open reading frame (PDORF) typing, toxin gene profiling (TGP), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) subtyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and spa sequence typing. Discordant isolate pairs, belonging to different MLST clonal complexes, were excluded, leaving 81 pairs for analysis. The stabilities of these methods were examined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and discriminatory power was measured by Simpson's index of diversity. The probability percentages that the type remained unchanged at 6 months for spa sequence typing, TGP, multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), SCCmec subtyping, PDORF typing, and PFGE were 95, 95, 88, 82, 71, and 58, respectively, while the Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.48, 0.47, 0.70, 0.72, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. Survival analysis using sequential clinical isolates adds an important quantitative dimension to the measurement of stability of a microbial typing system. Of the methods compared here, PDORF typing provides high discriminatory power, comparable with that of PFGE, and a level of stability suitable for MRSA surveillance and outbreak investigations.

  15. Factors Determining Disease Duration in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Postmortem Study of 103 Cases Using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator and Cox Regression

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    R. A. Armstrong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with duration of dementia in a consecutive series of 103 Alzheimer’s disease (AD cases were studied using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression analysis (proportional hazard model. Mean disease duration was 7.1 years (range: 6 weeks–30 years, standard deviation = 5.18; 25% of cases died within four years, 50% within 6.9 years, and 75% within 10 years. Familial AD cases (FAD had a longer duration than sporadic cases (SAD, especially cases linked to presenilin (PSEN genes. No significant differences in duration were associated with age, sex, or apolipoprotein E (Apo E genotype. Duration was reduced in cases with arterial hypertension. Cox regression analysis suggested longer duration was associated with an earlier disease onset and increased senile plaque (SP and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT pathology in the orbital gyrus (OrG, CA1 sector of the hippocampus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM. The data suggest shorter disease duration in SAD and in cases with hypertensive comorbidity. In addition, degree of neuropathology did not influence survival, but spread of SP/NFT pathology into the frontal lobe, hippocampus, and basal forebrain was associated with longer disease duration.

  16. Days of Shanghai Stock Index Successive Rises and Fall Based on Kaplan-Meier Algorithms%基于Kaplan-Meier算法的上证指数涨跌天数研究

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    毕建欣

    2011-01-01

    运用Kaplan-Meier算法对上证指数连续上涨和下跌天数进行研究,研究了在不同的市场交易制度(即T+0,T+1和涨停板制度)对上证指数涨跌天数的影响,其结果表明Kaplan-Meier算法对于分析股市的变动是有效的.%In this paper, Days of Shanghai Stock Index Successive rises and fall are analyzed by Kaplan-Meier Algorithms. It demonstrates the policy effect on days of Shanghai Stock Index successive rises and fall , such as" T + 0","T + 1"and"soaring deadline system". It also reveals that Kaplan-Meier Algorithms is valid for analyzing the changes of the stock market.

  17. Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis

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    Béranger Lueza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in restricted mean survival time ( rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , the area between two survival curves up to time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , is often used in cost-effectiveness analyses to estimate the treatment effect in randomized controlled trials. A challenge in individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses is to account for the trial effect. We aimed at comparing different methods to estimate the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ from an IPD meta-analysis. Methods We compared four methods: the area between Kaplan-Meier curves (experimental vs. control arm ignoring the trial effect (Naïve Kaplan-Meier; the area between Peto curves computed at quintiles of event times (Peto-quintile; the weighted average of the areas between either trial-specific Kaplan-Meier curves (Pooled Kaplan-Meier or trial-specific exponential curves (Pooled Exponential. In a simulation study, we varied the between-trial heterogeneity for the baseline hazard and for the treatment effect (possibly correlated, the overall treatment effect, the time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , the number of trials and of patients, the use of fixed or DerSimonian-Laird random effects model, and the proportionality of hazards. We compared the methods in terms of bias, empirical and average standard errors. We used IPD from the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma (MAC-NPC and its updated version MAC-NPC2 for illustration that included respectively 1,975 and 5,028 patients in 11 and 23 comparisons. Results The Naïve Kaplan-Meier method was unbiased, whereas the Pooled Exponential and, to a much lesser extent, the Pooled Kaplan-Meier methods showed a bias with non-proportional hazards. The Peto-quintile method underestimated the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , except with non-proportional hazards at t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ = 5 years. In the presence of treatment effect

  18. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

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    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  19. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

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    Clark John D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/√2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

  20. Long-term survival and radiological results of the Duracon™ total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Matthias; Bolliger, Lilianna; Ilchmann, Thomas; Clauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term (>ten years) survival rate and radiological results of the Duracon TKA. Methods Between 1992 and 1999 159 Duracon TKA were implanted at our institution. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the endpoints exchange, addition or removal of any component for any reason, revision due to aseptic loosening and mechanical failure was performed. Radiological long-term (>ten years) follow-up (FU) analysis was performed according to the Knee Soc...

  1. Survival analysis in total joint replacement: an alternative method of accounting for the presence of competing risk.

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    Fennema, P; Lubsen, J

    2010-05-01

    Survival analysis is an important tool for assessing the outcome of total joint replacement. The Kaplan-Meier method is used to estimate the incidence of revision of a prosthesis over time, but does not account appropriately for competing events which preclude revision. In the presence of competing death, this method will lead to statistical bias and the curve will lose its interpretability. A valid comparison of survival results between studies using the method is impossible without accounting for different rates of competing events. An alternative and easily applicable approach, the cumulative incidence of competing risk, is proposed. Using three simulated data sets and realistic data from a cohort of 406 consecutive cementless total hip prostheses, followed up for a minimum of ten years, both approaches were compared and the magnitude of potential bias was highlighted. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the incidence of revision by almost 4% (60% relative difference) in the simulations and more than 1% (31.3% relative difference) in the realistic data set. The cumulative incidence of competing risk approach allows for appropriate accounting of competing risk and, as such, offers an improved ability to compare survival results across studies.

  2. Hazard Rate Estimation for Censored Data via Strong Representation of the Kaplan-Meier Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    of bounded variation (condition (k4).) The process( /n 1 has mean zero and covariance SA t (26) r(s,t) E E[C(s) C(t)] - F(s) F(t) f [(u)]- 2 d Lj(u...continuous with density f(x) > 0 at x. Suppose k is of bounded variation and is continuous. Then fn(x) admits the strong approximation on the interval [0,T

  3. Long-term results of pneumatic dilation for achalasia: A 15 years' experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; Jannis Kountouras; George Paroutoglou; Athanasios Beltsis; Christos Zavos; Basilios Papaziogas; Kostas Mlimidis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Although most patients with achalasia respond to pneumatic dilation, one-third experienced recurrence, and prolonged follow-up studies on parameters associated with various outcomes are scanty. In this retrospective study, we reported a 15-years' experience with pneumatic dilation treatment in patients with primary achalasia, and determined whether previously described predictors of outcome remain significant after endoscopic dilation.METHODS: Between September 1989 and September 2004, 39 consecutive patients with primary symptomatic achalasia (diagnosed by clinical presentation, esophagoscopy,barium esophagogram, and manometry) who received balloon dilation were followed up at regular intervals in person or by phone interview. Remission was assessed by a structured interview and a previous symptoms score.The median dysphagia-free duration was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.RESULTS: Symptoms were dysphagia (n = 39, 100%),regurgitation (n =23, 58.7%), chest pain (n = 4, 10.2%),and weight loss (n = 26, 66.6%). A total of 74 dilations were performed in 39 patients; 13 patients (28%) underwent a single dilation, 17 patients (48.7%) required a second procedure within a median of 26.7 mo (range 5-97 mo), and 9 patients (23.3%) underwent a third procedure within a median of 47.8 mo (range 37-120 mo). Post-dilation lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, assessed in 35 patients, has decreased from a baseline of 35.8±10.4-10.0±7.1 mmHg after the procedure. The median follow-up period was 9.3 years (range 0.5-15 years). The dysphagiafree duration by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 78%, 61%and 58.3% after 5, 10 and 15 years respectively.CONCLUSION: Balloon dilation is a safe and effective treatment for primary achalasia. Post-dilation LES pressure estimation may be useful in assessing response.

  4. Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012

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    Yang, Hee Jung; Suh, Pae Sun; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 ...

  5. Application of field methods to assess isometamidium resistance of trypanosomes in cattle in western Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tewelde, N.; Abebe, G.; Eisler, M.;

    2004-01-01

    the proportion of infections during an 8-week follow-up period and the ratio of mean hazards in an isometamidium treated versus untreated group, provided consistent results across the three villages. In Burka village, both indices demonstrated the presence of isometamidium resistance trypanosome infections while......, in Cheleleki and Kolu villages, both indices did not indicate significant levels of resistance. There were significant differences between the Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of the control and treatment groups in Cheleleki (P 0.05)....

  6. Disease-specific survival for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer affected by statistical method of assessment

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    Yuan Fei

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, prognosis and impact of prognostic/predictive factors are assessed with Kaplan-Meier plots and/or the Cox proportional hazard model. There might be substantive differences from the results using these models for the same patients, if different statistical methods were used, for example, Boag log-normal (cure-rate model, or log-normal survival analysis. Methods Cohort of 244 limited-stage small-cell lung cancer patients, were accrued between 1981 and 1998, and followed to the end of 2005. The endpoint was death with or from lung cancer, for disease-specific survival (DSS. DSS at 1-, 3- and 5-years, with 95% confidence limits, are reported for all patients using the Boag, Kaplan-Meier, Cox, and log-normal survival analysis methods. Factors with significant effects on DSS were identified with step-wise forward multivariate Cox and log-normal survival analyses. Then, DSS was ascertained for patients with specific characteristics defined by these factors. Results The median follow-up of those alive was 9.5 years. The lack of events after 1966 days precluded comparison after 5 years. DSS assessed by the four methods in the full cohort differed by 0–2% at 1 year, 0–12% at 3 years, and 0–1% at 5 years. Log-normal survival analysis indicated DSS of 38% at 3 years, 10–12% higher than with other methods; univariate 95% confidence limits were non-overlapping. Surgical resection, hemoglobin level, lymph node involvement, and superior vena cava (SVC obstruction significantly impacted DSS. DSS assessed by the Cox and log-normal survival analysis methods for four clinical risk groups differed by 1–6% at 1 year, 15–26% at 3 years, and 0–12% at 5 years; multivariate 95% confidence limits were overlapping in all instances. Conclusion Surgical resection, hemoglobin level, lymph node involvement, and superior vena cava (SVC obstruction all significantly impacted DSS. Apparent DSS for patients was influenced by the

  7. “Magic” of our gastric cancer results on perioperative chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos León-Espinoza; Fernando López-Mozos; Roberto Marti-Obiol; Marina Garces-Albir; Joaquin Ortega-Serrano

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine reproducibility of perioperative chemotherapy for gastric cancer(GC) on our settings by identifying patient’s overall survival and comparing them to larger studies.METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our series,where we present our eleven-year’s experience on GC managed according to perioperative approach of three preoperative chemotherapy cycles followed by surgery and finally three postoperative chemotherapy cycles.Chemotherapic scheme used was Xelox(Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine).Epidemiologic parameters as well as surgical variables were analysed,presented,and compared to other series with similar approaches.Survival was estimated by Kaplan Meier/log rank method and also compared to these studies.RESULTS: Mean age was 65 years old.Overall survival in our series was 37.7%,similar to other groups using perioperative schemes.Mortality was 4% and morbidity 30%,which are also similar to those groups.Survival curves were compared to larger studies,finding similarities on them.Subgroup survival analysis between chemotherapy responders and non-responders didn’t reach statically significant differences.CONCLUSION: Perioperative chemotherapic scheme can be reproduced on our setting with good results and without increasing morbidity or mortality.

  8. Mid-term results after implantation of rotating-hinge knee prostheses: primary versus revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Efe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the mid-term clinical results and survivorship of a rotating-hinge knee prosthesis (LINK® Endo-Model in difficult primary and complex revision situations. Results after primary implantation were compared with those of revision procedures. Forty-nine prostheses in 45 patients were reviewed clinically during follow up. Twenty-one of these were implanted in primary and 28 in revision situations. Outcome was evaluated using commonly used scores (Knee Society, UCLA Activity, Lequesne and a visual analog scale after a mean follow up of 56±37 months for 49 prostheses. Implant survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There were no significant differences in clinical examination and evaluation scores between the two groups (P>0.05. Survival rates at final follow up were 95% after primary implantation and 76% in revision procedures. The risk of prosthesis loss (odds ratio 5.7 was significantly higher after revision procedures (P=0.004. These data suggest that rotating-hinge knee prostheses provided good clinical and functional results in selected cases of advanced primary gonarthrosis associated with severe bone loss, ligamentous instability or comminuted fractures. They also provide good results in revision situations. However, the failure rate was significantly higher in cases of revision surgery.

  9. Yttrium-90 radioembolization for the treatment of unresectable liver cancer: Results of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özhan Özgür

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of yttrium-90 (Y-90 resin microsphere radioembolization therapy on patients with unresectable liver cancer who do not benefit from chemotherapy. Methods: Fifty-five patients underwent radioembolization therapy included in the study whose had unresectable primary or metastatic liver cancer originating from the gastrointestinal tract. Three were excluded from the study after pre-evaluation angiography. Thirteen (23.6% of the remaining 52 patients had hepatocellular carcinoma and 39 (76.4% had metastatic liver cancer. Fifty-two patients underwent Y-90 radioembolization treatment. Each patient's response to the administered treatment was evaluated using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST and the overall probability of survival was displayed graphically by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: After Y-90 therapy, 47 patients were follow-up. While 57% of the patients responded to treatment as clinical benefit, the disease progressed in 43%. The median hepatic progression-free survival time of the patients was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval (ci:1.4-5.3 and the overall survival time was 11.3 months (95%, CI:8.7-14.03. Conclusion: This study emphasizes that Y-90 resin microsphere radioembolization treatment is effective in patients with unresectable liver cancer.

  10. Results after surgical treatment of liver metastases in patients with high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleberg, R. B.; Knigge, U; Tiensuu Janson, E.

    2017-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of curatively intended resection/radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases in patients with metastatic GEP-NEC. Methods: 32 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (Ki-67 > 20%) and with intended...... curative resection/RFA of liver metastases, were identified among 840 patients from two Nordic GEP-NEC registries. Tumor morphology (well vs poor differentiation) was reassessed. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analyses for the entire cohort...... and for subgroups. Results: Median OS after resection/RFA of liver metastases was 35.9 months (95%-CI: 20.6-51.3) with a five-year OS of 43%. The median PFS was 8.4 months (95%-CI: 3.9-13). Four patients (13%) were disease-free after 5 years. Two patients had well-differentiated morphology (NET G3) and 20 patients...

  11. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from renal cell carcinoma: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabil, Mohamed [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gruber, Tatjana; Zangos, Stephan; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Yakoub, Danny [Imperial College London, St Mary' s Hospital, Department of Biosurgery and Surgical Technology, London (United Kingdom); Ackermann, Hanns [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Information, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in local tumor control and survival in patients with hepatic metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Prospective evaluation of TACE treatment outcome in 22 patients recruited from 1999 and 2005 was performed. The chemotherapeutic agent used was mitomycin only in 45% of the patients and mitomycin together with gemcitabine in the other 55%. The embolizing materials used in all of the patients were iodized oil (lipiodol) and degradable starch microspheres. Local response was evaluated by MRI and judged according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Mean and median survival and survival probability after diagnosis and treatment were both calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Partial response was achieved in 13.7%, stable disease in 59% and progressive disease in 27.3% of patients. Survival time from the diagnosis of metastases ranged from 18 to 307 months and from 2.2 to 35 months from the start of TACE treatment. The median and mean survival times from the date of diagnosis were 68.6 and 102.9 months, respectively. The median and mean survival times from the start of TACE were 8.2 and 11.7 months, respectively. Survival probability from the start of treatment was 31% after 1 year and 6% after 2 years. TACE can result in a favorable local tumor response in patients with hepatic metastases from RCC, but survival results are still limited. (orig.)

  12. Below the knee PTA in critical limb ischemia results after 12 months: Single center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer, Joern O., E-mail: balzerjo@t-online.d [Dept. for Radiology and Nuclear medicine, Catholic Clinic Mainz, An der Goldgrube 11, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Khan, Verena [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic Nurnberg North (Germany); Thalhammer, Axel; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Clinic, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of angioplasty with bare metal stents in infrapopliteal occlusions or severe stenoses in patients with critical limb ischemia. Material and methods: Percutaneous stent angioplasty was performed in 58 limbs in 47 patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in Rutherford stage 4-6. Lesions with up to 5 cm in length with at least one patent vessel below the obstruction were treated. 121 bare metal stents (diameter of 2.5-4 mm; length of 18-38 mm) were implanted. Follow-up examinations were performed up to 12 months postinterventionally using clinical examination, ABI calculation, and color-coded duplex sonography. Patency rates were calculated on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Technical success was achieved in 100%. Minor complications (hematoma, distal emboli, vessel dissection) were documented in 5.17% (n = 3) limbs, respectively. The 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year primary patency rate was 93.0%, 78.9% and 66.7%, respectively. 86.9% of the lesions healed postinterventionally. The cumulative limb salvage rate was 96.6%. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty in infrapopliteal arteries is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of patients with CLI. By consequent clinical monitoring high secondary patency rates can be achieved. The use of a bare metal stent seems to result in high limb salvage, primary and secondary patency rates in the mid-term follow-up.

  13. Timing, method and discontinuation of hydrocortisone administration for septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Estrada, Miguel A; Chávez-Peña, Quetzalcóatl; Reynoso-Estrella, Claudia I; Rios-Zermeño, Jorge; Aguilera-González, Pável E; García-Soto, Miguel A; Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    AIM To characterize the prescribing patterns for hydrocortisone for patients with septic shock and perform an exploratory analysis in order to identify the variables associated with better outcomes. METHODS This prospective cohort study included 59 patients with septic shock who received stress-dose hydrocortisone. It was performed at 2 critical care units in academic hospitals from June 1st, 2015, to July 31st, 2016. Demographic data, comorbidities, medical management details, adverse effects related to corticosteroids, and outcomes were collected after the critical care physician indicated initiation of hydrocortisone. Univariate comparison between continuous and bolus administration of hydrocortisone was performed, including multivariate analysis, as well as Kaplan-Meier analysis to compare the proportion of shock reversal at 7 d after presentation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined the best cut-off criteria for initiation of hydrocortisone associated with the highest probability of shock reversal. We addressed the effects of the taper strategy for discontinuation of hydrocortisone, noting risk of shock relapse and adverse effects. RESULTS All-cause 30-d mortality was 42%. Hydrocortisone was administered as a continuous infusion in 54.2% of patients; time to reversal of shock was 49 h longer in patients who were given a bolus administration [59 h (range, 47.5-90.5) vs 108 h (range, 63.2-189); P = 0.001]. The maximal dose of norepinephrine after initiation of hydrocortisone was lower in patients on continuous infusion [0.19 μg/kg per minute (range, 0.11-0.28 μg)] compared with patients who were given bolus [0.34 μg/kg per minute (range, 0.16-0.49); P = 0.004]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher proportion of shock reversal at 7 d in patients with continuous infusion compared to those given bolus (83% vs 63%; P = 0.004). There was a good correlation between time to initiation of hydrocortisone and time to reversal of shock (r = 0

  14. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  15. Epidemiology of Uromodulin-Associated Kidney Disease – Results from a Nation-Wide Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lhotta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD is caused by uromodulin mutations and leads to end-stage renal disease. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of UAKD. Methods: Data from all UAKD families in Austria were collected. Patients included in the Austrian Dialysis and Transplantation Registry (OEDTR with unclear diagnoses or genetic diseases were asked whether they had (1 a family history of kidney disease or (2 had suffered from gout. Patients with gout and autosomal dominant renal disease underwent mutational analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis was employed to estimate time to renal failure. Results: Of the 6,210 patients in the OEDTR, 541 were approached with a questionnaire; 353 patients answered the questionnaire. Nineteen of them gave two affirmative answers. In 7 patients, an autosomal dominant renal disease was found; in 1 patient a UMOD mutation was identified. One family was diagnosed through increased awareness as a consequence of the study. At present, 14 UAKD patients from 5 families are living in Austria (1.67 cases per million, and 6 of them require renal replacement therapy (0.73 per 1,000 patients. Progression to renal failure was significantly associated with UMOD genotype. Conclusion: UAKD patients can be identified by a simple questionnaire. UMOD genotype may affect disease progression.

  16. Prognostic significance of the lung scintigraphy scan result and corresponding chest X-ray in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhami, A S; Simpson, A J; Reid, J H; MacDougall, M; Murchison, J T

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether the survival of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) relates to radiological probability of acute PE assessed using lung scintigraphy scans (LSS). Lung scintigraphy scan results from a venous thromboembolism database were categorised as high, indeterminate or low probability using the modified PIOPED criteria and corresponding chest X-rays (CXRs) as normal or abnormal. Mortality data on these cases were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland, and survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 1,818 LSS analysed, 941 (51.8%) were normal, 532 (29.3%) indeterminate and 345 (19.0%) high probability. After an adjustment for age and gender, no significant survival difference was found between patients with normal and high probability LSS (p=0.182). However, patients with indeterminate LSS had significantly lower survival than patients in the other groups. This difference persisted after adjustment for CXR result. Indeterminate LSS results are associated with a poor prognosis. Careful follow-up of patients with inderminate LSS would appear to be justified.

  17. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica [Department of Radiation Physics, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  18. Burden and outcomes of pressure ulcers in cancer patients receiving the Kerala model of home based palliative care in India: Results from a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji M Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the prevalence and outcomes of pressure ulcers (PU seen in a cohort of cancer patients requiring home-based palliative care. Materials and Methods: All patients referred for home care were eligible for this prospective observational study, provided they were living within a distance of 35 km from the institute and gave informed consent. During each visit, caregivers were trained and educated for providing nursing care for the patient. Dressing material for PU care was provided to all patients free of cost and care methods were demonstrated. Factors influencing the occurrence and healing of PUs were analyzed using logistic regression. Duration for healing of PU was calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. P < 0.05 are taken as significant. Results: Twenty-one of 108 (19.4% enrolled patients had PU at the start of homecare services. None of the patients developed new PU during the course of home care. Complete healing of PU was seen in 9 (42.9% patients. The median duration for healing of PU was found to be 56 days. Median expenditure incurred in patients with PU was Rs. 2323.40 with a median daily expenditure of Rs. 77.56. Conclusions: The present model of homecare service delivery was found to be effective in the prevention and management of PUs. The high prevalence of PU in this cohort indicates a need for greater awareness for this complication. Clinical Trial Registry Number: CTRI/2014/03/004477

  19. Favorable Outcomes after Implantation of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Diabetic Population: Results from INDOLIMUS-G Diabetic Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Polavarapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim is to evaluate safety, efficacy, and clinical performance of the Indolimus (Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Surat, India sirolimus-eluting stent in high-risk diabetic population with complex lesions. Methods. It was a multicentre, retrospective, non-randomized, single-arm study, which enrolled 372 diabetic patients treated with Indolimus. The primary endpoint of the study was major adverse cardiac events (MACE, which is a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization (TLR, target vessel revascularization (TVR, myocardial infarction (MI, and stent thrombosis (ST. The clinical follow-ups were scheduled at 30 days, 6 months, and 9 months. Results. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 53.4 ± 10.2 years. A total of 437 lesions were intervened successfully with 483 stents (1.1 ± 0.3 per lesion. There were 256 (68.8% male patients. Hypertension and totally occluded lesions were found in 202 (54.3% and 45 (10.3% patients, respectively. The incidence of MACE at 30 days, 6 months and 9 months was 0 (0%, 6 (1.6%, and 8 (2.2%, respectively. The event-free survival at 9-month follow-up by Kaplan Meier method was found to be 97.8%. Conclusion. The use of biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting stent is associated with favorable outcomes. The results demonstrated in our study depict its safety and efficacy in diabetic population.

  20. Early Results with the Use of Heparin-bonded Stent Graft to Rescue Failed Angioplasty of Chronic Femoropopliteal Occlusive Lesions: TASC D Lesions Have a Poor Outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhan, Ganesh, E-mail: gkuhan@nhs.net; Abisi, Said; Braithwaite, Bruce D.; MacSweeney, Shane T. R. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Queens Medical Centre (United Kingdom); Whitaker, Simon C.; Habib, Said B. [Nottingham University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Queen' s Medical Centre (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early patency rate of the heparin-bonded stent grafts in atherosclerotic long femoropopliteal occlusive disease, and to identify factors that affect outcome. Methods: Heparin-bonded Viabahn stent grafts were placed in 33 limbs in 33 patients during 2009-2010. The stents were deployed to rescue failed conventional balloon angioplasty. Mean age was 69 (range 44-88) years, and 67 % (22 of 33) were men. Most procedures (21 of 33, 64 %) were performed for critical limb ischemia (33 % for rest pain, 30 % tissue loss). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression analysis were used to identify significant risk factors. Results: The average length of lesions treated was 25 {+-} 10 cm, and they were predominantly TASC (Transatlantic Intersociety Consensus) D (n = 13) and C (n = 17) lesions. The median primary patency was 5.0 months (95 % confidence interval 1.22-8.77). The mean secondary patency was 8.6 months (95 % confidence interval 6.82-10.42). Subsequently, 4 patients underwent bypass surgery and 5 patients underwent major amputation. One patient died. There were 5 in-stent or edge-stent stenoses. Cox multivariate regression analysis identified TASC D lesions to be a significant risk factor for early occlusion (p = 0.035). Conclusion: TASC D lesions of femoropopliteal occlusions have poor patency rates with the use of heparin-bonded stent grafts after failed conventional angioplasty. Alternative options should be considered for these patients.

  1. Countrywise results of total hip replacement. An analysis of 438,733 hips based on the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Keijo T; Matilainen, Markus; Pulkkinen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose An earlier Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) report on 280,201 total hip replacements (THRs) based on data from 1995-2006, from Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, was published in 2009. The present study assessed THR survival according to country, based on the NARA...... database with the Finnish data included. Material and methods 438,733 THRs performed during the period 1995-2011 in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate survival probabilities with 95% confidence interval (CI). Cox multiple regression...

  2. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy; Langzeitergebnisse der interventionellen Therapie von grossen, inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen (HCC): signifikanter Ueberlebensvorteil von transarterieller Chemoembolisation (TACE) und perkutaner Ethanolinjektion (PEI) gegenueber der TACE-Monotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Schemmer, P. [Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Radiologisches Zentralinstitut Krankenhaus Nordwest Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Parameter Estimation Methods for Transformer Weibull Lifetime Modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dan; LI Chengrong; WANG Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Two-parameter Weibull distribution is the most widely adopted lifetime model for power transformers.An appropriate parameter estimation method is essential to guarantee the accuracy of a derived Weibull lifetime model.Six popular parameter estimation methods (i.e.the maximum likelihood estimation method,two median rank regression methods including the one regressing X on Y and the other one regressing Y on X,the Kaplan-Meier method,the method based on cumulative hazard plot,and the Li's method) are reviewed and compared in order to find the optimal one that suits transformer's Weibull lifetime modelling.The comparison took several different scenarios into consideration:10 000 sets of lifetime data,each of which had a sampling size of 40 ~ 1 000 and a censoring rate of 90%,were obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations for each scienario.Scale and shape parameters of Weibull distribution estimated by the six methods,as well as their mean value,median value and 90% confidence band are obtained.The cross comparison of these results reveals that,among the six methods,the maximum likelihood method is the best one,since it could provide the most accurate Weibull parameters,i.e.parameters having the smallest bias in both mean and median values,as well as the shortest length of the 90% confidence band.The maximum likelihood method is therefore recommended to be used over the other methods in transformer Weibull lifetime modelling.

  4. Brain metastases: epidemiological profile and therapeutic results, about a cohort of patients treated in a radiotherapy department in Algiers; Les metastases cerebrales: profil epidemiologique et resultats therapeutiques, a propos d'une serie de patients traites dans un service de radiotherapie a Alger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chami, S.; Mekki, F. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital d' Alger, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study of the epidemiological profile, clinic characteristics, and mainly palliative therapeutic treatments, more particularly in terms of life quality, and improvement of clinic symptomatology and performance index. This study is based on 38 patients (17 women and 21 men), with a median age of 58.6, and a Karnofsky index greater than 70 per cent. Various data have been collected: brain metastasis number and topography, time interval between cancer diagnosis and metastasis diagnosis, impact on neuro-cognitive function. Survival has been analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Short communication

  5. Complications after Surgical Procedures in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: Results of a Prospective Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Katia Regina; Albertini, Caio Marcos de Moraes; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; de Carvalho, Eduardo Infante Januzzi; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complications after surgical procedures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are an emerging problem due to an increasing number of such procedures and aging of the population, which consequently increases the frequency of comorbidities. Objective: To identify the rates of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmissions, and evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. Methods: Prospective and unicentric study that included all individuals undergoing CIED surgical procedures from February to August 2011. The patients were distributed by type of procedure into the following groups: initial implantations (cohort 1), generator exchange (cohort 2), and lead-related procedures (cohort 3). The outcomes were evaluated by an independent committee. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the risk factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: A total of 713 patients were included in the study and distributed as follows: 333 in cohort 1, 304 in cohort 2, and 76 in cohort 3. Postoperative complications were detected in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 11.8% of the patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.014). During a 6-month follow-up, there were 58 (8.1%) deaths and 75 (10.5%) hospital readmissions. Predictors of hospital readmission included the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2), functional class III­-IV (OR = 1.8), and warfarin administration (OR = 1.9). Predictors of mortality included age over 80 years (OR = 2.4), ventricular dysfunction (OR = 2.2), functional class III-IV (OR = 3.3), and warfarin administration (OR = 2.3). Conclusions: Postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, and deaths occurred frequently and were strongly related to the type of procedure performed, type of CIED, and severity of the patient's underlying heart disease. PMID:27579544

  6. [Statistical and epidemiological methods used in biomedical research: implications for initial medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picat, M-Q; Savès, M; Asselineau, J; Dumoulin, M; Coureau, G; Salmi, L-R; Perez, P; Chêne, G

    2013-06-01

    The main source of key medical information consists in original articles published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals. Reported studies use increasingly sophisticated statistical and epidemiological approaches that first require a solid understanding of core methods. However, such understanding is not widely shared among physicians. Our aim was to assess whether the basic statistical and epidemiological methods used in original articles published in general biomedical journals are taught during the first years of the medical curriculum in France. We selected original articles published in The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, and The Journal of the American Medical Association, over a period of six months in 2007 and in 2008. A standardized statistical content checklist was used to extract the necessary information in the "Abstract", "Methods", "Results", footnotes of tables, and legends of figures. The methods used in the selected articles were compared to the national program and the public health program of biostatistics and epidemiology taught during the first six years of medical school. The 237 analyzed original articles all used at least one statistical or epidemiological method. Descriptive statistics, confidence interval and Chi(2) or Fisher tests, methods used in more than 50% of articles, were repeatedly taught throughout the medicine curriculum. Measures of association, sample size, fit and Kaplan-Meier method, used in 40 to 50% of articles, were specifically taught during training sessions on critical reading methods. Cox model (41% of articles) and logistic regression (24% of articles) were never taught. The most widely used illustrations, contingency tables (92%) and flowcharts (48%), were not included in the national program. More teaching of the core methods underlying the understanding of sophisticated methods and illustrations should be included in the early medical curriculum so that physicians can read the scientific literature

  7. Evaluation of anterior chest wall implanted port: technical aspects, results, and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Young Hwan; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Si Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the technical aspects, results and complications of patients with implanted anterior chest wall port. Between April 1997 and June 1999, a total of 63 implanted ports were placed at the anterior chest wall of 63 consecutive patients by interventional radiologists. The indications were chemotherapy in 61 patients and total parenteral nutrition in two. The peripheral portion of the subclavian vein was punctured under fluoroscopic guidance via ipsilateral peripheral vein during venography. A central venous catheter was placed in the superior vena cava, and using the subcutaneous tunneling method, a connected infusion port was implanted at the anterior chest wall. Results and complications were reviewed, and by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the expected patency of the port was determined. The technical success rate for implanted port at the anterior chest wall was 100% (63/63 patients). In two patients, hematoma and oozing were treated by compression. The duration of port implantation ranged from 12 to 855 (mean, 187) days, and the port patency rate was 305.7{+-}47.6 days. In seven patients (completed chemotherapy (n=3D3), central venous thrombosis (n=3D3) catheter-related infection (n=3D1)), the port was removed. Catheter obstruction occurred in two patients, and in one, the use of urokinase led to successful recanalization. Sixteen patients died of an underlying malignancy, but no catheter-related death was noted. Implantation of an anterior chest wall port is a safe and useful procedure, with long patency, for patients requiring chemotherapy and long-term venous access. (author)

  8. Angioplasty of the pelvic and femoral arteries in PAOD: Results and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer, Joern O., E-mail: balzerjo@t-online.d [Dept. for Radiology and Nuclear medicine, Catholic Clinic Mainz, An der Goldgrube 11, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Thalhammer, Axel [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Clinic, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Khan, Verena [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic Nuernberg North (Germany); Zangos, Stefan; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Clinic, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of percutaneous recanalization of obstructed iliac as well as superficial femoral arteries (SFAs) in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD). Material and methods: The data of 195 consecutive patients with 285 obstructions of the common and or external iliac artery as well as the data of 452 consecutive patients with 602 long occlusions (length > 5 cm) of the SFA were retrospectively analyzed. The lesions were either treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) or Excimer laser assisted percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (LPTA). Overall 316 stents were implanted (Nitinol stents: 136; stainless steel stents: 180) in the iliac artery and 669 stents were implanted (Nitinol stents: 311; Easy Wallstents: 358) in the SFA. The follow-up period was 36-65 months (mean 46.98 {+-} 7.11 months) postinterventionally using clinical examination, ABI calculation, and color-coded duplex sonography. Patency rates were calculated on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: The overall primary technical success rate was 97.89% for the iliac arteries and 92.35% for the SFA. Minor complications (hematoma, distal emboli and vessel dissection) were documented in 11.79% for the iliac arteries and 7.97% for the SFA. The primary patency rate was 90.3% for the iliac and 52.8% for the SFA after 4 years. The secondary patency rate was 96.84% for the iliac and 77.8% for the SFA after 4 years. Conclusion: Percutaneous recanalization of iliac and superficial femoral artery obstructions is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of patients with PAOD. By consequent clinical monitoring high secondary patency rates can be achieved. The use of a stents seems to result in higher patency rate especially in the SFA when compared to the literature in long-term follow-up.

  9. Practice-based clinical evaluation of metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns: 3-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, S; Schäfer, S; Lange, K; Gersdorff, N; Roediger, M

    2013-03-01

    This practice-based study evaluates the clinical performance of conventionally luted metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns fabricated with pronounced anatomical core design and a prolonged cooling period of the veneering porcelain. Fifty-three patients were treated from 07/2008 until 07/2009 with either metal-ceramic crowns (MCC) (high-noble alloy + low-fusing porcelain) or zirconia crowns (Cercon System, DeguDent, Germany). Forty-nine patients (30 women/19 men) with 100 restorations (metal-ceramic: 48/zirconia: 52, mean observational period: 36·5 ± 6 months) participated in a clinical follow-up examination and were included in the study. Time-dependent survival (in situ criteria), success (event-free restorations) and chipping rates (defects of the veneering ceramics) were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and analysed in relation to the crown fabrication technique, using a Cox regression model (P zirconia: 2) were recorded (survival rate after 3 years: metal-ceramic: 97·6%, zirconia: 95·2%). Of the metal-ceramic restorations, 90·9% remained event-free (two ceramic fractures, one endodontic treatment), whereas the success rate for the zirconia was 86·8% (two ceramic fractures, one endodontic treatment, one secondary caries). No significant differences in survival (P = 0·53), success (P = 0·49) and ceramic fracture rates (P = 0·57) were detected. The combination of a pronounced anatomical core design and a modified firing of the veneering porcelain for the fabrication of zirconia molar crowns resulted in a 3-year survival, success and chipping rate comparable to MCC.

  10. Predictors for length of hospital stay in patients with community-acquired Pneumonia: Results from a Swiss Multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suter-Widmer Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Length of hospital stay (LOS in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is variable and directly related to medical costs. Accurate estimation of LOS on admission and during follow-up may result in earlier and more efficient discharge strategies. Methods This is a prospective multicenter study including patients in emergency departments of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland between October 2006 and March 2008. Medical history, clinical data at presentation and health care insurance class were collected. We calculated univariate and multivariate cox regression models to assess the association of different characteristics with LOS. In a split sample analysis, we created two LOS prediction rules, first including only admission data, and second including also additional inpatient information. Results The mean LOS in the 875 included CAP patients was 9.8 days (95%CI 9.3-10.4. Older age, respiratory rate >20 pm, nursing home residence, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes, multilobar CAP and the pneumonia severity index class were independently associated with longer LOS in the admission prediction model. When also considering follow-up information, low albumin levels, ICU transfer and development of CAP-associated complications were additional independent risk factors for prolonged LOS. Both weighted clinical prediction rules based on these factors showed a high separation of patients in Kaplan Meier Curves (p logrank and a good calibration when comparing predicted and observed results. Conclusions Within this study we identified different baseline and follow-up characteristics to be strong and independent predictors for LOS. If validated in future studies, these factors may help to optimize discharge strategies and thus shorten LOS in CAP patients.

  11. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Phillip J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin [Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fedewa, Stacey A. [Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kibel, Adam S. [Division of Urology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rosenberg, Jonathan E. [Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kamat, Ashish M. [Division of Surgery, Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Virgo, Katherine S. [Department of Health Policy and Management, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Blute, Michael L. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  12. Risk Stratification using Human Papillomavirus Testing among Women with Equivocally Abnormal Cytology: Results from a State-wide Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Hunt, William C; Schiffman, Mark; Katki, Hormuzd A; Cheung, Li C; Cuzick, Jack; Myers, Orrin; Castle, Philip E; Wheeler, Cosette M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines for cervical cancer screening have incorporated comparative risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) for various screening outcomes to determine management. Few cohorts are large enough to distinguish CIN3+ risks among women with minor abnormalities vs. negative cytology because of low incidence. The New Mexico HPV Pap Registry offers a unique opportunity to evaluate cervical cancer screening in a diverse population across a broad-spectrum of health service delivery. Methods Kaplan-Meier and logistic-Weibull survival models were used to estimate cumulative risks of CIN3+ among women aged 21–64 who were screened in New Mexico between 2007–2011 with negative, equivocal or mildly abnormal cytology, i.e., atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; with or without HPV triage), or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Results We identified 452,045 women meeting the selection criteria. The 3-year CIN3+ risks for women with negative, ASC-US and LSIL cytology were: 0.30%, 2.6%, and 5.2%, respectively. HPV triage of ASC-US stratified 3-year CIN3+ risks were 0.72% for HPV-negative and 7.7% for HPV-positive. Risks tended to decline after age 30 for all screening results. Conclusions In this state-wide population-based cohort, cytology and HPV triage of ASC-US stratified women’s CIN3+ risk into similar patterns observed previously, suggesting the validity of screening guidelines for diverse populations in the United States (U.S.). Absolute risk estimates should be compared across other large populations. Impact Strategies for HPV triage of ASC-US derived from clinical trials are upheld in large clinical practice settings and across diverse screening populations in the U.S.. PMID:26518316

  13. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer: results after five years of a randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarelli, M.; Raffetto, N.; Torcia, P.; Vitturini, A.; Tombolini, V.; Maurizi Enrici, R. [Istituto di radiologia Universita Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: this study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two regimens of chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods: from 1992 to 1997, 127 patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (stage III-IV) were randomized. Sixty-six patients (group a), 42 male and 24 female, with a median age of 48 years (range 40-72) received during radiotherapy two courses (1.-6. week) of chemotherapy with carbo-platin (300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1) and etoposide (60 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 3). Sixty-one patients (group b), 40 male and 21 female, with a median age of 51 years (range 42-69) received two cycles of chemotherapy with 5 FU (750 mg/m{sup 2} days 1 to 5) and MIT C ( 10 mg/m{sup 2} day 1). The median dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy (range 55-66 Gy) 180 cGy /d 5w. Results: the actuarial five-year survival rate(Kaplan-Meier) was 38 % for group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) and 25 % for group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.036). Toxicity group a: mucositis G III in 41 patients and G IV in 16; dysphagia G III in 46 patients and IV in 5; leukopenia in 24 patients; 28 patients required nutritional therapy. Toxicity group b: mucositis G III in 38 patients and G IV in 17; dysphagia G III in 48 patients and G IV in 3; leukopenia in 23 patients; 25 patients needed nutritional therapy. Conclusions: the data of the actuarial survival five-year rate suggest that concomitant chemotherapy in group a (CBDCA+etoposide+RT) is better than the concomitant chemotherapy in group b (5FU+MIT C+RT). (author)

  14. All-ceramic partial coverage restorations--midterm results of a 5-year prospective clinical splitmouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra C; Strub, Joerg R; Steinhart, Niclas; Wolkewitz, Martin; Stappert, Christian F J

    2009-08-01

    Midterm-evaluation of a 5-year prospective clinical splitmouth-investigation on survival rate and long-term behavior of all-ceramic partial coverage restorations (PCRs) on molars. Pressed ceramic and CAD/CAM fabricated PCRs were compared. 80 vital molars of 25 patients were restored with all-ceramic PCRs (40 IPS e.max Press*[IP] and 40 ProCAD*[PC]). IP-PCRs were heat pressed following the lost-wax method. PC-PCRs were fabricated with Cerec 3** and Cerec InLab** CAD/CAM system (**Sirona Dental Systems, Bensheim, Germany). All PCRs were adhesively luted with a light-polymerizing composite (Syntac*/Tetric*) (*Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Clinical reevaluations were performed at baseline and 13, 25, and 36 months after insertion of the PCRs according to the modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. Absolute failures were demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier survival rate. After an observation time up to 3 years, survival rate of IP-PCRs was 100% and 97% for PC-PCRs due to one severe fracture. The PC-PCR had to be replaced after 9 months. Secondary caries and endodontic complications did not occur. Increased clinical service time resulted in significant decrease of marginal adaptation (p=0.031) and enhanced marginal discoloration (pceramic materials demonstrated significant deteriorations in color match (pceramic and CAD/CAM fabricated partial coverage restorations exhibited a reliable treatment option to restore larger defects in posterior teeth. Marginal degradation of the resin cement and deterioration of the all-ceramic materials during clinical function determine the clinical long-term performance of partial coverage restorations.

  15. Comparison of Surgical Parameters and Results between Curved Varus Osteotomy and Rotational Osteotomy for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Park, Chan Ho; Ha, Yong-Chan; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lyu, Sung-Hwa; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-06-01

    Various osteotomies have been introduced to treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical parameters, postoperative limb length discrepancy, and minimum 5-year clinical and radiological results between transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy (TCVO) and transtrochanteric rotational osteotomy (TRO) for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. From 2004 to 2009, 103 consecutive TROs (97 patients) followed by 72 consecutive TCVOs (64 patients) were performed for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Of these, 85 patients (91 hips) in the TRO group and 58 patients (65 hips) in the TCVO group completed minimum 5-year clinical and radiological follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to estimate survival. The TCVO group had shorter operation time (p TRO group and 7 hips (10.8%) in the TCVO group (p = 0.007). Osteophyte formation was observed in 34 hips (37.4%) in the TRO group and 13 hips (20%) in the TCVO group (p = 0.020). Fifteen hips (16.5%) in the TRO group and 7 hips (10.8%) in the TCVO group underwent conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA). The survival rate at 9 years with radiographic collapse as the endpoint was 68.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.1% to 79.3%) in the TRO group, and 84.7% (95% CI, 71.5% to 97.9%) in the TCVO group. With conversion to THA as the endpoint, the survival rate was 82.2% (95% CI, 73.1% to 91.3%) in the TRO group and 89.2% (95% CI, 81.7% to 96.7%) in the TCVO group. The comparison indicates that TCVO was better than TRO in terms of surgical parameters including operation time and estimated blood loss while the 9-year survival rates were similar.

  16. Rotational Acetabular Osteotomy for Pre- and Early Osteoarthritis Secondary to Dysplasia Provides Durable Results at 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Takuma; Shoji, Takeshi; Izumi, Sotaro

    2016-10-01

    Kaplan-Meier product-limited method and parametric survivorship analysis using the Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine risk factors for radiographic OA progression. The mean clinical score improved very slightly, from 15 (SD, 0.8) to 18 (SD, 1.1) (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.9 to -2.0; p osteotomy of 20 (SD, 2.5) years. Radiographic indices were improved after surgery in both groups. Radiographic progression of OA occurred in 24 patients (25 hips). Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis, with radiographic signs of progression of OA as the endpoint, predicted survival of 96% (95% CI, 89%-100%) at 10 years and 20 years in the pre-OA group. For the early-stage group, we found survivorship of 89% (95% CI, 83%-95%) at 10 years and 78% (95% CI, 69%-87%) at 20 years. We identified two factors associated with poor outcome: fair (rather than excellent and good) postoperative joint congruency (hazard ratio, 12.1; 95% CI, 3.8-39; p osteotomy is an effective surgical procedure for symptomatic dysplastic hips in pre- and early-stage OA, and it prevented radiographic OA progression and maintained hip function at a mean 20 years after surgery. Level IV, therapeutic study.

  17. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    of cancer development. Method:  Follow-up of patients in a previous study with gastroduodenoscopy in 1990-2010. Statistical analysis included chi(2) test, actuarial method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results:  Among 304 patients, 261 (86%) had more than one endoscopy. The median follow-up was 14 years...

  18. Duodenal surveillance improves the prognosis after duodenal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Højen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    of cancer development. Method: Follow-up of patients in a previous study with gastroduodenoscopy in 1990-2010. Statistical analysis included chi(2) test, actuarial method and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Among 304 patients, 261 (86%) had more than one endoscopy. The median follow-up was 14 years...

  19. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for Brescia-Cimino hemodialysis fistula dysfunction: technical success rate, patency rate and factors that influence the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Kiyosumi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)]. E-mail: kiyosumi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp; Furukawa, Akira [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Yamasaki, Michio [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta-Tsukinowa-cho, Otsu-city, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical success and long-term patency rates of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) using a venous approach for dysfunctional Brescia-Cimino fistula and to identify factors that may affect initial success and long-term patency. Materials and methods: A total of 99 PTA procedures were performed in retrograde fassion for 60 mature Brescia-Cimino shunts with dysfunction caused by anastomotic or peripheral outflow vein stenosis or occlusion. The initial clinical success rates were compared between stenosis and occlusion using Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the primary and secondary cumulative patency rates, and the log-rank test was used for comparison. Relative risks of patency loss according to clinical characteristics were determined with multivariate Cox models. Results: The initial clinical success rate of all interventions was 92%, and the rates for stenosis and occlusion were 99 and 65%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The primary and secondary cumulative patency rates for fistulas (excluding initial failure) at 12 months were 53 and 84%, respectively. The relative risks were 5.2 (P 0.004) for longer lesions and 4.5 (P = 0.007) for younger fistulas. The primary cumulative patency rate of four patients with a younger fistula and a longer stenosis at 4 months was 0%. Conclusion: Favorable primary and secondary cumulative patency rates are obtained in most patients. Long lesion length and younger age of fistulas were the two factors that reduced the patency rate after PTA.

  20. The Impact of Balanced Counseling on Contraceptive Method Choice and Determinants of Long Acting and Reversible Contraceptive Continuation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Sabitri; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Lohani, Shilpa

    2016-03-08

    Introduction Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) reduce rates of unintended pregnancies and repeat abortion. Uptake and continuation rates of LARCs are very low in Nepal, despite free provision from most health facilities. We sought to establish the effectiveness of a new approach to LARC promotion in Nepal. Methods We examined change in contraceptive method mix in Nepal using service data resulting from introduction of a balanced counseling (BC) approach to family planning (FP). All staff located at nine randomly selected FP sites were trained and began applying BC in April and May 2014. Women who accepted LARCs from a participating facility were re-contacted at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. We estimated the LARC continuation rate and assessed determinants of continuation using descriptive analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results A total of 5744 women received BC between April and July 2014. 1580 women (27.5 %) took up LARCs, raising its contribution to contraceptive method mix at [organization] to 40 %, significantly higher than the 15 % recorded in 2013. 913 women were followed-up, and the LARC continuation rate at 12 months was 82 %. Women's reported satisfaction with LARC [AHR 0.23; 95 % CI 0.14-0.39, p = 0.000] was the single strongest determinant of LARC continuation after adjusting for all background characteristics. Discussion The findings suggest BC is an effective approach for increasing LARC uptake in Nepal. The rate of LARC continuation and its determinants are important inputs to strategies for improved delivery of FP services.

  1. INTRAPERITONEAL AEROSOL CHEMOTHERAPY UNDER PRESSURE (IACUP – AN INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer, in fact, is the end-stage of the disease. The survival median of patients is no more than 3–6 months. Development of various methods of intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of this category of patients.Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis.Materials and methods. The treatment Protocol consisted of a laparotomy or laparoscopy for the staging of the tumor process, 3–4 courses of systemic chemotherapy scheme XELOX followed by conducting at least 3 sessions of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP with an interval of 6 weeks on the background of chemotherapy. In the case of progression the patient was excluded from the study. Currently, the study included 27 patients with disseminated gastric cancer who underwent 46 procedures of IACUP. There were 8 men and 19 women. The average age of patients was 50.6 years.Results. In the framework of the safety assessment of IACUP there were 3 cases of adverse effects. Two patients (7,4% noted nausea for the first 2 days after running the session of IACUP. In one patient the iatrogenic perforation of the diaphragm during biopsy of the peritoneum with the development of carbonetworks occurred. The survival median was 11 months. One-year survival rate (by KaplanMeier was 50.7%. 14 patients are alive and continue to participate in the study during the first year of observation.Conclusion. Intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP is a simple, minimally invasive and safe method for the palliative treatment of patients with disseminated carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. We developed the treatment Protocol that allows us to achieve one-year survival of more than half of patients.

  2. Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle PO{sub 2} Ratio Predicts for Outcome in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turaka, Aruna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To correlate tumor oxygenation status with long-term biochemical outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Custom-made Eppendorf PO{sub 2} microelectrodes were used to obtain PO{sub 2} measurements from the prostate (P), focused on positive biopsy locations, and normal muscle tissue (M), as a control. A total of 11,516 measurements were obtained in 57 men with localized prostate cancer immediately before prostate brachytherapy was given. The Eppendorf histograms provided the median PO{sub 2}, mean PO{sub 2}, and % <5 mm Hg or <10 mm Hg. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using both the former American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (three consecutive raises) and the current Phoenix (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) definitions. A Cox proportional hazards regression model evaluated the influence of hypoxia using the P/M mean PO{sub 2} ratio on BF. Results: With a median follow-up time of 8 years, 12 men had ASTRO BF and 8 had Phoenix BF. On multivariate analysis, P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 emerged as the only significant predictor of ASTRO BF (p = 0.043). Hormonal therapy (p = 0.015) and P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 (p = 0.046) emerged as the only independent predictors of the Phoenix BF. Kaplan-Meier freedom from BF for P/M ratio <0.10 vs. {>=}0.10 at 8 years for ASTRO BF was 46% vs. 78% (p = 0.03) and for the Phoenix BF was 66% vs. 83% (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Hypoxia in prostate cancer (low mean P/M PO{sub 2} ratio) significantly predicts for poor long-term biochemical outcome, suggesting that novel hypoxic strategies should be investigated.

  3. Serum vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease does not correlate with mortality--results from a 10-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Back Holmgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found vitamin D (25-OHD deficiency and insufficiency to be common among patients with COPD. Serum level of 25-OHD seems to correlate to pulmonary function, COPD disease staging, and increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. We wanted to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was associated with mortality rate in patients suffering from advanced COPD. METHODS: 25-OHD serum levels were measured in 462 patients suffering from moderate to very severe COPD. Patients were stratified into three groups according to serum levels of 25-OHD. Outcome measure was mortality in a 10 year follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier curves (KM were plotted and mortality hazard ratios (HR were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazard regression (Cox PH. RESULTS: Serum 25-OHD deficiency and insufficiency were prevalent. We were unable to demonstrate any association between baseline serum levels of 25-OHD and mortality rate. We found an association between mortality and age [HR 1.05 (CI 95%: 1.03-1.06], Charlson score [HR 1.49 (CI 95%: 1.06-2.09], increasing neutrophil count [HR 1.05 (CI 95%: 1.02-1.09], severe [HR 1.41 (CI 95%: 1.06-1.86]/very severe COPD [HR 2.19 (CI 95%: 1.58-3.02] and a smoking history of more than 40 pack years [HR 1.27 (CI 95%: 1.02-1.70]. CONCLUSIONS: Serum level of 25-OHD does not seem to be associated with mortality rate, suggesting no or only a minor role of 25-OHD in disease progression in patients with moderate to very severe COPD.

  4. Predictors of nursing home admission of individuals without a dementia diagnosis before admission - results from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged (LEILA 75+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matschinger Herbert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previous decades a substantial number of community-based studies mostly including dementia cases examined predictors of nursing home admission (NHA among elderly people. However, no one study has analysed predictors of NHA for individuals without developing dementia before NHA. Methods Data were derived from the Leipzig Longitudinal Study of the Aged, a population-based study of individuals aged 75 years and older. 1,024 dementia-free older adults were interviewed six times on average every 1.4 years. Socio-demographic, clinical, and psychometric variables were obtained. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to determine mean time to NHA. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine predictors of long-term NHA. Results Of the overall sample, 7.8 percent of the non-demented elderly (n = 59 were admitted to nursing home (NH during the study period. The mean time to NHA in the dementia-free sample was 7.6 years. Characteristics associated with a shorter time to NHA were increased age, living alone, functional and cognitive impairment, major depression, stroke, myocardial infarction, a low number of specialist visits and paid home helper use. Conclusions Severe physical or psychiatric diseases and living alone have a significant effect on NHA for dementia-free individuals. The findings offer potentialities of secondary prevention to avoid or delay NHA for these elderly individuals. Further investigation of predictors of institutionalization is warranted to advance understanding of the process leading to NHA for this important group.

  5. Assessment of oncologic control obtained after open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs): results from a large French multicenter collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariane, Mehdi Mokhtar; Colin, Pierre; Ouzzane, Adil; Pignot, Geraldine; Audouin, Marie; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Albouy, Baptiste; Guillotreau, Julien; Neuzillet, Yann; Crouzet, Sébastien; Hurel, Sophie; Arroua, Frederic; Bigot, Pierre; Marchand, Charles; Fais, Pierre Olivier; de la Taille, Alexandre; Saint, Fabien; Ravier, Emmanuel; Matte, Alexandre; Guy, Laurent; Bruyère, Franck; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the postsurgical survival of UUT-UC patients treated with ONU and LNU. Using a multi-institutional, national, retrospective database, we identified patients with UUT-UC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy by open access (ONU) or by the minimally invasive alternative (LNU). Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate Cox model was used to evaluate the association between surgical approach and disease recurrence. Overall, 609 patients were included (ONU = 459 and LNU = 150). The median age was 69.8 years (range 61.9-76), and the male-to-female ratio was 2:1. Postoperative complications occurred in 80 patients, with no significant difference between ONU and LNU on the whole (P = 0.64). The median follow-up was 27 months. There was no difference between the 2 procedures in the 5-year CSS or 5-year RFS. Moreover, the 5-year CSS (P = 0.053) and 5-year RFS (P = 0.9) for cases with locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4) were similar between ONU and LNU. In the multivariate analysis, the surgical procedure used was not found to be associated with survival. The main limitation of the study is its retrospective design, which is the result of the rarity of the disease. There is no evidence that oncological outcomes for LNU are inferior to those for open surgery, provided that the appropriate precautionary measures are taken.

  6. The prognostic value of lymph node metastases and tumour regression grade in rectal cancer patients treated with long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, J; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Ploen, J;

    2009-01-01

    to the tumour regression grade system and lymph node status in the surgical specimen was assessed. The prognostic value of clinico-pathological parameters was analysed using univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier methods for comparison of groups. RESULTS: All patients responded to treatment and 47% had a major...

  7. EGF61A>G polymorphism as predictive marker of clinical outcome to first-line capecitabine and oxaliplatin in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Andersen, R F; Jensen, Lars Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    samples. Response was evaluated according to the RECIST. Survival analysis was described by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank testing. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 38% and the median overall survival 19.4 months. A favorable outcome was seen in patients with the EGF61A/G genotype compared...

  8. The dual-mobility POLARCUP: first results from a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchu, Philippe; Bonnard, Olivier; Cyprès, Alain; Fiquet, Arnaud; Girardin, Philippe; Noyer, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Dislocation is a leading cause of revision after total hip arthroplasty (THA). To address this risk, dual-mobility technology was developed, which features a mobile polyethylene liner locked onto a femoral head and articulating in a metallic acetabular shell. This study reports clinical outcome data after implantation of the third-generation POLARCUP Dual-Mobility System (Smith & Nephew Orthopaedics AG, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Primary THA procedures were performed in 150 patients. At 7.1 years, cumulative cup survival according to Kaplan-Meier was 97.4%. The mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigne score improved from 8.9 to 17.1 during the investigation. Two cups were revised at 5.4 and 6.4 years because of aseptic loosening. No dislocations were observed during follow-up. The current results confirm excellent early to midterm clinical outcomes for the POLARCUP Dual-Mobility System.

  9. Breast-conserving treatment of early breast cancer; Results in a common trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtoli, L. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Bellezza, A. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Pepi, F. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Tucci, E. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Crociani, M. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Crastolla, A.M. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Farzad, M. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia); Bindi, M. (Siena Univ. (Italy). Unita Operativa di Radioterapia)

    1993-01-01

    Results of large prospective trials, often based on selected series and optimal treatment techniques, indicate that breast conserving therapy is appropriate for most patients with early breast cancer. Questions remain regarding the therapeutic outcome in common practice. We report on a series of 206 consecutive, unselected patients treated with current radiotherapy procedures. The Kaplan-Meier evaluation showed 5- and 8-year survival rates (93%, 91%), distant disease-free survival rates (87%, 85%) and local relapse-free survival rates (90%, 88%) that were comparable to those of the conservative arms in reported randomised trials and to the data from retrospective studies reported by authoritative institutions. However, subanalysis according to prognostic factors such as menopausal status, age and axillary nodal status was of limited value, due to the small number of cases. (orig.).

  10. Synthesizing Regression Results: A Factored Likelihood Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Jia; Becker, Betsy Jane

    2013-01-01

    Regression methods are widely used by researchers in many fields, yet methods for synthesizing regression results are scarce. This study proposes using a factored likelihood method, originally developed to handle missing data, to appropriately synthesize regression models involving different predictors. This method uses the correlations reported…

  11. Reporting of loss to follow-up information in randomised controlled trials with time-to-event outcomes: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the reporting of loss to follow-up (LTFU information in articles on randomised controlled trials (RCTs with time-to-event outcomes, and to assess whether discrepancies affect the validity of study results. Methods Literature survey of all issues of the BMJ, Lancet, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine published between 2003 and 2005. Eligible articles were reports of RCTs including at least one Kaplan-Meier plot. Articles were classified as "assessable" if sufficient information was available to assess LTFU. In these articles, LTFU information was derived from Kaplan-Meier plots, extracted from the text, and compared. Articles were then classified as "consistent" or "not consistent". Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the validity of study results. Results 319 eligible articles were identified. 187 (59% were classified as "assessable", as they included sufficient information for evaluation; 140 of 319 (44% presented consistent LTFU information between the Kaplan-Meier plot and text. 47 of 319 (15% were classified as "not consistent". These 47 articles were included in sensitivity analyses. When various imputation methods were used, the results of a chi2-test applied to the corresponding 2 × 2 table changed and hence were not robust in about half of the studies. Conclusions Less than half of the articles on RCTs using Kaplan-Meier plots provide assessable and consistent LTFU information, thus questioning the validity of the results and conclusions of many studies presenting survival analyses. Authors should improve the presentation of both Kaplan-Meier plots and LTFU information, and reviewers of study publications and journal editors should critically appraise the validity of the information provided.

  12. Midterm results of a femoral stem with a modular neck design: clinical outcomes and metal ion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Craig D; Jacobs, Joshua J; Devitt, Jeffrey W; Cooper, H John

    2014-09-01

    Modular neck femoral stems have a higher-than-anticipated rate of failure in registry results, but large single-center cohort studies are lacking. This is a retrospective cohort of 152 hips implanted with a single titanium stem with a modular titanium neck, presenting clinical, radiographic, and metal ion results at a mean 4.5-year follow-up. Five hips were revised during the study period, for an overall Kaplan-Meier survival of 0.894 at 8 years. There was one modular neck fracture (0.66%), but others demonstrated corrosion or adverse tissue reaction. Serum metal levels demonstrated wide variability. Despite good clinical results in the majority of patients, we confirmed an increased rate of femoral revision at mid-term follow-up, and therefore urge caution in the use of this particular stem design.

  13. Treatment of malignant biliary occlusion by means of transhepatic percutaneous biliary drainage with insertion of metal stents - results of an 8-year follow-up and analysis of the prognostic parameters; Behandlung der malignen Gallenwegsstenose mittels perkutaner transhepatischer Metallendoprothesenimplantation: 8 Jahres-Ergebnisse und Analyse prognostischer Faktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfke, H.; Alfke, B.; Froelich, J.J.; Klose, K.J.; Wagner, H.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcome and predictive factors for patient survival and patency rates of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction treated with percutaneous transhepatic insertion of metal stents. Materials and Methods: This is a retroselective analysis of 130 patients treated in one interventional radiological center with data collected from patient records and by telephone interviews. The procedure-related data had been prospectively documented in a computer data base. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for univariate and multivariate comparison of survival and patency rates with the log-rank test used for different tumor types. Predictive factors for survival and 30-day mortality were analyzed by a stepwise logistic regression. Results: Underlying causes of malignant biliary obstructions were cholangiocarcinoma in 50, pancreatic carcinoma in 29, liver metastases in 27, gallbladder carcinoma in 20, and other tumors in 4 patients. The technical success rate was 99%, the complication rate 27% and the 30-day mortality 11%. Primary patency rates (406 days with a median of 207 days) did not differ significantly for different tumor types. The survival rates were significantly (p = 0.03 by log-rank test) better for patients with cholangiocarcinoma than for patients with pancreatic carcinoma and liver metastases. Multiple regression analysis revealed no predictive factor for patient survival and 30-day mortality. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic insertion of metal biliary endoprostheses offers a good initial and long-term relief of jaundice caused by malignant biliary obstruction. Although survival rates for patients with cholangiocarcinoma are better than for other causes of malignant biliary obstruction, a clear predictive factor is lacking for patients undergoing palliative biliary stent insertion. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Ergebnisse der perkutanen transhepatischen Metallendoprothesenimplantation bei malignen Gallenwegsverschluessen zu evaluieren und

  14. Resultados a medio y largo plazo de la utilización de videotoracoscopia en la cirugía de resección de las metástasis pulmonares Medium and long-term results of the use of videothorascopy in surgery of pulmonary metastasis resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Torre

    2005-01-01

    surgical interventions carried out in order to resect pulmonary metastases. Between January 1997 and December 2001, 56 patients were found whose pulmonary metastases had been resected by videothorascopy out of a total of 252 metastasectomies (22.2%. The primary tumours were classified in 4 groups: sarcoma (n=11; colorectal (n=25; renal (n=5; and others (n=15. Videothoroscopy was carried out on the right hemithorax (n=28, left hemithorax (n=22 or on both at once (n=6. Operational mortality was nil and the only morbidity attributable to the technique was a defect of re-expansion following the removal of the thoracic drainage in one patient. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the probability of survival in this series of patients was 60.4% after 5 years, with an average survival time of 48 months. All of this data supports the use of videothorascopy in our milieu on patients with pulmonary metastases. However, in the light of the results, it is important in using this technique to place special emphasis on obtaining good margins of resection, due to the real risk of local recurrence on these margins in the medium term.

  15. Two convergence results for continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Reich

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider continuous descent methods for the minimization of convex functionals defined on general Banach space. We establish two convergence results for methods which are generated by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  16. Identificação de um método estatístico como instrumento da qualidade: tempo da presença do doente na sala de operação Identification of a statistical method as a quality tool: patient's length of stay in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Terezinha Carvalho Aranha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar um método estatístico que expresse o tempo da presença do doente na sala de operação e construir a "matriz de relação" de otimização deste tempo, o tempo exato e real da operação. MÉTODOS: A análise de sobrevivência e o estimador de Kaplan-Meier permitiram calcular as curvas de sobrevivência para os diferentes tempos e a "matriz de relação" com 10 hipóteses para auxiliar na escolha da nova operação. A amostra aleatória simples de 71 indivíduos, das operações eletivas de adultos da Cirurgia Cardíaca/Hospital de Clínicas/UNICAMP, no ano 2008, no nível de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Os tempos das operações em média sobram em um intervalo de 140 a 200 minutos e excedem de 5 a 90 minutos. No geral, realizou-se em média diariamente uma operação dentro de 520 minutos, para um tempo disponível de 720 minutos. CONCLUSÃO: 1 Com o tempo máximo disponível de 720 minutos não é possível realizar operação, a não ser utilizando da "matriz de relação", sendo que o tempo máximo disponível varia entre 660 e 690 minutos, considerando-se intervalo de limpeza da sala. 2 O tempo do doente na sala de operação tem nele incluso o tempo de aprendizado pelo aluno, em um hospital escola, universitário. 3 Ao otimizar o tempo, mais doentes serão beneficiados, acarretando diminuição da fila de espera para novas operações. 4 A "matriz" de relação permite visualizar, opinar e decidir mediante várias hipóteses, resultando em melhor tomada de decisãoOBJECTIVE: To identify a statistical method that may express the patient length of stay in the operating room and build a "matrix of relationship" for optimizing this time, the real and exact time of the operation. METHODS: The analysis of survival and the Kaplan-Meier estimator allowed to calculate the survival curves for different times and the "matrix of relationship" with 10 hypothesis to help in choosing the new operation. The study consisted of a

  17. Long-term results of «Universal» total knee endoprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pilny

    2015-01-01

    patients (1.6% experienced a periprosthetic femur fracture during the period of observation. It was possible to resolve this state by the distal femoral nail osteosynthesis. Upon assessing the results via the Kaplan-Meier curve method, the survival index was 98.7% after 7 years, 94.3% - after 22 years and 91.8% - after 22 years. Conclusion. The result of this study had showed the reliability of «Universal» prosthesis which can be recommended for the treatment of patients with degenerative knee disea;

  18. Long-term results of open and endovascular revascularization of superficial femoral artery occlusive disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Salvatore T.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Bjerke, Aja A.; Stone, David H.; Walsh, Daniel B.; Goodney, Philip P.; Chang, Catherine K.; Powell, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background First-line treatment for patients with superficial femoral arterial (SFA) occlusive disease has yet to be determined. This study compared long-term outcomes between primary SFA stent placement and primary femoral-popliteal bypass. Periprocedural patient factors were examined to determine their effect on these results. Methods All femoral-popliteal bypasses and SFA interventions performed in consecutive patients with symptoms Rutherford 3 to 6 between 2001 and 2008 were reviewed. Time-dependent outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards were performed to determine predictors of graft patency. Multivariate analysis was completed to identify patient covariates most often associated with the primary therapy. Results A total of 152 limbs in 141 patients (66% male; mean age, 66 ± 22 years) underwent femoral-popliteal bypass, and 233 limbs in 204 patients (49% male; mean age, 70 ± 11 years) underwent SFA interventions. Four-year primary, primary-assisted, and secondary patency rates were 69%, 78%, and 83%, respectively, for bypass patients and 66%, 91%, and 95%, respectively, for SFA interventions. Six-year limb salvage was 80% for bypass vs 92% for stenting (P = .04). Critical limb ischemia (CLI) and renal insufficiency were predictors of bypass failure. Claudication was a predictor of success for SFA stenting. Three-year limb salvage rates for CLI patients undergoing surgery and SFA stenting were 83%. Amputation-free survival at 3 years for CLI patients was 55% for bypass and 59% for SFA interventions. Multivariate predictors (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) of covariates most frequently associated with first-line SFA stenting were TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus II A and B lesions (5.9 [3.4-9.1], P 70 years (2.1 [1.4-3.1], Ppatients were more likely to have nondiabetic status (5.6 [3.3-9.4], P patient-specific covariates, and anatomic lesion classification have significant association

  19. Risk of Breast Cancer in Women with False-Positive Results according to Mammographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Xavier; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Posso, Margarita; Román, Marta; Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Domingo, Laia; Vidal, Carmen; Baré, Marisa; Ferrer, Joana; Quintana, María Jesús; Sánchez, Mar; Natal, Carmen; Espinàs, Josep A; Saladié, Francina; Sala, María

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive screening results according to radiologic classification of mammographic features. Materials and Methods Review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. This retrospective cohort study included 521 200 women aged 50-69 years who underwent screening as part of the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program between 1994 and 2010 and who were observed until December 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer and the 95% confidence interval (CI) in women with false-positive mammograms as compared with women with negative mammograms. Separate models were adjusted for screen-detected and interval cancers and for screen-film and digital mammography. Time without a breast cancer diagnosis was plotted by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results When compared with women with negative mammograms, the age-adjusted HR of cancer in women with false-positive results was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.95; P < .001). The risk was higher in women who had calcifications, whether they were (HR, 2.73; 95% CI: 2.28, 3.28; P < .001) or were not (HR, 2.24; 95% CI: 2.02, 2.48; P < .001) associated with masses. Women in whom mammographic features showed changes in subsequent false-positive results were those who had the highest risk (HR, 9.13; 95% CI: 8.28, 10.07; P < .001). Conclusion Women with false-positive results had an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly women who had calcifications at mammography. Women who had more than one examination with false-positive findings and in whom the mammographic features changed over time had a highly increased risk of breast cancer. Previous mammographic features might yield useful information for further risk-prediction models and personalized follow-up screening protocols. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  20. Improving Results on Convergence of AOR Method

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    Guangbin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient conditions on convergence of AOR method for solving Ax=b with A being a strictly doubly α diagonally dominant matrix. Moreover, we give two numerical examples to show the advantage of the new results.

  1. Long-term results of valgus osteotomy for terminal-stage osteoarthritis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Suguru

    2017-01-01

    Pauwels' femoral osteotomy is a classical and joint-preserving method for osteoarthritis of the hip caused by acetabular dysplasia and/or subluxation. However, its application for terminal-stage osteoarthritis of the hip, and the long-term results, have not yet been reported. We herein aim to investigate the long-term results of valgus osteotomy for terminal-stage osteoarthritis of the hip. Eighty-two hips of 75 patients (74 women and 1 man, mean age: 48.1 years) classified as having terminal-stage osteoarthritis by Kellgren and Laurence were indicated for valgus osteotomy from 1984 to 1993. Sixty-three hips of 57 patients were followed for more than 20 years (mean: 298 months). Follow-up rate was 77%. Preoperative mean hip score (Harris Hip Score) was 46.4 points. Thirty-two hips were later converted to total hip arthroplasty (THA) (mean: 185 months after surgery). Of the hips without conversion to THA, 31 hips scored 72.8 points on average, and 21 hips scored 70 or more points at the final follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis revealed that 40% of the hips, classified as non-atrophic type (according to Bombelli's classification) at the time of operation, maintained their joint space width for 20 years (endpoint: less than 1 mm at the weight-bearing segment, i.e., recurrence of osteoarthritis) and also revealed that 60% of the hips were not converted for 20 years after the initial operation (endpoint: conversion to THA). Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that those with the atrophic type had a hazard risk 24 times greater than those with the non-atrophic type of osteoarthritis. This is the first report of the long-term results of osteotomy for terminal-stage osteoarthritis of the hip showing satisfactory results with a lengthy follow-up period. Pauwels' valgus femoral osteotomy for terminal-stage osteoarthritis, excluding atrophic type, could be an acceptable alternative to THA.

  2. An increased total resected lymph node count benefits survival following pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms resection: an analysis using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end result registry database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effect of lymph node dissection for pancreas invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN remains unclear. The study investigated whether cancer-specific survival (CSS and overall survival (OS rates among invasive IPMN patients improve when more lymph nodes are harvested during surgery. STUDY DESIGN: The study cohort was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database. The lymph node count was categorized into quartiles. The relationship between lymph node count and survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards model. The stage migration was assessed by Chi-square tests. Propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize confounding variables between groups. RESULTS: In total, 1,080 patients with resected invasive IPMNs from 1992 to 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate Cox models indicated that an increased lymph node count independently improves survival. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests identified 16 nodes as an optimal cut-off value that yielded a significant survival benefit for all invasive IPMN patients. The stage migration effect existed in this cohort. After PSM, the 5-year CSS increased from 36% to 47%, and the median survival rate increased from 30 months to 40 months by increasing the lymph node count to over 16, alone. The 5-year OS rate also provided additional support for this result. CONCLUSION: Increased lymph node counts were associated with improved survival in invasive IPMN patients. One cut-off value of lymph node count was 16 for this improvement.

  3. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children: prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Holubkov, Richard; Browd, Samuel R; Cochrane, D Douglas; Drake, James M; Limbrick, David D; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Simon, Tamara D; Tamber, Mandeep S; Wellons, John C; Whitehead, William E; Kestle, John R W

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is now established as a viable treatment option for a subgroup of children with hydrocephalus. Here, the authors report prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) to provide the most accurate determination of morbidity, complication incidence, and efficacy of ETV in children and to determine if intraoperative predictors of ETV success add substantially to preoperative predictors. METHODS All children undergoing a first ETV (without choroid plexus cauterization) at 1 of 7 HCRN centers up to June 2013 were included in the study and followed up for a minimum of 18 months. Data, including detailed intraoperative data, were prospectively collected as part of the HCRN's Core Data Project and included details of patient characteristics, ETV failure (need for repeat hydrocephalus surgery), and, in a subset of patients, postoperative complications up to the time of discharge. RESULTS Three hundred thirty-six eligible children underwent initial ETV, 18.8% of whom had undergone shunt placement prior to the ETV. The median age at ETV was 6.9 years (IQR 1.7-12.6), with 15.2% of the study cohort younger than 12 months of age. The most common etiologies were aqueductal stenosis (24.8%) and midbrain or tectal lesions (21.2%). Visible forniceal injury (16.6%) was more common than previously reported, whereas severe bleeding (1.8%), thalamic contusion (1.8%), venous injury (1.5%), hypothalamic contusion (1.5%), and major arterial injury (0.3%) were rare. The most common postoperative complications were CSF leak (4.4%), hyponatremia (3.9%), and pseudomeningocele (3.9%). New neurological deficit occurred in 1.5% cases, with 0.5% being permanent. One hundred forty-one patients had documented failure of their ETV requiring repeat hydrocephalus surgery during follow-up, 117 of them during the first 6 months postprocedure. Kaplan-Meier rates of 30-day, 90-day, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year failure

  4. Excited random walks: results, methods, open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kosygina, Elena

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of self-interacting random walks in deterministic or random environments, known as excited random walks or cookie walks, on the d-dimensional integer lattice. The main purpose of this paper is two-fold: to give a survey of known results and some of the methods and to present several new results. The latter include functional limit theorems for transient one-dimensional excited random walks in bounded i.i.d. cookie environments as well as some zero-one laws. Several open problems are stated.

  5. Long-term results after primary infrapopliteal angioplasty for limb ischemia; Langzeitergebnisse nach Ballonangioplastie kruraler Arterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfke, H. [Klinikum Luedenscheid (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vannucchi, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Froelich, J.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Klinikum Bad Hersfeld (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; El-Sheik, M.; Wagner, H.J. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Vivantes-Klinikum im Friedrichshain (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the technical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical long-term results for patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated all patients who underwent infrapopliteal angioplasty to treat critical chronic limb ischemia or severe claudication from 1/1997 to 12/1999. We excluded patients with acute (< 2 weeks) limb ischemia. Procedure-related data were prospectively documented in a database and analyzed with a focus on the technical success rate and procedure-related complications. In addition all clinical documents were analyzed, and a follow-up examination was performed or telephone interviews were conducted with patients, relatives and referring doctors for follow-up. The primary end points were the limb salvage rate and patient survival rate. The secondary end points included the complication rate, technical success rate, and walking distance. Results: 112 patients with a mean age of 72 years (41 women, 71 men) underwent crural angioplasty on 121 limbs. Four patients suffered from severe claudication (Rutherford category 3) and all others had critical chronic limb ischemia (category 4 to 6). The complication rate was 2.7 %. The technical success rate was 92 %. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.59 to 0.88. The mean walking distance increased significantly from 52 {+-} 66 to 284 {+-} 346 meters at the time of follow-up. The limb salvage rate was 83.6 % after one year and 81.1 % after three years. The mean survival rate according to Kaplan-Meier was 79.4 %, 69.2 %, and 54.2 % at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Patients with at least one patent run-off vessel after angioplasty had a significantly better limb salvage rate. Diabetes was not a risk factor for limb salvage. Conclusion: Infrapopliteal angioplasty shows a high technical success rate with an acceptable complication rate. The clinical long-term success seems favorable if a least one open run-off vessel was

  6. Clinical results of Intracoronary Brachytherapy (ICBT) for multiple in-stent restenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, P. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Regensburg (Germany); Praxis Muehleninsel, Landshut-Muehldorf-Dingolfing (Germany); Schaefer, C.; Chaber, S.; Putnik, K.; Treutwein, M.; Koelbl, O. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital Regensburg (Germany); Muders, F. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Hospital Regensburg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose: treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone is often followed by early re-restenosis. The present study focused on the effect of intracoronary brachytherapy (ICBT) on multiple in-stent restenosis (MISR) after repeated PCI. Patients and methods: 40 patients (27 male, 13 female, age: 66 {+-} 9 years) with MISR (two to six ISRs, median three ISRs) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by using the Novoste {sup registered} Beta-Cath trademark 3.5F System after PCI. The target vessel received 18.4-25.3 Gy of radiation at a depth of 2 mm from the center of the source. The restenosis-free survival and overall survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank). The time interval between last PCI without ICBT and the consecutive recurrence was compared with the follow-up time after PCI with ICBT. Results: the 3-year overall survival rate after ICBT was 93%. The 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 3-year ISR-free survival rates after PCI + ICBT were 81%, 72%, 52%, and 38%, respectively. After PCI alone, the 0.5-, 1-, and 2-year ISR-free survival rates were 30%, 13%, and 0%, respectively. This difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001). Patients with more than three ISRs before ICBT had a better outcome (3-year ISR-free survival: 80%) than patients with only two or three ISRs before ICBT (3-year ISR-free survival: 25%; p < 0.05). Conclusion: ICBT is highly effective and safe in patients with ISR. The results of this study are in accordance with the WRIST and BETA-WRIST data. After 6 months both studies revealed an ISR-free survival rate of 86% (WRIST) and 66% (BETA-WRIST), respectively. The ISR rates in the own control group (70%) were comparable to the placebo groups in WRIST (68%) and BETA-WRIST (72%). Interestingly, patients with more than three ISRs before ICBT had the lowest ISR rate after ICBT. (orig.)

  7. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery. Early results and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibl, Bernhard J. [Klinikum Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany); Vitz, Stephanie; Schaefer, Wolfgang; Alfrink, Martin; Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. [DiCura Coburg, Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany); Geschwendtner, Andreas [Klinikum Coburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Coburg Cancer Center, Coburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate treatment results and toxicity following a combined approach consisting of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery in advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Patients and Methods: Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 41 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction were evaluated, of whom 23 received neoadjuvant radiochemo-therapy (RCT). A total dose of 50.4 Gy with 2 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (FU) or Taxol/FU-chemotherapy were applied. A radical transthoracic subtotal esophageal and proximal gastric resection through a right thoracoabdominal laparotomy with intrathoracic anastomosis was performed 6-8 weeks following RCT. This was combined with a two-field lymphadenectomy of mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes. Standard histopathological evaluation included the application of regression grading according to Werner and Hoefler. Toxicity was recorded on the basis of CTC criteria; survival curves were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier. V10, V15, and V20 data were correlated with pulmonary toxicity. Results: Overall survival for all 23 patients was 61% at 3 years. Of the original 23 patients, 18 (78%) patients proceeded to radical surgery. Reasons for no surgery included advanced age of 79, 82, and 86 years (n = 3), severe comorbidity (n = 1), and progression during radiochemotherapy (n = 1). Surgical morbidity (grade 3-4) and mortality rates were 35% and 6%, respectively. Resurgery was necessary in 3 cases (18%). Clear resection margins were achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94%). Twelve of 18 (67%) patients initially diagnosed with T3 tumors and 3 of 3 patients with T4 tumors experienced downstaging. The ypN0 rate was 12 of 18 patients (67%). Out of a total of 18 patients, regression grading revealed < 10% viable cells in 8 (44%) including 3 cases (17%) with complete regression, 10-50% viable

  8. Mobile spine chordoma: results of 166 patients from the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Zadnik, Patricia L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Germscheid, Niccole; Goodwin, C. Rory; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bettegowda, Chetan; Groves, Mari L.; Luzzati, Alessandro; Rhines, Laurence D.; Fisher, Charles G.; Varga, Peter Pal; Dekutoski, Mark B.; Clarke, Michelle J.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Quraishi, Nasir A.; Chou, Dean; Reynolds, Jeremy J.; Williams, Richard P.; Kawahara, Norio; Boriani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Object A chordoma is an indolent primary spinal tumor that has devastating effects on the patient’s life. These lesions are chemoresistant, resistant to conventional radiotherapy, and moderately sensitive to proton therapy; however, en bloc resection remains the preferred treatment for optimizing patient outcomes. While multiple small and largely retrospective studies have investigated the outcomes following en bloc resection of chordomas in the sacrum, there have been few large-scale studies on patients with chordomas of the mobile spine. The goal of this study was to review the outcomes of surgically treated patients with mobile spine chordomas at multiple international centers with respect to local recurrence and survival. This multiinstitutional retrospective study collected data between 1988 and 2012 about prognosis-predicting factors, including various clinical characteristics and surgical techniques for mobile spine chordoma. Tumors were classified according to the Enneking principles and analyzed in 2 treatment cohorts: Enneking-appropriate (EA) and Enneking-inappropriate (EI) cohorts. Patients were categorized as EA when the final pathological assessment of the margin matched the Enneking recommendation; otherwise, they were categorized as EI. Methods Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data (Student t-test, chi-square, and Fisher exact tests). Recurrence and survival data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log-rank tests, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results A total of 166 patients (55 female and 111 male patients) with mobile spine chordoma were included. The median patient follow-up was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 22.5 years). Fifty-eight (41%) patients were EA and 84 (59%) patients were EI. The type of biopsy (p < 0.001), spinal location (p = 0.018), and if the patient received adjuvant therapy (p < 0.001) were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Overall, 58 (35%) patients developed local

  9. Smoking as a risk factor of multiple sclerosis: results of cohort study in volyn region

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    Ольга Дмитрівна Шульга

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the modified risk factor of the multiple sclerosis (MS development. In spite of the low smoking percentage in the population of Volyn region the rates of MS prevalence and morbidity is there the one of the highest in the country.Aim of research: to assess an influence of smoking in Volyn dwellers on the type of clinical course, progression quickness and the incapability degree in patients with MS.Materials and methods: According to the smoking status all patients were divided into three groups: smokers, ex-smokers, non-smokers. There were assessed age, sexual differences, the age of the debut of disease, neurological deficiency degree, the disease progression quickness between groups. Statistical analysis was carried out with the help of Microsoft Excel, SPSS program for Windows using the standard descriptive statistics, correlative and regressive analysis. For analysis of events achievement there were used the plural assessments of Kaplan-Meier. The comparison of survival functions in two groups was carried out using Cox and Wilkinson F-criterion.Results: There were examined 338 patients with multiple sclerosis from all districts of Volyn region among them – 220 (65,1 % women. The men-women ratio was 1,87:1. The mean age of patients was 47±12,18 years old, the age of the MS first symptoms appearance– 30±9,19 years old. The age of patients at the time of diagnosis– 33±9,4 years old. The mean grade on EDSS scale – 4±2,04. There was established that patients in the group of smokers were younger, the first symptoms appeared earlier compared with those who never smoked or stopped smoking (p<0,05. The disability level on EDSS scale was lower in the group of patients who never smoked (p=0,015. There was not revealed the statistically significant difference for the next rates: the type of clinical course, type of debut of disease and progression quickness of disease.Conclusion: The MS appears earlier in smoking patients. The

  10. The expected results method for data verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monday, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The credibility of United States Army analytical experiments using distributed simulation depends on the quality of the simulation, the pedigree of the input data, and the appropriateness of the simulation system to the problem. The second of these factors is best met by using classified performance data from the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) for essential battlefield behaviors, like sensors, weapon fire, and damage assessment. Until recently, using classified data has been a time-consuming and expensive endeavor: it requires significant technical expertise to load, and it is difficult to verify that it works correctly. Fortunately, new capabilities, tools, and processes are available that greatly reduce these costs. This paper will discuss these developments, a new method to verify that all of the components are configured and operate properly, and the application to recent Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC) experiments. Recent developments have focused improving the process to load the data. OneSAF has redesigned their input data file formats and structures so that they correspond exactly with the Standard File Format (SFF) defined by AMSAA, ARCIC developed a library of supporting configurations that correlate directly to the AMSAA nomenclature, and the Entity Validation Tool was designed to quickly execute the essential models with a test-jig approach to identify problems with the loaded data. The missing part of the process is provided by the new Expected Results Method. Instead of the usual subjective assessment of quality, e.g., "It looks about right to me", this new approach compares the performance of a combat model with authoritative expectations to quickly verify that the model, data, and simulation are all working correctly. Integrated together, these developments now make it possible to use AMSAA classified performance data with minimal time and maximum assurance that the experiment's analytical results will be of the highest

  11. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Zaiden, Robert [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Slayton, William [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Sandler, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology Nemours Children' s Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ozdemir, Savas [Department of Radiology, Division of Functional and Molecular Imaging, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes

  12. Outcome of patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: Results of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataergin S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prognostic factors in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors have been mainly derived from the analysis of stage I tumors. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate some prognostic factors and the outcome of patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors according to risk groups treated between 1993 and 2002. Settings and Design: Patients were retrospectively classified as good, intermediate and poor risk groups according to International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group. Materials and Methods: Biopsy specimens of 58 patients with stage II and III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors were analyzed by means of tumor histopathology, primary localization site of the tumor, relapse sites, initial serum tumor marker levels, the presence of persistent serum tumor marker elevation and the patients′ outcome. Statistical Analysis :0 Kruskall Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to determine the differences between the groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and log rank test was used to compare the survival probabilities of groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the prognostic factors in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates were calculated as 85% and 75% in stage II; 44% and 29% in stage III cases, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of patients were classified in good risk, 9% in intermediate risk and 27% in poor risk groups. Five-year overall survival rates were 97%, 75% and 7% ( P < 0.001 and disease-free survival rates were 83%, 34% and 7% ( P < 0.001 in good, intermediate and poor risk groups, respectively. Analysis of the prognostic factors revealed that the localization site of the primary tumor ( P < 0.001, the initial stage of disease ( P < 0.001, the initial serum AFP level (p: 0.001, the initial β -HCG level (p: 0.0048, the presence of yolk sac and choriocarcinoma components in tumor (p: 0.003 and p: 0

  13. MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.

  14. Impact of reconstruction methods and pathological factors on survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Binziad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy for pancreatic head (PH and periampullary carcinoma (PC and provides the only chance of cure. Improvements of surgical technique, increased surgical experience and advances in anesthesia, intensive care and parenteral nutrition have substantially decreased surgical complications and increased survival. We evaluate the effects of reconstruction type, complications and pathological factors on survival and quality of life. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate the impact of various reconstruction methods of the pancreatic remnant after pancreaticoduodenectomy and the pathological characteristics of PC patients over 3.5 years. Patient characteristics and descriptive analysis in the three variable methods either with or without stent were compared with Chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was performed with the logistic regression analysis test and multinomial logistic regression analysis test. Survival rate was analyzed by use Kaplan-Meier test. Results: Forty-one consecutive patients with PC were enrolled. There were 23 men (56.1% and 18 women (43.9%, with a median age of 56 years (16 to 70 years. There were 24 cases of PH cancer, eight cases of PC, four cases of distal CBD cancer and five cases of duodenal carcinoma. Nine patients underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ, 17 patients underwent telescoping pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ and 15 patients pancreaticogastrostomy (PG. The pancreatic duct was stented in 30 patients while in 11 patients, the duct was not stented. The PJ duct-to-mucosa caused significantly less leakage, but longer operative and reconstructive times. Telescoping PJ was associated with the shortest hospital stay. There were 5 postoperative mortalities, while postoperative morbidities included pancreatic fistula-6 patients, delayed gastric emptying in-11, GI fistula-3, wound infection-12, burst abdomen-6 and pulmonary infection-2. Factors

  15. Early and long-term results of combined cardiac surgery and neoplastic resection in patients with concomitant severe heart disease and neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qiang; LI Quan-zheng; LIANG De-gang; RUAN Xin-hua; WANG Zan-xin; WEI Min-xin

    2011-01-01

    Background It is a surgical dilemma when patients present with both severe heart disease and neoplasms. The best surgical treatment remains controversial. This study aimed to analyze the early and long-term results of simultaneous surgical treatment of severe heart disease and neoplasms.Methods We reviewed the clinical records of 15 patients who underwent simultaneous neoplastic resection and cardiac surgery between September 2006 and January 2011. There were 5 male and 10 female patients. The mean age was (59.2±12.5) years and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was (57.4±11.0)%. All patients were followed up completely for a period of 12 to 51 months (mean, (33.1±11.2) months).Results Fifteen patients underwent simultaneous cardiac surgery and neoplastic resection. Cardiac procedures consisted of off pump coronary artery bypass grafting (n=7), aortic valve replacement (n=3), mitral valve replacement (n=3), mitral valve replacement with coronary artery bypass grafting (n=1) and left atrial myxoma resection (n=1). Neoplastic resection consisted of lung cancer resection (n=5). colonic cancer resection (n=3), gallbladder resection (n=1), colonic cancer resection with gallbladder resection (n=1), hysterectomy (n=2), hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (n=2) and left ovariectomy (n=1). Pathological examination confirmed malignant disease in 10 patients and benign disease in 5 patients. There were no perioperative myocardial infarctions, stroke, pericardial tamponade, renal failure or hospital deaths. The most frequent complications were atrial fibrillation (33.3%), pneumonia (26.7%), low cardiac output syndrome (6.7%) and delayed healing of surgical wounds (6.7%). There was 1 late death 42 months after surgery for recurrent malignant disease. At 1 and 3 years, survival rates were 100% (Kaplan-Meier method).Conclusions Simultaneous cardiac surgery and neoplastic resection was not associated with increased early or late morbidity or mortality

  16. Five Year Results of US Intergroup/RTOG 9704 With Postoperative CA 19-9 {<=}90 U/mL and Comparison to the CONKO-001 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Winter, Kathryn [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Regine, William F. [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Safran, Howard [Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Benson, Alan B. [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois (United States); MacDonald, John [St. Vincent' s Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of {<=}90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable ({<=}90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of {>=}90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 {>=}90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values {>=}90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848).

  17. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gotti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC diagnosis in the modern cART era. METHODS: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51% were ADCs and 431 (49% were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001. Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14% than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%, liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4% or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%. Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. CONCLUSIONS: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  18. Phase 1/2 Trials of Temozolomide, Motexafin Gadolinium, and 60-Gy Fractionated Radiation for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme: Final Results of RTOG 0513

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachman, David G., E-mail: david.brachman@dignityhealth.org [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ashby, Lynn S. [Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Thomas, Theresa A. [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Dunbar, Erin M. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Narayan, Samir [St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Robins, H. Ian [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bovi, Joseph A. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Rockhill, Jason K. [University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Won, Minhee [Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph' s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Curran, Walter P. [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) given concurrently with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Phase 2 determined whether this combination improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in GBM recursive partitioning analysis class III to V patients compared to therapies for recently published historical controls. Methods and Materials: Dose escalation in phase 1 progressed through 3 cohorts until 2 of 6 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity or a dose of 5 mg/kg was reached. Once MTD was established, a 1-sided 1-sample log-rank test at significance level of .1 had 85% power to detect a median survival difference (13.69 vs 18.48 months) with 60 deaths over a 12-month accrual period and an additional 18 months of follow-up. OS and PFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: In phase 1, 24 patients were enrolled. The MTD established was 5 mg/kg, given intravenously 5 days a week for the first 10 RT fractions, then 3 times a week for the duration of RT. The 7 patients enrolled in the third dose level and the 94 enrolled in phase 2 received this dose. Of these 101 patients, 87 were eligible and evaluable. Median survival time was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.9-17.6 months), not significantly different from that of the historical control (P=.36). Median PFS was 7.6 months (95% CI: 5.7-9.6 months). One patient (1%) experienced a grade 5 adverse event possibly related to therapy during the concurrent phase, and none experience toxicity during adjuvant TMZ therapy. Conclusions: Treatment was well tolerated, but median OS did not reach improvement specified by protocol compared to historical control, indicating that the combination of standard RT with TMZ and MGd did not achieve a significant survival advantage.

  19. Single-Fraction Versus 5-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Limited Survival Prognoses: Results of a Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Šegedin, Barbara; Perpar, Ana [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Conde, Antonio J.; Garcia, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Consorcio Hospital Provincial de Castellón, Castellón (Spain); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacicedo, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study compared single-fraction to multi-fraction short-course radiation therapy (RT) for symptomatic metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients with limited survival prognosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients who received 8 Gy × 1 fraction were matched (1:1) to 121 patients treated with 4 Gy × 5 fractions for 10 factors including age, sex, performance status, primary tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, interval between tumor diagnosis and MESCC, pre-RT ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits prior to RT. Endpoints included in-field repeated RT (reRT) for MESCC, overall survival (OS), and impact of RT on motor function. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for in-field reRT for MESCC and OS and with the ordered-logit model for effect of RT on motor function. Results: Doses of 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 4 Gy × 5 fractions were not significantly different with respect to the need for in-field reRT for MESCC (P=.11) at 6 months (18% vs 9%, respectively) and 12 months (30% vs 22%, respectively). The RT regimen also had no significant impact on OS (P=.65) and post-RT motor function (P=.21). OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively, after 8 Gy × 1 fraction versus 25% and 13%, respectively, after 4 Gy × 5 fractions. Improvement of motor function was observed in 17% of patients after 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% after 4 Gy × 5 fractions, respectively. Conclusions: There were no significant differences with respect to need for in-field reRT for MESCC, OS, and motor function by dose fractionation regimen. Thus, 8 Gy × 1 fraction may be a reasonable option for patients with survival prognosis of a few months.

  20. Learning phacoemulsification. Results of different teaching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Albrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the learning curves of three eye surgeons converting from sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification using different teaching methods. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR as a per-operative complication and visual outcome of the first 100 operations were analysed. The PCR rate was 4% and 15% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively. Likewise, an uncorrected visual acuity of > or = 6/18 on the first postoperative day was seen in 62 (62% of patients and in 22 (22% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively.

  1. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: ANALYSIS METHODS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Five-yearly review of employment conditions   Article S V 1.02 of our Staff Rules states that the CERN “Council shall periodically review and determine the financial and social conditions of the members of the personnel. These periodic reviews shall consist of a five-yearly general review of financial and social conditions;” […] “following methods […] specified in § I of Annex A 1”. Then, turning to the relevant part in Annex A 1, we read that “The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain the staff members required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. […] these staff members must be of the highest competence and integrity.” And for the menu of such a review we have: “The five-yearly review must include basic salaries and may include any other financial or soc...

  2. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, Olga, E-mail: olga.vujovic@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Cherian, Anil [Station Health Centre, Royal Air Force Lossiemouth, Moray (United Kingdom); Dar, A. Rashid [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Department of Biometry, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  3. Oral fibrinogen-depleting agent lumbrokinase for secondary ischemic stroke prevention: results from a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group and controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-jun; ZHANG Xia; WANG Wan-hua; ZHAI Wan-qing; QIAN Ju-fen; WANG Jian-sheng; CHEN Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated fibrinogen (Fg) level is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke.There are few clinical trials on oral fibrinogen-depleting therapies for secondary ischemic stroke prevention.We aimed to assess the effects of one-year therapy with oral lumbrokinase enteric-coated capsules on secondary ischemic stroke prevention.Methods This is a multicenter,randomized,parallel group and controlled study that began treatment in hospitalized patients with ischemic stroke and continued for 12 months.Patients were randomized to either the control group that received the standard stroke treatment or the fibrinogen-depleting group that received the standard stroke treatment plus enteric-coated lumbrokinase capsules.The NIH Stroke Scale scores (NIHSSs) and plasma Fg level were recorded.The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and status of plaques were examined through carotid ultrasound examination.Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality,any event of recurrent ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA),hemorrhagic stroke,myocardial infarction and angina,and other noncerebral ischemia or hemorrhage.Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Long-rank test were used to compare total vascular end point incidence between the two groups.Comparison of median values between two groups was done by the Student t test,one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),or non-parametric rank sum test.Results A total of 310 patients were enrolled,192 patients in the treatment group and 118 patients in the control group.Compared to the control group,the treatment group showed favorable outcomes in the Fg level,carotid IMT,the detection rate of vulnerable plaques,the volume of carotid plaques,NIHSS scores,and incidence of total vascular (6.78% and 2.08%,respectively) and cerebral vascular events (5.93% and 1.04%,respectively) (P <0.05).In the treatment group,the volume of carotid plaques was significantly related to the carotid IMT,the plaque diameter,width and number (P

  4. Mid-term results of small-sized St. Jude Medical Regent prosthetic valves (21 mm or less) for small aortic annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Iwata, Takashi; Tei, Keikou; Miura, Takuya

    2013-11-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is always of concern when performing aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with a small aortic annulus. Although bioprosthetic AVR is preferred in patients older than 65 years, we have experienced cases in elderly patients with a small aortic annulus whereby we could not implant small-sized bioprosthetic valves. We have implanted St. Jude Medical Regent (SJMR) mechanical valves (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) as necessary, even in elderly patients with no aortic annulus enlargement. We investigated our experiences of AVR with SJMR mechanical valves of 21 mm or less in size. Between January 2006 and December 2009, 40 patients underwent AVR with SJMR mechanical valves ≤21 mm in size: 9 patients received 21-mm valves, 19 received 19-mm valves, and 12 received 17-mm valves. The mean age was 65.9 ± 9.5 years, and 25 patients (62.5 %) were 65 years or older. We evaluated the clinical outcome and the echocardiographic data for each valve size. There was no operative or hospital mortality. The mean duration of clinical follow-up was 31.2 ± 17.6 months. During follow-up, there were no hospitalizations due to heart failure. The cumulative valve-related event-free survival was 93 % at 33 months, and the cumulative hemorrhagic event-free survival was 93 % at 33 months and 84 % at 43 months, using the Kaplan-Meier method. At follow-up, the mean values of the measured effective orifice area (EOA) for the 21-, 19-, and 17-mm prostheses were 2.00 ± 0.22, 1.74 ± 0.37, and 1.25 ± 0.26 cm(2), and the mean measured EOA index (EOAI) were 1.17 ± 0.12, 1.11 ± 0.21 and 0.90 ± 0.22 cm(2)/m(2), respectively. A PPM (EOAI ≤0.85) was documented in 5 patients, all of whom had received a 17-mm SJMR valve. AVR with SJMR valves of 21 mm or less in size appears to show satisfactory clinical and hemodynamic results.

  5. Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among Individuals With and Without Diabetes Stratified by Obesity Status in the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pencina, Michael J.; Wilson, Peter W. F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Fox, Caroline; Paynter, Nina Palanza

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with and without obesity and diabetes. Research Design and Methods: Participants were drawn from the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. Lifetime (30-year) risk of CVD was assessed using a modified Kaplan-Meier approach adjusting for the competing risk of death, beginning from age 50 years. Results: Over 30 years, the lifetime risk of CVD among women with diabetes was 54.8% amo...

  6. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  7. Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences: Radiometer calibration methods and resulting irradiance differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Andreas, Afshin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Reda, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Robinson, Justin [GroundWork Renewables Inc., Logan UT 84321 USA

    2016-10-07

    Accurate solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on instrument performance specifications, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methodologies and resulting differences provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these methods calibrate radiometers indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodologies, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from radiometers deployed for 10 months at NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. These different methods of calibration resulted in a difference of +/-1% to +/-2% in solar irradiance measurements. Analyzing these differences will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the field radiometer data and will help develop a consensus on a standard for calibration. Further advancing procedures for precisely calibrating radiometers to world reference standards that reduce measurement uncertainties will help the accurate prediction of the output of planned solar conversion projects and improve the bankability of financing solar projects.

  8. Late Urinary Side Effects 10 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Population-Based Results From a Multiphysician Practice Treating With a Standardized Protocol and Uniform Dosimetric Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca; Miller, Stacy; Pickles, Tom; Halperin, Ross; Kwan, Winkle; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid; Pai, Howard; Chan, Elisa K.; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine late urinary toxicity (>12 months) in a large cohort of uniformly treated low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2009, 2709 patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–defined low-risk and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy; 2011 patients with a minimum of 25 months of follow-up were included in the study. Baseline patients, treatment, implant factors, and late urinary toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grading system and International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) were recorded prospectively. Time to IPSS resolution, late RTOG genitourinary toxicity was examined with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression was done for individual covariates and multivariable models. Results: Median follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 2-13 years). Actuarial toxicity rates reached 27% and 10% (RTOG ≥2 and ≥3, respectively) at 9-13 years. Symptoms resolved quickly in the majority of patients (88% in 6-12 months). The prevalence of RTOG 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 toxicity with a minimum of 7 years' follow-up was 70%, 21%, 6.4%, 2.3%, and 0.08%, respectively. Patients with a larger prostate volume, higher baseline IPSS, higher D90, acute toxicity, and age >70 years had more late RTOG ≥2 toxicity (all P≤.02). The IPSS resolved slower in patients with lower baseline IPSS and larger ultrasound prostate volume, those not receiving androgen deprivation therapy, and those with higher D90. The crude rate of RTOG 3 toxicity was 6%. Overall the rate of transurethral resection of the prostate was 1.9%; strictures, 2%; incontinence, 1.3%; severe symptoms, 1.8%; late catheterization, 1.3%; and hematuria, 0.8%. The majority (80%) resolved their symptoms in 6-12 months. Conclusion: Long-term urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is low. Although actuarial rates increase with longer

  9. Resultados de la metastasectomía pulmonar por osteosarcoma en niños (1985 a 2005 Results of lung metastasectomy due to osteosarcoma in children (1985-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Collado Otero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la incidencia real de la metastasectomía pulmonar en niños con diagnóstico anatomopatológico de osteosarcoma no es bien conocida. Describir los resultados de esta operación en los pacientes pediátricos operados en nuestro servicio en un período de 20 años fue el objetivo de este trabajo. Fueron operados 19 pacientes del total de 145 atendidos, entre los cuales fueron los varones en edades cercanas a la adolescencia a quienes con mayor frecuencia se practicó la metastasectomía pulmonar. Hubo un predominio de metástasis única; el pulmón más afectado fue el derecho, y por tanto, fueron más frecuentes los abordajes sobre ese hemitórax. La toracotomía vertical axilar derecha (técnica de Bordonne y la metastasectomía en cuña fueron las técnicas más utilizadas. Pudimos observar, mediante métodos estadísticos y tablas de Kaplan Meier para sobrevida libre de eventos y la sobrevida global, que hubo una diferencia significativa en cuanto a la distribución de los tiempos y una alta morbilidad y mortalidad a pesar de la metastasectomía.In Cuba the real incidence of lung metastasectomy in children with anatomopathological diagnosis of osteosarcoma is not well known. The objective of this paper was to describe the results of this surgical procedure in pediatric patients operated on in our service in a period of 20 years. 19 patients of the total of 145 that received attention underwent surgery. Lung mastectomy was more frequent among males near the adolescence. There was a predominance of unique metastasis; the right lung was the most affected and, therefore, the approaches on this hemithorax were more common. The right vertical axilary thoracotomy (Bordonne technique and wedge metastasectomy were the most used techniques. It was possible to observe by statistical methods and Kaplan Meier’s tables for event-free survival and global survival, a significant difference in connection with the distribution of times and a high

  10. Clinical consequences of switching from olanzapine to risperidone and vice versa in outpatients with schizophrenia: 36-month results from the worldwide schizophrenia outpatients health outcomes (W-SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jihyung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With many atypical antipsychotics now available in the market, it has become a common clinical practice to switch between atypical agents as a means of achieving the best clinical outcomes. This study aimed to examine the impact of switching from olanzapine to risperidone and vice versa on clinical status and tolerability outcomes in outpatients with schizophrenia in a naturalistic setting. Methods W-SOHO was a 3-year observational study that involved over 17,000 outpatients with schizophrenia from 37 countries worldwide. The present post hoc study focused on the subgroup of patients who started taking olanzapine at baseline and subsequently made the first switch to risperidone (n=162 and vice versa (n=136. Clinical status was assessed at the visit when the first switch was made (i.e. before switching and after switching. Logistic regression models examined the impact of medication switch on tolerability outcomes, and linear regression models assessed the association between medication switch and change in the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia (CGI-SCH overall score or change in weight. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to analyze the time to medication switch as well as time to relapse (symptom worsening as assessed by the CGI-SCH scale or hospitalization. Results 48% and 39% of patients switching to olanzapine and risperidone, respectively, remained on the medication without further switches (p=0.019. Patients switching to olanzapine were significantly less likely to experience relapse (hazard ratio: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.43, 8.26, extrapyramidal symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 4.02, 95% CI: 1.49, 10.89 and amenorrhea/galactorrhea (OR: 8.99, 95% CI: 2.30, 35.13. No significant difference in weight change was, however, found between the two groups. While the CGI-SCH overall score improved in both groups after switching, there was a significantly greater change in those who

  11. Effectiveness of the Dader Method for Pharmaceutical Care on Patients with Bipolar I Disorder: Results from the EMDADER-TAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Amariles, Pedro; Hincapié-García, Jaime A; González-Avendaño, Sebastián; Benjumea, Dora M; Faus, Maria José; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar I disorder (BD-I) is a chronic illness characterized by relapses alternating with periods of remission. Pharmacists can contribute to improved health outcomes in these patients through pharmaceutical care in association with a multidisciplinary health team; however, more evidence derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is needed to demonstrate the effect of pharmaceutical care on patients with BD-I. To assess the effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention using the Dader Method on patients with BD-I, measured by the decrease in the number of hospitalizations, emergency service consultations, and unscheduled outpatient visits from baseline through 1 year of follow-up. This study is based on the EMDADER-TAB trial, which was an RCT designed to compare pharmaceutical care with the usual care given to outpatients with BD-I in a psychiatric clinic. The main outcome was the use of health care services, using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. The trial protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT01750255). 92 patients were included in the EMDADER-TAB study: 43 pharmaceutical care patients (intervention group) and 49 usual care patients (control group). At baseline, no significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were found across the 2 groups. After 1 year of follow-up, the risk of hospitalizations and emergencies was higher for the control group than for the intervention group (HR = 9.03, P = 0.042; HR = 3.38, P = 0.034, respectively); however, the risk of unscheduled outpatient visits was higher for the intervention group (HR = 4.18, P = 0.028). There was no "placebo" treatment, and patients in the control group might have produced positive outcomes and reduced the magnitude of differences compared with the intervention group. Compared with usual care, pharmaceutical care significantly reduced hospitalizations and emergency service consultations by outpatients with BD-I. This study received funding from

  12. Early and midterm results of kissing stent technique in the management of aortoiliac obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulli, Raffaele; Dorigo, Walter; Fargion, Aaron; Angiletta, Domenico; Azas, Leonidas; Pratesi, Giovanni; Alessi Innocenti, Alessandro; Pratesi, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    To retrospectively analyze the early and the midterm results of endovascular management of aortoiliac obstructive disease with the kissing stent technique. From January 2005 to September 2012, 229 consecutive endovascular interventions for aortoiliac obstructive disease were performed; data from all the interventions were prospectively collected in a dedicated database. In 41 patients, the kissing stent technique at the level of aortic bifurcation was performed (group 1), whereas in the remaining 188 it was not (group 2). Perioperative results were compared with chi-squared test. Follow-up results were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with log-rank test. Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II C and D lesions were present in 66% of patients in group 1 and in 28.5% in group 2 (P kissing stent technique provided satisfactory results in patients with obstructive aortoiliac diseases, without an increase in immediate and midterm complications, representing an effective solution in complex anatomies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Successful Restoration of Severely Mutilated Primary Incisors Using a Novel Method to Retain Zirconia Crowns - Two Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shahawy, Osama Ibrahim; O'Connell, Anne C

    This manuscript describes a simple reliable technique for restoring severely mutilated primary anterior teeth. A rigid glass ionomer post is created over which zirconia crowns can be fitted to achieve a long-term stable esthetic restoration for primary anterior teeth. Children aged 2-5 years with two up to six extensively decayed upper primary incisors were included. Fuji IX was condensed into an intracanal space created to a depth of 3mm, to provide a core which also extended 3mm supragingivally. Crown preparations were completed upon these cores. Zirconia crowns (Nusmile, Houston Texas USA) were fitted and cemented over the prepared cores. All patients were recalled at regular intervals. Twenty-three healthy children with 86 restorations participated in the study. The overall survival of the restorations was 95.3% after 12 months and 80.2% after 24 months. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the median survival time was not reached while the estimated mean survival time was 22.9 months. This newly described clinical technique is simple and reliable to use for restoration of extensively decayed primary incisors. Use of zirconia crowns retained using this technique offers superior esthetic, durable restorations with remarkable gingival response up to 24 months.

  14. Image-guided multipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver tumours: initial clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraz, Sylvain; Constantin, Christophe; Becker, Christoph D. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Majno, Pietro Edoardo; Mentha, Gilles [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Spahr, Laurent [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    The local effectiveness and clinical usefulness of multipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours was evaluated. Sixty-eight image-guided RF sessions were performed using a multipolar device with bipolar electrodes in 53 patients. There were 45 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and 42 metastases with a diameter {<=}3 cm (n = 55), 3.1-5 cm (n = 29) and >5 cm (n = 3); 26 nodules were within 5 mm from large vessels. Local effectiveness and complications were evaluated after RF procedures. Mean follow-up was 17 {+-} 10 months. Recurrence and survival rates were analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The primary and secondary technical effectiveness rate was 82% and 95%, respectively. The major and minor complication rate was 2.9%, respectively. The local tumour progression at 1- and 2-years was 5% and 9% for HCC nodules and 17% and 31% for metastases, respectively; four of 26 nodules (15%) close to vessels showed local progression. The survival at 1 year and 2 years was 97% and 90% for HCC and 84% and 68% for metastases, respectively. Multipolar RF technique creates ablation zones of adequate size and tailored shape and is effective to treat most liver tumours, including those close to major hepatic vessels. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of percutaneous radiologic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters: technical aspects, results, and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yub; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo [Kyunghee University Hospital, seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the technical aspects, results and complications of the percutaneous radiologic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters. Between December 1999 and April 2001, 26 peritoneal dialysis catheters were placed percutaneously in 26 consecutive patients by interventional radiologists. The patient group consisted of 16 men and ten women with a mean age of 55 (range, 30-77) years. The results and complications arising were reviewed, and the expected patency of the catheters was determined by means of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The technical success rate for catheter placement was 100% (26/26 patients). Severe local bleeding occurred in one patient due to by inferior epigastric artery puncture, and was treated by compression and electronic cautery. The duration of catheter implantation ranged from 1 to 510 days and the patency rate was 416{+-}45 days. Catheter malfunction occurred in four patients. In two, this was restored by manipulation in the intervention room, and in one, through the use of urokinase. In three patients, peritonitis occurred. Catheters were removed from four patients due to malfunction (n=2), peritonitis (n=1), and death (n=1). Percutaneous radiologic placement of a peritoneal dialysis catheter is a relatively simple procedure that reduces the complication rate and improves catheter patency.

  16. Breastfeeding training for health professionals and resultant changes in breastfeeding duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Promotion of breastfeeding in Brazilian maternity hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To quantify changes in the breastfeeding duration among mothers served by hospitals exposed to the Wellstart-SLC course, comparing them with changes among mothers attended by institutions not exposed to this course. DESIGN: Randomized Institutional Trial. SETTING: The effects of training on breastfeeding duration was assessed in eight Brazilian hospitals assigned at random to either an exposed group (staff attending the Wellstart-SLC course or a control group. SAMPLE: For each of the eight study hospitals, two cohorts of about 50 children were visited at home at one and six months after birth. The first cohort (n = 494 was composed of babies born in the month prior to exposure to the Wellstart-SLC course, and the second cohort (n = 476 was composed of babies born six months subsequent to this exposure. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to describe the weaning process and log-rank tests were used to assess statistical differences among survival curves. Hazard ratio (HR estimates were calculated by fitting Cox proportional hazard regression models to the data. RESULTS: The increases in estimated, adjusted rates for children born in hospitals with trained personnel were 29% (HR = 0.71 and 20% (HR = 0.80 for exclusive and full breastfeeding, respectively. No changes were identified for total breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: This randomized trial supports a growing body of evidence that training hospital health professionals in breastfeeding promotion and protection results in an increase in breastfeeding duration.

  17. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  18. Long-term carcinologic results of advanced esthesioneuroblastoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bonnecaze, Guillaume; Lepage, B; Rimmer, J; Al Hawat, A; Vairel, B; Serrano, E; Chaput, B; Vergez, S

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy can be considered like the optimal treatment modality for limited esthesioneuroblastoma. However, therapeutic management of locally advanced tumors remains a challenge. The aim of our study was to access and compare the oncologic results of the different treatment modalities in advanced esthesioneuroblastoma. We performed a systematic review using the Medline, and Cochrane database in accordance with PRISMA criteria and included all the cases of advanced esthesioneuroblastoma published between 2000 and 2013. We also retrospectively included 15 patients with an advanced esthesioneuroblastoma managed at our tertiary care medical center. Long-term survival rates defined as the time from diagnosis or randomization to the date of death or last follow-up were evaluated for each treatment with Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses. 283 patients have been included. The mean follow-up was 78 months. Five-year highest survival rates were obtained in patients treated by surgery associated with radiotherapy. Ten-year highest survival rates were obtained in patients treated by the association of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (p = 0.0008). Within the surgical group, 5-year highest survival rates were obtained in patients treated by endoscopic resection (p = 0.003). Surgical resection combined with radiotherapy offers the gold standard of care. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to improve the long-term survival in patients with locally advanced esthesioneuroblastoma. Endoscopic resection in advanced tumors should be discussed on a case-by-case basis.

  19. Non-Invasive Ventilation in HIV Positive patients with Sepsis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    review of 385 folders, every 5thfile was selected as comparator group. .... Depending on patient responses, the oxygen flow rates were adjusted from between ... Kaplan-Meier plots using log rank test for between-group comparison. RESULTS.

  20. Comparison Results Between Preconditioned Jacobi and the AOR Iterative Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Jicheng Li

    2007-01-01

    The large scale linear systems with M-matrices often appear in a wide variety of areas of physical, fluid dynamics and economic sciences. It is reported in [1] that the convergence rate of the IMGS method, with the preconditioner I + Sα, is superior to that of the basic SOR iterative method for the M-matrix. This paper considers the preconditioned Jacobi (PJ) method with the preconditioner P = I + Sα + Sβ, and proves theoretically that the convergence rate of the PJ method is better than that of the basic AOR method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the main results obtained.

  1. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  2. Some procedures for displaying results from three-way methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-way Tucker analysis and CANDECOMP/PARAFAC are popular methods for the analysis of three-way data (data pertaining to three sets of entities). To interpret the results from these methods, one can, in addition to inspecting the component matrices and the core array, inspect visual representation

  3. Numerical results for extended field method applications. [thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, B. K.; Chander, S.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical results obtained when a new method of analysis, called the extended field method, was applied to several thin plate problems including one with non-rectangular geometry, and one problem involving both beams and a plate. The numerical results show that the quality of the single plate solutions was satisfactory for all cases except those involving a freely deflecting plate corner. The results for the beam and plate structure were satisfactory even though the structure had a freely deflecting corner.

  4. CORRECTING ACCOUNTING RESULTS OF TENSIONS USING FEM BY HSS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Bannikov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the Hot Spot Stress (HSS method by means of linear surface extrapolation (LSE approach was analyzed for the correction of results of the Finite-Element Method (FEM in case of singularity of stresses. The given examples of structures and testing examples were computed on the base of design-and-computation software SCAD for Windows (version 11.3.

  5. Convergence results for a class of abstract continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for the minimization of Lipschitzian functions defined on a general Banach space. We establish convergence theorems for those methods which are generated by approximate solutions to evolution equations governed by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  6. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  7. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  8. Early Recurrence Patterns Following Totally Intracorporeal Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy: Results from the EAU Robotic Urology Section (ERUS) Scientific Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Justin W; Hosseini, Abolfazl; Adding, Christofer; Nyberg, Tommy; Koupparis, Anthony; Rowe, Edward; Perry, Matthew; Issa, Rami; Schumacher, Martin C; Wijburg, Carl; Canda, Abdullah E; Balbay, Melvin D; Decaestecker, Karel; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Edeling, Sebastian; Pokupić, Saša; D'Hondt, Fredrik; Mottrie, Alexander; Wiklund, Peter N

    2017-05-01

    Recurrence following radical cystectomy often occurs early, with >80% of recurrences occurring within the first 2 yr. Debate remains as to whether robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) negatively impacts early recurrence patterns because of inadequate resection or pneumoperitoneum. We report early recurrence patterns among 717 patients who underwent RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion at nine different institutions with a minimum follow-up of 12 mo. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic, and survival data at the latest follow-up were collected. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) estimates were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were built to assess variables associated with recurrence. RFS at 3, 12, and 24 mo was 95.9%, 80.2%, and 74.6% respectively. Distant recurrences most frequently occurred in the bones, lungs, and liver, and pelvic lymph nodes were the commonest site of local recurrence. We identified five patients (0.7%) with peritoneal carcinomatosis and two patients (0.3%) with metastasis at the port site (wound site). We conclude that unusual recurrence patterns were not identified in this multi-institutional series and that recurrence patterns appear similar to those in open radical cystectomy series. In this multi-institutional study, bladder cancer recurrences following robotic surgery are described. Early recurrence rates and locations appear to be similar to those for open radical cystectomy series. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Method and results of studying conduction measuring transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaevskii, I.G.; Korotkov, B.N.; Povkh, I.L.; Cheplyukov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The method and results are given for determining the sensitivity of conduction measuring transducers with a local magnetic field. The results were obtained by frequency-dependent gradation on a model pulsation velocity gauge--a thermoanemometer. The effect of measuring a transducer's diameter, inter-electrode distance and nose line forms on its spatial resolution capacity was estimated. Adjustment functions were obtained for these transducers. A concept was formulated for measuring transducers belonging to the same class. 5 references, 5 figures.

  10. Polygraph Test Results Assessment by Regression Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Leontiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of defining the importance of asked questions for the examinee under judicial and psychophysiological polygraph examination by methods of mathematical statistics. It offers the classification algorithm based on the logistic regression as an optimum Bayesian classifier, considering weight coefficients of information for the polygraph-recorded physiological parameters with no condition for independence of the measured signs.Actually, binary classification is executed by results of polygraph examination with preliminary normalization and standardization of primary results, with check of a hypothesis that distribution of obtained data is normal, as well as with calculation of coefficients of linear regression between input values and responses by method of maximum likelihood. Further, the logistic curve divided signs into two classes of the "significant" and "insignificant" type.Efficiency of model is estimated by means of the ROC analysis (Receiver Operator Characteristics. It is shown that necessary minimum sample has to contain results of 45 measurements at least. This approach ensures a reliable result provided that an expert-polygraphologist possesses sufficient qualification and follows testing techniques.

  11. A processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed.

  12. Five-year results of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial of posterior computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passia, N; Stampf, S; Strub, J R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic full-coverage crowns on premolars and molars in comparison with conventional gold crowns over a 5-year period. Two hundred and twenty-three patients were included and randomly divided into two treatment groups. One hundred and twenty-three patients were restored with 123 ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns, and 100 patients received 100 gold crowns, which served as the control. All crowns were conventionally cemented with glass-ionomer cement. After an observation period of 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months, the survival probability (Kaplan-Meier) for the shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns was 98·3%, 92·0%, 84·7%, 79% and 73·2% and for the gold crowns, 99%, 97·9%, 95·7%, 94·6% and 92·3%, respectively. The difference between the test and control group was statistically significant (P = 0·0027). The gold crowns showed a better marginal integrity with less marginal discoloration than the ceramic crowns. The most common failure in the ceramic crown group was fracture of the crown. The 60-month results of this prospective randomised controlled clinical trial suggest that the use of these shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 -ceramic crowns in posterior tooth restorations cannot be recommended.

  13. Deferiprone versus deferoxamine in sickle cell disease: results from a 5-year long-term Italian multi-center randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Giusi; Vitrano, Angela; Di Maggio, Rosario; Ballas, Samir; Steinberg, Martin H; Rigano, Paolo; Sacco, Massimiliano; Telfer, Paul; Renda, Disma; Barone, Rita; Maggio, Aurelio

    2014-12-01

    Blood transfusion and iron chelation currently represent a supportive therapy to manage anemia, vasculopathy and vaso-occlusion crises in Sickle-Cell-Disease. Here we describe the first 5-year long-term randomized clinical trial comparing Deferiprone versus Deferoxamine in patients with Sickle-Cell-Disease. The results of this study show that Deferiprone has the same effectiveness as Deferoxamine in decreasing body iron burden, measured as repeated measurements of serum ferritin concentrations on the same patient over 5-years and analyzed according to the linear mixed-effects model (LMM) (p=0.822). Both chelators are able to decrease, significantly, serum ferritin concentrations, during 5-years, without any effect on safety (p=0.005). Moreover, although the basal serum ferritin levels were higher in transfused compared with non-transfused group (p=0.031), the changes over time in serum ferritin levels were not statistically significantly different between transfused and non-transfused cohort of patients (p=0.389). Kaplan-Meier curve, during 5-years of study, suggests that Deferiprone does not alter survival in comparison with Deferoxamine (p=0.38). In conclusion, long-term iron chelation therapy with Deferiprone was associated with efficacy and safety similar to that of Deferoxamine. Therefore, in patients with Sickle-Cell-Disease, Deferiprone may represent an effective long-term treatment option.

  14. Test results judgment method based on BIT faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gang; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Lyu Kehong

    2015-01-01

    Built-in-test (BIT) is responsible for equipment fault detection, so the test data correct-ness directly influences diagnosis results. Equipment suffers all kinds of environment stresses, such as temperature, vibration, and electromagnetic stress. As embedded testing facility, BIT also suffers from these stresses and the interferences/faults are caused, so that the test course is influenced, resulting in incredible results. Therefore it is necessary to monitor test data and judge test failures. Stress monitor and BIT self-diagnosis would redound to BIT reliability, but the existing anti-jamming researches are mainly safeguard design and signal process. This paper focuses on test results monitor and BIT equipment (BITE) failure judge, and a series of improved approaches is proposed. Firstly the stress influences on components are illustrated and the effects on the diagnosis results are summarized. Secondly a composite BIT program is proposed with information integra-tion, and a stress monitor program is given. Thirdly, based on the detailed analysis of system faults and forms of BIT results, the test sequence control method is proposed. It assists BITE failure judge and reduces error probability. Finally the validation cases prove that these approaches enhance credibility.

  15. Trojan Horse Method: recent results in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Gimenez Del Santo, M.; Burjan, V.; Carlin, N.; Li, Chengbo; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Irgaziev, B.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, M.; Munhoz, M. G.; Palmerini, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, L.; Zhou, Shu-Hua; Somorjai, E.; Souza, F. A.; Tabacaru, G.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tumino, A.; Wen, Qungang; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is important in understanding the energy generation, the neutrinos luminosity and the synthesis of elements in stars. The physical conditions under which the majority of astrophysical reactions proceed in stellar environments make it difficult or impossible to measure them under the same conditions in the laboratory. That is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is introduced as an independent technique to obtain the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E)-factor. As examples the results of recent the application of THM to the 2H(11B, σ08Be)n and 2H(10B, σ07Be)n reactions are presented.

  16. Radon epidemiology and nuclear track detectors: Methods, results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, F. [Unit of Radioactivity and Related Health Effects, Technology and Health Department, Italian National Institute of Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.bochicchio@iss.it

    2005-11-15

    An important achievement of nuclear track detectors is that they render it possible to measure a large number of radon concentrations. These are necessary for epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the lung cancer risk due to exposure to radon and its decay products in dwellings. Many case-control studies were conducted in the last 15 years in Europe, North America and China, in order to avoid the uncertainties associated with the risk extrapolation from epidemiological studies on miners exposed in underground mines. In this review paper, the main methodological issues of these studies are introduced: confounding factors, the impact of radon exposure uncertainties on the estimated risk, the retrospective assessment of radon exposure through the measurement of Po210 surface concentration on glass objects, the interaction between radon and smoking, statistical methods to analyze data and combine studies, etc. As regards the estimated risk of lung cancer, the main characteristics and results of each study are reported and discussed, together with the results of meta-analyses and, most importantly, of the three recently published analyses that pool 2 Chinese, 7 North American, and 13 European studies. Finally, some conclusions are given and a brief reference is made to ongoing studies.

  17. γ-ray spectrometry results versus sample preparation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to recommended conditions two bio-samples, tea leave and flour, are prepared with different methods: grounding into powder and reducing to ash, then they were analyzed by γ ray spectrometry. Remarkable difference was shown between the measured values of tea samples prepared with these different methods. One of the reasons may be that the method of reducing to ash makes some nuclides lost. Compared with the "non-destructive"method of grounding into powder, the method of reducing to ash can be much more sensible to the loss of some nuclides. The probable reasons are discussed for the varied influences of different preparation methods of tea leave and flour samples.

  18. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  19. [Our concept of defecography. Methods and reproducibility of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutorý, M; Brhelová, H; Michek, J; Kubacák, J; Vasícková, J; Stursa, V; Sehnalová, H

    1999-06-01

    Defecography is used in the Czech Republic only exceptionally. Since 1988 the authors made 402 defecographic examinations. They submit a detailed description of hitherto assembled experience and their own modification of the examination. As contrast material they use at present Micropaque susp. thickened by means of wheat bran. They administer it by means of a modified press for dough preparation. The X-rays are taken on a modified ordinary stool made from soft timber. For screening of uncovered places in the visual field they use individually placed copper plates 2 mm thick. For better evaluation of the X-rays the authors place during examination an X-ray contrasting net behind the patient. Pictures are taken at rest, during contraction, during modified Valsalva's manoeuvre and during all stages of defecation. The authors mention the most interesting pathological pictures they encountered so far--internal prolapse, levator hernia, rectocele, sphincter defect, various forms of prolapses and dyskineses of the pelvic floor. In the authors opinion the basic quantifiable parameters are the magnitude of the anorectal angles. They used the assessment method described by Mahieu, as well as the mediorectal angle which in their opinion is a reflection of the patient's somatotype and levator function. More than the absolute values of the angles they emphasize the difference of the two angles and change of the latter during contraction and defecation. In their opinion enlargement of the difference during contraction and diminution to values close to zero is normal. Converse values are according to the authors evidence of dyssynergy of the pelvic floor. Independent assessment of the angles and magnitude of the lift of the pelvic floor by three subjects are subjected to statistical analysis. They provide evidence of complete reproducibility of results of anorectal angles according to the authors' definition. The results of assessment can be used to investigate relations with

  20. ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS THEORY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS, METHODS AND RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lei

    2003-01-01

    The adaptive systems theory to be presented in this paper consists of two closely related parts: adaptive estimation (or filtering, prediction) and adaptive control of dynamical systems. Both adaptive estimation and control are nonlinear mappings of the on-line observed signals of dynamical systems, where the main features are the uncertainties in both the system's structure and external disturbances, and the non-stationarity and dependency of the system signals. Thus, a key difficulty in establishing a mathematical theory of adaptive systems lies in how to deal with complicated nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems which describe the adaptation processes. In this paper, we will illustrate some of the basic concepts, methods and results through some simple examples. The following fundamental questions will be discussed: How much information is needed for estimation? How to deal with uncertainty by adaptation? How to analyze an adaptive system? What are the convergence or tracking performances of adaptation? How to find the proper rate of adaptation in some sense? We will also explore the following more fundamental questions: How much uncertainty can be dealt with by adaptation ? What are the limitations of adaptation ? How does the performance of adaptation depend on the prior information ? We will partially answer these questions by finding some "critical values" and establishing some "Impossibility Theorems" for the capability of adaptation, for several basic classes of nonlinear dynamical control systems with either parametric or nonparametric uncertainties.

  1. Side effects unrelated to disease activity and acceptability of highly effective contraceptive methods in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravioto, María-del-Carmen; Jiménez-Santana, Luisa; Mayorga, Julio; Seuc, Armando H

    2014-08-01

    To assess the side effects unrelated to disease activity and the acceptability of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills (POPs) and copper-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomized clinical trial including 162 women with SLE, assigned to COC (n=54), POP (n=54) or IUD (n=54). Follow-up visits were conducted after 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of treatment to monitor the presence of symptoms, changes in body weight and blood pressure as well as the development of health problems other than those relating to lupus. Reasons for discontinuation and satisfaction with the use of the assigned method were recorded at the end of treatment. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measure analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves. Significantly different discontinuation rates due to any reason [35%, 55%, 29% (plupus, when counseling and specialized health attention are provided; however, the acceptability of POP appears to be inferior. Side effects unrelated to lupus disease activity are not frequent reasons to discontinue the contraceptive methods. This study delves into an area that has not been explored among patients with lupus. Our findings on the associated side effects and reasons for discontinuing COCs, POPs or copper-bearing IUDs may be useful in improving contraceptive counseling for women with lupus. Furthermore, they also heighten our knowledge on the reasons that may preclude the widespread use of effective contraceptives among lupus patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The review and results of different methods for facial recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, facial recognition draws much attention due to its wide potential applications. As a unique technology in Biometric Identification, facial recognition represents a significant improvement since it could be operated without cooperation of people under detection. Hence, facial recognition will be taken into defense system, medical detection, human behavior understanding, etc. Several theories and methods have been established to make progress in facial recognition: (1) A novel two-stage facial landmark localization method is proposed which has more accurate facial localization effect under specific database; (2) A statistical face frontalization method is proposed which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for face landmark localization; (3) It proposes a general facial landmark detection algorithm to handle images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses; (4) There are three methods proposed on Face Alignment including shape augmented regression method, pose-indexed based multi-view method and a learning based method via regressing local binary features. The aim of this paper is to analyze previous work of different aspects in facial recognition, focusing on concrete method and performance under various databases. In addition, some improvement measures and suggestions in potential applications will be put forward.

  3. Treatment of Meniere's disease with intratympanic dexamethazone plus high dosage of betahistine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Silviu; Nagy, Alina; Doros, Caius; Marceanu, Luigi; Cozma, Sebastian; Musat, Gabriela; Trabalzini, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if the combined therapy of intratympanic dexamethasone (ITD) and high dosage of betahistine (HDBH) is able to provide increased vertigo control compared to ITD alone in patients suffering from definite unilateral Meniere's disease (MD). Consecutive MD patients were enrolled and randomly divided in two groups, each comprising 33 cases. Group A received a combination of ITD and identical-appearing placebo pills while Group B received a combination of ITD and HDBH. ITD protocol consisted of three consecutive daily injections. HDBH comprised 144mg/day (48mg tid). The main outcome measures were: 1) vertigo class, pure tone average (PTA), speech discrimination score (SDS) and Functional Level Score (FLS) according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria; 2) complete and substantial vertigo control according to the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Sixty two patients completed the 24-month follow-up. A complete vertigo control was achieved in 14 patients (44%) from Group A and in 22 patients (73.3%) from Group B, statistically significant (p=0.01). Complete vertigo relief is also significant according to the Kaplan-Meier method: p=0.027, log rank test. Substantial vertigo control was obtained in 21 patients (65.6%) in Group A and 27 patients (90%) in Group B. The difference is statistically significant, p=0.02. The difference is significant according to the Kaplan-Meier method: p=0.035, log rank test. No significant differences between hearing levels and tinnitus scores were demonstrated between the groups. Our preliminary results demonstrate that complete and substantial vertigo control is significantly higher in patients treated with a combination of HDBH and ITD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Field Test Results on Natural Field IP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors propose the natural field induced polarization (IP) method and present the way to pick up IP effect. The relations between the object and anomaly are studied by taking field experiments as examples. The effectiveness and usability of the method are testified.

  5. Incidences and Risk Factors of Organ Manifestations in the Early Course of Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Veronika K; Wirz, Elina G; Allanore, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disorder characterised by fibrosis and microvascular obliteration of the skin and internal organs. Organ involvement mostly manifests after a variable period of the onset of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). We aimed...... and their risk factors were assessed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 695 SSc patients who had a baseline visit within 1 year after RP onset, the incident non-RP manifestations (in order of frequency) were: skin sclerosis (75%) GI symptoms (71%), impaired diffusing capacity...

  6. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without...... between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were...

  7. Experience of the Casablanca radiotherapy-oncology centre on radiotherapy in the treatment of the adult Hodgkin lymphoma; Experience du centre de radiotherapie-oncologie de Casablanca sur la radiotherapie dans le traitement du lymphome de Hodgkin de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Sellai, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Service radiotherapie-oncologie, CHU Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the local control, global survival and survival without recurrence, and also late complications, based on retrospective study over 8 years of 169 cases Hodgkin lymphoma in patients older than 18 (average age of 34) and who had been submitted to radiotherapy. Survival has been computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The authors notice that the recurrence rate is slightly higher than in the literature. During the considered period, radiotherapy was two-dimensional with higher doses than those corresponding to current standards. The improvement of radiotherapy techniques and the decrease of doses within the standards should improve the therapeutic results. Short communication

  8. [Biological Advisory Subcommittee Sampling Methods : Results, Resolutions, and Correspondences : 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a variety of information concerning Biological Advisory Subcommittee sampling methods at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Refuge in 2002. Multiple...

  9. New Cyclic Voltammetry Method for Examining Phase Transitions: Simulated Results

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new experimental technique for cyclic voltammetry, based on the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method for analysis of systems undergoing hysteresis. The advantages of this electrochemical FORC (EC-FORC) technique are demonstrated by applying it to dynamical models of electrochemical adsorption. The method can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions, but can also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems...

  10. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, P. (Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague)

    1983-11-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable /sup 15/N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism.

  11. The Value of Methodical Management: Optimizing Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Linnea

    2016-01-01

    As science progresses, making new discoveries in radio astronomy becomes increasingly complex. Instrumentation must be incredibly fine-tuned and well-understood, scientists must consider the skills and schedules of large research teams, and inter-organizational projects sometimes require coordination between observatories around the globe. Structured and methodical management allows scientists to work more effectively in this environment and leads to optimal science output. This report outlines the principles of methodical project management in general, and describes how those principles are applied at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia.

  12. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  13. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy.

  14. A new method for nonlinear optimization - experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loskovska, S.; Percinkova, B.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper an application of a new method for nonlinear optimization problems suggested and presented by B. Percinkova is performed. The method is originally developed and applicated on nonlinear systems. Basis of the method is following: A system of n-nonlinear equations gives as F{sub i}(x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3}, ..., x{sub n}) = 0; 1 = 1, 2, ..., n and solution domain x{sub pi} {<=} x{sub i} {<=} x{sub ki} i = 1, 2, ..., n is modified by introducing a new variable z. The new system is given by: F{sub i}(x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3}, ..., x{sub n}) = z; i = 1, 2, ..., n. The system defines a curve in (n + 1) dimensional space. System`s point X = (x{sub i}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3}, ..., x{sub n}, z) that, the solution of the system is obtained using an interative procedure moving along the curve until the point with z = 0 is reached. In order to applicate method on optimization problems, a basic optimization model given with (min, max)F{sub i}(x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3}, ..., x{sub n}) with the following optimization space: F{sub i}(x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3}, ..., x{sub n}) ({<=}{>=})0 : i = 1, 2, ..., n is transformed into a system equivalent to system (2) by (dF/dx{sub i}) = z; i - 1, 2, ..., n. The main purpose of this work is to make relevant evaluation of the method by standard test problems.

  15. Clinical results of the Metha short hip stem: a perspective for younger patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Thorey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various uncemented proximal metaphyseal hip stems were introduced for younger patients as a bone preserving strategy. Initial osteodensitometric analyses of the surrounding bone of short stems indicate an increase of bone mass with secondary bone ingrowth fixation as a predictor of long-term survival of these types of implants. We report the outcome of 151 modular Metha short hip stem implants in 148 patients between March 2005 and October 2007. The mean follow-up was 5.8±0.7 years and the mean age of the patients was 55.7±9.8 years. Along with demographic data and co-morbidities, the Harris Hip Score (HHS, the Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS, and also the results of a patient-administered questionnaire were recorded pre-operatively and at follow-up. The mean HHS increased from 46±17 pre-operatively to 90±5 the HOOS improved from 55±16 pre-operatively to 89±10 at the final follow-up. A total of three patients have been revised, two for subsidence with femoral revision and one for infection without femoral revision (Kaplan Meier survival estimate 98%. The radiological findings showed no radiolucent lines in any of the patients. The modular Metha short hip stem was implanted in younger patients, who reported an overall high level of satisfaction. The clinical and radiographic results give support to the principle of using short stems with metaphyseal anchorage. However, long-term results are necessary to confirm the success of this concept in the years to come.

  16. Basalt Thickness in Mare Humorum: New Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Lucey, P. G.

    1996-03-01

    Basalt thicknesses in mare basins have been determined using assumptions about the pre-mare topography of partly buried craters. Differences in those assumptions have led to a factor of two difference in mare thickness estimates. Further, knowledge of thickness is restricted to areas in which buried craters are present. We have shown that craters in the mare sometimes excavate highland material from below the mare cover. Using such craters, and assumptions about their depth of excavation, we can obtain independent estimates of basalt thickness. This method allows testing of pre-mare crater topography models employed in the buried crater method, adds significantly more data points for development of isopach maps, and allows determining of thickness of stratigraphic layers other than mare basalts such as melt sheets where compositional contrast is present.

  17. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: results and prognostic factors in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Kyungbook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) in the management of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and predictive factors for long-term survival in patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. A total of 49 patients with post-necrotic liver cirrhosis underwent TIPS over a recent three-year period. Forty-five had a history of hepatitis B viral infection, and four, of hepatitis C viral infection. In all patients, the indication for the procedure was variceal bleeding. Child-Pugh class was A in seven patients, B in 16 and C in 26 patients at the time of the last bleeding. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Long-term survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and predictive factors were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The procedure was technically successful in all cases. The portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 21.4 {+-} 6.4 mmHg to 12.0 {+-} 5.1 mmHg(N=45). Active variceal bleeding was controlled in 34 of the 37 emergency patients. The total length of follow-up was from one day to three and a half years(mean : 383 {+-} 357 days). Rebleeding developed in 17 patients (35%). Hepatic encephalopathy, either newly developed or aggravated, occurred in 16 (32.7%). The thirty-day mortality rate was 20.4%, and the one-year survival rate was 63.8%. The significant predictive factors for poor prognosis were Child-Pugh class C and post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS is effective in portal decompression in the patients with variceal bleeding due to post-necrotic liver cirrhosis. The Child-Pugh classification and hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS are considered to be significant predictive factors for long-term survival.

  18. Early results with a monorail-stent-balloon device for endovascular treatment of renal artery stenosis; Erste Erfahrungen mit einem Monorail-Stent-Ballon-System zur endovaskulaeren Behandlung von Nierenarterienstenosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, S.; Jahnke, T.; Grimm, J.; Behm, C.; Hilbert, C.; Frahm, C.; Biederer, J.; Brossmann, J.; Heller, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2002-03-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technical feasibility of a new monorail-stent-balloon device for treatment of renal artery stenosis (RAS). Patients and Methods: During a study period of 18 months, 38 patients with proven RAS in 41 cases (hypertension n = 36, renal insufficiency n = 13) and indication for stenting (calicified ostial lesions n = 35, insufficient PTA n = 4, dissection n = 2) were enrolled into this prospective evaluation. Pre-mounted stents (Rx-Herculink{sup TM} 5 mm = 13, 6 mm = 34, 7 mm = 1) were implanted a transfermoral (n = 35) or transbrachial approach (n = 6). Mean grade and lengths of stenosis measured were 88% {+-}10 and 9 mm {+-}5. Results: Renal stent implantation was technically successful in all cases (100%). In 7 cases a second stent had to be implanted to cover the entire lesion. The transstenotic pressure drop decreased from 88 mmHg {+-} 10 before to 1 mmHg {+-} 1.8 after the procedure. Remaining stenosis measured 0.7% {+-}4.2. Serum creatine levels decreased from 1.9 mm/dl to 1.5 mg/dl (n.s.), blood pressure decreased from 178/94 mmHg to 148/79 mmHg (p <0.0001) after the intervention. Primary and secondary patency rates at 6 months were 72% (Standard Error 9.8%) and 77% (Standard Error 9.2%), respectively. Conclusion: With the used monorail-stend-balloon device a technically easy, secure and exact renal stent placement is guaranteed, patency rates are similar to those described in the current literature. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Wertigkeit eines Monorail-Stent-Ballon-Systems zur Behandlung von Nierenarterienstenosen (NAS). Patienten und Methode: Waehrend eines Zeitraumes von 18 Monaten wurden bei 38 Patienten 41 NAS (Hypertonus n = 36, renale Insuffizienz n = 18) mit Indikationen zur renalen Stentimplantation (kalzifizierte Ostiumlaesion n = 35, insuffiziente PTA n = 4, Dissektion n = 2) in die prospektive Untersuchung einbezogen. Vormontierte Stents wurden (Rx-Herculink{sup TM} 5 mm = 13, 6 mm = 34, 7 mm = 1) ueber einen

  19. UV spectroscopy applied to stratospheric chemistry, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    The publication from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) deals with an investigation done on stratospheric chemistry by UV spectroscopy. The scientific goals are briefly discussed, and it gives the results from the measuring and analysing techniques used in the investigation. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  20. First results from the Very Small Array -- I. Observational methods

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The Very Small Array (VSA) is a synthesis telescope designed to image faint structures in the cosmic microwave background on degree and sub-degree angular scales. The VSA has key differences from other CMB interferometers with the result that different systematic errors are expected. We have tested the operation of the VSA with a variety of blank-field and calibrator observations and cross-checked its calibration scale against independent measurements. We find that systematic effects can be s...

  1. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin for peritoneal mesothelioma: preliminary results and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Julien; Thiboutot, Eva; Dubé, Pierre; Cloutier, Alexis-Simon; Drolet, Pierre; Sideris, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease with poor prognosis. The present study reports single center experience with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin (HIPEC-OX) over an eight-year period. Prospectively collected data of all consecutive patients with epithelial or multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma from August 2004 to October 2012 was analyzed. Patients with sarcomatoid or biphasic peritoneal mesothelioma were not included due to general poor prognosis. Treatment consisted in CRS and HIPEC-OX (460 mg/m(2)) at 43 °C during 30 min. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted and compared using log-rank tests. Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to analyze the influence of different variables on survival. Nineteen patients with peritoneal mesothelioma underwent laparotomy with CRS and HIPEC-OX with curative intent (15 epithelial, and 4 multicystic). Mean follow-up was 36.7 months. The estimated one-year and three-year overall survival rates were respectively 100% and 91%. The estimated one-year and three-year disease-free survival rates were respectively 77% and 50%. Complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification [1] and major complications occurred in 57% of cases. There was no postoperative mortality. Histological grade was not a prognostic factor of disease-free survival (p = 0.37). When comparing survival results as well as morbidity-mortality rates, the present study shows that CRS and HIPEC-OX is a valid treatment for peritoneal mesothelioma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Results of Self-Expandable Kissing Stents in Aortic Bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Young; Hwang, Hong Pil; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Yu, Hee Chul

    2015-03-01

    Kissing stent reconstruction is a widely used technique for the management of aortoiliac occlusive disease involving the aortic bifurcation or proximal common iliac arteries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of self-expandable kissing stents in the aortic bifurcation. We reviewed medical records of the patients treated with a kissing stent retrospectively from January 2007 to December 2012. The primary and secondary patencies were determined with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox regression was used to determine the factors associated with patency. A total of 21 patients were included, and all were male (median age 53±15 years, range 48-78 years). Major symptoms were claudication (n=16, 61.9%), rest pain (n=5, 23.8%) and gangrene (n=5, 23.8%). Tans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC) II classification was A 2 (9.5%), B 5 (23.8%), C 7 (33.3%) and D 8 (38%). The mean follow-up was 40.7 months. Major complication occurred in only one case which consisted of distal limb ischemia by emboli. Six patients developed symptomatic restenosis or occlusion. There was no major amputation, but minor amputation occurred in 3 patients. There were 2 mortalities not associated with the procedure (lung cancer and intracranial hemorrhage). Primary patency was 89.6% at 1 year, 74.7% at 3 years and 64.0% at 5 years. Secondary patency was 94.1% at 1 year, 88.2% at 3 years and 68.6% at 5 years. No risk factors for restenosis or occlusion were identified. Self-expandable kissing stents can be used successfully with comparable patency for endovascular treatment of symptomatic atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in the aortic bifurcation area.

  3. Metabolic scaling in animals: methods, empirical results, and theoretical explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Craig R; Kearney, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Life on earth spans a size range of around 21 orders of magnitude across species and can span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude within species of animal. The effect of size on physiology is, therefore, enormous and is typically expressed by how physiological phenomena scale with mass(b). When b ≠ 1 a trait does not vary in direct proportion to mass and is said to scale allometrically. The study of allometric scaling goes back to at least the time of Galileo Galilei, and published scaling relationships are now available for hundreds of traits. Here, the methods of scaling analysis are reviewed, using examples for a range of traits with an emphasis on those related to metabolism in animals. Where necessary, new relationships have been generated from published data using modern phylogenetically informed techniques. During recent decades one of the most controversial scaling relationships has been that between metabolic rate and body mass and a number of explanations have been proposed for the scaling of this trait. Examples of these mechanistic explanations for metabolic scaling are reviewed, and suggestions made for comparing between them. Finally, the conceptual links between metabolic scaling and ecological patterns are examined, emphasizing the distinction between (1) the hypothesis that size- and temperature-dependent variation among species and individuals in metabolic rate influences ecological processes at levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere and (2) mechanistic explanations for metabolic rate that may explain the size- and temperature-dependence of this trait.

  4. Marine Controlled Source EM Methods: Equipment, Methodology, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S.; Behrens, J.; Key, K.

    2005-12-01

    The marine CSEM method has become an important tool for academia and the petroleum industry. Commercially viable seafloor receivers were developed for marine MT exploration over the last decade, but progress in CSEM transmitter design is still at an early stage. We have developed 200~A and 500~A transmitters (Scripps Undersea Electromagnetic Source Instrument, or SUESI-200/500) which operate within the 30~kVA power limitations of academic tow cables. This is done by careful control of antenna impedance (resistance and inductance) and power efficiency. Electrode impedance is largely a function of length, rather than surface area or diameter. The antenna can be made neutrally buoyant by balancing the weight of an aluminum conductor with a thick plastic jacket. Telemetry for control, navigation, and monitoring is overlaid on high voltage power transmission down coaxial tow cables, as an alternative to fiber optic telemetry, allowing use with winches and cables of opportunity. The CSEM noise floor determines the source--receiver ranges, and thus the investigation depths, that can be achieved, and depends on frequency, dipole moment, receiver noise, magnetotelluric interference, and stack time. For typical values, this is 10-15~VA-1m-2. We present examples of data from a sub-salt hydrocarbon prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, and an academic project over the magma chambers of the East Pacific Rise.

  5. Trends in study design and the statistical methods employed in a leading general medicine journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosho, M; Sato, Y; Nagashima, K; Takahashi, S

    2017-07-27

    Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature. This was an extension study of Sato et al. (N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1086-1087), which reviewed 238 articles published in 2015 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and briefly summarized the statistical methods employed in NEJM. Using the same database, we performed a new investigation of the detailed trends in study design and individual statistical methods that were not reported in the Sato study. Due to the CONSORT statement, prespecification and justification of sample size are obligatory in planning intervention studies. Although standard survival methods (eg Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression model) were most frequently applied, the Gray test and Fine-Gray proportional hazard model for considering competing risks were sometimes used for a more valid statistical inference. With respect to handling missing data, model-based methods, which are valid for missing-at-random data, were more frequently used than single imputation methods. These methods are not recommended as a primary analysis, but they have been applied in many clinical trials. Group sequential design with interim analyses was one of the standard designs, and novel design, such as adaptive dose selection and sample size re-estimation, was sometimes employed in NEJM. Model-based approaches for handling missing data should replace single imputation methods for primary analysis in the light of the information found in some publications. Use of adaptive design with interim analyses is increasing

  6. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  7. Helium nanodroplet isolation rovibrational spectroscopy: Methods and recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Carlo; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Schmied, Roman; Scoles, Giacinto

    2001-12-01

    In this article, recent developments in helium nanodroplet isolation (HENDI) spectroscopy are reviewed, with an emphasis on the infrared region of the spectrum. We discuss how molecular beam spectroscopy and matrix isolation spectroscopy can be usefully combined into a method that provides a unique tool to tackle physical and chemical problems which had been outside our experimental possibilities. Next, in reviewing the experimental methodology, we present design criteria for droplet beam formation and its seeding with the chromophore(s) of interest, followed by a discussion of the merits and shortcomings of radiation sources currently used in this type of spectroscopy. In a second, more conceptual part of the review, we discuss several HENDI issues which are understood by the community to a varied level of depth and precision. In this context, we show first how a superfluid helium cluster adopts the symmetry of the molecule or complex seeded in it and discuss the nature of the potential well (and its anisotropy) that acts on a solute inside a droplet, and of the energy levels that arise because of this confinement. Second, we treat the question of the homogeneous versus inhomogeneous broadening of the spectral profiles, moving after this to a discussion of the rotational dynamics of the molecules and of the surrounding superfluid medium. The change in rotational constants from their gas phase values, and their dependence on the angular velocity and vibrational quantum number are discussed. Finally, the spectral shifts generated by this very gentle matrix are analyzed and shown to be small because of a cancellation between the opposing action of the attractive and repulsive parts of the potential of interaction between molecules and their solvent. The review concludes with a discussion of three recent applications to (a) the synthesis of far-from-equilibrium molecular aggregates that could hardly be prepared in any other way, (b) the study of the influence of a

  8. Prognostic value of ABO blood group in patients with renal cell carcinoma: single-institution results from a large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunwoo; You, Dalsan; Sohn, Mooyoung; Jeong, In Gab; Song, Cheryn; Kwon, Taekmin; Hong, Bumsik; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between ABO blood group and prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) undergoing surgery. A review of the nephrectomy database of the Asan Medical Center identified 3,172 consecutive patients who underwent nephrectomy for RCC between 1997 and 2012. Patients were followed up for a median 60.2 months (interquartile range 33-102 months). Recurrence-free (RFS), cancer-specific (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the prognostic significance of each variable. Of these 3,172 patients, 915 (28.8 %), 1,057 (33.7 %), 860 (26.7 %) and 340 (10.8 %) were blood types O, A, B, and AB, respectively. ABO blood group was not associated with age, sex, operation method, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, histologic subtype, or pathological TNM stage. The 5-year OS rates in patients with blood types O, A, B, and AB were 86.0, 86.8, 86.6, and 88.6 %, respectively, and the 10-year OS rates were 78.7, 78.6, 79.1, and 76.9 %, respectively (P = 0.990). ABO blood group was not significantly associated with RFS (P = 0.921) or CSS (P = 0.808). Univariable and multivariable analyses showed that ABO blood group was not a significant prognostic factor of RFS, CSS, or OS. Our study found that ABO blood group is not associated with survival outcomes and is not a prognostic factor in patients who underwent surgery for RCC.

  9. Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer with salvage interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy. Long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strnad, Vratislav; Lotter, Michael; Kreppner, Stephan; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-10

    To assess the long-term results of protocol-based interstitial pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy as reirradiation combined with simultaneous chemotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia in selected patients with recurrent head and neck tumors. A total of 104 patients with biopsy-proven recurrent head and neck cancer were treated with interstitial PDR brachytherapy. Salvage surgery had also been undergone by 53/104 (51 %) patients (R1 or R2 resection in > 80 % of patients). Salvage brachytherapy alone was administered in 81 patients (78 %), with a median total dose of 56.7 Gy. Salvage brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was performed in 23/104 patients (32 %), using a median total dose of D{sub REF} = 24 Gy. Simultaneously to PDR brachytherapy, concomitant chemotherapy was administered in 58/104 (55.8 %) patients. A single session of interstitial hyperthermia was also used to treat 33/104 (31.7 %) patients. The analysis was performed after a median follow-up of 60 months. Calculated according to Kaplan-Meier, local tumor control rates after 2, 5, and 10 years were 92.5, 82.4, and 58.9 %, respectively. Comparing results of salvage PDR brachytherapy with or without simultaneous chemotherapy, the 10-year local control rates were 76 vs. 39 % (p= 0014), respectively. No other patient- or treatment-related parameters had a significant influence on treatment results. Soft tissue necrosis or bone necrosis developed in 18/104 (17.3 %) and 11/104 (9.6 %) patients, respectively, but only 3 % of patients required surgical treatment. PDR interstitial brachytherapy with simultaneous chemotherapy is a very effective and, in experienced hands, also a safe treatment modality in selected patients with head and neck cancer in previously irradiated areas. (orig.) [German] Es erfolgte die Analyse der Langzeitergebnisse einer protokollbasierten interstitiellen Brachytherapie (Re-Bestrahlung) mit simultaner Chemotherapie und interstitieller Hyperthermie

  10. Treatment of FIGO stage IV ovarian carcinoma: results of primary surgery or interval surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, A; Deval, B; Geay, J-F; Chopin, N; Paoletti, X; Paraiso, D; Pujade-Lauraine, E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether surgery influences the outcome of stage IV ovarian cancer. The study design is as follows: From May 1995 to December 2000, 129 patients with FIGO stage IV ovarian cancer, recruited in 42 centers, were prospectively included in GINECO first-line randomized studies of platinum-based regimens with paclitaxel administered simultaneously or sequentially. In all, 109 were eligible for this study. Standard peritoneal cytoreductive surgery was defined as a procedure including at least total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and peritoneal debulking. Surgery was considered optimal if residual lesions were smaller than 1 cm. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival. Initial abdominopelvic cytoreductive surgery was considered standard in 55 (54%) patients. Abdominopelvic surgery was optimal in 29 patients and nonoptimal in 26. Twenty-two (22%) patients had a simple biopsy, and 25 (24%) patients underwent substandard surgery. Twenty-two of these 47 patients without initial standard surgery underwent a second surgical procedure, and 17 of the 22 patients completed standard surgery. The median overall survival time in the entire population was 24.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.5-29.1 months). Patients treated without a cytoreductive surgical procedure had significantly worse median survival (15.1 months; 95% CI, 5.4-24.9 months) than patients who had optimal primary surgery (22.9 months; 95% CI, 15.6-30.1 months), nonoptimal primary surgery (27.1 months; 95% CI, 21.2-32.9 months), or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (45.5 months; 95% CI, 23.5-67.5 months) (P= .001). In conclusion, this study shows a significant benefit of debulking surgery in stage IV ovarian cancer patients who responded to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can help to select patients for surgery.

  11. Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone After Surgery: A Clinicopathological Study of 80 Cases from a Single Center

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    Dong-dong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This aim of the present study was to identify specific markers determining the recurrence of the giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB. Methods: This study involved the clinicopathological analysis of 80 cases. All of the clinical features, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade, histological features and surgical methods were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Ki-67, CD147, mutant p53 and p63 in GCTB. Comparisons between different groups were performed using the Chi-square test. The risk factors affecting recurrence were analyzed using a binary logistic model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was employed for the survival analysis between the groups. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were used to detect the function of CD147 on GCTB in vitro. Results: The univariate analysis showed that Ki-67 and CD147 expression, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade and surgical method were associated with recurrence. The multivariate analysis revealed that CD147 expression, Campanacci grade and surgical method were the factors affecting GCTB recurrence. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that these factors affected tumor-free survival time. In vitro study revealed that the CD147 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA technique dramatically reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of GCTB. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CD147 may serve as an adequate marker for GCTB recurrence. Campanacci grade is a risk factor for GCTB recurrence, which is also affected by the surgical method used.

  12. Analysis of Survival Predictors in Patients with Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases

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    Shaohua CUI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The prognosis for patients with lung cancer and brain metastases remains poor, with approximately 6 months of survival, despite active measures after treatment. In this study, we determined and analyzed clinical parameters that affect the survival of patients with lung cancer and brain metastases to provide clinical guidance. Methods Lung cancer cases with brain metastases were retrospectively collected during 2002 and 2008 from Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were performed for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively, to explore independent predictors influencing the survival of patients with lung cancer and brain metastases. Results Age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS, metastasis interval, number of metastasis, treatment method, treatment period, symptoms of brain metastases, extracranial metastasis, and brain metastasis order were factors that affect the survival of patients with brain metastases as confirmed through the Kaplan-Meier method. Treatment periods and extracranial metastasis were independent survival predictors in patients with lung cancer and brain metastasis as indicated by Cox proportional hazard model. Conclusion Treatment periods and extracranial metastasis were independent predictors of survival of patients with lung cancer and brain metastasis. Treatment periods and extracranial metastasis were independent predictors of survival of patients with lung cancer and brain metastasis.

  13. Probability Prediction in Multistate Survival Models for Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

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    FANG Ya; Hein Putter

    2005-01-01

    In order to find an appropriate model suitable for a multistate survival experiment, 634 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) were selected to illustrate the method of analysis.After transplantation, there were 4 possible situations for a patient: disease free, relapse but still alive, death before relapse, and death after relapse. The last 3 events were considered as treatment failure. The results showed that the risk of death before relapse was higher than that of the relapse,especially in the first year after transplantation with competing-risk method. The result of patients with relapse time less than 12 months was much poor by the Kaplan-Meier method. And the multistate survival models were developed, which were detailed and informative based on the analysis of competing risks and Kaplan-Meier analysis. With the multistate survival models, a further analysis on conditional probability was made for patients who were disease free and still alive at month 12 after transplantation. It was concluded that it was possible for an individual patient to predict the 4 possible probabilities at any time. Also the prognoses for relapse either death or not and death either before or afterrelapse may be given. Furthermore, the conditional probabilities for patients who were disease free and still alive in a given time after transplantation can be predicted.

  14. On the importance of accounting for competing risks in pediatric cancer trials designed to delay or avoid radiotherapy: I. Basic concepts and first analyses.

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    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard G; Machin, David

    2010-04-01

    In trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, although irradiation after disease progression is an important event, patients who have disease progression may decline radiotherapy (RT), or those without disease progression may opt for elective RT. To accurately describe the cumulative need for RT in such instances, it is crucial to account for these distinct events and to evaluate how each contributes to the delay or advancement of irradiation via a competing risks analysis. We describe the summary of competing events in such trials using competing risks methods based on cumulative incidence functions and Gray's test. The results obtained are contrasted with standard survival methods based on Kaplan-Meier curves, cause-specific hazard functions and log-rank test. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimates all event-specific rates. The cause-specific hazard analysis showed reduction in hazards for all events (A: RT after progression; B: no RT after progression; C: elective RT) among children with ependymoma. For event A, a higher cumulative incidence was reported for ependymoma. Although Gray's test failed to detect any difference (p = 0.331) between histologic subtypes, the log-rank test suggested marginal evidence (p = 0.057). Similarly, for event C, the log-rank test found stronger evidence of reduction in hazard among those with ependymoma (p = 0.005) as compared with Gray's test (p = 0.086). To evaluate treatment differences, failing to account for competing risks using appropriate methodology may lead to incorrect interpretations.

  15. Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study

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    Køber Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens. Results The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26 and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62 for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06. Conclusions We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.

  16. Peritonitis-free survival in peritoneal dialysis: an update taking competing risks into account.

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    Evans, David W; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Fabre, Emmanuel; Verger, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Peritonitis-free survival is commonly reported in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) literature. The Kaplan-Meier method appears to be the only technique used to date, although it has known limitations for cohorts with multiple outcomes, as in PD. In the presence of these 'competing risks' outcomes, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is interpretable only under restrictive assumptions. In contrast, methods which take competing risks into account provide unbiased estimates of probabilities of outcomes as actually experienced by patients. We analysed peritonitis-free survival in a cohort of 8711 incident patients from the 'Registre de Dialyse Péritonéale de Langue Française' between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2007 by calculating the cumulative incidence (CI) of the first episode of peritonitis using the Kaplan-Meier method and a method accounting for competing risks. We compared the CI in different patient groups by the log-rank test and a test developed for competing risk data, Gray's test. After 5 years of PD, the CI of at least one peritonitis episode was 0.4, and the probability of any outcome was 0.96. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the CI by a large amount. Compared with the log-rank test, Gray's test led to different conclusions in three out of seven comparisons. The competing risk approach shows that the CI of at least one peritonitis episode was lower than reported by the Kaplan-Meier method but that survival peritonitis-free and still on PD was overall low. The competing risk approach provides estimates which have a clearer interpretation than Kaplan-Meier methods and could be more widely used in PD research.

  17. An electronic health record-enabled obesity database

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    Wood G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of weight loss therapies is commonly measured using body mass index and other obesity-related variables. Although these data are often stored in electronic health records (EHRs and potentially very accessible, few studies on obesity and weight loss have used data derived from EHRs. We developed processes for obtaining data from the EHR in order to construct a database on patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Methods Clinical data obtained as part of standard of care in a bariatric surgery program at an integrated health delivery system were extracted from the EHR and deposited into a data warehouse. Data files were extracted, cleaned, and stored in research datasets. To illustrate the utility of the data, Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate length of post-operative follow-up. Results Demographic, laboratory, medication, co-morbidity, and survey data were obtained from 2028 patients who had undergone RYGB at the same institution since 2004. Pre-and post-operative diagnostic and prescribing information were available on all patients, while survey laboratory data were available on a majority of patients. The number of patients with post-operative laboratory test results varied by test. Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, over 74% of patients had post-operative weight data available at 4 years. Conclusion A variety of EHR-derived data related to obesity can be efficiently obtained and used to study important outcomes following RYGB.

  18. Clinical outcome of successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion: results from the multicenter Korean Chronic Total Occlusion (K-CTO) registry.

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    Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Shin, Sanghoon; Shin, Dong-Ho; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Yu, Cheol Woong; Park, Hun Sik; Chae, In-Ho; Rha, Seung-Woon; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Moo-Hyun; Hur, Seung-Ho; Jang, Yangsoo

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the impact of the success or failure of chronic total occlusion (CTO) interventions on the clinical outcomes in the current drug-eluting stent (DES) era. The impact of the successful CTO intervention on long-term clinical outcomes still remains unclear. Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 2568 patients with CTO were followed in a multicenter Korean CTO registry. Of these, successful recanalization with DESs occurred in 2045 patients (successful CTO group), whereas failure occurred in 523 patients (failed CTO group). The occurrence of the composite of cardiac death and myocardial infarction (MI) was compared between the successful CTO and failed CTO groups. During follow-up (median duration, 729 days), the occurrence of cardiac death or MI was significantly lower in the successful CTO group than in the failed CTO group (1.7% vs 3.3%; hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.91; P=.02) and the cumulative occurrence in the successful CTO group was also significantly lower than in the failed CTO group (1.7% vs 3.0%; P=.03) by the Kaplan-Meier method. The successful CTO group had a significantly lower need for bypass surgery than the failed CTO group (0.2% vs 2.5%; PCTO (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.92) was significantly predictive of the occurrence of cardiac death or MI, together with age and left ventricular ejection fraction CTO intervention with DESs compared to failed CTO intervention was associated with lower event rates during follow-up.

  19. Long-term disability and survival in traumatic brain injury: results from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan C; Strauss, David J; Shavelle, Robert M; Paculdo, David R; Hammond, Flora M; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia L

    2013-11-01

    To document long-term survival in 1-year survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI); to compare the use of the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and FIM as factors in the estimation of survival probabilities; and to investigate the effect of time since injury and secular trends in mortality. Cohort study of 1-year survivors of TBI followed up to 20 years postinjury. Statistical methods include standardized mortality ratio, Kaplan-Meier survival curve, proportional hazards regression, and person-year logistic regression. Postdischarge from rehabilitation units. Population-based sample of persons (N=7228) who were admitted to a TBI Model Systems facility and survived at least 1 year postinjury. These persons contributed 32,505 person-years, with 537 deaths, over the 1989 to 2011 study period. Not applicable. Survival. Survival was poorer than that of the general population (standardized mortality ratio=2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.3). Age, sex, and functional disability were significant risk factors for mortality (Pmodels had comparable predictive performance (C index: .80 vs .80; Akaike information criterion: 11,005 vs 11,015). Time since injury and current calendar year were not significant predictors of long-term survival (both P>.05). Long-term survival prognosis in TBI depends on age, sex, and disability. FIM and DRS are useful prognostic measures with comparable statistical performance. Age- and disability-specific mortality rates in TBI have not declined over the last 20 years. A survival prognosis calculator is available online (http://www.LifeExpectancy.org/tbims.shtml). Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Short and long-term results of liver resection for hepatocarcinoma in Peru: a Peruvian single center experience on 232 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eloy; Sanchez, Juvenal; Celis, Juan; Payet, Eduardo; Berrospi, Francisco; Chavez, Ivan; Young, Frank

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the short and long term outcome of liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma a retrospective analysis was performed on 232 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma resected between January 1990 and December 2006 at the Department of Abdomen of the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas of Lima Peru. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier method, Prognostic factors were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis The median age was 36 years. 44.2% were associated with hepatitis B, only 16.3% had cirrhosis. The median size of the tumors was 15 cm. The median value of AFP was 5,467 ng/ml. The majority of patients underwent a major hepatectomy (74.2 % had four or more segments resected)Overall morbidity and mortality were 13.7% and 5.3% respectively. After a median follow-up of 40 months, tumour recurrence appeared in 53.3% of the patients. The 1, 3, and 5 year overall survival rates were 66.5%, 38.7% and 26.7%respectively. The 1, 3, and 5 year disease-free survival rates were 53.7%, 27.6%, and 19.9%. On multivariate analysis, presence of multiple nodules (p<0.000), cirrhosis (p=0.001), and macroscopic vascular invasion (p=0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors related to a worse long-term survival. Surgical resection is the optimal therapy for large HCC and can be safely performed with a reasonable long-term survival.

  1. A risk-adapted study of cisplatin and etoposide, with or without ifosfamide, in patients with metastatic seminoma: results of the GETUG S99 multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizazi, Karim; Delva, Rémi; Caty, Armelle; Chevreau, Christine; Kerbrat, Pierre; Rolland, Frederic; Priou, Frank; Geoffrois, Lionnel; Rixe, Olivier; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Malhaire, Jean-Pierre; Culine, Stephane; Aubelle, Marie-Stephanie; Laplanche, Agnes

    2014-02-01

    Whether patients with good prognosis and intermediate/poor prognosis advanced seminoma should be treated differently has not been defined. To assess a risk-adapted chemotherapy regimen in patients with advanced seminoma. A total of 132 patients were included in this prospective study. Patients with a good prognosis according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaboration Group (IGGCCG) were treated with four cycles of cisplatin-etoposide (EP). Patients with an intermediate prognosis according to the IGCCCG (or a poor prognosis according to the Medical Research Council classification) were treated with four cycles of VIP (EP and ifosfamide) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up was 4.5 yr (range: 0.4-11.6 yr). Among 108 patients (82%) with a good prognosis who received EP, grade 3-4 toxicity included neutropenia (47%) and neutropenic fever (12%). Among the 24 patients (18%) with an intermediate/poor prognosis who received VIP plus G-CSF, toxicity included grade 3-4 neutropenia (36%), neutropenic fever (23%), thrombocytopenia (23%), anemia (23%), and a toxicity-related death (n=1; 4%). The 3-yr progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 93% (range: 85-97%) in the good prognosis group and 83% (range: 63-93%) in the intermediate/poor prognosis group (p=0.03 for PFS). The 3-yr overall survival (OS) rate was 99% (range: 92-100%) and 87% (range: 67-95%), respectively (pseminoma or its treatment. A risk-adapted chemotherapy policy for advanced seminoma yielded an excellent outcome with a 3-yr OS rate of 96%. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Atazanavir and other determinants of hyperbilirubinemia in a cohort of 1150 HIV-positive patients: results from 9 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Claudie; Baril, Jean-Guy; Dufresne, Serge; Trottier, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is common among patients exposed to atazanavir (ATV), but its long-term significance is not well documented. The objective was to analyze hyperbilirubinemia (incidence, regression, determinants, and outcome) among 1150 HIV-positive patients followed-up in a prospective cohort between 2003 and 2012. Cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and its probability of regression were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the determinants. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used to evaluate the association between hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and adverse health outcome. Eight years cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was 83.6% (95% CI:79.0-87.7) and 6.6% (95% CI:4.7-9.2) among ATV users and non-users, respectively. This clinical outcome fluctuated considerably, as most patients exposed to ATV (91%) regressed, transiently, to lower grade at some point during follow-up. Determinants were atazanavir (HR=147.90, 95% CI: 33.64-604.18), ritonavir (HR=5.18, 95% CI:2.33-11.48), zidovudine (HR=2.62, 95% CI:1.07-6.46), and age (HR=1.04 95% CI:1.01-1.08). Alcohol consumption and others non-antiretroviral medications including hepatotoxic and recreational drugs were not available for analyses. Incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was very high among ATV users and, although regression to lower grade was frequent in the clinical follow-up of these patients, this was usually transient as the mean level of bilirubin stayed at a relatively high level. Importantly, long-term hyperbilirubinemia was not associated with adverse health outcome.

  3. Identification of C16orf74 as a marker of progression in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

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    Won Tae Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Methylation-induced silencing of PRSS3 has been shown to be significantly associated with invasive bladder cancer, and expression of the C16orf74 gene locus has been shown to correlate positively with PRSS3. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between C16orf74 expression level and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C16orf74 mRNA levels were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 193 tumor specimens from patients with primary NMIBC. Expression data were analyzed in terms of clinical and experimental parameters. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression models, respectively, were used to determine progression-free survival and to identify independent predictive parameters of progression. RESULTS: Analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves revealed prolonged progression-free survival of high-C16orf74-expressors as compared to low-expressors (p<0.001. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that low C16orf74 mRNA expression levels are a significant risk factor for disease progression in patients with primary NMIBC (HR: 10.042, CI:2.699-37.360, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased expression of C16orf74 correlates significantly with progression in primary NMIBC. C16orf74 expression level represents a potentially useful marker for predicting progression in primary NMIBC patients.

  4. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

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    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  5. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

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    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate.

  6. Plasmacytoid variant of bladder cancer defines patients with poor prognosis if treated with cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy

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    Keck Bastian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the definition of different histologic subtypes of urothelial carcinomas by the World Health Organization (WHO 2004 classification, description of molecular features and clinical behavior of these variants has gained more attention. Methods We reviewed 205 tumor samples of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer mainly treated within the randomized AUO-AB05/95 trial with radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for histologic subtypes. 178 UC, 18 plasmacytoid (PUC and 9 micropapillary (MPC carcinomas of the bladder were identified. Kaplan Meier analysis and backward multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to compare overall survival between the three histologic subtypes. Results Patients suffering from PUC have the worst clinical outcome regarding overall survival compared to conventional UC and MPC of the bladder that in turn seem have to best clinical outcome (27.4 months, 62.6 months, and 64.2 months, respectively; p=0.013 by Kaplan Meier analysis. Backward multivariate Cox´s proportional hazards regression analysis (adjusted to relevant clinicopathological parameters showed a hazard ratio of 3.2 (p=0.045 for PUC in contrast to patients suffering from MPC. Conclusions Histopathological diagnosis of rare variants of urothelial carcinoma can identify patients with poor prognosis.

  7. Long-Term Visual Outcome in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration Patients Depending on the Number of Ranibizumab Injections

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    Pilar Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the visual outcome in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients depending on the number of ranibizumab injections. Methods. 51 naïve wet AMD patients were retrospectively recorded. Visual acuity (VA, central retinal thickness (CRT measured with spectral domain (SD optical coherence tomography (OCT, and number of intravitreal injections were compared at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival rates (SRs based on VA outcomes were calculated depending on the number of ranibizumab injections performed. Results. VA improved compared with baseline at 6 and 12 months (P0.05. CRT measured with Cirrus OCT decreased (P<0.001 at all time points analysed. The mean number of injections received was 6.98±3.69. At 36 months, Kaplan-Meier SR was 76.5% (the proportion of patients without a decrease in vision of more than 0.3 logMAR units. VA remained stable (≤0.01 logMAR units or improved in 62.7%. Within this group, SR was 92.9% in those who received 7 or more injections versus 51.4% receiving <7 treatments (P=0.008; log-rank test. Conclusion. Better VA outcomes were found in stable wet AMD patients after 3 years of follow-up if they received ≥7 ranibizumab injections.

  8. A Comparative Study of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events Following Use of Common Bowel Preparations Among a Colonoscopy Screening Population: Results from a Post-Marketing Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, Kathryn; Farraye, Francis A; Knight, Tyler; Colman, Sam; Cleveland, Mark vB; Pelham, Russell W

    2016-10-01

    Colonoscopy may be one of the most frequent elective procedures in older adults and is associated with a low occurrence of complications. However, reduction of risks attributable to the bowel preparation may be achieved with the use of effective and safer products. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) associated with SUPREP(®) [oral sulfate solution (OSS)] and other common prescription bowel preparations (non-OSS). This real-world, observational study used de-identified health insurance claims and laboratory results to identify TEAEs in the 3 months following screening colonoscopy in adults with a prescription for a bowel preparation in the prior 60 days. The unadjusted and adjusted (controlling for patient risk factors) cumulative incidences of TEAEs were estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Poisson regression, respectively. Among patients ≥45 years, the overall cumulative incidence was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the OSS cohort than in the non-OSS cohort (unadjusted: 2.31 vs. 2.89 %; adjusted: 1.61 vs. 1.95 %), with significantly lower acute cardiac conditions (1.56 vs. 1.90 %; p < 0.001), renal failure/other serious renal diseases (OSS: 0.21 %, non-OSS: 0.32 %; p < 0.001), and serum electrolyte abnormalities (OSS: 0.39 %, non-OSS: 0.49 %; p = 0.017). There were no significant differences between cohorts in death, seizure disorders, aggravation of gout, and ischemic colitis. Results were similar in the adjusted cumulative incidences. In actual use, the overall cumulative incidence of TEAEs was significantly lower in the OSS cohort, demonstrating that OSS is as safe as, or possibly safer than, non-OSS prescription bowel preparations.

  9. Assessing the effect of quantitative and qualitative predictors on gastric cancer individuals survival using hierarchical artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Zohreh; Mohammad, Kazem; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Zeraati, Hojjat

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous unanswered questions in the application of artificial neural network models for analysis of survival data. In most studies, independent variables have been studied as qualitative dichotomous variables, and results of using discrete and continuous quantitative, ordinal, or multinomial categorical predictive variables in these models are not well understood in comparison to conventional models. This study was designed and conducted to examine the application of these models in order to determine the survival of gastric cancer patients, in comparison to the Cox proportional hazards model. We studied the postoperative survival of 330 gastric cancer patients who suffered surgery at a surgical unit of the Iran Cancer Institute over a five-year period. Covariates of age, gender, history of substance abuse, cancer site, type of pathology, presence of metastasis, stage, and number of complementary treatments were entered in the models, and survival probabilities were calculated at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months using the Cox proportional hazards and neural network models. We estimated coefficients of the Cox model and the weights in the neural network (with 3, 5, and 7 nodes in the hidden layer) in the training group, and used them to derive predictions in the study group. Predictions with these two methods were compared with those of the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator as the gold standard. Comparisons were performed with the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Survival probabilities at different times were determined using the Cox proportional hazards and a neural network with three nodes in the hidden layer; the ratios of standard errors with these two methods to the Kaplan-Meier method were 1.1593 and 1.0071, respectively, revealed a significant difference between Cox and Kaplan-Meier (P neural network, and the neural network and the standard (Kaplan-Meier), as well as better accuracy for the neural network (with 3 nodes in the hidden layer

  10. Clinical prospective evaluation of zirconia-based three-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses: Up-to ten-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Alexis; Bindl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Only a few studies exist, which assess the clinical long-term behavior of all-ceramic FDPs in the posterior region. The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of posterior three-unit FDPs manufactured from Y-TZP after a service period up to 10 years. 55 patients received 59 three-unit FDPs in the posterior region of the maxilla or mandible. Abutment teeth were prepared and full-arch impressions were taken. Definitive casts were fabricated and optically scanned. Frameworks were fabricated with computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) technology. Y-TZP frameworks were veneered and adhesively luted to the abutment teeth. Baseline and follow-up examinations (service time: ≥ 48 months) were recorded by applying modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) rating criteria. Cumulative survival rate was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier. Percentage of biological and technical complication was calculated. Fifty-three patients with 57 FDPs attended the last follow-up visit and a mean observation period of the remaining was 6.3 ± 1.9 years was calculated. Biological complications occurred in 17.5%, technical complications in 28% of the FDPs. The 10-year cumulative survival rate amounted 85.0%. Three FDPs failed to survive, two due to a root fracture of the abutment tooth and one due to secondary caries. Three-unit FDPs made from Y-TZP, veneered with ceramic offer a treatment option with a high rate of chipping. However, the manufacturing processes nowadays are modified in order to avoid this complication. The results of the present investigation suggest that three-unit Y-TZP posterior FDPs may are a possible treatment option. However, a high rate of chipping can be expected. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Characterizing Ipomopsis rubra (Polemoniaceae) germination under various thermal scenarios with non-parametric and semi-parametric statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Hector E; Kettner, Keith

    2013-10-01

    Time-to-event analysis represents a collection of relatively new, flexible, and robust statistical techniques for investigating the incidence and timing of transitions from one discrete condition to another. Plant biology is replete with examples of such transitions occurring from the cellular to population levels. However, application of these statistical methods has been rare in botanical research. Here, we demonstrate the use of non- and semi-parametric time-to-event and categorical data analyses to address questions regarding seed to seedling transitions of Ipomopsis rubra propagules exposed to various doses of constant or simulated seasonal diel temperatures. Seeds were capable of germinating rapidly to >90 % at 15-25 or 22/11-29/19 °C. Optimum temperatures for germination occurred at 25 or 29/19 °C. Germination was inhibited and seed viability decreased at temperatures ≥30 or 33/24 °C. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivor functions indicated highly significant differences in temporal germination patterns for seeds exposed to fluctuating or constant temperatures. Extended Cox regression models specified an inverse relationship between temperature and the hazard of germination. Moreover, temperature and the temperature × day interaction had significant effects on germination response. Comparisons to reference temperatures and linear contrasts suggest that summer temperatures (33/24 °C) play a significant role in differential germination responses. Similarly, simple and complex comparisons revealed that the effects of elevated temperatures predominate in terms of components of seed viability. In summary, the application of non- and semi-parametric analyses provides appropriate, powerful data analysis procedures to address various topics in seed biology and more widespread use is encouraged.

  12. Metastatic axillary lymph node ratio (LNR) is prognostically superior to pN staging in patients with breast cancer--results for 804 Chinese patients from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang-Sheng; Tang, Hai-Lin; Xie, Xin-Hua; Li, Lai-Sheng; Kong, Ya-Nan; Wu, Min-Qing; Yang, Lu; Gao, Jie; Wei, Wei-Dong; Xie, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    The number of axillary lymph nodes involved and retrieved are important prognostic factors in breast cancer. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether the lymph node ratio (LNR) is a better prognostic factor in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) for breast cancer patients as compared with pN staging. The analysis was based on 804 breast cancer patients who had underwent axillary lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2008 in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center. Optimal cutoff points of LNR were calculated using X-tile software and validated by bootstrapping. Patients were then divided into three groups (low-, intermediate-, and high-risk) according to the cutoff points. Predicting risk factors for relapse were performed according to Cox proportional hazards analysis. DFS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. The 5-year DFS rate decreased significantly with increasing LNRs and pN. Univariate analysis found that the pT , pN, LNR, molecule type, HER2, pTNM stage and radiotherapy well classified patients with significantly different prognosis. By multivariate analysis, only LNR classification was retained as an independent prognostic factor. Furthermore, there was a significant prognostic difference among different LNR categories for pN2 category, but no apparent prognostic difference was seen between different pN categories in any LNR category. Therefore, LNR rather than pN staging is preferable in predicting DFS in node positive breast cancer patients, and routine clinical decision-making should take the LNR into consideration.

  13. The Use of Data Mining Methods to Predict the Result of Infertility Treatment Using the IVF ET Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The IVF ET method is a scientifically recognized infertility treat- ment method. The problem, however, is this method’s unsatisfactory efficiency. This calls for a more thorough analysis of the information available in the treat- ment process, in order to detect the factors that have an effect on the results, as well as to effectively predict result of treatment. Classical statistical methods have proven to be inadequate in this issue. Only the use of modern methods of data mining gives hope for a more effective analysis of the collected data. This work provides an overview of the new methods used for the analysis of data on infertility treatment, and formulates a proposal for further directions for research into increasing the efficiency of the predicted result of the treatment process.

  14. Anastrozole versus tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for Japanese postmenopausal patients with hormone-responsive breast cancer: efficacy results of long-term follow-up data from the N-SAS BC 03 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Tomohiko; Yokota, Isao; Hozumi, Yasuo; Aogi, Kenjiro; Iwata, Hiroji; Tamura, Motoshi; Fukuuchi, Atsushi; Makino, Haruhiko; Kim, Ryungsa; Andoh, Masashi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ohno, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Toru; Takatsuka, Yuichi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2014-11-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are superior to tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal patients with hormone-responsive breast cancer. We report the follow-up efficacy results from the N-SAS BC 03 trial (UMIN CTRID: C000000056) where anastrozole was compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal Japanese patients with hormone-responsive early breast cancer. The full analysis set contained 696 patients (anastrozole arm, n = 345; tamoxifen arm, n = 351). The log-rank test was used to compare the two groups in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS); Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated. The treatment effects were estimated by Cox's proportional hazards model. To examine time-varying effect of hazard ratios, we estimated time-varying hazard ratios at time t [HR(t)] using data from time t up to 12 months. After a median follow-up of 98.5 months, hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 0.90 (0.65-1.24; log-rank p = 0.526) for DFS and 0.83 (0.56-1.23; log-rank p = 0.344) for RFS. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for DFS and RFS up to 36 months were 0.69 (0.40-1.17) and 0.54 (0.27-1.06) and those after 36 months were 1.06 (0.70-1.59) and 1.05 (0.64-1.73), respectively. Time-varying hazard ratios for both DFS and RFS showed that hazard ratios were initially in favor of anastrozole and approached 1.0 at around 36 months. Superior efficacy of anastrozole to tamoxifen suggested by the initial analysis was not confirmed in the present analysis after a long-term follow-up period. Advantage of anastrozole was the greatest immediately after switching from tamoxifen and then decreased thereafter.

  15. Models of convection-driven tectonic plates - A comparison of methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Gable, Carl W.; Weinstein, Stuart A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of convection in the earth's mantle have included various features of plate tectonics. This paper describes three methods of modeling plates: through material properties, through force balance, and through a thin power-law sheet approximation. The results obtained are compared using each method on a series of simple calculations. From these results, scaling relations between the different parameterizations are developed. While each method produces different degrees of deformation within the surface plate, the surface heat flux and average plate velocity agree to within a few percent. The main results are not dependent upon the plate modeling method and herefore are representative of the physical system modeled.

  16. GRADATION OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS ACCORDING TO RESULTS OBJECTIVITY DEGREE

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel Petrescu; Adrian Stancu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the main tendencies in which the product quality evaluation can be done, and five quality assessment methods of industrial products, namely: quality complex indicator, general point method, continuum model, subfeature model, customer satisfaction performance model and products quality deviation towards consumers’ needs model. The gradation criterion of these methods was the results objectivity degree. To gradate these methods, a research was conducted in Ploiesti city, whi...

  17. Spectral distribution Method for neutrinoless double beta decay: Results for $^{82}$Se and $^{76}$Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2016-01-01

    Statistical spectral distribution method based on shell model and random matrix theory is developed for calculating neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear transition matrix elements. First results obtained for $^{82}$Se and $^{76}$Ge using the spectral method are close to the available shell model results.

  18. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  19. Comparison of multiple-criteria decision-making methods - results of simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, both researchers and practitioners have many methods for supporting the decision-making process. Due to the conditions in which supply chains function, the most interesting are multi-criteria methods. The use of sophisticated methods for supporting decisions requires the parameterization and execution of calculations that are often complex. So is it efficient to use sophisticated methods? Methods: The authors of the publication compared two popular multi-criteria decision-making methods: the  Weighted Sum Model (WSM and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. A simulation study reflects these two decision-making methods. Input data for this study was a set of criteria weights and the value of each in terms of each criterion. Results: The iGrafx Process for Six Sigma simulation software recreated how both multiple-criteria decision-making methods (WSM and AHP function. The result of the simulation was a numerical value defining the preference of each of the alternatives according to the WSM and AHP methods. The alternative producing a result of higher numerical value  was considered preferred, according to the selected method. In the analysis of the results, the relationship between the values of the parameters and the difference in the results presented by both methods was investigated. Statistical methods, including hypothesis testing, were used for this purpose. Conclusions: The simulation study findings prove that the results obtained with the use of two multiple-criteria decision-making methods are very similar. Differences occurred more frequently in lower-value parameters from the "value of each alternative" group and higher-value parameters from the "weight of criteria" group.

  20. Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

  1. A phase II trial of carboplatin and docetaxel followed by radiotherapy given in a "Sandwich" method for stage III, IV, and recurrent endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Melissa A; Ivy, Joseph J; Ghebre, Rahel; Downs, Levi S; Judson, Patricia L; Carson, Linda F; Jonson, Amy L; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Boente, Matthew P; Argenta, Peter A

    2011-04-01

    To determine feasibility and efficacy of administering docetaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiotherapy and then consolidation chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Patients with surgically staged III-IV (excluding IIIA from positive cytology alone) endometrial cancer or biopsy confirmed recurrent disease were eligible. Treatment consisted of 3 cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m²) and carboplatin (AUC 6) on a q21 day schedule followed by involved field irradiation (45 Gy)± brachytherapy and three additional cycles of docetaxel and carboplatin. Kaplan-Meier (KM) methods estimated overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Forty-two patients enrolled, 7 did not complete therapy. 95% (39/41) had primary disease. Median age=58 years (range: 21-81 years). 78% (32/41)=endometrioid histology. Stages=10 IIIA, 21 IIIC, 1 IVA, 7 IVB, (recurrent=1 IC, 1 IIA). There were 23 non-hematologic and 14 grade 3 and 16 grade 4 hematologic toxicities. Seven patients died following treatment with a median follow-up of 28 months (range: 7-70 months). KM estimates and 95% confidence intervals for OS at 1 year were 95% (82-99%), at 3 years 90% (75-96%), and at 5 years 71% (45-86%). Of the 39 with primary disease, 11 progressed or died within 5 years of study enrollment. KM estimates and 95% confidence intervals for PFS at 1 year were 87% (72-94%), at 3 years 71% (51-83%), and at 5 years 64% (42-80%). "Sandwiching" radiation between chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer merits further development based on the reported PFS and OS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time-varying pattern of postoperative recurrence risk of early-stage (T1a-T2bN0M0) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): results of a single-center study of 994 Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-fei; Feng, Xing-yu; Zhang, Xue-wen; Wen, Ying-sheng; Lin, Peng; Rong, Tie-hua; Cai, Ling; Zhang, Lan-jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the time-varying pattern of recurrence risk of early-stage (T1a-T2bN0M0) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgery using the hazard function and identify patients who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. This retrospective study enrolled 994 patients with early-stage NSCLC who underwent radical surgical resection between January 1999 and October 2009. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the annual recurrence hazard was estimated using the hazard function. The median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 8.8 years. The life table survival analysis showed that the 1-year, 3-year, 5-year and 10-year recurrence rates were 82.0%, 67.0%, 59.0% and 48.0%, respectively. Approximately 256 (25.7%) patients experienced relapse [locoregional: 32 (3.2%) and distant: 224 (22.5%)], and 162 patients died from cancer. The annual recurrence hazard curve for the entire population showed that the first major recurrence surge reached a maximum 1.6 years after surgery. The curve subsequently declined until reaching a nadir at 7.2 years. A second peak occurred at 8.8 years. An analysis of clinical-pathological factors demonstrated that this double-peaked pattern was present in several subgroups. The presence of a double-peaked pattern indicates that there is a predictable temporal distribution of the recurrence hazard of early-stage NSCLC. The annual recurrence hazard may be an effective method of selecting patients at high risk of recurrence, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  3. Five-year results of a cementless short-hip-stem prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf H. Wittenberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hip prosthesis stems with a short stem length and proximal fixation geometry support a bone-preserving and muscle-sparing implantation and should also allow for revision surgery with a standard hip stem. We present 250 prospectively documented clinical and radiological results from the Metha Short Hip Stem prosthesis (B. Braun-Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany after an average follow-up of 4.9 years. The average patient age at surgery was 60 years. Indication for total hip replacement was primary osteoarthrosis (OA (78% of patients, OA based on developmental dyspla- sia of the hip (16%, and other indications (6%. At the last follow-up, the average Harris Hip Score was 97 points. 85% of patients were very satisfied and 14% were satisfied after surgery, whereas 1% were dissatisfied. Pain according to the Visual Analogue Scale improved from 7.4 (min 1.6, max 9.5 pre-operatively to 0.23 (min 0, max 6.6. No joint dislocations occurred when predominantly using 28 mm and 32 mm prosthesis heads. Nine short-stems were revised: three after bacterial infections, two after primary via valsa with penetration of the femoral cortex two and three months after surgery, and three after early aseptic cases of loosening within the first year. A further nine osseously consolidated short-stems had to be replaced due to breakage of the modular titanium cone adapter after an average of 3.1 years (min 1.9, max 4.4. All surgical revisions were performed using primary standard stems. Without taking the material-related adapter failures into account, a five year Kaplan-Meier survival rate of 96.7% (95% confidence interval 93.4-98.3 was determined for the short-stem prostheses. There were no radiological signs of loosening in any of the short-stem prostheses at the last examination. Fine sclerotic lines were detected in Gruen’s AP zones 1 (19% and 2 (10.5%, individual hypertrophies in zone 3 (3.5%, fine seams in zones 4 (5.5% and 5 (4%, without pedestal formations in zone 4

  4. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schatz; Monika Strickstrock; Malgorzata Roos; Daniel Edelhoff; Marlis Eichberger; Isabella-Maria Zylla; Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  5. Influence of specimen preparation and test methods on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  6. SEQUENTIAL CONVEX PROGRAMMING METHODS FOR SOLVING LARGE TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS: IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPUTATIONAL RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Ni; Ch. Zillober; K. Schittkowski

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method to solve large-scale structural optimization problems by sequential convex programming (SCP). A predictor-corrector interior point method is applied to solve the strictly convex subproblems. The SCP algorithm and the topology optimization approach are introduced. Especially, different strategies to solve certain linear systems of equations are analyzed. Numerical results are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed method for solving topology optimization problems and to compare different variants.

  7. ORDER RESULTS OF GENERAL LINEAR METHODS FOR MULTIPLY STIFF SINGULAR PERTURBATION PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-qing Gan; Geng Sun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the error behavior of general linear methods applied to some classes of one-parameter multiply stiff singularly perturbed problems. We obtain the global error estimate of algebraically and diagonally stable general linear methods. The main result of this paper can be viewed as an extension of that obtained by Xiao [13] for the case of Runge-Kutta methods.

  8. Prognostic factors influencing the result of postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Yong Kan; Kwon, Byung Hyun; Kim, Won Taek; Nam, Ji Ho; Yun, Man Su; Kim, Dong Won [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung Sik [Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    This study was performed to determine the prognostic factors influencing relapse pattern, overall and disease-free survival in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy for endometrial carcinoma. The records of 54 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma treated postoperative radiotherapy at Pusan National University Hospital between April 1992 and May 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Median age of the patients was 55 (range 35 {approx} 76). The distribution by surgical FIGO stages were 63.0% for 0 Stage I, 14.8% for Stage II, 22.2% for Stage III. All patients received postoperative external radiotherapy up to 41.4 {approx} 54 Gy (median: 50.4 Gy). Additional intravaginal brachytherapy was applied to 20 patients (37.0% of all). Median follow-up time was 35 months (5 {approx} 115 months). Significant factors of this study: histologic grade, lymphovascular space invasion and myometrial invasion depth were scored (GLM sore) and analyzed. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used for univariate analysis and the Cox regression model for multivariate analysis. 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 87.7% and 87.1%, respectively. Prognostic factors related with overall and disease-free survival were histologic grade, lymphovascular space invasion and myometrial invasion according to the univariate analysis. According to the multivariate analysis, lymphovascular space invasion was associated with decreased disease-free survival. GLM score was a meaningful factor affecting overall and disease-free survival ({rho} = 0.0090, {rho} = 0.0073, respectively) and distant recurrence ({rho} = 0.0132), which was the sum of points of histologic grade, lymphovascular space invasion and myometrial invasion. Total failure rate was 11% with 6 patients. Relapse sites were 2 para-aortic lymph nodes, 2 lungs, a supraclavicular lymph node and a vagina. The prognosis in patients with endometrial carcinoma treated by

  9. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  10. Milk urea analytical result reliability and its methodical possibilities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Říha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of milk urea concentration (MUC can be used in diagnosis of the energy–nitrogen metabolism of cows. There are more analytical methods for MUC estimation and there are also discussions about their result reliability. Aim of this work was to obtain information for MUC result reliability improvement. MUC and MUN (milk urea nitrogen were investigated in 5 milk sample sets and in 7 calibration/comparison experiments. The positions of reference and indirect methods were changed in experiments. There were following analytical methods for MUC or MUN (in mg.100 ml−1: – photometric method (PH, as reference based on paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde reaction; – method Ureakvant (UK, as reference based on difference measurement of the electrical conductivity change during ureolysis; – method Chemspec (CH based on photometrical measurement of ammonia concentration after ureolysis (as reference; – spectroscopic method in mid infrared range of spectrum (FT–MIR; indirect routine method. In all methodical combinations the correlation coefficients (r varied from 0.8803 to 0.9943 (P −1 and comparable values of repeatability (from 0.65 to 1.83 mg.100 ml−1 as compared to FT–MIR MUC or MUN methods (from 1.39 to 5.6 and from 0.76 to 1.92 mg.100 ml−1 in performed experiments.

  11. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  12. Optimal explicit strong-stability-preserving general linear methods : complete results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Sandu, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    2009-03-03

    This paper constructs strong-stability-preserving general linear time-stepping methods that are well suited for hyperbolic PDEs discretized by the method of lines. These methods generalize both Runge-Kutta (RK) and linear multistep schemes. They have high stage orders and hence are less susceptible than RK methods to order reduction from source terms or nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. A global optimization strategy is used to find the most efficient schemes that have low storage requirements. Numerical results illustrate the theoretical findings.

  13. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods....

  14. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis ( MS). Methods: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox

  15. Factors associated with the risk of secondary progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, M; Uyttenboogaart, M; van Harten, A; De Keyser, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with the risk of secondary progression in relapsing-remitting onset multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We used Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and a multivariable Cox regression model to estimate the influence of the factors: gender, age at disease onset, use

  16. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox r

  17. Review of fiber methods and applicability to fortified foods and supplements: choosing the correct method and interpreting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Garrett; Rozema, Brent

    2013-05-01

    Fiber is known to be an important part of our nutrition and has many positive health benefits, including weight management and maintaining heart health. In recent years, a number of new ingredients have been manufactured or isolated that are being used to increase the health benefits of a product. Some are used as prebiotics that stimulate the growth of the beneficial bacteria in the gut, or are used as replacements for sugars, starch, or fat in manufactured foods. Fiber supplements have also been produced that can be taken to provide additional fiber to the diet. The term "fiber" does not relate to a single analyte or entity, but instead relates to a multitude of components. This adds to the complexity of analytical testing as there are a number of AOAC International and AACC International official methods which have been validated and can be used. Although methods have been developed for specific fiber ingredients, a number of methods have also been developed to capture just "fiber". These "fiber" methods will capture differing degrees of the different fiber ingredients, so knowledge of the fiber sources is critical. The net result is that a variety of testing approaches may be used, but caution must be exercised in order to ensure that the total fiber result is accurately determined. A critical review of available fiber methodology and possible testing approaches is presented, along with how to accurately interpret and understand results.

  18. Uncertainty Representation Method for Open Pit Optimization Results Due to Variation in Mineral Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method to quantitatively represent the uncertainty existing in open pit optimization results due to variations in mineral prices. After generating multiple mineral prices using Monte Carlo simulation with data on past mineral prices, a probability model that represents the uncertainty was developed by integrating multiple open pit optimization results derived from the mineral prices. The results of applying the proposed method to the copper-zinc deposits showed that significant uncertainty exists in open pit optimization results due to the variation in copper prices. It was also found that the method has a potential as a tool for classifying the estimation results of ore reserve based on confidence level.

  19. Comparison of pencil-type ionization chamber calibration results and methods between dosimetry laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, Costas J; Büermann, Ludwig; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Csete, Istvan; Delis, Harry; Gomola, Igor; Persson, Linda; Novak, Leos; Petkov, Ivailo; Toroi, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of calibration results and procedures in terms of air kerma length product, PKL, and air kerma, K, was conducted between eight dosimetry laboratories. A pencil-type ionization chamber (IC), generally used for computed tomography dose measurements, was calibrated according to three calibration methods, while its residual signal and other characteristics (sensitivity profile, active length) were assessed. The results showed that the "partial irradiation method" is the preferred method for the pencil-type IC calibration in terms of PKL and it could be applied by the calibration laboratories successfully. Most of the participating laboratories achieved high level of agreement (>99%) for both dosimetry quantities (PKL and K). Estimated relative standard uncertainties of comparison results vary among laboratories from 0.34% to 2.32% depending on the quantity, beam quality and calibration method applied. Detailed analysis of the assigned uncertainties have been presented and discussed.

  20. [Results of toothlessness treatment by calottic method in the Cracow modification. Clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S; Wiśniewska, G; Wencel, T

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of the paper was to control the new method of teeth positioning in complete dentures based on the modification of callottic method in clinical practice. Clinical studies depended on occlusion and articulation estimation, examination of denture statics, control of occlusion height and registration of the patients' subjective experiences. They concerned 81 toothless patients divided into 2 groups according to the specific classification and wearing complete dentures in which the teeth had been positioned according to the modified method and Gysi-Fischer' method. In the groups of patients under examination that had teeth positioned according to the modified method significantly better results of the values estimated than in comparative groups have been achieved. It has been found that using the modified method smooth OA surface of artifical teeth is obtained without necessity of its correction satisfactory denture statics is obtained and rehabilitation of mastication function and adaptation to the dentures take place in a short period of time.

  1. Mid-term results of the BIOLOX delta ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y K; Ha, Y C; Yoo, J-I; Jo, W L; Kim, K-C; Koo, K H

    2017-06-01

    We conducted a prospective study of a delta ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) to determine the rate of ceramic fracture, to characterise post-operative noise, and to evaluate the mid-term results and survivorship. Between March 2009 and March 2011, 274 patients (310 hips) underwent cementless THA using a delta ceramic femoral head and liner. At each follow-up, clinical and radiological outcomes were recorded. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was undertaken to estimate survival. Four patients (four hips) died and 18 patients (20 hips) were lost to follow-up within five years. The remaining 252 patients (286 hips) were followed for a mean of 66.5 months (60 to 84). There were 144 men (166 hips) and 108 women (120 hips) with a mean age of 49.7 years (16 to 83) at surgery. The mean pre-operative Harris Hip Score of 47.1 points improved to 93.8 points at final follow-up. Six patients reported squeaking in seven hips; however, none were audible. Radiolucent lines involving Gruen zones one and/or seven were seen in 52 hips (18.2%). No hip had detectable wear, focal osteolysis or signs of loosening. One hip was revised because of fracture of the ceramic liner, which occurred due to an undetected malseating of the ceramic liner at the time of surgery. One hip was revised for a periprosthetic fracture of the femur, and one hip was treated for periprosthetic joint infection. The six-year survivorship with re-operation for any reason as the endpoint was 99.0% (95% confidence interval 97.8% to 100%). The rate of delta ceramic fracture was 0.3% (one of 286). While ceramic head fracture was dominant in previous ceramic-on-ceramic THA, fracture of the delta ceramic liner due to malseating is a concern. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:741-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. CONVERGENCE RESULTS OF RUNGE-KUTTA METHODS FOR MULTIPLY-STIFF SINGULAR PERTURBATION PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-guo Xiao

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some convergence results for algebraically stable Runge-Kutta methods applied to some classes of one- and two-parameter multiplystiff singular perturbation problems whose stiffness is caused by small parameters and some other factors. A numerical example confirms our results.

  3. [Results of surgical treatment for acromioclavicular dislocation using a modified Mitchell method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M; Jarco, K; Sleczkowski, M; Delimat, J; Szot, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surgical treatment in acromioclavicular dislocation (grade III according to Tossy) in 53 patients. Joint reconstruction was performed using Mitchell's modified method--acromioclavicular reconstruction was achieved by applying a with Dallos poliester fiber prosthesis. Clinically in 90.5% of the cases a good or excellent result was achieved.

  4. Immunoglobulin determination evaluation of the results of immunoelectrophoretic analysis and the radial diffusion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, Ben J.M.; Poen, H.; Stoop, J.W.; Ballieux, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the results of immunoglobulin determination in sera using immunoelectrophoresis and the radial diffusion method of Mancini. The results indicated that, except for certain ranges of immunoglobulin concentration (low, normal or slightly increased) the data obtained by i

  5. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  6. A research program to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes. [test methods and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Muirhead, V. U.; Smith, H. W.; Peschier, T. D.; Durenberger, D.; Vandam, K.; Shu, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical and semi-empirical methods for determining the transmission of sound through isolated panels and predicting panel transmission loss are described. Test results presented include the influence of plate stiffness and mass and the effects of pressurization and vibration damping materials on sound transmission characteristics. Measured and predicted results are presented in tables and graphs.

  7. Control and Analysis of Costs Based On Results Account of the ABC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel Capusneanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modality of control and cost analysis based on the results account of Activity-Based Costing method. The results account model and situations for determining deviations are presented based on the purpose, composition and classification in the existing literature. There are presented the statements for determining costs deviations resulting from their control and analysis in terms of pilot indicators, all highlighted by a case study application. The article ends with the authors' conclusions about the advantages of these syntheses accounting statements specific to ABC method and using it as a main source of rapid and accurate decision-making for the management at interentity level.

  8. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Alin [Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2" n" d Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania); Muntean, Sebastian [Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24" t" h Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  9. Surprising results on phylogenetic tree building methods based on molecular sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyze phylogenetic tree building methods from molecular sequences (PTMS. These are methods which base their construction solely on sequences, coding DNA or amino acids. Results Our first result is a statistically significant evaluation of 176 PTMSs done by comparing trees derived from 193138 orthologous groups of proteins using a new measure of quality between trees. This new measure, called the Intra measure, is very consistent between different groups of species and strong in the sense that it separates the methods with high confidence. The second result is the comparison of the trees against trees derived from accepted taxonomies, the Taxon measure. We consider the NCBI taxonomic classification and their derived topologies as the most accepted biological consensus on phylogenies, which are also available in electronic form. The correlation between the two measures is remarkably high, which supports both measures simultaneously. Conclusions The big surprise of the evaluation is that the maximum likelihood methods do not score well, minimal evolution distance methods over MSA-induced alignments score consistently better. This comparison also allows us to rank different components of the tree building methods, like MSAs, substitution matrices, ML tree builders, distance methods, etc. It is also clear that there is a difference between Metazoa and the rest, which points out to evolution leaving different molecular traces. We also think that these measures of quality of trees will motivate the design of new PTMSs as it is now easier to evaluate them with certainty.

  10. A single-arm trial indirect comparison investigation: a proof-of-concept method to predict venous leg ulcer healing time for a new acellular synthetic matrix matched to standard care control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Ronald; Nelson, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    To compare data on time to healing from two separate cohorts: one treated with a new acellular synthetic matrix plus standard care (SC) and one matched from four large UK pragmatic, randomised controlled trials [venous leg ulcer (VLU) evidence network]. We introduce a new proof-of-concept strategy to a VLU clinical evidence network, propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis to predict the feasibility of the new acellular synthetic matrix plus SC for success in future randomised, controlled clinical trials. Prospective data on chronic VLUs from a safety and effectiveness study on an acellular synthetic matrix conducted in one wound centre in the UK (17 patients) and three wound centres in Australia (36 patients) were compared retrospectively to propensity score-matched data from patients with comparable leg ulcer disease aetiology, age, baseline ulcer area, ulcer duration, multi-layer compression bandaging and majority of care completed in specialist wound centres (average of 1 visit per week), with the outcome measures at comparable follow-up periods from patients enrolled in four prospective, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised studies of venous ulcers in the UK (the comparison group; VLU evidence network). Analysis using Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a mean healing time of 73·1 days for ASM plus SC (ASM) treated ulcers in comparison with 83·5 days for comparison group ulcers treated with SC alone (Log rank test, χ(2) 5·779, P = 0·016) within 12 weeks. Sensitivity analysis indicates that an unobserved covariate would have to change the odds of healing for SC by a factor of 1·1 to impact the baseline results. Results from this study predict a significant effect on healing time when using a new ASM as an adjunct to SC in the treatment of non-healing venous ulcers in the UK, but results are sensitive to unobserved covariates that may be important in healing time comparison. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  12. Precise Numerical Results of IR-vertex and box integration with Extrapolation Method

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Fujimoro, J; Hamaguchi, N; Ishikawa, T; Shimizu, Y

    2007-01-01

    We present a new approach for obtaining very precise integration results for infrared vertex and box diagrams, where the integration is carried out directly without performing any analytic integration of Feynman parameters. Using an appropriate numerical integration routine with an extrapolation method, together with a multi-precision library, we have obtained integration results which agree with the analytic results to 10 digits even for such a very small photon mass as $10^{-150}$ GeV in the infrared vertex diagram.

  13. Comparison of methods for analyzing left-censored occupational exposure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tran; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Monteiro, Joao; Stenzel, Mark; Sandler, Dale P; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is conducting an epidemiologic study (GuLF STUDY) to investigate the health of the workers and volunteers who participated from April to December of 2010 in the response and cleanup of the oil release after the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. The exposure assessment component of the study involves analyzing thousands of personal monitoring measurements that were collected during this effort. A substantial portion of these data has values reported by the analytic laboratories to be below the limits of detection (LOD). A simulation study was conducted to evaluate three established methods for analyzing data with censored observations to estimate the arithmetic mean (AM), geometric mean (GM), geometric standard deviation (GSD), and the 95th percentile (X0.95) of the exposure distribution: the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation, the β-substitution, and the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) methods. Each method was challenged with computer-generated exposure datasets drawn from lognormal and mixed lognormal distributions with sample sizes (N) varying from 5 to 100, GSDs ranging from 2 to 5, and censoring levels ranging from 10 to 90%, with single and multiple LODs. Using relative bias and relative root mean squared error (rMSE) as the evaluation metrics, the β-substitution method generally performed as well or better than the ML and K-M methods in most simulated lognormal and mixed lognormal distribution conditions. The ML method was suitable for large sample sizes (N ≥ 30) up to 80% censoring for lognormal distributions with small variability (GSD = 2-3). The K-M method generally provided accurate estimates of the AM when the censoring was <50% for lognormal and mixed distributions. The accuracy and precision of all methods decreased under high variability (GSD = 4 and 5) and small to moderate sample sizes (N < 20) but the β-substitution was still the best of the three methods. When using the ML

  14. Results of phacoemulsification of cataract complicated by lens subluxation depending on the ring setting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Zavgorodnjaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Actuality. Cataract extraction complicated by zonular weakness remains one of the urgent problems of eye microsurgery. Aim. To increase the efficiency of cataract surgery complicated by lens subluxation through comparative analysis of frequency and structure of intra- and postoperative complications, as well as the functional results of surgical treatment of patients depending on the ring setting method. Methods and results. 91 patients (93 eyes were examined, who were operated on complicated cataract, and were divided into 2 groups depending on the method of ring setting. Conclusion. It was established that the offered method of implant capsular ring gives the opportunity to reduce the length of patients’ treatment by 2,6 day, to decrease of 28,43% for complications, and also to avoid such heavy operating complications, as a vitreous prolapse, displacement of the eye lens fragments in a vitreous body, dug up capsule bag.

  15. Use and perceived helpfulness of smoking cessation methods: results from a population survey of recent quitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Donna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of smoking cessation is one of the most effective measures available to improve population health. To advance the goal of increasing successful cessation at the population level, it is imperative that we understand more about smokers' use of cessation methods, as well as the helpfulness of those methods in real-world experiences of quitting. In this survey of recent quitters, we simultaneously examined rates of use and perceived helpfulness of various cessation methods. Methods Recent quitters (within 12 months; n = 1097 completed a telephone survey including questions relating to 13 cessation methods. Indices of use and perceived helpfulness for each method were plotted in a quadrant analysis. Socio-demographic differences were explored using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the quadrant analysis, cold turkey, NRT and gradual reduction before quitting had high use and helpfulness; GP advice had high use and lower helpfulness. Prescribed medication and online programs had low use but high helpfulness. Remaining methods had low use and helpfulness. Younger quitters were more likely to use unassisted methods such as cold turkey; older or less educated quitters were more likely to use assisted methods such as prescribed medication or advice from a general practitioner. Conclusions The majority of recent quitters quit cold turkey or cut down before quitting, and reported that these methods were helpful. Efforts to influence population smoking prevalence should attempt to provide support and motivation for smokers choosing these methods, in addition to assessing the effectiveness and accessibility of other methods for smokers who need or choose them.

  16. [The study on the influence of bovine enamel hardness measurement methods on the result evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianyun; Lin, Hong; Zheng, Rui; Han, Jianmin; Zheng, Gang

    2013-02-01

    The variation in hardness of enamel is a frequently used method to evaluate the influence of whiting materials on the enamel. The purpose of this study is to improve the veracity on the evaluation tests caused by the tooth itself with point selection method. Three kinds of testing point selection methods on enamel were carried out, i. e. random selection, grid measurement and symmetrical measurement, respectively. The selected points were used to measure the micro hardness by Vickers. The influence of the variation of tooth structure itself on the hardness measurements results can be reduced by using testing point selection methods of symmetry, and thus, the accuracy of the test method used in the evaluation of the influence of dental materials on tooth hardness will be guaranteed.

  17. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    /inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411...

  18. Age-dependent trends in postoperative mortality and preoperative comorbidity in isolated coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristinn; Fonager, Kirsten; Mérie, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    . Predictors of 30-day mortality were analysed in a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models and survival at 1 and 5 years was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: A total of 38 830 patients were included; the median age was 65.4 ± 9.5 years, increasing over time to 66.6 ± 9.5 years. Males comprised...

  19. Short- and long-term efficacy of intra-articular injections with betamethasone as part of a treat-to-target strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Østergaard, Mikkel; Ejbjerg, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    by Kaplan-Meier plots of the joint injection survival (ie, the time between injection and renewed flare). Potential predictors of joint injection survival were tested.RESULTS: 1373 Unique joints (ankles, elbows, knees, metacarpophalangeal (MCP), metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal (PIP), shoulders...

  20. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.;

    2008-01-01

    -points were loco-regional recurrence, distant metastases, disease-specific survival and overall survival. Statistical analyses included kappa statistics, chi(2) or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. Results CA IX was assessable in 945 cores. The percentage...

  1. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    -points were loco-regional recurrence, distant metastases, disease-specific survival and overall survival. Statistical analyses included kappa statistics, chi2 or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: CA IX was assessable in 945 cores. The percentage...

  2. Skin barrier and contact allergy: Genetic risk factor analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross-Hansen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    by extracting epidermal proteins from human surgical waste samples and stratum corneum scrapings followed by binding studies using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Results As suggested by Kaplan-Meier event history analyses, FLG null mutations lowered the age of onset of nickel dermatitis, when ear...

  3. A nationwide study of serous “borderline” ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978–2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette;

    2014-01-01

    as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected from hospital departments and reviewed. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and relative survival was estimated with follow-up through September 2, 2013. RESULTS: A cohort of 1042 women with a confirmed SBT diagnosis was identified. Women with stage I...

  4. An adaptive aggregation based domain decomposition multilevel method for the lattice wilson dirac operator: multilevel results

    CERN Document Server

    Frommer, A; Krieg, S; Leder, B; Rottmann, M

    2013-01-01

    In lattice QCD computations a substantial amount of work is spent in solving linear systems arising in Wilson's discretization of the Dirac equations. We show first numerical results of the extension of the two-level DD-\\alpha AMG method to a true multilevel method based on our parallel MPI-C implementation. Using additional levels pays off, allowing to cut down the core minutes spent on one system solve by a factor of approximately 700 compared to standard Krylov subspace methods and yielding another speed-up of a factor of 1.7 over the two-level approach.

  5. MULTISPECTRAL MICROSCOPY AND COMPUTERIZED IMAGE ANALYSIS: A METHOD TO OBTAIN MORE RELIABLE AND REPRODUCIBLE IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Francesco Spatola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of image analysis methods has allowed us to obtain more reliable and repro-ducible immunohistochemistry (IHC results. Wider use of such approaches and sim-plification of software allowing a colorimetric study has meant that these methods are available to everyone, and made it possible to standardize the technique by a reliable systems score. Moreover, the recent introduction of multispectral image acquisition systems methods has further refined these techniques, minimizing artefacts and eas-ing the evaluation of the data by the observer.

  6. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  7. Comparison of microcrystalline characterization results from oil palm midrib alpha cellulose using different delignization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliasmi, S.; Pardede, T. R.; Nerdy; Syahputra, H.

    2017-03-01

    Oil palm midrib is one of the waste generated by palm plants containing 34.89% cellulose. Cellulose has the potential to produce microcrystalline cellulose can be used as an excipient in tablet formulations by direct compression. Microcrystalline cellulose is the result of a controlled hydrolysis of alpha cellulose, so the alpha cellulose extraction process of oil palm midrib greatly affect the quality of the resulting microcrystalline cellulose. The purpose of this study was to compare the microcrystalline cellulose produced from alpha cellulose extracted from oil palm midrib by two different methods. Fisrt delignization method uses sodium hydroxide. Second method uses a mixture of nitric acid and sodium nitrite, and continued with sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfite. Microcrystalline cellulose obtained by both method was characterized separately, including organoleptic test, color reagents test, dissolution test, pH test and determination of functional groups by FTIR. The results was compared with microcrystalline cellulose which has been available on the market. The characterization results showed that microcrystalline cellulose obtained by first method has the most similar characteristics to the microcrystalline cellulose available in the market.

  8. The method of analysis of joint space width measurement results: practical verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilewska, Grażyna

    2006-02-01

    The difficulties in accuracy of performed measurements assessment was appeared when author analyzed measurement results of joint space width on the basis of radiographs. It's followed mainly from accuracy of patient position at X-ray unit. So that to solve this problem author worked out methods of elimination measured data of patients for which variation of measurement results was highest (i.e. lowest repeatability of radiographs execution). In this way we can perform fewer radiographs for the others patients to decrease of mean standard deviation of measured data identified with measuring error. Author checked practical application of methods outlying observation reduction and innovative methods of elimination measured data with excess variance at independence as well as dependence of variables. Elaborated methods were verified on the basis of measurement results of knee-joint width space got from radiographs. Measurements were carried out by two methods: directly on the radiographs as well as indirectly on the digital images of radiographs. Results of examination confirmed legitimacy to using of elaborated methodology and measurement procedures. It's solved important problems from metrology, which have application in many medical departments, especially if it's hard to achieve reduction of random error by increase numbers of measurements. Radiology is such a discipline. There is the most essential to reduce ionizing radiation dose for patient during examinations.

  9. Kernelized partial least squares for feature reduction and classification of gene microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Walker H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objectives of this paper are: 1. to apply Statistical Learning Theory (SLT, specifically Partial Least Squares (PLS and Kernelized PLS (K-PLS, to the universal "feature-rich/case-poor" (also known as "large p small n", or "high-dimension, low-sample size" microarray problem by eliminating those features (or probes that do not contribute to the "best" chromosome bio-markers for lung cancer, and 2. quantitatively measure and verify (by an independent means the efficacy of this PLS process. A secondary objective is to integrate these significant improvements in diagnostic and prognostic biomedical applications into the clinical research arena. That is, to devise a framework for converting SLT results into direct, useful clinical information for patient care or pharmaceutical research. We, therefore, propose and preliminarily evaluate, a process whereby PLS, K-PLS, and Support Vector Machines (SVM may be integrated with the accepted and well understood traditional biostatistical "gold standard", Cox Proportional Hazard model and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis methods. Specifically, this new combination will be illustrated with both PLS and Kaplan-Meier followed by PLS and Cox Hazard Ratios (CHR and can be easily extended for both the K-PLS and SVM paradigms. Finally, these previously described processes are contained in the Fine Feature Selection (FFS component of our overall feature reduction/evaluation process, which consists of the following components: 1. coarse feature reduction, 2. fine feature selection and 3. classification (as described in this paper and prediction. Results Our results for PLS and K-PLS showed that these techniques, as part of our overall feature reduction process, performed well on noisy microarray data. The best performance was a good 0.794 Area Under a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curve (AUC for classification of recurrence prior to or after 36 months and a strong 0.869 AUC for

  10. Towards nonaxisymmetry; initial results using the Flux Coordinate Independent method in BOUT++

    CERN Document Server

    Shanahan, Brendan; Dudson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Fluid simulation of stellarator edge transport is difficult due to the complexities of mesh generation; the stochastic edge and strong nonaxisymmetry inhibit the use of field aligned coordinate systems. The recent implementation of the Flux Coordinate Independent method for calculating parallel derivatives in BOUT++ has allowed for more complex geometries. Here we present initial results of nonaxisymmetric diffusion modelling as a step towards stellarator turbulence modelling. We then present initial (non-turbulent) transport modelling using the FCI method and compare the results with analytical calculations. The prospects for future stellarator transport and turbulence modelling are discussed.

  11. Interactive data based on Apriori - AHP - C4.5 results assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Zhang, Li

    2017-05-01

    AHP method for weight calculation method, will introduce the subjective concept of "experts, supposed steps", for the objective result has certain uncertainty, causes the classroom interaction data attribute weights proportion difference is not big, the whole class achievement trend of convergence, introduce the concept of Apriori-AHP. C4.5 is used to calculate the weight of attribute column, and then using the Apriori-AHP algorithm calculate attribute weights, attribute importance weights on judgment performance indicators table overall consideration, with the weight of index table of gifted student achievement, make the class performance trends to fluctuate, have tended to be "standard" real results for teacher reference.

  12. Better living through transparency: improving the reproducibility of fMRI results through comprehensive methods reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that a greater proportion of published scientific findings than expected cannot be replicated. The field of functional neuroimaging research is no exception to this trend, with estimates of false positive results ranging from 10 % to 40 %. While false positive results in neuroimaging studies stem from a variety of causes, incomplete methodological reporting is perhaps the most obvious: Most published reports of neuroimaging studies provide ambiguous or incomplete descriptions of their methods and results. If neuroimaging researchers do not report methods and results in adequate detail, independent scientists can neither check their work for errors nor accurately replicate their efforts. Thus, I argue that comprehensive methods reporting is essential for reproducible research. I recommend three strategies for improving transparency and reproducibility in neuroimaging research: improving natural language descriptions of research protocols; sharing source code for data collection and analysis; and sharing formal, machine-readable representations of methods and results. Last, I discuss the technological and cultural barriers to implementing these recommendations and suggest steps toward overcoming those barriers.

  13. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  14. Multiple Frequency Contrast Source Inversion Method for Vertical Electromagnetic Profiling: 2D Simulation Results and Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghe; Song, Linping; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous multiple frequency contrast source inversion (CSI) method is applied to reconstructing hydrocarbon reservoir targets in a complex multilayered medium in two dimensions. It simulates the effects of a salt dome sedimentary formation in the context of reservoir monitoring. In this method, the stabilized biconjugate-gradient fast Fourier transform (BCGS-FFT) algorithm is applied as a fast solver for the 2D volume integral equation for the forward computation. The inversion technique with CSI combines the efficient FFT algorithm to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication and the stable convergence of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI in the iteration process. As a result, this method is capable of making quantitative conductivity image reconstruction effectively for large-scale electromagnetic oil exploration problems, including the vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEP) survey investigated here. A number of numerical examples have been demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and capacity of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI method for a limited array view in VEP.

  15. Predicting high-throughput screening results with scalable literature-based discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, T; Widdows, D; Stephan, C; Zinner, R; Kim, J; Rindflesch, T; Davies, P

    2014-10-08

    The identification of new therapeutic uses for existing agents has been proposed as a means to mitigate the escalating cost of drug development. A common approach to such repurposing involves screening libraries of agents for activities against cell lines. In silico methods using knowledge from the biomedical literature have been proposed to constrain the costs of screening by identifying agents that are likely to be effective a priori. However, results obtained with these methods are seldom evaluated empirically. Conversely, screening experiments have been criticized for their inability to reveal the biological basis of their results. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of a scalable literature-based approach, discovery-by-analogy, to identify a small number of active agents within a large library screened for activity against prostate cancer cells. The methods used permit retrieval of the knowledge used to infer their predictions, providing a plausible biological basis for predicted activity.

  16. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  17. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure that the system under test (SUT) satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, a new SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each test execution is saved in calculation memory unit and evaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantity of scenario test case for next test execution will be calculated according to the promised SUT's confidence level. The feedback data are generated to weight controller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally, a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates that this adaptive testing method can really work in practice. This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-based adaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testing much more effective.

  18. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highlydemand for dependability, which requires plenty ofresource to ensure that the system under test (SUT)satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, anew SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improveSCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each testexecution is saved in calculation memory unit andevaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantityof scenario test case for next test execution will becalculated according to the promised SUT's confidencelevel. The feedback data are generated to weightcontroller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally,a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates thatthis adaptive testing method can really work in practice.This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-basedadaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testingmuch more effective.

  19. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  20. Control methods for Dermanyssus gallinae in systems for laying hens: results of an international seminar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.F.; Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Chirico, J.; Maurer, V.; Kilpinen, O.; Sparagano, O.; Thind, B.; Zoons, J.; Moore, D.; Bell, B.; Gjevre, A.G.; Chauve, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a seminar on poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae. Eighteen researchers from eight European countries discussed life cycle issues of the mite, effects of mites on hens and egg production, and monitoring and control methods for PRM in poultry facilities. It w

  1. Periodontal healing after intentional auto-alloplastic reimplantation of injured immature upper front teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Y; Filippi, A; Tekin, U; Kirschner, H

    2000-03-01

    Conventional endodontic treatment results in high complication quota when performed in immature teeth. Intentional reimplantation with extraoral insertion of an endodontic implant (auto-alloplastic reimplantation) is an alternative. In a retrospective study, the healing of 40 teeth reimplanted intentionally according to this method in patients aged 7 to 15 years was evaluated. Clinical tests (palpation, percussion sound, periotest values) and radiographical examinations were used to determine the type of periodontal healing (inflammatory resorption/periodontitis apicalis; replacement resorption/ankylosis; normal healing). Mean lifetime of the replanted teeth was 59.2+/-42.5 months, estimated survival time on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier analysis was 99.5 months. 17 teeth (42.5%) were classified as failures, mostly due to inflammatory resorption or periodontitis apicalis. Further investigations demonstrated that success rate and retention period of intentionally replanted teeth depend on the preoperative condition of the pulp. Teeth with preoperative infection suffered frequently from inflammatory resorption or periodontitis apicalis after being replanted (14 of 28 teeth). Estimated survival time according to Kaplan-Meier was 75.5 months. In contrast, inflammations or progressive resorptions were not observed in teeth without preoperative infection of the pulp. All these 12 teeth showed normal periodontal healing and regular tooth mobility. In the absence of any pathology in clinical or radiological findings after an average functional period of 72.3 months, the prognosis can be presumed excellent. Estimated survival time of 148.3 months according to Kaplan-Meier differs significantly from survival time of teeth infected preoperatively. From the results of this investigation, it may be concluded that an infection of the pulp - due to delay of treatment or attempts at endodontic therapy - should be avoided before intentional replantation of immature front teeth with

  2. Sobrevivência após acidentes de trânsito: impacto das variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares Sobrevida después de accidentes de tránsito: impacto de las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias Survival after motor vehicle crash: impact of clinical and prehospital variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares associadas à sobrevivência de vítimas de acidente de trânsito. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no município de São Paulo, SP, de 1999 a 2003. Foram analisados dados de 175 pacientes, entre 12 e 65 anos, vitimados por acidente de trânsito. A Análise de Sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier foi utilizada na abordagem dos resultados na cena do acidente com as vítimas de escore OBJETIVO: Analizar las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias asociadas a la sobrevida de víctimas de accidentes del tránsito. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado en el municipio de São Paulo (Sudeste de Brasil, de 1999 a 2003. Fueron analizados datos de 175 pacientes, entre 12 y 65 años, victimas de accidentes de tránsito. El análisis de Sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier fue utilizado en el abordaje de los resultados en la escena del accidente con las víctimas de score OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and prehospital variables associated with survival of motor vehicle crash victims. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. Data from 175 patients, who were aged between 12 and 65 years and had been motor vehicle crash victims, were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis was used to approach the results at the accident scene with victims scoring <11, according to the Revised Trauma Score. Variables analyzed were: sex, age, injury mechanisms, basic and advanced support procedures, Revised Trauma Score parameters and fluctuations, time elapsed in the prehospital phase and trauma severity according to the Injury Severity Score and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that victims who were less likely to survive during the hospitalization period showed serious lesions in the abdomen, thorax, or lower limbs, with negative fluctuation of respiratory frequency and Revised Trauma Score in the prehospital phase. In addition, they needed specialized

  3. A semantics-based method for clustering of Chinese web search results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wang, Li; Bi, Zhuming; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Information explosion is a critical challenge to the development of modern information systems. In particular, when the application of an information system is over the Internet, the amount of information over the web has been increasing exponentially and rapidly. Search engines, such as Google and Baidu, are essential tools for people to find the information from the Internet. Valuable information, however, is still likely submerged in the ocean of search results from those tools. By clustering the results into different groups based on subjects automatically, a search engine with the clustering feature allows users to select most relevant results quickly. In this paper, we propose an online semantics-based method to cluster Chinese web search results. First, we employ the generalised suffix tree to extract the longest common substrings (LCSs) from search snippets. Second, we use the HowNet to calculate the similarities of the words derived from the LCSs, and extract the most representative features by constructing the vocabulary chain. Third, we construct a vector of text features and calculate snippets' semantic similarities. Finally, we improve the Chameleon algorithm to cluster snippets. Extensive experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has outperformed over the suffix tree clustering method and other traditional clustering methods.

  4. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploc, Ondřej; Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-08-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin—a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (Edep) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated.

  5. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  6. Long-term results of abrasion arthroplasty for full-thickness cartilage lesions of the medial femoral condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Valerio; de Girolamo, Laura; Pascale, Walter; Melato, Marco; Pascale, Valerio

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the long-term functional results of arthroscopic abrasion arthroplasty for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage lesions of the medial femoral condyle. Between 1990 and 1996, 75 consecutive patients with isolated chondral lesions of the medial femoral condyle were treated with arthroscopic chondral abrasion. A retrospective analysis of the clinical results of this cohort was performed. The patients were evaluated according to the Knee Society Score questionnaire preoperatively, at 10 years postoperatively, and at final long-term follow-up at a mean of 20 years. At final follow-up, they were also assessed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Patients were divided according to the lesion size and by age, and the Kaplan-Meier survivorship function (with second operation taken as an endpoint) for the various groups was calculated. At a mean of final follow-up of 20 years (range, 16.94 to 23.94 years), a positive functional outcome (Knee Society Score ≥70 points or no reoperation) was recorded in 67.9% of the patients. Twenty-year survivorship in this cohort was 71.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.5690 to 0.8590). The survivorship was 89.5% for patients younger than 50 years and 55.7% for patients aged 50 years or older. The functional results for patients with lesions smaller than 4 cm(2) were significantly better than those for patients with lesions of 4 cm(2) or greater (P = .031). There were no statistical differences between patients with and without associated lesions at the time of surgery. Our hypothesis that there would be survivorship greater than 86% was disproved. However, arthroscopic abrasion arthroplasty can be a valid treatment for medial femoral condylar full-thickness defects of the knee, even in the long-term, particularly for younger patients and those with smaller lesions. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier

  7. Comparison of method and result of three types of thoracoscopic lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo YANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the method and result of thoracoscope-assisted lobectomy, thoracoscopic lobectomy and single-port laparoscopic lobectomy, and provide a reference for choice of surgical method. Methods Clinic data of 374 patients undergone thoracoscopic lobectomy from May 2007 to May 2012 in General Hospital of PLA were retrospectively analyzed. Results Three hundred and seventy-four patients were classified into 3 groups according to different surgical method. Group A included 40 patients who underwent video-assisted lobectomy, group B consisted of 280 patients who received thoracoscopic lobectomy, and group C consisted of 54 patients who underwent single-port laparoscopic lobectomy. The general data were similar among the 3 groups. The operative time was longer in group A (180.4±43.5min than in groups B and C (153.2±28.6, 162.5±32.3min, P<0.05, but it was similar between groups B and C. There was no significant differences in blood loss, incidence of conversion to thoracotomy, postoperative complications, chest tube removal time, postoperative discharge time, lymph node dissection result among 3 groups. Conclusions Three types of thoracoscopic lobectomy showed similar results. The option of the method depends on degree of operative difficulty and surgeon's proficiency in performing the operation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.010

  8. Experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations of a landmine localization device using the neutron backscattering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datema, C.P. E-mail: c.datema@iri.tudelft.nl; Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2002-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.

  9. Experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations of a landmine localization device using the neutron backscattering method

    CERN Document Server

    Datema, C P; Eijk, C W E

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.

  10. Prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein in the evaluation of paraquat poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong NingΔ; Yu-Long BaiΔ; Hua Lu; Kang-Lin Mo

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with paraquat poisoning. Methods: This study included 162 patients with paraquat poisoning. The data of plasma paraquat,CRP level and arterial blood gas were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of prognosis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve were used to calculate the predictive power of significant variable. Differences in patient survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. Results:PlasmaCRP level was significantly increased in non-survival patients compared with survival patients (P Conclusions: These results suggest that plasmaCRP level is distinct increased in patients with paraquat poisoning, and the plasmaCRP level may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in paraquat poisoning.

  11. Evaluation of Environmental Sample Analysis Methods and Results Reporting in the National Children's Study Vanguard Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Maire S A; Khalaf, Abdisalam; Beard, Barbara; Viet, Susan M; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-05-01

    During the initial Vanguard phase of the U.S. National Children's Study (NCS), about 2000 tap water, surface wipe, and air samples were collected and analyzed immediately. The shipping conditions, analysis methods, results, and laboratory performance were evaluated to determine the best approaches for use in the NCS Main Study. The main conclusions were (1) to employ established sample analysis methods, when possible, and alternate methodologies only after careful consideration with method validation studies; (2) lot control and prescreening sample collection materials are important quality assurance procedures; (3) packing samples correctly requires careful training and adjustment of shipping conditions to local conditions; (4) trip blanks and spiked samples should be considered for samplers with short expiration times and labile analytes; (5) two study-specific results reports should be required: laboratory electronic data deliverables (EDD) of sample results in a useable electronic format (CSV or SEDD XML/CSV) and a data package with sample results and supporting information in PDF format. These experiences and lessons learned can be applied to any long-term study.

  12. Midterm results of cementless primary total hip arthroplasty%生物型初次全髋关节置换术的中期随访结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 龚翰; 陈东峰; 卢伟杰

    2016-01-01

    test and Chi square test were used.Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survivorship of prothesis .Results A total of 126 hips in 116 patients were available .The average Harris score improved from preoperative ( 50.3 ±13.2 ) to (96.4 ±5.1) at the last follow-up ( t =3.124, P <0.001 ) .The postoperative complications included aseptic loosening ( seven hips ) , dislocation ( three hips ) , deep vein thrombosis ( one hip ) , and ectopic ossification (11 hips).The survivorship of femoral components was 100% as revision caused by aseptic loosening was set for the endpoint , while that of the acetabular components was 88%.Conclusion Primary total hip arthroplasty with cementless prothesis in this group shows a satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes in the midterm follow-up.

  13. Improved Method of Detection Falsification Results the Digital Image in Conditions of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern level of information technologies development has led to unheard ease embodiments hitherto unauthorized modifications of digital content. At the moment, very important question is the effective expert examination of authenticity of digital images, video, audio, development of the methods for identification and localization of violations of their integrity using these contents for purposes other than entertainment. Present paper deals with the improvement of the detection method of the cloning results in digital images - one of the most frequently used in the software tools falsification realized in all modern graphics editors. The method is intended for clone detection areas and pre-image in terms of additional disturbing influences in the image after the cloning operation for "masking" of the results, which complicates the search process. The improvement is aimed at reducing the number of "false alarms", when the area of the clone / pre-image detected in the original image or the localization of the identified areas do not correspond to the real clone and pre-image. The proposed improvement, based on analysis of different sizes per-pixel image blocks with the least difference from each other, has made it possible efficient functioning of the method, regardless of the specificity of the analyzed digital image.

  14. Initial Results in Power System Identification from Injected Probing Signals Using a Subspace Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W.; Hauer, John F.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the authors use the Numerical algorithm for Subspace State Space System IDentification (N4SID) to extract dynamic parameters from phasor measurements collected on the western North American Power Grid. The data were obtained during tests on June 7, 2000, and they represent wide area response to several kinds of probing signals including Low-Level Pseudo-Random Noise (LLPRN) and Single-Mode Square Wave (SMSW) injected at the Celilo terminal of the Pacific HVDC In-tertie (PDCI). An identified model is validated using a cross vali-dation method. Also, the obtained electromechanical modes are compared with the results from Prony analysis of a ringdown and with signal analysis of ambient data measured under similar op-erating conditions. The consistent results show that methods in this class can be highly effective even when the probing signal is small.

  15. EQUIVALENT EXCITATION METHOD FOR VIBRATION ISOLATION DESIGN:THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Rui; Shi Yin

    2005-01-01

    In view of difficulties concerned with direct measurement of excitations inside source equipments and their significant influence on vibration isolation effectiveness, a dynamical model, for vibration isolation of a rigid machine with six-degree-of-freedom mounted on a flexible foundation through multiple mounts, is analyzed, in which the complicated and multiple disturbances inside the machine are described as an equivalent excitation spectrum. And a method for the estimation of the equivalent excitation spectrum according to system dynamic responses is discussed for the quantitative prediction of isolation effectiveness.Both theoretical analysis and experimental results are demonstrated. Further work shows the quantitative prediction of transmitted power flow in a flexible vibration isolation experiment system using the proposed equivalent excitation spectrum method, by comparison with its testing results.

  16. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  17. Experimental results on a wall interference correction method with interface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. F.; Ulbrich, N.

    1992-01-01

    A wall interference assessment and correction method for subsonic two-dimensional wind tunnel testing is presented. This method calculates a pressure coefficient and angle of attack correction based on velocity measurements on interfaces inside of the wind tunnel. A mathematical representation of the test article is not required. An experimental verification of the suggested technique is given. A NACA 0012 airfoil is tested at a Mach number of 0.70 and at two different angles of attack. Calculated blockage corrections show reasonable agreement with results based on Hackett's method. Corrected surface pressures compare favorably to free-air flow field data if the tunnel flow field is subsonic. The present wall interference correction method can be applied to transonic tunnel flow fields with some restrictions. Errors are estimated and it is shown that the expected error in calculating the pressure coefficient correction on the model surface is in the order of the error of pressure coefficient measurement on interfaces. Necessary testing equipment in existing tunnels can easily be modified if the present method is applied.

  18. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and other X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic methods, etc. This algorithm, when properly applied, does not distort the form nor the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for all kind of spectroscopic techniques. This method is extremely effective at reducing high-frequency noise in the signal much more efficient than a single rectangular smooth of the same width. As all of smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but in this case we found also a systematic improvement on the...

  19. DRUG ADDICTION SOCIAL COST IN RUSSIA REGIONS: METHODICAL APPROACH AND ESTIMATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kalina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodical approach to drug addiction social cost estimation in Russian regions is suggested in the article. It is presented by cost estimation of socio-economical consequences of drug addiction spread on the territory. The main approaches to latency characteristics of drug addiction situation estimation are shown. The results of drug addiction and its separate parts social cost estimation are given for federal regions and subjects of Russian Federation for the period of 2001 − 2005.

  20. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  1. Effects of long-term strontium ranelate treatment on the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reginster, Jean-Yves; Felsenberg, Dieter; Boonen, Steven;

    2008-01-01

    to receive either strontium ranelate at 2 gm/day or placebo for 5 years. The main efficacy criterion was the incidence of nonvertebral fractures. In addition, incidence of hip fractures was assessed, by post hoc analysis, in the subset of 1,128 patients who were at high risk of fractures (age 74 years...... or older with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density T scores -2.4 or less). The incidence of new vertebral fractures was assessed, using the semiquantitative method described by Genant, in the 3,646 patients in whom spinal radiography (a nonmandatory procedure) was performed during the course...... of the study. Fracture data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. RESULTS: Of the 5,091 patients, 2,714 (53%) completed the study up to 5 years. The risk of nonvertebral fracture was reduced by 15% in the strontium ranelate group compared with the placebo group (relative risk 0.85 [95...

  2. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    , when compared to an individually-matched cohort from the background population. METHODS: Population-based cohort-study including HIV-infected individuals ≥ 50 years, who were alive one year after HIV-diagnosis (n=2,440) and a comparison cohort individually-matched by age and gender extracted from......BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older...... the background population (n=14,588). Cumulative survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method and Mortality Rate Ratios (MRRs) were estimated using Cox Regression Models. Study period 1996-2014. RESULTS: Estimated median survival time from age 50 years for HIV-infected individuals increased from 11.8 years...

  3. Prognostic Factors in Patients with Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANYue; SUICheng-guang1; RUANZhi-ping

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the major prognostic factors in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.Methods : 113 cases of a particular disease were retrospectively analysed and 9 factors for prognosis were studied by muitivaritate analysis with Cox proportional hazards survival model. Survival rate was calculated by Kaplan-Meier estimation. Results:In this group,survival time was 0.1 to 82 months,and the median survival time was 3 months.Overall survival rates at month 6,12,18,36 were 35.6%, 20.3%, 15.9% and 6.2%, respectively.Multivariate analyses revealed significant prognostic factors as follows:jaundice, metastasis, therapy method and synthetic therapy. Conchusion: The prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma is determined by various factors. Jaundice and metastasis are independent predictors of poor survival.Radical operation and synthetic therapy will improve the prognosis.

  4. EphA2/CD10/Bcl-6/MUM1 contributes to sub-classiifcation of diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaoyin; Wang Jiandong; Sun Qian; Fu Haijin; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Jinghua

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical and prognostic signiifcance of EphA2 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods:Immunohistochemistry for EphA2/CD10/Bcl-6/MUM-1 was performed on tissue sections from 51 patients diagnosed with DLBCL, and its correlation with clinicopathologic variables of patients was assessed using Pearson’s χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test when necessary. The survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results:High expression of EphA2 was detected in patients of lower clinical stage (P=0.001), better international prognostic index (IPI) score (P = 0.020) and germinal center B-cell (GCB) phenotype (P = 0.000). It was also correlated with the expression of CD10 (P = 0.001) and MUM-1 (P=0.001). Conclusion:EphA2/CD10/MUM1 might contribute to sub-classiifcation of DLBCL.

  5. Novel nomograms for survival and progression in HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jensen, David H; Carlander, Amanda-Louise Fenger

    2016-01-01

    on the largest-to-date, unselected, population-based cohort of patients diagnosed with OPSCC, we performed a comprehensive analysis of long-term OS, TTP, and SAP and constructed novel nomograms to evaluate patients' prognoses. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 4.0 years (range: 0.8-15.8 yrs.), 690 deaths were......BACKGROUND: No study has combined tumour and clinical covariates for survival to construct an individual risk-profile for overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), and survival after progression (SAP) in patients with HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Based...... combined with p16 status remained one of the most informative covariates in the final Cox regression model for OS, TTP, and SAP. METHODS: We included all patients diagnosed with OPSCC (n = 1,542) between 2000-2014 in Eastern Denmark. Survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate...

  6. Expression of E-Cadherin in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma is Associated with Clinical Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianming Zhang; Wei Zhang; Ping Gao; Yanqiu Li; Changyi Li; Sakan Maeda

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation of E-cadherin expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.METHODS We examined the expression of the protein E-cadherin in 43 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) surgical speciments by SABC immunohistochemistry.RESULTS There was a significant correlation between the level of Ecadherin expression and tumor stage (P=0.024), invasive pattern (P=0.009) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.023). No relation was found with age (P=0.084), sex (P=1.356) and differentiation (P=0.877). Using the Kaplan-Meier method we demonstrated that those cases which showed E-cadherin expression (-) or (+) had a significantly poorer prognosis compared those cases which showed expression (++) or (+++) (P= 0.0146).CONCLUSION E-cadherin, is an important indicator of clinical diagnoses and prognositic marker for oral SCC patients.

  7. Significance of age and comorbidity on treatment modality, treatment adherence, and prognosis in elderly ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht; Teiblum, Sandra; Paludan, Merete

    2012-01-01

    and comorbidity (ASA score) on receiving cytoreductive surgery and TC, and on adhering to TC. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis were employed for survival analyses. RESULTS: Of 961 patients, 348 (36.2%) were elderly. Age ≥70years was independently predictive of not receiving surgery, OR 0......BACKGROUND: Age is associated with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. Reasons could be increased comorbidity, more advanced stage, or nonoptimal surgery or chemotherapy. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the significance of comorbidity and age ≥70years on receiving cytoreductive...... surgery, standard combination chemotherapy (TC), adherence to TC treatment, and prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all women registered in a nation-wide database with ovarian or peritoneal cancer in 2005-2006. Logistic regression was employed for determining the predictive value of age...

  8. Breast conserving treatment of breast carcinoma T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy, high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, external beam radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: local control and overall survival analysis; Tratamento conservador do cancer de mama T2 ({<=} 4 cm) e T3 por quimioterapia neoadjuvante, quadrantectomia, braquiterapia com alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante: analise de controle local e sobrevida global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Celia Regina; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Baraldi, Helena Espindola; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: celiarsoares@terra.com.br; Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia; Paes, Roberto Pinto [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering local control and overall survival. Material and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 88 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIb and IIIa, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated from June/1995 to December/2006. Median follow-up was 58 months. Using clinical methods the tumor was evaluated before and after three or four cycles of chemotherapy based on anthracyclines. Overall survival and local control were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Local control and overall survival in five years were 90% and 73.5%, respectively. Conclusion: local control and overall survival were comparable to other forms of treatment. (author)

  9. First Danish single-institution experience with radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, Marie-Louise; Røder, Martin Andreas; Vainer, Ben

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of positive surgical margins (PSMs), stratified by location and extension, on biochemical outcome after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included data from 605 consecutive patients treated with RRP...... for localized prostate cancer. Patients with node-positive disease were excluded. Biochemical recurrence-free survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to assess risk factors. RESULTS: The overall PSM rate was 35.4%. Eighty-three per cent (82.......7%) of these had a single PSM, whereas 17.3% of patients had two or more PSMs. Apical PSMs were present in 42.5% and non-apical in 57.5%. The presence of any PSM had a significant impact on the risk of biochemical recurrence (BR) [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.3, p

  10. Prospective nationwide analysis of laparoscopic versus Lichtenstein repair of inguinal hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ware, P; Bay-Nielsen, M; Juul, P

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to a Cochrane review, laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair compares favourably with open mesh repair, but few data exist from surgical practice outside departments with a special interest in hernia surgery. This study compared nationwide reoperation rates after laparoscopic...... and Lichtenstein repair, adjusting for factors predisposing to recurrence. METHODS: Some 3606 consecutive laparoscopic repairs were compared with 39 537 Lichtenstein repairs that were prospectively recorded in a nationwide registry between 1998 and 2003. Patients were subgrouped according to type of hernia......: primary or recurrent and unilateral or bilateral. Overall reoperation rates and 95 per cent confidence intervals were calculated. Long-term reoperation rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The overall reoperation rates after laparoscopic and Lichtenstein repair of unilateral...

  11. Urinary incontinence in the prediction of falls in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the effect of urinary incontinence as a predictor of the incidence of falls among hospitalized elderly. Method Concurrent cohort study where 221 elderly inpatients were followed from the date of admission until discharge, death or fall. The Kaplan-Meier methods, the incidence density and the Cox regression model were used for the survival analysis and the assessment of the association between the exposure variable and the other variables. Results Urinary incontinence was a strong predictor of falls in the surveyed elderly, and was associated with shorter time until the occurrence of event. Urinary incontinence, concomitant with gait and balance dysfunction and use of antipsychotics was associated with falls. Conclusion Measures to prevent the risk of falls specific to hospitalized elderly patients who have urinary incontinence are necessary.

  12. Urinary incontinence in the prediction of falls in hospitalized elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina de Almeida Abreu

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the effect of urinary incontinence as a predictor of the incidence of falls among hospitalized elderly. Method Concurrent cohort study where 221 elderly inpatients were followed from the date of admission until discharge, death or fall. The Kaplan-Meier methods, the incidence density and the Cox regression model were used for the survival analysis and the assessment of the association between the exposure variable and the other variables. Results Urinary incontinence was a strong predictor of falls in the surveyed elderly, and was associated with shorter time until the occurrence of event. Urinary incontinence, concomitant with gait and balance dysfunction and use of antipsychotics was associated with falls. Conclusion Measures to prevent the risk of falls specific to hospitalized elderly patients who have urinary incontinence are necessary.

  13. LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL ESTİMATİON FOR RIGHT CENSORED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Yılmaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, firstly we will define a right censored data. If we say shortly right-censored data is censoring values that above the exact line. This may be related with scaling device. And then  we will use response variable acquainted from right-censored explanatory variables. Then the linear regression model will be estimated. For censored data’s existence, Kaplan-Meier weights will be used for  the estimation of the model. With the weights regression model  will be consistent and unbiased with that.   And also there is a method for the censored data that is a semi parametric regression and this method also give  useful results  for censored data too. This study also might be useful for the health studies because of the censored data used in medical issues generally.

  14. Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Sorensen, Rikke; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Use of clopidogrel after AMI is low in patients with HF, despite the fact that clopidogrel...... is associated with absolute mortality reduction in AMI patients. METHODS: All patients hospitalized with first-time AMI (2000 through 2005) and not undergoing PCI within 30 days from discharge were identified in national registers. Patients with HF treated with clopidogrel were matched by propensity score...... with patients not treated with clopidogrel. Similarly, 2 groups without HF were identified. Risks of all-cause death were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: We identified 56,944 patients with first-time AMI. In the matched cohort with HF (n = 5,050) and a mean follow...

  15. Tumor Mutation Burden Forecasts Outcome in Ovarian Cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased number of single nucleotide substitutions is seen in breast and ovarian cancer genomes carrying disease-associated mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The significance of these genome-wide mutations is unknown. We hypothesize genome-wide mutation burden mirrors deficiencies in DNA...... repair and is associated with treatment outcome in ovarian cancer. Methods and Results: The total number of synonymous and non-synonymous exome mutations (Nmut), and the presence of germline or somatic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (mBRCA) were extracted from whole-exome sequences of high-grade serous...... ovarian cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to correlate Nmut with chemotherapy response and outcome. Higher Nmut correlated with a better response to chemotherapy after surgery. In patients with mBRCA-associated cancer, low Nmut was associated...

  16. Long-term results and comparison of the three different high tibial osteotomy and fixation techniques in medial compartment arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gökhan; Balcı, Halil İbrahim; Çakmak, Mehmet Fevzi; Demirel, Mehmet; Şen, Cengiz; Aşık, Mehmet

    2017-03-16

    The purpose of this study is to report and analyze the long-term outcomes of the patients who underwent high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with three different techniques for the treatment of medial compartment arthrosis. A total of 187 patients (195 knees) who underwent HTO between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Eighty-eight knees, opening-wedge osteotomy with Puddu plate (group A); 51 knees, transverse osteotomy below the tubercle with external fixator (group B); and 29 knees, closing-wedge osteotomy with staple fixation (group C) were included in the study. The patients (mean age 44.9 ± 10.6 years, mean follow-up of 12.4 ± 3.2 years) were called for final controls and survival rates of the knees, and functional evaluations of the patients were performed using Knee Society Score (KSS) and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score assessments. In the comparison of the three groups, there were no differences regarding the mean age, preoperative arthrosis levels, or preoperative deformity analyses (n.s.). The main finding of these comparisons showed that the closing-wedge osteotomy has the greatest lateralization effect on mechanical axis deviation (MAD) (p = 0.024), the greatest valgization effect on medial proximal tibial angles (MPTA) (p = 0.026), and the lowest posterior tibial slope (PTS) angles (p = 0.032) in comparison to the other groups. There were no functional differences between the three groups in the long-term assessment of patients with KSS and HSS knee scores. According to the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the probability of the survival of the native knee joint after HTO was 93.4% in 5 years and 71.2% in 10 years in our study group. During the follow-up of the 168 knees, revision surgery with total knee replacement was needed in 27 knees (16%). The mean time from HTO to total knee replacement was 8.9 years in these patients. HTO has acceptable long-term clinical and functional results that should not be

  17. Biochemical response after 3-D conformal radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer to a total dose of 66 Gy. 4 year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter-Gerstner, N.; Wachter, S.; Goldner, G.; Nechvile, E.; Poetter, R. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie, AKH Wien (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    -term androgen ablation. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Seit Einfuehrung der dreidimensionalen (3-D) konformalen Radiation wurden in vielen europaeischen zentren Dosen {<=}70 Gy bei der primaeren Bestrahlung des Prostatakarzinoms angewandt. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss einer Kurzzeithormontherapie fuer Patienten mit unterschiedlichem Risikoprofil bei einer Dosis von 66 Gy zu evaluieren. Patienten und Methode: 397 Patienten wurden von Januar 1994 bis Februar 1999 wegen eines Prostatakarzinoms behandelt. Bei 279 Patienten wurde eine definitive kurative Radiatio eines lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinoms (T1=38, T2=165, T3=50, Tx=11) mit oder ohne Hormontherapie durchgefuehrt. 164 Patienten, bei denen eine alleinige Radiatio (n=109) der Prostata{+-}Samenblasen bis zu einer GHD von 66 Gy (ICRU-Referenzpunkt) oder eine Kombination mit neoadjuvanter Hormontherapie (n=55) durchgefuehrt wurde, wurden ausgewertet. Das biochemische Rezidiv wurde mit drei steigenden Serum-PSA-Werten oder der Wiederaufnahme einer Hormontherapie definiert. Die Patienten wurden in eine Niedrigrisikogruppe (PSA{<=}10 ng/ml, G{<=}2, T{<=}3) und eine Hochrisikogruppe (PSA>10 ng/ml oder G3 oder T3) eingeteilt. Ergebnisse: Die mediane Nachbeobachungszeit betrug bei den ueberlebenden Patienten 40 Monate (12-72 Monate). Insgesamt verstarben 29/164 Patienten (27 Patienten interkurrent, zwei Patienten am Tumor). Fuer alle Patienten betrug die biochemische Rezidivfreiheit nach 4 Jahren 58% nach Kaplan-Meier. Durch die neoadjuvante Hormontherapie konnte eine grenzwertig signifikante Verbesserung von 35% (alleinige Radiatio) auf 66% (neoadjuvante Hormontherapie) fuer die Hochrisikogruppe erzielt werden (p=0,057). Fuer die Niedrigrisikogruppe konnte keine signifikante Verbesserung (73% vs. 82%) beobachtet werden (p=0,5) (Abbildung 4). Schlussfolgerung: Vor allem bei Patienten mit hohem Risikoprofil ist eine alleinige lokale Radiatio mit <70 Gy nicht ausreichend. Eine (neo)-adjuvante Hormontherapie und

  18. A method of estimating conceptus doses resulting from multidetector CT examinations during all stages of gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis; Perisinakis, Kostas; Papadakis, Antonios E. [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Iraklion, P.O. Box 1352, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Iraklion, P.O. Box 1352, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Current methods for the estimation of conceptus dose from multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations performed on the mother provide dose data for typical protocols with a fixed scan length. However, modified low-dose imaging protocols are frequently used during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for the estimation of conceptus dose from any MDCT examination of the trunk performed during all stages of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study to model the Siemens Sensation 16 and Sensation 64 MDCT scanners. Four mathematical phantoms were used, simulating women at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months of gestation. The contribution to the conceptus dose from single simulated scans was obtained at various positions across the phantoms. To investigate the effect of maternal body size and conceptus depth on conceptus dose, phantoms of different sizes were produced by adding layers of adipose tissue around the trunk of the mathematical phantoms. To verify MCNP results, conceptus dose measurements were carried out by means of three physical anthropomorphic phantoms, simulating pregnancy at 0, 3, and 6 months of gestation and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) crystals. Results: The results consist of Monte Carlo-generated normalized conceptus dose coefficients for single scans across the four mathematical phantoms. These coefficients were defined as the conceptus dose contribution from a single scan divided by the CTDI free-in-air measured with identical scanning parameters. Data have been produced to take into account the effect of maternal body size and conceptus position variations on conceptus dose. Conceptus doses measured with TLD crystals showed a difference of up to 19% compared to those estimated by mathematical simulations. Conclusions: Estimation of conceptus doses from MDCT examinations of the trunk performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be made

  19. Decision making with consonant belief functions: Discrepancy resulting with the probability transformation method used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinicioglu Esma Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dempster−Shafer belief function theory can address a wider class of uncertainty than the standard probability theory does, and this fact appeals the researchers in operations research society for potential application areas. However, the lack of a decision theory of belief functions gives rise to the need to use the probability transformation methods for decision making. For representation of statistical evidence, the class of consonant belief functions is used which is not closed under Dempster’s rule of combination but is closed under Walley’s rule of combination. In this research, it is shown that the outcomes obtained using both Dempster’s and Walley’s rules do result in different probability distributions when pignistic transformation is used. However, when plausibility transformation is used, they do result in the same probability distribution. This result shows that the choice of the combination rule and probability transformation method may have a significant effect on decision making since it may change the choice of the decision alternative selected. This result is illustrated via an example of missile type identification.

  20. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with vasculogenic mimicry and poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihong; Sun, Baocun; Zhao, Xiulan; Shao, Bing; An, Jindan; Gu, Qiang; Wang, Yong; Dong, Xueyi; Zhang, Yanhui; Qiu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate erythropoietin (Epo) and erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression, its relationship with vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and its prognostic value in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we examined Epo/EpoR expression and VM formation using immunohistochemistry and CD31/PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) double staining on 92 HCC specimens. The correlation between Epo/EpoR expression and VM formation was analyzed using two-tailed Chi-square test and Spearman correlation analysis. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression model to assess the prognostic values. Results showed positive correlation between Epo/EpoR expression and VM formation (P age, Epo and EpoR were independent prognostic factors related to OS. These results will provide evidence for further research on HCC microcirculation patterns and also will provide new possible targets for HCC diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Association between poor clinical prognosis and sleep duration among breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between clinical progression and the quality and duration of sleep in women with breast cancer. Method: longitudinal study, with 114 participants, conducted in a hospital in Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Beck Depression Inventory and Herth Hope Scale. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and survival analyses (outcome: poor clinical progression, using the Kaplan-Meier curve, Log-rank test and Cox proportional model. Results: a higher probability of poor clinical progression was verified in women with sleep durations of less than six hours or nine hours and over (p=.0173. Conclusion: the results suggest the importance of further studies that seek to verify whether the quantitative management of sleep disorders would have an impact on the progression of breast cancer. Women should be encouraged to report sleep problems to nurses.

  2. Implications of a positive sentinel node in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Benjamin A S; Schilling, Clare; Putcha, Venkata;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer is currently being explored. Patients with positive sentinel nodes were investigated to establish if additional metastases were present in the neck, their distribution, and their impact on outcome. METHODS: In all, 109 patients (n...... = 109) from 15 European centers, with cT1/2,N0 tumors, and a positive sentinel lymph node were identified. Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify variables that predicted for additional positive nodes and their position within the neck. RESULTS......: A total of 122 neck dissections were performed in 109 patients. Additional positive nodes were found in 34.4% of cases (42/122: 18 same, 21 adjacent, and 3 nonadjacent neck level). Additional nodes, especially if outside the sentinel node basin, had an impact on outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The results...

  3. CCL7 and CCL21 overexpression in gastric cancer is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsann-Long Hwang; Li-Yu Lee; Chee-Chan Wang; Ying Liang; Shu-Fang Huang; Chi-Ming Wu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO investigate how a complex network of CC chemokine ligands (CCLs) and their receptors influence the progression of tumor and metastasis.METHODS:In the present study,we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of CCL7,CCL8 and CCL21 in 194 gastric cancer samples and adjacent normal tissues.We analyzed their correlation with tumor metastasis,clinicopathologic parameters and clinical outcome.RESULTS:We found that the higher expression of CCL7 and CCL21 in cancer tissues than in normal tissues was significantly correlated with advanced depth of wall invasion,lymph node metastasis and higher tumor node metastasis stage.Moreover,Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that CCL7 and CCL21 overexpression in cancer tissues was correlated with poor prognosis.CONCLUSION:These results suggest that overexpression of these two CC chemokine ligands is associated with tumor metastasis and serves as a prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer.

  4. Results of the determination of He in cenozoic aquifers using the GC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Tomasz; Najman, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Applications of the Helium (He) method known so far consisted mainly of 4He measurements using a special mass spectrometer. 4He measurements for groundwater dating purposes can be replaced by total He (3He+4He) concentration measurements because the content of 3He can be ignored. The concentrations of 3He are very low and 3He/4 He ratios do not exceed 1.0·10(-5) in most cases. In this study, the total He concentrations in groundwater were determined using the gas chromatographic (GC) method as an alternative to methods based on spectrometry measurement. He concentrations in groundwater were used for the determination of residence time and groundwater circulation. Additionally, the radiocarbon method was used to determine the value of the external He flux (JHe) in the study area. Obtained low He concentrations and their small variation within the ca. 65 km long section along which groundwater flows indicate that it is likely there is relatively short residence time and a strong hydraulic connection between the aquifers. The estimated residence time (ca. 3000 years) is heavily dependent on the great uncertainty of the He concentration resulting from the low concentrations of He, the external 4He flux value adopted for calculation purposes and the 14C ages used to estimate the external 4He flux.

  5. Application of a computationally efficient method to approximate gap model results with a probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherstjanoi, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Lischke, H.

    2014-07-01

    To be able to simulate climate change effects on forest dynamics over the whole of Switzerland, we adapted the second-generation DGVM (dynamic global vegetation model) LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator) to the Alpine environment. We modified model functions, tuned model parameters, and implemented new tree species to represent the potential natural vegetation of Alpine landscapes. Furthermore, we increased the computational efficiency of the model to enable area-covering simulations in a fine resolution (1 km) sufficient for the complex topography of the Alps, which resulted in more than 32 000 simulation grid cells. To this aim, we applied the recently developed method GAPPARD (approximating GAP model results with a Probabilistic Approach to account for stand Replacing Disturbances) (Scherstjanoi et al., 2013) to LPJ-GUESS. GAPPARD derives mean output values from a combination of simulation runs without disturbances and a patch age distribution defined by the disturbance frequency. With this computationally efficient method, which increased the model's speed by approximately the factor 8, we were able to faster detect the shortcomings of LPJ-GUESS functions and parameters. We used the adapted LPJ-GUESS together with GAPPARD to assess the influence of one climate change scenario on dynamics of tree species composition and biomass throughout the 21st century in Switzerland. To allow for comparison with the original model, we additionally simulated forest dynamics along a north-south transect through Switzerland. The results from this transect confirmed the high value of the GAPPARD method despite some limitations towards extreme climatic events. It allowed for the first time to obtain area-wide, detailed high-resolution LPJ-GUESS simulation results for a large part of the Alpine region.

  6. Low-Energy Laser Irradiation And The Nervous System: Method And Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochkind, S.; Lubart, R.; Nissan, M.; Barr-Nea, L.

    1988-06-01

    The present study introduces a novel method for assessing the efficacy of so-called soft tissue lasers on the peripheral and central nervous systems. In any readily available method relying on low energy laser irradiation, one of the most critical factors is obviously the wavelength of the laser, for this will determine how much of the energy applied to the skin or muscle actually reaches the target nerve. The present findings reaffirm our conclusion that low energy laser irradiation is bene-ficial in the treatment of injured peripheral or central nervous system, the beneficial effect diminishing with decreasing wavelength from 632nm down to 465nm. Our results pave the way for a new approach to the treatment of traumatic paraplegia and argue in favor of a combination of laser irradiation and PNS or CNS transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  7. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  9. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J. [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  10. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  11. Evaluation the Difference between Results of MRI and Electrodiagnostic Methods in Inferior Lumbosacral Discopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shimia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To achieve an appropriate treatment for low back pain we should know the exact reason of the pain. Beside physical examination, imaging modalities like CT scan and MRI are the other diagnostic methods for LBP. Furthermore, electrodiagnostic studies help to diagnose the reason behind radiculopathy. Actually when the reason of radiculopathy is unclear, these methods help to localize the exact nerve root causing the pain and rule out the similar reasons of radiculopathy. The aim of this study was to compare MRI and EMG in diagnosing the reason of lumbosacral radiculopathies. Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive-analytical study, the number of patients who came to neurosurgery clinics with LBP and lumbar discopathy and been evaluated by MRI and EMG were studied. Later, for every patient a questionnaire was completed based on the results achieved from MRI and EMG and the obtained results were compared. Results: 100 patients were participated in this study, 60% female and 40% male. The average age of patients was 39/75 years. The most frequent chief complaint of patients was LBP with a prevalence of 43%. MRI findings showed 64% involvement of L4/L5 level in these patients. On the other hand, EMG findings also showed L4/L5 level involvement in 64% of patients confirming the hypothesis of our study that MRI and EMG findings are compatible with each other in determining the level and intensity of disc involvement. Conclusion: For determining the level of injury in lumbosacral radiculopathies, both MRI and EMG are equally useful. Additionally, in borderline cases we can use EMG to confirm MRI findings to determine the intensity and level of injury. Keywords: Lumbosacral radiculopathy; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Electromyography

  12. Complications after Surgical Procedures in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: Results of a Prospective Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katia Regina da; Albertini, Caio Marcos de Moraes; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; Carvalho, Eduardo Infante Januzzi de; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Martinelli, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Complications after surgical procedures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are an emerging problem due to an increasing number of such procedures and aging of the population, which consequently increases the frequency of comorbidities. To identify the rates of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmissions, and evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. Prospective and unicentric study that included all individuals undergoing CIED surgical procedures from February to August 2011. The patients were distributed by type of procedure into the following groups: initial implantations (cohort 1), generator exchange (cohort 2), and lead-related procedures (cohort 3). The outcomes were evaluated by an independent committee. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the risk factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. A total of 713 patients were included in the study and distributed as follows: 333 in cohort 1, 304 in cohort 2, and 76 in cohort 3. Postoperative complications were detected in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 11.8% of the patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.014). During a 6-month follow-up, there were 58 (8.1%) deaths and 75 (10.5%) hospital readmissions. Predictors of hospital readmission included the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2), functional class III--IV (OR = 1.8), and warfarin administration (OR = 1.9). Predictors of mortality included age over 80 years (OR = 2.4), ventricular dysfunction (OR = 2.2), functional class III-IV (OR = 3.3), and warfarin administration (OR = 2.3). Postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, and deaths occurred frequently and were strongly related to the type of procedure performed, type of CIED, and severity of the patient's underlying heart disease. Complicações após procedimentos cirúrgicos em portadores de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis (DCEI) são um

  13. SOME RESULTS ON CONTINUOUS TYPE CONDITIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT EQUATION-FIXED POINT AND SURJECTIVITY METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖范; 陈晓红

    2004-01-01

    Based on the classical(matrix type)input-output analysis,a type of nonlinear (continuous type) conditional Leontief model, input-output equation were introduced, as well as three corresponding questions, namely,solvability,continuity and surjectivity,and some fixed point and surjectivity methods in nonlinear analysis were used to deal with these questions. As a result,the main theorems are obtained, which provide some sufficient criterions to solve above questions described by the boundary properties of the enterprise's consuming operator.

  14. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  15. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied....... Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...

  16. Registry of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: first official solid organ and tissue transplantation report - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Azeka

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future.

  17. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...... by NanoString nCounter. Statistical analyses were prespecified as a formal prospective-retrospective clinical trial correlative study. Using time to progression (TTP) as primary endpoint, overall survival (OS) and response rate as secondary endpoints, relationships between subtypes and outcome after......: A significantly improved and clinically important prolongation of survival was seen from the addition of gemcitabine to docetaxel in advanced basal-like breast cancer patients....

  18. The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on intensive care unit admission and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platon, Anna Maria; Erichsen, Rune; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo;

    2014-01-01

    all patients undergoing CRC surgery in the period 2005-2011, identified through medical databases. We categorised the patients according to the history of COPD. We assessed the rate of complications within 30 days. We computed 30-day mortality among patients with/without COPD using the Kaplan......-Meier method. We used Cox regression to compute HRs for death, controlling for age, gender, type of admission, cancer stage, hospital volume, alcohol-related diseases, obesity and Charlson comorbidity score. RESULTS: We identified 18 302 CRC surgery patients. Of these, 7.9% had a prior diagnosis of COPD. Among...... patients with COPD, 16.1% were admitted postoperatively to the intensive care unit, 1.9% were treated with mechanical ventilation, and 3.6% were treated with non-invasive ventilation. In patients without COPD, the corresponding proportions were 9.7%, 1.1% and 1.1%. The reoperation rate was 10.6% among...

  19. Clinical correlation between myeloperoxidase and acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wang; Yanwei Xing; Changsheng Ma; Shihong Li; Zhizhong Li; Yonghong Gao; Yibing Nong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study whether myeloperoxidase (MPO) can provide prognostic information in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods The study population consisted of 274 consecutive patients with ACS. All patients underwent coronary angiography which showed significant coronary artery disease and blood samples were collected at admission. Follow-ups were scheduled at 1, 3, and 6 months.The end point included cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous or surgical revascularization. Results Patients with elevated MPO serum levels (MPO ≥ 72.2 AUU/L) were more likely to have diabetics and had a history of coronary events. Kaplan-Meier event rate curves with accumulative incidence of end point at 6-month follow-up in the MPO ≥ 72.2 AUU/L group was significantly higher than in MPO<72.2 AUU/L group. Conclusions MPO may be a powerful predictor of adverse outcome in patients with ACS.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    analyses, adjustment for other factors and especially age revealed the lethal effect of smoking, while the positive effect of alcohol disappeared. More focus on secondary preventive measures, such as anticoagulation for AF, smoking cessation, and proper treatment of diabetes may significantly improve long...... population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  1. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus Hedebo

    2014-01-01

    in the distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers......INTRODUCTION: Population screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) using faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be introduced in Denmark in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the screening programme, a feasibility study was performed in 2005-2006. In this paper, occurrences of colorectal cancer...... in the feasibility study cohort were reviewed with respect to the effect of screening participation on stages and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of CRC in a feasibility study cohort diagnosed from the beginning of the study until two years after the study ended were identified. Differences...

  2. Moderate precision of prognostic scoring systems in a consecutive, prospective cohort of 544 patients with metastatic spinal cord compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Søren Schmidt; Nielsen, Dennis Hallager; Larsen, Claus Falck

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Improved survival among cancer patients and diverse conclusions from recent studies make it relevant to reassess the performance of the Tokuhashi Revised score and the Tomita score. The aim of this study was to validate and compare these two scoring systems in a recent and unselected...... and compared to the observed survival. We assessed how precise the scoring systems predicted survival with McNemar's test. The prognostic value was illustrated with Kaplan-Meier curves, and the individual prognostic components were analyzed with Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 65 years...... cohort of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a prospective cohort study of 544 patients who were consecutively admitted with MSCC to one treatment facility. Patients estimated survival were assessed with the Tokuhashi Revised score and the Tomita score...

  3. Association of versican turnover with all-cause mortality in patients on haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Karsdal, Morten A; Leeming, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    patients with a 5-years follow-up, using a robust competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Association between VCANM plasma concentration and survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: Haemodialysis patients with plasma VCANM concentrations in the lowest quartile...... had increased risk of death (odds ratio, as compared to the highest quartile: 7.1, psurvival of 152 days compared to 1295 days for patients with plasma VCANM in the highest quartile. Multivariate analysis showed that low VCANM (p... with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of versican turnover assessed in plasma with survival in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: A specific matrix metalloproteinase-generated neo-epitope fragment of versican (VCANM) was measured in plasma of 364 haemodialysis...

  4. Treatment of opioid overdose in a physician-based prehospital EMS: Frequency and long-term prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Nielsen, S.L.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prehospital treatment of opioid overdose accounts for a significant proportion of the workload of the emergency system in most major cities. Treatment consists of basic life support and administering naloxone. In our physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (MECU), most patients...... are released and not admitted to hospital. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern in the number of episodes with opioid overdose treated by MECU in Copenhagen during a 10-year period and to investigate risk factors for mortality of these patients beyond the initial contact. METHODS: Data were collected...... prospectively in the MECU database covering all cases of opioid overdose in a 10-year period between 1994 and 2003. The pattern in the number of opioid overdose was analysed in Poisson regression models, and mortality was analysed in Kaplan-Meier plots and in Cox regression models. RESULTS: A total of 4762...

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker in men participating in prostate cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellman, A; Akre, O; Gustafsson, O;

    2011-01-01

    with prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: Using time-resolved fluorescence immunoassays, we measured intact suPAR [suPAR(I-III)] and intact plus cleaved suPAR [suPAR(I-III) + suPAR(II-III)] and thus calculated the amount of suPAR(II-III) in serum samples from 375 men participating...... cardiovascular disease. No similar association was found for prostate cancer after adjustment for other prognostic factors....... in a prostate cancer screening trial. A total of 312 men were free of prostate cancer and 63 men had prostate cancer diagnosed at the time of screening. The cohort was followed for 15 years. We assessed survival using Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The mean age...

  6. A population-based, incidence cohort study of mid-back pain after traffic collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M S; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    data from a population-based inception cohort of all traffic injuries occurring in Saskatchewan, Canada, during a 2-year period were used. Annual overall and age-sex-specific incidence rates were calculated, the course of recovery was described using the Kaplan-Meier technique, and associations between......, depression or others) has been investigated previously; however, knowledge about traffic collision-related MBP is lacking. The study objectives were to describe the incidence, course of recovery and prognosis of MBP after traffic collisions, in terms of global self-reported recovery. METHODS: Longitudinal...... participant characteristics and time-to-self-reported recovery were explored in 3496 MBP cases using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The yearly incidence rate was 236 per 100,000 population during the study period, and was highest in women and in young persons. The median time-to-first reported...

  7. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in West-African HIV-infected children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4 cell response in West African HIV-infected children. METHODS: All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4 cell count...... measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4 cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4 cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. RESULTS: Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrolled at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4 cell gains compared with children less...

  8. Epilepsy in Rett syndrome--lessons from the Rett networked database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissenkorn, Andreea; Levy-Drummer, Rachel S; Bondi, Ori

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rett syndrome is an X-linked dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene, and characterized by cognitive and communicative regression, loss of hand use, and midline hand stereotypies. Epilepsy is a core symptom, but literature is controversial regarding...... genotype-phenotype correlation. Analysis of data from a large cohort should overcome this shortcoming. METHODS: Data from the Rett Syndrome Networked Database on 1,248 female patients were included. Data on phenotypic and genotypic parameters, age of onset, severity of epilepsy, and type of seizures were...... collected. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS Version 21 software, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Epilepsy was present in 68.1% of the patients, with uncontrolled seizures in 32.6% of the patients with epilepsy. Mean age of onset of epilepsy was 4...

  9. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Schneider

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27 and experimental (24. RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120 that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402. CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b.

  10. Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...

  11. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Lund, Claus Otto; Ottesen, Bent;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility after salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical University Center, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen. POPULATION: Two hundred and seventy-six women undergoing salpingectomy or tubotomy for their first ectopic...... pregnancy between January 1992 and January 1999 and who actively attempted to conceive were followed for a minimum of 18 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study combined with questionnaire to compare reproductive outcome following salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Cumulative probabilities...... of pregnancy for each group were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and compared by Cox regression analysis to control for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrauterine pregnancy rates and recurrence rates of ectopic pregnancy after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The cumulative...

  13. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic......-related diagnoses, no use of heart medication, sustained good mobility, and participation at follow-up. IHD was defined as first hospitalization due to IHD (ICD10: I20-I25) or death due to IHD as primary cause. RESULTS: Participants without fatigue had higher chances of a sustained good general health at 2 (odds...

  14. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied....... Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...

  15. Clinical outcome among HIV-infected patients starting saquinavir hard gel compared to ritonavir or indinavir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Pradier, C

    2001-01-01

    -up within the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: Changes in plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 cell count from baseline were compared between treatment groups. Time to new AIDS-defining events and death were compared in Kaplan--Meier models, and Cox models were established to further assess differences in clinical...... progression (new AIDS/death). Adjustment was made for differences in baseline parameters, in particular pVL, CD4 cell count, and region of Europe. RESULTS: A total of 2708 patients (median follow-up: 30 months) were included, of which 556 started ritonavir (21%), 1342 indinavir (50%), and 810 saquinavir hgc......OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical response among patients who initiate protease inhibitor therapies with different virological potency. DESIGN: We analysed patients who started indinavir, ritonavir or saquinavir hard gel capsule (hgc) as part of at least triple therapy during prospective follow...

  16. Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Lund, Claus Otto; Ottesen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility after salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical University Center, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen. POPULATION: Two hundred and seventy-six women undergoing salpingectomy or tubotomy for their first ectopic...... pregnancy between January 1992 and January 1999 and who actively attempted to conceive were followed for a minimum of 18 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study combined with questionnaire to compare reproductive outcome following salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Cumulative probabilities...... of pregnancy for each group were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and compared by Cox regression analysis to control for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrauterine pregnancy rates and recurrence rates of ectopic pregnancy after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The cumulative...

  17. The mortality after surgery in primary lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Hauge, Jacob; Iachina, Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study has been performed to investigate the mortality within the first year after resection in patients with primary lung cancer, together with associated prognostic factors including gender, age, tumour stage, comorbidity, alcohol abuse, type of surgery and post......-surgical complications. METHODS: All patients (n = 3363) from the nationwide Danish Lung Cancer Registry with first resection performed between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 were analysed by Kaplan-Meier techniques and Cox-regression analysis concerning death within the first year after resection. Covariates....... Low stage, female gender, young age, no comorbidity, no postoperative complications, no alcohol abuse and lobectomy as type of resection were favourable for survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that resection in primary lung cancer impacts mortality far beyond the initial 30 days after...

  18. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indigenous Arctic people suffer from high rates of infectious diseases. However, the burden of central nervous system (CNS) infections is poorly documented. This study aimed to estimate incidence rates and mortality of CNS infections among Inuits and non-Inuits in Greenland...... and in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using the populations of Greenland and Denmark 1990-2012. Information on CNS infection hospitalizations and pathogens was retrieved from national registries and laboratories. Incidence rates were estimated as cases per 100,000 person......-years. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using log-linear Poisson-regression. Mortality was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Log Rank test. RESULTS: The incidence rate of CNS infections was twice as high in Greenland (35.6 per 100,000 person years) as in Denmark (17.7 per 100,000 person years...

  19. A population-based study of survival and discharge status for survivors after head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Teasdale, T W

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Creation of a basis for the planning of rehabilitation after head injury in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cranial fractures or traumatic cerebral lesions occurring in Denmark in 1979-93 were identified by computerized searches in the national hospital register. Kaplan......-Meier survival functions were calculated for these two categories. Hospital records for a random sample of 389 survivors in 1997 after cranial fracture, acute brain lesion or chronical subdural haematoma, which occurred in 1982, 1987 and 1992 in patients aged 15 years or more at injury, were reviewed. Survivors...... were characterized by age, gender, place and severity of injury, as well as neurophysical, speech and mental deficits at discharge from hospital. RESULTS: Acute/subacute mortality of hospitalized patients was 27% for cerebral lesions and 4% after cranial fracture. As attrition by death outweighed...

  20. Surgical Revision after Sacroiliac Joint Fixation or Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction. Multiple devices are available to perform SIJ fixation or fusion. Surgical revision rates after these procedures have not been directly compared. Methods We retrospectively identified all patients in our practice who underwent SIJ fixation or fusion between 2003 and 2015. Using both chart review and focused contact with individual patients, we determined the likelihood of surgical revision. Revision rates were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Thirty-eight patients underwent SIJ fixation with screws and 274 patients underwent SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants. Four-year cumulative revision rates were 30.8% for fixation and 5.7% for fusion. Conclusions In our study, SIJ fixation with screws had a much higher revision rate compared to SIJ fusion with triangular titanium implants designed for bone adherence.

  1. Fitness for Entering a Simple Exercise Program and Mortality: A Study Corollary to the Exercise Introduction to Enhance Performance in Dialysis (Excite Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Baggetta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this corollary analysis of the EXCITE study, we looked at possible differences in baseline risk factors and mortality between subjects excluded from the trial because non-eligible (n=216 or because eligible but refusing to participate (n=116. Methods: Baseline characteristics and mortality data were recorded. Survival and independent predictors of mortality were assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results: The incidence rate of mortality was higher in non-eligible vs. eligible non-randomized patients (21.0 vs. 10.9 deaths/100 persons-year; PConclusions: Deambulation ability mostly explains the difference in survival rate in non-eligible and eligible non-randomized patients in the EXCITE trial. Extending data analyses and outcome reporting also to subjects not taking part in a trial may be helpful to assess the representability of the study population.

  2. Comparing results of cultured and uncultured biological methods used in biological phosphorus removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) for their important role in biological phosphorus removal. In this study, microbial communities of PAOs cultivated under different carbon sources (sewage, glucose, and sodium acetate) were investigated and compared through culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. The results obtained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the diversity of bacteria in a sewage-fed reactor (1#) was much higher than in a glucose-fed one (2#) and a sodium acetate-fed one (3#); there were common PAOs in three reactors fed by different carbon sources. Five strains were separated from three systems by using a phosphate-rich medium; they were from common bacteria isolated and three isolates could not be found in DGGE profile at all. Two isolates had good phosphorus removal ability. When the microbial diversity was studied, the molecular biological method was better than the culture-dependent one. When phosphorus removal characteristics were investigated, culture-dependent approach was more effective. Thus a combination of two methods is necessary to have a comprehensive view of PAOs.

  3. Gravitational Microlensing of a Reverberating Quasar Broad Line Region - I. Method and Qualitative Results

    CERN Document Server

    Garsden, H; Lewis, G F

    2011-01-01

    The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a "flare") passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disk - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensi...

  4. Some results of a nodal method for nonlinear space-time reactor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Grossman, L.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    There are many reports about nodal methods for static and dynamic problems, but not many for the nonlinear feedback cases. In this paper, a class of nodal methods called mathematical nodal method'' (MNM) is studied with the temperature feedback problems. The spatially complex domain of the problem is represented as a collection of geometrically simple subdomains of the size of fuel assemblies called nodes. Over each node, the time dependent coefficients of the neutron flux, precursor concentrations, fuel and coolant temperatures are the surface and volume weighted average (moment) values of the unknown solutions; the space dependent basis functions are a combination of Legendre polynomials. If the material parameters are a linear function of fuel and coolant temperatures, the coupled equations can be put in a dimensionless form and a system of time dependent ordinary differential equations containing nonlinear feedback terms is obtained. These nonlinear feedback terms are updated at each time step during the time iteration process. Results of some benchmark problems are included in this report.

  5. Some results of a nodal method for nonlinear space-time reactor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Grossman, L.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1991-12-31

    There are many reports about nodal methods for static and dynamic problems, but not many for the nonlinear feedback cases. In this paper, a class of nodal methods called ``mathematical nodal method`` (MNM) is studied with the temperature feedback problems. The spatially complex domain of the problem is represented as a collection of geometrically simple subdomains of the size of fuel assemblies called nodes. Over each node, the time dependent coefficients of the neutron flux, precursor concentrations, fuel and coolant temperatures are the surface and volume weighted average (moment) values of the unknown solutions; the space dependent basis functions are a combination of Legendre polynomials. If the material parameters are a linear function of fuel and coolant temperatures, the coupled equations can be put in a dimensionless form and a system of time dependent ordinary differential equations containing nonlinear feedback terms is obtained. These nonlinear feedback terms are updated at each time step during the time iteration process. Results of some benchmark problems are included in this report.

  6. Preliminary results on a new method for producing yttrium phosphorous microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, M R; Garibov, A A; Agayev, T N

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on a new method to embed phosphorus particles into the matrix of yttrium aluminum silicate microspheres. Yttrium phosphorus glass microspheres about 20µm in size were obtained when an aqueous solution of YCl3 and AlCl3 were added to tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) (phosphoric acid was used to catalyze the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS) and was pumped into silicone oil under constant stirring. The shapes of the particles produced by this method are regular and nearly spheric in shape. Paper chromatography was used to determine the radiochemical impurity of radioactive microspheres. Radionuclide purity was determined using a gamma spectrometry system and an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer. The P(+) ions implantation stage was eliminated by embedding phosphorus particles in the matrix of the glass microspheres. This paper shows that a high temperature is not required to produce yttrium phosphorus aluminum silicate microspheres. The result shows that the silicone oil spheroidization method is a very suitable way to produce yttrium phosphorus glass microspheres. The topographical analysis of microspheres shows that the Y, P, Si, and Al elements are distributed in the microspheres and the distribution of elements in the samples is homogenous.

  7. Korea: household distribution program resulted in one-third increase in effective method use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    The government subsidized family planning program in South Korea is the most successful in the developing world. Although 36% of the married women of childbearing age are users of modern contraceptive methods, the program has been stabilized at this level for the past several years. Lee Jay Cho of the East-West Population Institute and the University of Hawaii and his colleagues have identified the following 6 major problems with the clinic-based national program in Korea as possibly responsible for the plateauing in contraceptive use: 1) too large a caseload for each worker; 2) target setting, resulting in an emphasis on quantity rather than quality; 3) too much stress on the IUD even when a preference for another method is indicated; 4) not enough supply and service points to take care of the needs of rural residents; 5) obstacles to acceptance created by red tape and complicated bureaucrataic administrative procedures; and 6) poor quality and limitation of contraceptive supplies. Cho and his group went on to initiate an experiment in comprehensive household distribution in May 1975 in an attempt to stimulate an increase in contraceptive use. 3 methods of household distribution were used in the experiment and, despite the limitations of 2 of the approaches, for the 4-month period of the experiment there was a 1/3 increase in the use of modern contraceptives in these villages.

  8. (Re)interpreting LHC New Physics Search Results : Tools and Methods, 3rd Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    The quest for new physics beyond the SM is arguably the driving topic for LHC Run2. LHC collaborations are pursuing searches for new physics in a vast variety of channels. Although collaborations provide various interpretations for their search results, the full understanding of these results requires a much wider interpretation scope involving all kinds of theoretical models. This is a very active field, with close theory-experiment interaction. In particular, development of dedicated methodologies and tools is crucial for such scale of interpretation. Recently, a Forum was initiated to host discussions among LHC experimentalists and theorists on topics related to the BSM (re)interpretation of LHC data, and especially on the development of relevant interpretation tools and infrastructure: https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/view/LHCPhysics/InterpretingLHCresults Two meetings were held at CERN, where active discussions and concrete work on (re)interpretation methods and tools took place, with valuable cont...

  9. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  10. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  11. Shortwave Radiometer Calibration Methods Comparison and Resulting Solar Irradiance Measurement Differences: A User Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-11-21

    Banks financing solar energy projects require assurance that these systems will produce the energy predicted. Furthermore, utility planners and grid system operators need to understand the impact of the variable solar resource on solar energy conversion system performance. Accurate solar radiation data sets reduce the expense associated with mitigating performance risk and assist in understanding the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of different calibration methods provided by radiometric calibration service providers, such as NREL and manufacturers of radiometers, on the resulting calibration responsivity. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors and some outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The BORCAL method provides the outdoor calibration responsivity of pyranometers and pyrheliometers at 45 degree solar zenith angle, and as a function of solar zenith angle determined by clear-sky comparisons with reference irradiance. The BORCAL method also employs a thermal offset correction to the calibration responsivity of single-black thermopile detectors used in pyranometers. Indoor calibrations of radiometers by their manufacturers are performed using a stable artificial light source in a side-by-side comparison between the test radiometer under calibration and a reference radiometer of the same type. In both methods, the reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). These

  12. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  13. A Comparison of Flare Forecasting Methods. I. Results from the “All-Clear” Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Schrijver, C. J.; Colak, T.; Qahwaji, R.; Ashamari, O. W.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Higgins, P. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Falconer, D. A.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Wheatland, M. S.; Balch, C.; Dunn, T.; Wagner, E. L.

    2016-10-01

    Solar flares produce radiation that can have an almost immediate effect on the near-Earth environment, making it crucial to forecast flares in order to mitigate their negative effects. The number of published approaches to flare forecasting using photospheric magnetic field observations has proliferated, with varying claims about how well each works. Because of the different analysis techniques and data sets used, it is essentially impossible to compare the results from the literature. This problem is exacerbated by the low event rates of large solar flares. The challenges of forecasting rare events have long been recognized in the meteorology community, but have yet to be fully acknowledged by the space weather community. During the interagency workshop on “all clear” forecasts held in Boulder, CO in 2009, the performance of a number of existing algorithms was compared on common data sets, specifically line-of-sight magnetic field and continuum intensity images from the Michelson Doppler Imager, with consistent definitions of what constitutes an event. We demonstrate the importance of making such systematic comparisons, and of using standard verification statistics to determine what constitutes a good prediction scheme. When a comparison was made in this fashion, no one method clearly outperformed all others, which may in part be due to the strong correlations among the parameters used by different methods to characterize an active region. For M-class flares and above, the set of methods tends toward a weakly positive skill score (as measured with several distinct metrics), with no participating method proving substantially better than climatological forecasts.

  14. Preliminary results of tympanic membrane displacements using non-invasive optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, Maria; Muñoz Solís, Silvino; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Quantitative analyses of the tympanic membrane mechanical properties are needed for better understanding of its role in detailed clinical evaluation. Optical methods like Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI), time averaged holography and ESPI are quite promising for the investigation of biological tissues. Their demonstrated ability to detect displacement changes in quasi and real time and without contacting the sample surface under study provides relevant features, such as clinical and mechanical properties. In this research time averaged vibrations patterns are shown for fresh tympanic membrane specimens taken from post-mortem cats, and subject to acoustic stimuli in the frequency range of 485 Hz up to 10 kHz. The results may provide information about sample mechanical characteristics such as its elasticity coefficient. An important feature of this approach over other techniques previously used to study the vibrations of the tympanic membrane is that it only requires an image and less equipment to carry out the measurements. Good agreement was found between the present and past measurements from previous research work. Results show the usefulness of the method in the medical field in providing relevant data about key mechanical characteristics of biological samples.

  15. Post-operative breast cancer patients diagnosed with skeletal metastasis without bone pain had fewer skeletal-related events and deaths than those with bone pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koizumi Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal metastases are often accompanied by bone pain. To investigate the clinical meaning of bone pain associated with skeletal metastasis in breast cancer patients after surgery, we explored whether the presence of bone pain was due to skeletal-related events (SREs or survival (cause specific death, CSD, retrospectively. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 were examined for signs of skeletal metastasis until December 2006. Patients who were diagnosed as having skeletal metastasis were the subjects of this study. Bone scans were performed annually for 5, 7 or 10 years; they were also conducted if skeletal metastasis was suspected. Data concerning bone pain and tumor markers at the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis, and data relating to various factors including tumors, lymph nodes and hormone receptors at the time of surgery, were investigated. The relationships between factors such as bone pain, SRE and CSD were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's analysis. Results Skeletal metastasis occurred in 668 patients but the pain status of two patients was unknown, therefore 666 patients were included in the study. At the time of skeletal metastasis diagnosis 270 patients complained of pain; however, 396 patients did not. Analysis of data using Cox's and Kaplan-Meier methods demonstrated that patients without pain had fewer SREs and better survival rates than those with pain. Hazard ratios regarding SRE (base = patients without pain were 2.331 in univariate analysis and 2.243 in multivariate analysis. Hazard ratios regarding CSD (base = patients without pain were 1.441 in univariate analysis and 1.535 in multivariate analysis. Similar results were obtained when analyses were carried out using the date of surgery as the starting point. Conclusion Bone pain at diagnosis of skeletal metastasis was an indicator of increased SRE and CSD. However, these data did not

  16. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  17. Method for evaluating prediction models that apply the results of randomized trials to individual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattan Michael W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The clinical significance of a treatment effect demonstrated in a randomized trial is typically assessed by reference to differences in event rates at the group level. An alternative is to make individualized predictions for each patient based on a prediction model. This approach is growing in popularity, particularly for cancer. Despite its intuitive advantages, it remains plausible that some prediction models may do more harm than good. Here we present a novel method for determining whether predictions from a model should be used to apply the results of a randomized trial to individual patients, as opposed to using group level results. Methods We propose applying the prediction model to a data set from a randomized trial and examining the results of patients for whom the treatment arm recommended by a prediction model is congruent with allocation. These results are compared with the strategy of treating all patients through use of a net benefit function that incorporates both the number of patients treated and the outcome. We examined models developed using data sets regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer and Dutasteride for benign prostatic hypertrophy. Results For adjuvant chemotherapy, we found that patients who would opt for chemotherapy even for small risk reductions, and, conversely, those who would require a very large risk reduction, would on average be harmed by using a prediction model; those with intermediate preferences would on average benefit by allowing such information to help their decision making. Use of prediction could, at worst, lead to the equivalent of an additional death or recurrence per 143 patients; at best it could lead to the equivalent of a reduction in the number of treatments of 25% without an increase in event rates. In the Dutasteride case, where the average benefit of treatment is more modest, there is a small benefit of prediction modelling, equivalent to a reduction of

  18. High volume practice proved the safety of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in left main coronary artery lesions:a two-year single center experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; LU Chun-shan; LU Jia-kai; GAN Hui-li; ZHANG Jian-qun; HUANG Fang-jong; GU Cheng-xiong; KONG Qing-yu; CAO Xiang-rong; BO Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis has been recognized as a risk factor for early death among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).This study aimed to assess if LMCA lesions pose an additional risk of early or mid-term mortality and/or a major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG),compared with non-left main coronary artery stenosis (non-mainstem disease).Methods From January 1,2009 to December 31,2010,4869 patients had a primary isolated OPCABG procedure at Beijing Anzhen Hospital.According to the pathology of LMCA lesions,they were retrospectively classified as a non-mainstem disease group (n=3933) or a LMCA group (n=936).Propensity scores were used to match the two groups,patients from the non-mainstem disease group (n=831) were also randomly selected to match patients from the LMCA group (n=831).Freedom from MACCE in the two groups was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Results The difference in the mortality and the rate of MACCE during the first 30 days between the non-mainstem disease group and the LMCA group did not reach statistical significance (P=0.429,P=0.127 respectively).With a mean follow-up of (12.8±7.5) months and a cumulative follow-up of 1769.6 patient-years,the difference in the freedom from MACCEs between the two groups,calculated through Kaplan-Meier method,did not reach statistical significance (P=0.831).Conclusion Analysis of a high volume of OPCABG procedures proved that LMCA lesions do not pose additional early and mid-term risk to OPCABG.Therefore,a LMCA lesion is as safe as non-mainstem disease lesion during the OPCABG procedure.

  19. Interim analysis for binary outcome trials with a long fixed follow-up time and repeated outcome assessments at pre-specified times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Sameer; Julian, Jim A; Gu, Chushu; Thabane, Lehana; Levine, Mark N

    2014-01-01

    In trials with binary outcomes, assessed repeatedly at pre-specified times and where the subject is considered to have experienced a failure at the first occurrence of the outcome, interim analyses are performed, generally, after half or more of the subjects have completed follow-up. Depending on the duration of accrual relative to the length of follow-up, this may be inefficient, since there is a possibility that the trial will have completed accrual prior to the interim analysis. An alternative is to plan the interim analysis after subjects have completed follow-up to a time that is less than the fixed full follow-up duration. Using simulations, we evaluated three methods to estimate the event proportion for the interim analysis in terms of type I and II errors and the probability of early stopping. We considered: 1) estimation of the event proportion based on subjects who have been followed for a pre-specified time (less than the full follow-up duration) or who experienced the outcome; 2) estimation of the event proportion based on data from all subjects that have been randomized by the time of the interim analysis; and 3) the Kaplan-Meier approach to estimate the event proportion at the time of the interim analysis. Our results show that all methods preserve and have comparable type I and II errors in certain scenarios. In these cases, we recommend using the Kaplan-Meier method because it incorporates all the available data and has greater probability of early stopping when the treatment effect exists.

  20. eTACTS: a method for dynamically filtering clinical trial search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Riccardo; Jiang, Silis; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-12-01

    Information overload is a significant problem facing online clinical trial searchers. We present eTACTS, a novel interactive retrieval framework using common eligibility tags to dynamically filter clinical trial search results. eTACTS mines frequent eligibility tags from free-text clinical trial eligibility criteria and uses these tags for trial indexing. After an initial search, eTACTS presents to the user a tag cloud representing the current results. When the user selects a tag, eTACTS retains only those trials containing that tag in their eligibility criteria and generates a new cloud based on tag frequency and co-occurrences in the remaining trials. The user can then select a new tag or unselect a previous tag. The process iterates until a manageable number of trials is returned. We evaluated eTACTS in terms of filtering efficiency, diversity of the search results, and user eligibility to the filtered trials using both qualitative and quantitative methods. eTACTS (1) rapidly reduced search results from over a thousand trials to ten; (2) highlighted trials that are generally not top-ranked by conventional search engines; and (3) retrieved a greater number of suitable trials than existing search engines. eTACTS enables intuitive clinical trial searches by indexing eligibility criteria with effective tags. User evaluation was limited to one case study and a small group of evaluators due to the long duration of the experiment. Although a larger-scale evaluation could be conducted, this feasibility study demonstrated significant advantages of eTACTS over existing clinical trial search engines. A dynamic eligibility tag cloud can potentially enhance state-of-the-art clinical trial search engines by allowing intuitive and efficient filtering of the search result space. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Amplified RNA degradation in T7-amplification methods results in biased microarray hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivell Richard

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amplification of RNA with the T7-System is a widely used technique for obtaining increased amounts of RNA starting from limited material. The amplified RNA (aRNA can subsequently be used for microarray hybridizations, warranting sufficient signal for image analysis. We describe here an amplification-time dependent degradation of aRNA in prolonged standard T7 amplification protocols, that results in lower average size aRNA and decreased yields. Results A time-dependent degradation of amplified RNA (aRNA could be observed when using the classical "Eberwine" T7-Amplification method. When the amplification was conducted for more than 4 hours, the resulting aRNA showed a significantly smaller size distribution on gel electrophoresis and a concomitant reduction of aRNA yield. The degradation of aRNA could be correlated to the presence of the T7 RNA Polymerase in the amplification cocktail. The aRNA degradation resulted in a strong bias in microarray hybridizations with a high coefficient of variation and a significant reduction of signals of certain transcripts, that seem to be susceptible to this RNA degrading activity. The time-dependent degradation of these transcripts was verified by a real-time PCR approach. Conclusions It is important to perform amplifications not longer than 4 hours as there is a characteristic 'quality vs. yield' situation for longer amplification times. When conducting microarray hybridizations it is important not to compare results obtained with aRNA from different amplification times.

  2. Results of the conservative treatment in clubfoot using the French method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana VASILESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The idiopathic clubfoot represents a congenital deformation incorporating four distinct alterations: the equinus, varus, cavus and adduction of the forefoot to the hindfoot. The meaning given to the conservative treatment of clubfoot by French method is that of mobilization-manipulation and serial plaster immobilizations. We followed the results of the early conservative orthopedic treatment in the congenital clubfoot in 52 patients (74 feet under the age of 1 year. These cases were treated in the Department of Pediatric Orthopedics of the Rehabilitation Clinical Hospital of Cluj-Napoca for a period of 5 years. The degree of deformation used DiMeglio’s clinical criteria. The conservative treatment began since the presentation of the cases with mobilizations – manipulations and continued up to the age of one month. After the age of one month, serial plaster immobilizations followed. When the conservative treatment failed consecutive to five or six successive plasters, the correction already obtained was followed by surgery. The percentage of the favorable results after the conservative treatment can reach 82.44 %. The results are not so good in cases of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, myelomeningocele etc.

  3. Preliminary test results in support of integrated EPP and SMT design methods development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, Robert I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-09

    The proposed integrated Elastic Perfectly-Plastic (EPP) and Simplified Model Test (SMT) methodology consists of incorporating a SMT data-based approach for creep-fatigue damage evaluation into the EPP methodology to avoid using the creep-fatigue interaction diagram (the D diagram) and to minimize over-conservatism while properly accounting for localized defects and stress risers. To support the implementation of the proposed code rules and to verify their applicability, a series of thermomechanical tests have been initiated. One test concept, the Simplified Model Test (SMT), takes into account the stress and strain redistribution in real structures by including representative follow-up characteristics in the test specimen. The second test concept is the two-bar thermal ratcheting tests with cyclic loading at high temperatures using specimens representing key features of potential component designs. This report summaries the previous SMT results on Alloy 617, SS316H and SS304H and presents the recent development on SMT approach on Alloy 617. These SMT specimen data are also representative of component loading conditions and have been used as part of the verification of the proposed integrated EPP and SMT design methods development. The previous two-bar thermal ratcheting test results on Alloy 617 and SS316H are also summarized and the new results from two bar thermal ratcheting tests on SS316H at a lower temperature range are reported.

  4. Linking experimental results, biological networks and sequence analysis methods using Ontologies and Generalised Data Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jacob; Rawlings, Chris; Verrier, Paul; Mitchell, Rowan; Skusa, Andre; Ruegg, Alexander; Philippi, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a closely integrated data warehouse is described that is designed to link different types and varying numbers of biological networks, sequence analysis methods and experimental results such as those coming from microarrays. The data schema is inspired by a combination of graph based methods and generalised data structures and makes use of ontologies and meta-data. The core idea is to consider and store biological networks as graphs, and to use generalised data structures (GDS) for the storage of further relevant information. This is possible because many biological networks can be stored as graphs: protein interactions, signal transduction networks, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks etc. Nodes in biological graphs represent entities such as promoters, proteins, genes and transcripts whereas the edges of such graphs specify how the nodes are related. The semantics of the nodes and edges are defined using ontologies of node and relation types. Besides generic attributes that most biological entities possess (name, attribute description), further information is stored using generalised data structures. By directly linking to underlying sequences (exons, introns, promoters, amino acid sequences) in a systematic way, close interoperability to sequence analysis methods can be achieved. This approach allows us to store, query and update a wide variety of biological information in a way that is semantically compact without requiring changes at the database schema level when new kinds of biological information is added. We describe how this datawarehouse is being implemented by extending the text-mining framework ONDEX to link, support and complement different bioinformatics applications and research activities such as microarray analysis, sequence analysis and modelling/simulation of biological systems. The system is developed under the GPL license and can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ondex/

  5. Marital status and survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Baine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that marital status affects survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, its role in the survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether there was an association between marital status and overall survival (OS in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with PDAC between 1998 and 2003 with known marital statuses were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of the National Cancer Institute. OS for these patients was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparative risks of mortality were evaluated by using univariate and multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS: Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that the median overall survival of patients was 4 months and 3 months (p<0.001 for married and unmarried patients, respectively. Subgroup analysis on patients with cancer-directed surgery showed that the median survival was 16 months and 13 months (P<0.0005 for married and unmarried groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age, race, sex, stage, year of diagnosis, radiation therapy and cancer-directed surgery showed that patients who were married at the time of diagnosis had a significantly decreased risk of death at both 2 months (15% risk reduction and 3 years (13% risk reduction post diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Marital status is an independent prognostic factor of both perioperative and long-term survival in patients with PDAC. This observation may suggest a suboptimally met psychosocial need among PDAC patients that is partially fulfilled by the support system provided by marriage.

  6. Determination of aerodynamic parameters of urban surfaces: methods and results revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A. F.; Zaki, S. A.; Hagishima, A.; Ali, M. S. M.

    2015-11-01

    Estimates of aerodynamic parameters, in particular roughness length z 0 and displacement height d, are important for the analysis of the roughness of an urban surface, which affects processes that occur within the urban boundary layer such as pollutant dispersion and urban ventilation. Findings regarding the aerodynamic effects of various configurations of urban arrays were compiled from various studies. Several experimental, numerical and semi-empirical studies to estimate z 0 and d were reviewed and compared with each other. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) the influence of the frontal area index ( λ f ) on z 0 is significant and their relationship has been confirmed by both experimental and numerical data; (2) compared to one-parameter and two-parameter fitting methods, the three-parameter fitting method is the least accurate; (3) the physical meaning of d remains vague because its definition as the height where surface drag acts may not be accurate for sharp-edged roughness blocks and (4) the peak values of z 0 for uniform and heterogeneous block heights indicate presence of skimming or wake-interference flow effects, which may influence surface roughness. Finally, the semi-empirical models were found to be limited to cases derived from available experimental data, which normally involve uniform arrays of cubes.

  7. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  9. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  10. Implantable central venous chemoport: camparision of results according to approach routes and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the results and complications of placement of implantable port according to approach routes and methods. Between April 2001 and October 2002, a total of 103 implantable chemoport was placed in 95 patients for chemotherapy using preconnected type (n=39) and attachable type (n=64). Puncture sites were left subclavian vein (n=35), right subclavian vein (n=5), left internal jugular vein (n=9), right internal jugular vein (n=54). We evaluated duration of catheterization days, complications according to approach routes and methods. Implantable chemoport was placed successfully in all cases. Duration of catheterization ranged from 8 to 554 days(mean 159, total 17,872 catheter days). Procedure related complications occurred transient pulmonary air embolism (n=1), small hematoma (n=1) and malposition in using preconnected type (n=2). Late complications occurred catheter migration (n=5), catheter malfunction (n=3), occlusion (n=1) and infection (n=11). Among them 15 chemoport was removed (14.5%). Catheter migration was occured via subclavian vein in all cases (13%, p=.008). Infection developed in 10.7% of patients(0.61 per 1000 catheter days). There were no catheter-related central vein thrombosis. Implantation of chemoport is a safe procedure. Choice of right internal jugular vein than subclavian vain vein for puncture site has less complications. And selection of attachable type of chemoport is convenient than preconnected type. Adequate care of chemoport is essential for long patency.

  11. Methods of Science Investigation Part 2: Results of Implementation of a Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danch, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Originally designed to allow secondary students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Methods of Science Curriculum was piloted in 2008. Students participating included those with special needs, English language learners, and the general population. Students were incrementally graduated from traditional inquiry activities towards authentic student-generated research projects. Students were evaluated via class work grades, an in-school symposium and a pre/post test. 100 percent of participants successfully completed and presented their original research. The pre/post evaluation demonstrated improvement for 91 percent of participants. An unanticipated result was the performance and growth of English language learners, possibly because of the emphasis on the creative and active process of science rather than vocabulary. A teacher-training program is being developed for expansion of the curriculum to additional schools in 2009.

  12. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  13. THE BREED TRACEABILITY OF SHEEP MEAT BY USING MOLECULAR GENETICS METHODS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bramante

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety and quality foods of animal origin are extremely important for consumers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a method to track the breed origin of sheep meat all along the production chain using molecular genetics tools. A total of 800 samples evenly distributed among seven Italian sheep breeds have been typed at 19 STR markers, together with 90 samples from both imported sheep animals and local crossbred animals withdrawn at slaughterhouses. A maximum likelihood assignment test was adopted to evaluate STR ability to allocate samples to their true breed of origin. Sarda animals were all correctly allocated, as well as more than 98% of samples from the other breeds. Only slightly worst allocation performances were observed for imported and crossbred animals. Preliminary results seem quite promising, though further analyses will be needed in order to better understand the statistical power of such an assignment test before implementation in the sheep meat production chain.

  14. Wimp searches with gamma rays in the Fermi era: Challenges, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, J., E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se [Stockholm University SE-10691, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics (Sweden); Cohen-Tanugi, J. [Université de Montpellier CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire Univers et Paticules de Montpellier (France); Strigari, L. E. [Texas A & M University TX 77843-4242, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental. Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The launch of the gamma-ray telescope Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) started a pivotal period in indirect detection of dark matter. By outperforming expectations, for the first time a robust and stringent test of the paradigm of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is within reach. In this paper, we discuss astrophysical targets for WIMP detection and the challenges they present, review the analysis tools which have been employed to tackle these challenges, and summarize the status of constraints on and the claimed detections in the WIMP parameter space. Methods and results will be discussed in comparison to Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes. We also provide an outlook on short term and longer term developments.

  15. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Bogomilov, M; Bravar, A; Brooks, W; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Busygina, O; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Czopowicz, T; Davis, N; Debieux, S; Di Luise, S; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Dynowski, K; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Esposito, L S; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Fulop, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grabez, B; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Haesler, A; Hakobyan, H; Hasegawa, T; Idczak, R; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, Y; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Kapoyannis, A; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kirejczyk, M; Kisiel, J; Kiss, T; Kleinfelder, S; Kobayashi, T; Kochebina, O; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kondratiev, V P; Korzenev, A; Kowalski, S; Krasnoperov, A; Kuleshov, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Larsen, D; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M; Majka, Z; Maksiak, B; Malakhov, A I; Maletic, D; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Marin, V; Marton, K; Matulewicz, T; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Messina, M; Mrowczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Paul, T; Peryt, W; Petukhov, O; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Pulawski, S; Puzovic, J; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Robert, A; Rohrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rustamov, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovsky, A; Sakashita, K; Savic, M; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sipos, M; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tereshchenko, V; Tolyhi, T; Tsenov, R; Turko, L; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Veberic, D; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wilczek, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A; Wyszynski, O; Zambelli, L; Zipper, W; Hartz, M; Ichikawa, A K; Kubo, H; Marino, A D; Matsuoka, K; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Yuan, T; Zimmerman, E D

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  16. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN PUBLIC SPACE PARTICIPATIVE PROJECTS: METHODS AND RESULTS IN PRACTICE AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2015-06-01

    • In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration  with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear

  17. Biogenic and non-biogenic Si pools in terrestrial ecosystems: results from a novel analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barao, Lucia; Vandevenne, Floor; Clymans, Wim; Meire, Patrick; Frings, Patrick; Conley, Daniel; Struyf, Eric

    2015-04-01

    temperate (European) zones, since cultivation influences the Si cycle with multiple consequences for the environment. Results showed that the intensity of the human pressure in the agricultural systems defines the level of BSi depletion, but parent material and weathering degree can also provide the soil with other reactive non BSi fractions. Secondly we analysed the influence of non-BSi pools of volcanic origin in soils and sediments subjected to volcanic activity. Results showed that a separation method is fundamental in these systems with volcanic shards and strongly weathered products, both of which are also significantly prone to dissolution in the common alkaline sequential extractions. We conclude that the application of a method that discriminates between Si fractions is mandatory to correctly understand the Si dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. Although time-consuming and subjected to some limitations, the continuous analysis can be used for this purpose. Future challenges remain however for identifying fractions that cannot be differentiated on either reactivity or Si-Al ratio and for correlating the reactivity of fractions extracted in alkaline environments with the availability in situ.

  18. [Comparison of clinical results between LASIK method and ICL implantation in high myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubá, H; Vlková, E; Horácková, M; Svacinová, J

    2004-05-01

    In a retrospective study the authors evaluate clinical results of the LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) and the implantation of the implantable posterior chamber contact lens phakic IOL (ICL) (STAAR Surgical) to correct high myopia. The purpose of the study was to assess which of those two methods is more reliable in patients to correct myopia in the range -10.0 to -23.0 diopters. The LASIK method was presented of a group of 70 eyes of 48 patients with preoperative spherical equivalent average of -12.9 +/- 3.8 diopters (Dsf) and average astigmatism of -0.99 +/- 1.2 cylindrical diopters (Dcyl). The group was divided into two parts: one part was with the desired postoperative emmetropia--46 eyes (65.7%), and part two was with the desired postoperative residual myopia up to -3.0 Dsf--24 eyes (34.3%). The method of ICL implantation was presented of a group of 36 eyes of 21 patients with preoperative spherical equivalent average of -15.21 +/- 4.0 Dsf and average astigmatism of -0.92 +/- 0.69 Dcyl. Also this group was divided into two parts: One part was with the desired postoperative emmetropia--25 eyes (69.4%), and part two was with the desired postoperative residual myopia up to -3.0 Dsf--11 eyes (30.6%). The developments of postoperative refraction in time (1 week to 3 years after the surgery), the final postoperative refraction and its stability and (6 months to 3 years after the surgery) as well as the occurrence of complications in both studied groups were evaluated. In the assessment of the postoperative refraction development in groups of desired emmetropia, the average uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), average postoperative spherical equivalent and astigmatism were evaluated. In the groups with desired residual myopia the average best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average postoperative spherical equivalent, and astigmatism were followed. Three years after the surgery in groups with desired emmetropia, the average postoperative spherical equivalent was -0

  19. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 3-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) with layered or pressed veneering ceramics: 3-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naenni, Nadja; Bindl, Andreas; Sax, Caroline; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to test whether or not posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with pressed veneering ceramic exhibit less chipping than FDPs with layered veneering ceramics. Forty patients (13 female, 27 male; mean age 54 years (range 26.1-80.7 years) in need of one maxillary or mandibular three-unit FDP in the second premolar or molar region were recruited and treated at two separate centers at the University of Zurich according to the same study protocol. The frameworks were made out of zirconia using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The patients were randomly assigned to either the test group (zirconia frameworks veneered with pressed ceramic; IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20) or the control group (layered veneering ceramic; IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20). All FDPs were adhesively cemented and evaluated at baseline (i.e., cementation), at 6 months and at 1 and 3 years of clinical service. The survival of the reconstruction was recorded. The technical outcome was assessed using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. The biologic parameters analyzed at abutment teeth and analogous non-restored teeth included probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth vitality (CO2). Data was descriptively analyzed and survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. 36 patients (25 female, 11 male; mean age 52.3 years) with 18 test and 18 control FDPs were examined after a mean follow-up of 36 months (95% CI: 32.6-39.1 months). Comparison of groups was done by Crosstabulation showing even distribution of the respective restored teeth amidst the groups. Survival rate was 100% for both test and control FDPs. Chipping of the veneering ceramic tended to occur more frequently in test (n=8; 40%) than in control (n=4; 20%) FDPs, albeit not significantly (p=0.3). No further

  20. Geometrical Measures Obtained from Pretreatment Postcontrast T1 Weighted MRIs Predict Survival Benefits from Bevacizumab in Glioblastoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Juan M.; Peralta, Sergi; Gil-Gil, Miguel J.; Reynes, Gaspar; Herrero, Ana; De Las Peñas, Ramón; Luque, Raquel; Capellades, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiangiogenic therapies for glioblastoma (GBM) such as bevacizumab (BVZ), have been unable to extend survival in large patient cohorts. However, a subset of patients having angiogenesis-dependent tumors might benefit from these therapies. Currently, there are no biomarkers allowing to discriminate responders from non-responders before the start of the therapy. Methods 40 patients from the randomized GENOM009 study complied the inclusion criteria (quality of images, clinical data available). Of those, 23 patients received first line temozolomide (TMZ) for eight weeks and then concomitant radiotherapy and TMZ. 17 patients received BVZ+TMZ for seven weeks and then added radiotherapy to the treatment. Clinical variables were collected, tumors segmented and several geometrical measures computed including: Contrast enhancing (CE), necrotic, and total volumes; equivalent spherical CE width; several geometric measures of the CE ‘rim’ geometry and a set of image texture measures. The significance of the results was studied using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Correlations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that total, CE and inner volume (p = 0.019, HR = 4.258) and geometric heterogeneity of the CE areas (p = 0.011, HR = 3.931) were significant parameters identifying response to BVZ. The group of patients with either regular CE areas (small geometric heterogeneity, median difference survival 15.88 months, p = 0.011) or those with small necrotic volume (median survival difference 14.50 months, p = 0.047) benefited substantially from BVZ. Conclusion Imaging biomarkers related to the irregularity of contrast enhancing areas and the necrotic volume were able to discriminate GBM patients with a substantial survival benefit from BVZ. A prospective study is needed to validate our results. PMID:27557121

  1. Prognostic value of the seventh AJCC/UICC TNM classification of non-cardia gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The TNM staging criteria for gastric carcinoma have seen numerous revisions, the most recent of which are reflected in the seventh edition AJCC TNM cancer staging manual. Methods A retrospective evaluation of the sixth and seventh TNM classification of gastric cancer on a prospective database, regarding patients operated on for primary gastric cancer, was conducted. The end point of the study was prognosis evaluation in terms of overall survival. Patients operated on for primary gastric cancer between September 2003 and March 2012 at our Department of Emergency and General Surgery, were consecutively retrieved in this study; a total of 114 patients were considered. Cardia gastric cancers, gastric lymphomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) were excluded. Median and mean follow-up periods were 22.5 and 27.7 months (range 15 days to 5 years). Both TNM6 and TNM7 were used to evaluate our patients. Overall survival and survival rates at different stages were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were determined using a log-rank test. Cox’s proportional hazard model was used to identify significant factors related to prognosis in a multivariate analysis. Results Overall survival between the sixth and seventh TNM classification was not significantly different. Both the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the multivariate analysis showed that the major negative prognostic factor was lymphovascular invasion (P TNM. Conclusions Even though further studies are needed in order to increase the number of patients studied, the seventh edition seems to provide a more accurate prognosis, especially regarding N1 and N2 tumors, showing that the most important prognostic factor is lymphovascular invasion. PMID:23687939

  2. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and prognosis in cardiac amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roughton Michael

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac involvement is common in amyloidosis and associated with a variably adverse outcome. We have previously shown that cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can assess deposition of amyloid protein in the myocardial interstitium. In this study we assessed the prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE and gadolinium kinetics in cardiac amyloidosis in a prospective longitudinal study. Materials and methods The pre-defined study end point was all-cause mortality. We prospectively followed a cohort of 29 patients with proven cardiac amyloidosis. All patients underwent biopsy, 2D-echocardiography and Doppler studies, 123I-SAP scintigraphy, serum NT pro BNP assay, and CMR with a T1 mapping method and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE. Results Patients with were followed for a median of 623 days (IQ range 221, 1436, during which 17 (58% patients died. The presence of myocardial LGE by itself was not a significant predictor of mortality. However, death was predicted by gadolinium kinetics, with the 2 minute post-gadolinium intramyocardial T1 difference between subepicardium and subendocardium predicting mortality with 85% accuracy at a threshold value of 23 ms (the lower the difference the worse the prognosis. Intramyocardial T1 gradient was a better predictor of survival than FLC response to chemotherapy (Kaplan Meier analysis P = 0.049 or diastolic function (Kaplan-Meier analysis P = 0.205. Conclusion In cardiac amyloidosis, CMR provides unique information relating to risk of mortality based on gadolinium kinetics which reflects the severity of the cardiac amyloid burden.

  3. Does index tumor predominant location influence prognostic factors in radical prostatectomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Athanase; Freitas, Leandro L. L.; Costa, Larissa B. E.; de Angelis, Camila M.; Carvalho, Kelson R.; Magna, Luis A.; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To find any influence on prognostic factors of index tumor according to predominant location. Materials and Methods Prostate surgical specimens from 499 patients submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy were step-sectioned. Each transverse section was subdivided into 2 anterolateral and 2 posterolateral quadrants. Tumor extent was evaluated by a semi-quantitative point-count method. The index tumor (dominant nodule) was recorded as the maximal number of positive points of the most extensive tumor area from the quadrants and the predominant location was considered anterior (anterolateral quadrants), posterior (posterolateral quadrants), basal (quadrants in upper half of the prostate), apical (quadrants in lower half of the prostate), left (left quadrants) or right (right quadrants). Time to biochemical recurrence was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis and prediction of shorter time to biochemical recurrence using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Results Index tumors with predominant posterior location were significantly associated with higher total tumor extent, needle and radical prostatectomy Gleason score, positive lymph nodes and preoperative prostate-specific antigen. Index tumors with predominant basal location were significantly associated with higher preoperative prostate-specific antigen, pathological stage higher than pT2, extra-prostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion. Index tumors with predominant basal location were significantly associated with time to biochemical recurrence in Kaplan-Meier estimates and significantly predicted shorter time to biochemical recurrence on univariate analysis but not on multivariate analysis. Conclusions The study suggests that index tumor predominant location is associated with prognosis in radical prostatectomies, however, in multivariate analysis do not offer advantage over other well-established prognostic factors. PMID:28379672

  4. Oral cancer development in patients with leukoplakia--clinicopathological factors affecting outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral leukoplakia (OL is the best-known potentially malignant disorder. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the clinicopathological factors predictive of outcome in a large cohort of patients with OL, and report our experience in the early detection of malignant events. METHODS: A total of 320 patients with biopsy-proven OL were retrospectively reviewed from the study institution who had a mean follow-up of 5.1 years. Data on patient and lesion at initial diagnosis and patient underwent sequential biopsies were reviewed. Multiple biopsies indicates > = 3 times sequential biopsies. Oral cancer-free survival rate (OCFS was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method and significant factors were identified by Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The 3-year and 5-year OCFS was 86.6% and 82.0%, respectively. A new binary system of grading oral dysplasia was performed and Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high-grade dysplasia had significantly higher malignant incidence than low-grade dysplasia (5-year OCFS, 90.5% vs 59.0%; P60 years, lesion located at lateral/ventral tongue, non-homogenous lesion, high-grade dysplasia were independent significant indicators for OL malignant transformation. In addition, significant positive correlation between the multiple biopsies and these 4 factors and malignant outcome was established. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with OL located at lateral/ventral tongue and who had non-homogenous lesion with high-grade dysplasia correlated much higher risk of transformation. This high-risk subpopulation was suggested to undergo sequential biopsies and histologic examination contributing to early detection of malignant event.

  5. Does urothelial cancer of bladder behave differently in young patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hua; LI You-yuan; HU Zhi-quan; ZHU Hui; ZHUANG Qian-yuan; QI Yong; YE Zhang-qun

    2012-01-01

    Background Bladder urothelial cancer has been diagnosed at an increasing rate among young adults in China while the clinical outcomes remain highly controversial.To optimize the management of young patients with bladder cancer,we examined whether bladder urothelial cancer in young patients behaved differently from that in the elder patients.Methods From 1994 to 2008,a database of bladder urothelial cancer patients at a major tertiary medical center was retrospectively reviewed.The clinical and pathological parameters of patients who were less than 40 years of age and a series of patients older than 40 years of age as the control group during the same period were compared.A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test,and Cox regression was performed to identify clinical parameters that affected the clinic outcomes.Results Young bladder cancer patients had a lower male-to-female ratio and were less likely to have advanced stages and high-grade cancers at the initial diagnosis.Tumors in young bladder cancer patients tended to be less multifocal at diagnosis.In addition,young patients had a lower recurrence rate and longer recurrence interval than older patients.The Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-rank test showed that young patients had significantly better cancer specific survival than old patients.The univariats and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that tumor grade is the sole predictor for tumor recurrence in young patients.Conclusions Young patients with bladder cancer have favorable pathological features and clinical outcomes than older patients.These findings argue for more conservative management approaches for young patients with bladder cancer.

  6. Prognostic value of DNA alterations on chromosome 17p13.2 for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ubol Chuensumran; Sopit Wongkham; Chawalit Pairojkul; Siri Chauin; Songsak Petmitr

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To characterize and evaluate DNA alterations among intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) patients.METHODS: DNA from tumor and corresponding normal tissues of 52 patients was amplified with 33 arbitrary primers. The DNA fragment that alters most frequently in ICC was cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known nucleotide sequences in the genome database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The DNA copy numbers of the allelic alterations in cholangiocarcinoma were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and interpreted as allelic loss or DNA amplification by comparison with the reference gene. Associations between allelic imbalance and clinicopathological parameters of ICC patients were evaluated by x2-test.The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival rates.RESULTS: From 33 primers, an altered DNA fragment (518 bp) amplified from BC17 random primer was found frequently in the tumors analyzed and mapped to chromosome 17p13.2. Sixteen of 52 (31%) cases showed DNA amplification, while 7 (13%) showed allelic loss. Interestingly, DNA amplification on chromosome 17p13.2 was associated with a good prognosis, median survival time (wk) of amp vs no amp was 44.14 vs 24.14,P = 0.002; whereas allelic loss of this DNA sequence corresponded with a poor prognosis, median survival time (wk) of loss vs no loss was 18.00 vs 28.71, P =0.019). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the DNA alterations with survival depicted highly significant separation that the median survival time equal to DNA amplification, allelic loss, and normal was 44.14 wk,18.00 wk, and 24.29 wk, respectively (P = 0.005).CONCLUSION: Alterations in the DNA sequence on chromosome 17p13.2 may be involved in cholangiocarcinogenesis, and could be used as a prognostic marker in the treatment of ICC patients.

  7. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  8. Panero et al. (2016): Failure to replicate methods caused the failure to replicate results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David Comer; Castano, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to Kidd and Castano (2013), Panero et al. (2016) fail to find that reading literary fiction improves performance on an advanced test of theory of mind (ToM), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. However, this commentary shows that the findings presented in Panero et al. (2016) are not reliable due to two striking threats to the internal validity of their studies that were not clearly disclosed or discussed in the manuscript or supplementary materials. First, no effective strategy was implemented to ensure that participants read their assigned texts, and examination of the data revealed many participants whose reading times indicate that they were not exposed to the manipulation. Second, further examination shows that two of the largest studies contributing to Panero et al. (2016) are not valid experiments due to a clear failure of random assignment to conditions. These threats to experimental internal validity make the conclusions presented in Panero et al. (2016) untenable. After removing cases in which participants were not exposed to the manipulation and the data from the two studies without random assignment, an analysis reveals that reading literary fiction improves ToM compared to reading popular genre fiction. This result is consistent with prior studies and indicates that a failure to carefully replicate the methods of Kidd and Castano (2013) led to the failure to replicate Kidd and Castano's (2013) results. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. High risk cohort study for psychiatric disorders in childhood: rationale, design, methods and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.

  10. When mixed methods produce mixed results: integrating disparate findings about miscarriage and women's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina; Rowlands, Ingrid J

    2015-02-01

    To discuss an example of mixed methods in health psychology, involving separate quantitative and qualitative studies of women's mental health in relation to miscarriage, in which the two methods produced different but complementary results, and to consider ways in which the findings can be integrated. We describe two quantitative projects involving statistical analysis of data from 998 young women who had had miscarriages, and 8,083 who had not, across three waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We also describe a qualitative project involving thematic analysis of interviews with nine Australian women who had had miscarriages. The quantitative analyses indicate that the main differences between young women who do and do not experience miscarriage relate to social disadvantage (and thus likelihood of relatively early pregnancy) and to a lifestyle that makes pregnancy likely: Once these factors are accounted for, there are no differences in mental health. Further, longitudinal modelling demonstrates that women who have had miscarriages show a gradual increase in mental health over time, with the exception of women with prior diagnoses of anxiety, depression, or both. By contrast, qualitative analysis of the interviews indicates that women who have had miscarriages experience deep emotional responses and a long and difficult process of coming to terms with their loss. A contextual model of resilience provides a possible framework for understanding these apparently disparate results. Considering positive mental health as including the ability to deal constructively with negative life events, and consequent emotional distress, offers a model that distinguishes between poor mental health and the processes of coping with major life events. In the context of miscarriage, women's efforts to struggle with difficult emotions, and search for meaning, can be viewed as pathways to resilience rather than to psychological distress. Statement of contribution

  11. Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 2. Evaluation methods and general results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Han, Li; Liu, Zhihai; Wang, Renxiao

    2014-06-23

    Our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) benchmark is created to provide an objective evaluation of current scoring functions. The key idea of CASF is to compare the general performance of scoring functions on a diverse set of protein-ligand complexes. In order to avoid testing scoring functions in the context of molecular docking, the scoring process is separated from the docking (or sampling) process by using ensembles of ligand binding poses that are generated in prior. Here, we describe the technical methods and evaluation results of the latest CASF-2013 study. The PDBbind core set (version 2013) was employed as the primary test set in this study, which consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes with high-quality three-dimensional structures and reliable binding constants. A panel of 20 scoring functions, most of which are implemented in main-stream commercial software, were evaluated in terms of "scoring power" (binding affinity prediction), "ranking power" (relative ranking prediction), "docking power" (binding pose prediction), and "screening power" (discrimination of true binders from random molecules). Our results reveal that the performance of these scoring functions is generally more promising in the docking/screening power tests than in the scoring/ranking power tests. Top-ranked scoring functions in the scoring power test, such as X-Score(HM), ChemScore@SYBYL, ChemPLP@GOLD, and PLP@DS, are also top-ranked in the ranking power test. Top-ranked scoring functions in the docking power test, such as ChemPLP@GOLD, Chemscore@GOLD, GlidScore-SP, LigScore@DS, and PLP@DS, are also top-ranked in the screening power test. Our results obtained on the entire test set and its subsets suggest that the real challenge in protein-ligand binding affinity prediction lies in polar interactions and associated desolvation effect. Nonadditive features observed among high-affinity protein-ligand complexes also need attention.

  12. Open and Endovascular Treatment of Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus Ⅱ D Aortoiliac Occlusive Lesions: What Determines the Rate of Restenosis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Yang Shen; Yun-Feng Liu; Qing-Le Li; Yong-Bao Zhang; Yang Jiao; Miltiadis E Krokidis; Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open surgery is the preferred approach for the treatment of type D lesions according to the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) Ⅱ guideline, but endovascular solutions also appear to be a valid option in selected patients.The study aimed to identify the risk factors of restenosis after open and endovascular reconstruction of symptomatic TASC Ⅱ D aortoiliac occlusive lesions (AIOLs).Methods: Fifty-six patients (82 limbs) who underwent open repair and endovascular treatment (ET) for symptomatic TASC ⅡD AIOLs between March 2005 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.Baseline characteristics, preoperative and postoperative imaging,and operation procedure reports were reviewed and analyzed.Restenosis after revascularization was assessed by duplex ultrasound or computed tomography angiogram.Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Log-rank test, and multivariate Cox regression were used to evaluate the relevance between risk factors and patency.Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 42.8 ± 23.5 months (ranging from 3 to 90 months).Primary patency rates at 1-, 3-, 5-,and 7-year were 93.6%, 89.3%, 87.0%, and 70.3%, respectively.Restenosis after revascularization occurred in 11 limbs.Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Log-rank test revealed that diabetes, Rutherford classification ≥5th and concurrent femoropopliteal TASC Ⅱ type C/D lesions were significantly related to the duration of primary patency.According to the result of Cox regression, diabetes and femoropopliteal TASC Ⅱ type C/D lesions were identified as the risk factors for restenosis after revascularization.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that diabetes and femoropopliteal TASC Ⅱ type C/D lesions are risk factors associated with restenosis after open and ET of TASC Ⅱ D AIOLs.

  13. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  14. Two-year survival analysis of twisted wire fixed retainer versus spiral wire and fiber-reinforced composite retainers: a preliminary explorative single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Rakhshan, Vahid; Saravi, Mahdi Gholamrezaei; Zamanian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Traditional retainers (both metal and fiber-reinforced composite [FRC]) have limitations, and a retainer made from more flexible ligature wires might be advantageous. We aimed to compare an experimental design with two traditional retainers. Methods In this prospective preliminary clinical trial, 150 post-treatment patients were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups of 50 patients each to receive mandibular canine-to-canine retainers made of FRC, flexible spiral wire (FSW), and twisted wire (TW). The patients were monitored monthly. The time at which the first signs of breakage/debonding were detected was recorded. The success rates of the retainers were compared using chi-squared, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses (α = 0.05). Results In total, 42 patients in the FRC group, 41 in the FSW group, and 45 in the TW group completed the study. The 2-year failure rates were 35.7% in the FRC group, 26.8% in the FSW group, and 17.8% in the TW group. These rates differed insignificantly (chi-squared p = 0.167). According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, failure occurred at 19.95 months in the FRC group, 21.37 months in the FSW group, and 22.36 months in the TW group. The differences between the survival rates in the three groups were not significant (Cox regression p = 0.146). Conclusions Although the failure rate of the experimental retainer was two times lower than that of the FRC retainer, the difference was not statistically significant. The experimental TW retainer was successful, and larger studies are warranted to verify these results. PMID:27019825

  15. Prostate Cancer Biochemical Recurrence Rates After Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Serge; Nevers, Thomas; Staff, Ilene; Tortora, Joseph; Champagne, Alison; Kesler, Stuart S.; Laudone, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To determine prostate cancer biochemical recurrence rates with respect to surgical margin (SM) status for patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). Methods: IRB-approved radical prostatectomy database was queried. Patients were stratified as low, intermediate, and high risk according to D’Amico's risk classification. Postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values were obtained every 3 mo for the first year, then biannually and annually thereafter. Biochemical recurrence was defined as ≥0.2ng/mL. Patients receiving adjuvant or salvage treatment were included. Positive surgical margin was defined as presence of cancer cells at inked resection margin in the final specimen. Margin presence (negative/positive), margin multiplicity (single/multiple), and margin length (≤3mm focal and >3mm extensive) were noted. Kaplan-Meier curves of biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) as a function of SM were generated. Forward stepwise multivariate Cox regression was performed, with preoperative PSA, Gleason score, pathologic stage, prostate gland weight, and SM as covariates. Results: At our institution, 1437 patients underwent RALP (2003-2009). Of these, 1159 had sufficient data and were included in our analysis. Mean follow-up was 16 mo. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated significant increase in BRFS in low-risk and intermediate-risk groups with negative SM. Overall BRFS at 5 y was 72%. Gleason score, pathologic stage, and SM status were significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Negative surgical margins resulted in lower biochemical recurrence rates for low-risk and intermediate-risk groups. Multifocal and longer positive margins were associated with higher biochemical recurrence rates compared with unifocal and shorter positive margins. Documenting biochemical recurrence rates for RALP is important, because this treatment for localized prostate cancer is validated. PMID

  16. Miners’ return to work following injuries in coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW following a miner’s injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person’s social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners’ injuries. Material and Methods: A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000–2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners’ return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. Conclusions: The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6:729–742

  17. Methods to rank traffic rule violations resulting in crashes for allocation of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2017-02-01

    Education, enforcement and engineering countermeasures are implemented to make road users comply with the traffic rules. Not all the traffic rule violations can be addressed nor countermeasures be implemented at all unsafe locations, at once, due to limited funds. Therefore, this study aims at ranking the traffic rule violations resulting in crashes based on individual ranks, such as 1) frequency (expressed as a function of the number of drivers violating a traffic rule and involved in crashes), 2) crash severity, 3) total crash cost, and, 4) cost severity index, to assist transportation system managers in prioritizing the allocation of funds and improving safety on roads. Crash data gathered for the state of North Carolina was processed and used in this study. Variations in the ranks of traffic rule violations were observed when individual ranking methods are used. As an example, exceeding authorized speed limit and driving under the influence of alcohol are ranked 1st and 2nd based on crash severity while failure to reduce speed and failure to yield the right-of-way are ranked 1st and 2nd based on frequency. To minimize the variations and capture the merits of individual ranking methods, four different composite ranks were computed by combining selected individual ranks. The computed averages and standard deviations of absolute rank differences between composite ranks is lower than those obtained from individual ranks. The weights to combine the selected individual ranks have a marginal effect on the computed averages and standard deviations of absolute rank differences. Combining frequency and crash severity or cost severity index, using equal weights, is recommended for prioritization and allocation of funds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfister Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice.

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  20. A critical review of the durability of adhesion to tooth tissue: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, J; Van Landuyt, K; Peumans, M; Poitevin, A; Lambrechts, P; Braem, M; Van Meerbeek, B

    2005-02-01

    The immediate bonding effectiveness of contemporary adhesives is quite favorable, regardless of the approach used. In the long term, the bonding effectiveness of some adhesives drops dramatically, whereas the bond strengths of other adhesives are more stable. This review examines the fundamental processes that cause the adhesion of biomaterials to enamel and dentin to degrade with time. Non-carious class V clinical trials remain the ultimate test method for the assessment of bonding effectiveness, but in addition to being high-cost, they are time- and labor-consuming, and they provide little information on the true cause of clinical failure. Therefore, several laboratory protocols were developed to predict bond durability. This paper critically appraises methodologies that focus on chemical degradation patterns of hydrolysis and elution of interface components, as well as mechanically oriented test set-ups, such as fatigue and fracture toughness measurements. A correlation of in vitro and in vivo data revealed that, currently, the most validated method to assess adhesion durability involves aging of micro-specimens of biomaterials bonded to either enamel or dentin. After about 3 months, all classes of adhesives exhibited mechanical and morphological evidence of degradation that resembles in vivo aging effects. A comparison of contemporary adhesives revealed that the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives remain the 'gold standard' in terms of durability. Any kind of simplification in the clinical application procedure results in loss of bonding effectiveness. Only the two-step self-etch adhesives approach the gold standard and do have some additional clinical benefits.

  1. How Does Carbon Dioxide Permeate Cell Membranes?A discussion of concepts, results and methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eEndeward

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review briefly how the thinking about the permeation of gases, especially CO2, across cell and artificial lipid membranes has evolved during the last hundred years. We then describe how the recent finding of a drastic effect of cholesterol on CO2 permeability of both biological and artificial membranes fundamentally alters the long-standing idea that CO2 – as well as other gases – permeates all membranes with great ease. This requires revision of the widely accepted paradigm that membranes never offer a serious diffusion resistance to CO2 or other gases. Earlier observations of CO2-impermeable membranes can now be explained by the high cholesterol content of some membranes. Thus, cholesterol is a membrane component that nature can use to adapt membrane CO2 permeability to the functional needs of the cell. Since cholesterol serves many other cellular functions, it cannot be reduced indefinitely. We show, however, that cells that possess a high metabolic rate and/or a high rate of O2 and CO2 exchange, do require very high CO2 permeabilities that may not be achievable merely by reduction of membrane cholesterol. The article then discusses the alternative possibility of raising the CO2 permeability of a membrane by incorporating protein CO2 channels. The highly controversial issue of gas and CO2 channels is systematically and critically reviewed. It is concluded that a majority of the results considered to be reliable, is in favour of the concept of existence and functional relevance of protein gas channels. The effect of intracellular carbonic anhydrase, which has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to a membrane CO2 channel, is analysed quantitatively and the idea considered untenable. After a brief review of the knowledge on permeation of O2 and NO through membranes, we present a summary of the 18O method used to measure the CO2 permeability of membranes and discuss quantitatively critical questions that may be addressed to

  2. Leaf mechanical resistance in plant trait databases: comparing the results of two common measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrico, Lucas; Díaz, Sandra; Westoby, Mark; Rice, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    The influence of leaf mechanical properties on local ecosystem processes, such as trophic transfer, decomposition and nutrient cycling, has resulted in a growing interest in including leaf mechanical resistance in large-scale databases of plant functional traits. 'Specific work to shear' and 'force to tear' are two properties commonly used to describe mechanical resistance (toughness or strength) of leaves. Two methodologies have been widely used to measure them across large datasets. This study aimed to assess correlations and standardization between the two methods, as measured by two widely used apparatuses, in order to inter-convert existing data in those global datasets. Specific work to shear (W(SS)) and force to tear (FT) were measured in leaves of 72 species from south-eastern Australia. The measurements were made including and excluding midribs. Relationships between the variables were tested by Spearman correlations and ordinary least square regressions. A positive and significant correlation was found between the methods, but coefficients varied according to the inclusion or exclusion of the midrib in the measurements. Equations for prediction varied according to leaf venation pattern. A positive and significant (r = 0·90, P resistance data obtained with both methodologies could be pooled together into a single coarser variable, using the equations provided in this paper. However, more detailed datasets of FT cannot be safely filled in with estimations based on W(SS), or vice versa. In addition, W(SS) values of green leaves can be predicted with good accuracy from W(SS) of rehydrated leaves of the same species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Early results of the Ponseti method for the treatment of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, David J; Gurnett, Christina A; Limpaphayom, Noppachart; Alaee, Farhang; Zhang, Zhongli; Porter, Kristina; Kirchhofer, Melissa; Smyth, Matthew D; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2009-06-01

    Myelomeningocele is a common birth defect that is often accompanied by clubfoot deformity. Treatment of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele traditionally has consisted of extensive soft-tissue release operations, which are associated with many complications. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the early results of the Ponseti method for the treatment of clubfoot associated with myelomeningocele. Sixteen consecutive patients with myelomeningocele (twenty-eight clubfeet) and twenty consecutive patients with idiopathic clubfeet (thirty-five clubfeet) were followed prospectively while being managed with the Ponseti method. The average duration of follow-up was thirty-four months for the myelomeningocele group and thirty-seven months for the idiopathic group. Clubfoot severity was graded at the time of presentation with use of the Diméglio system. The initial correction that was achieved, casting and/or bracing difficulties, recurrences, and subsequent treatments were evaluated and compared between the two cohorts by means of appropriate statistical analysis. Eleven (39%) of the twenty-eight clubfeet in the myelomeningocele group were graded as Diméglio grade IV, compared with only four (11%) of the thirty-five clubfeet in the idiopathic group (p = 0.014). Initial correction was achieved in thirty-five clubfeet (100%) in the idiopathic group and in twenty-seven clubfeet (96.4%) in the myelomeningocele group (p = 0.16). Relapse of deformity was detected in 68% of the feet in the myelomeningocele group, compared with 26% of the feet in the idiopathic group (p = 0.001). Relapses were treated successfully without the need for extensive soft-tissue release surgery for all but four of the clubfeet in the myelomeningocele group and for all but one of the clubfeet in the idiopathic group (p = 0.16). Our data support the use of the Ponseti method for the initial treatment of clubfoot deformity associated with myelomeningocele, although attention to detail is

  4. Methods for Minimization and Management of Variability in Long Term Groundwater Monitoring Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Figure ES-2. Semi- quantitative analysis of sampling methods. ............................................. ES-3  Figure 1. Summary of sampling methods...factors such as cost, ease of implementation, and sample volume requirements rather than concerns regarding data quality. At both sites, low flow standard...prior studies have suggested a low bias for the active no purge method. ES-3 Figure ES-2 Semi- quantitative analysis of sampling methods Gray

  5. Long-term forecasts of road traffic fatalities in the European Union : general methods and results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. & Wesemann, P.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods to forecast road crash fatalities. The methods were used in two European Union studies, Impact Assessment and ASSESS. These studies were both carried out in 2005. This report describes the general method, compares the applications in the two studies and presents the res

  6. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  7. Some new methods and results in examination of distribution of rare strongest events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Vladilen; Rodkin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    In the study of disaster statistics the examination of the distribution tail - the range of rare strongest events - appears to be the mostly difficult and the mostly important problem. We discuss here this problem using two different approaches. In the first one we use the limit distributions of the theory of extreme values for parameterization of behavior of the distribution tail. Our method consists in estimation of the maximum size Mmax(T) (e.g. magnitude, earthquake energy, PGA value, victims or economic losses from catastrophe, etc.) that will occur in a prescribed future time interval T. In this particular case we combine the historical earthquake catalogs with instrumental ones since historical catalogs cover much longer time periods and thus can essentially improve seismic statistics in the higher magnitude domain. We apply here this technique to two historical Japan catalogs (the Usami earthquake catalog 599-1884, and the Utsu catalog, 1885-1925) and to the instrumental JMA catalog (1926-2014). We have compared the parameters of historical catalogs with ones derived from the instrumental JMA catalog and have found that the Usami catalog is incompatible with the instrumental one, whereas the Utsu catalog is statistically compatible in the higher magnitude domain with the JMA catalog. In all examined cases the effect of the "bending down" of the graph of strong earthquake recurrence was found as the typical of the seismic regime. Another method is connected with the use of the multiplicative cascade model (that in some aspects is an analogue of the ETAS model). It is known that the ordinary Gutenberg-Richter law of earthquake recurrence can be imitated within the scheme of multiplicative cascade in which the seismic regime is treated as a sequence of a large number of episodes of avalanche-like relaxation, randomly occurring on the set of metastable subsystems. This model simulates such well known regularity of the seismic regime as a decrease in b-value in

  8. Electrogastrographic norms in children: toward the development of standard methods, reproducible results, and reliable normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Harris, J; Chen, J; Sapoznikov, D; Riley, B; De La Nuez, W; Khaskelberg, A

    2001-10-01

    the EGG is crucial for future exploration of the validity and clinical application of the EGG. Differences in test conditions of signal detection and analytic methods influence EGG results substantially, and caution should be used when comparing results across centers.

  9. Effects of preceding endoscopic mucosal resection on the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for treatment of Barrett's esophagus: results from the United States Radiofrequency Ablation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Pasricha, S; Bulsiewicz, W J; Pruitt, R E; Komanduri, S; Wolfsen, H C; Chmielewski, G W; Corbett, F S; Chang, K J; Shaheen, N J

    2016-08-01

    The effects of preceding endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) on the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for treatment of nodular Barrett's esophagus (BE) is poorly understood. Prior studies have been limited to case series from individual tertiary care centers. We report the results of a large, multicenter registry. We assessed the effects of preceding EMR on the efficacy and safety of RFA for nodular BE with advanced neoplasia (high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma) using the US RFA Registry, a nationwide study of BE patients treated with RFA at 148 institutions. Safety outcomes included stricture, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hospitalization. Efficacy outcomes included complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM), complete eradication of dysplasia (CED), and number of RFA treatments needed to achieve CEIM. Analyses comparing patients with EMR before RFA to patients undergoing RFA alone were performed with Student's t-test, Chi-square test, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Four hundred six patients were treated with EMR before RFA for nodular BE, and 857 patients were treated with RFA only for non-nodular BE. The total complication rates were 8.4% in the EMR-before-RFA group and 7.2% in the RFA-only group (P = 0.48). Rates of stricture, bleeding, and hospitalization were not significantly different between patients treated with EMR before RFA and patients treated with RFA alone. CEIM was achieved in 84% of patients treated with EMR before RFA, and 84% of patients treated with RFA only (P = 0.96). CED was achieved in 94% and 92% of patients in EMR-before-RFA and RFA-only group, respectively (P = 0.17). Durability of eradication did not differ between the groups. EMR-before-RFA for nodular BE with advanced neoplasia is effective and safe. The preceding EMR neither diminished the efficacy nor increased complication rate of RFA treatment compared to patients with advanced neoplasia who had RFA with no preceding EMR

  10. Telephone and face to face methods of assessment of veteran's community reintegration yield equivalent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melissa A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Community Reintegration of Service Members (CRIS is a new measure of community reintegration developed to measure veteran's participation in life roles. It consists of three sub-scales: Extent of Participation (Extent, Perceived Limitations with Participation (Perceived, and Satisfaction with Participation (Satisfaction. Testing of the CRIS measure to date has utilized in-person administration. Administration of the CRIS measure by telephone, if equivalent to in-person administration, would be desirable to lower cost and decrease administrative burden. The purpose of this study was to test the equivalence of telephone and in-person mode of CRIS administration. Methods A convenience sample of 102 subjects (76% male, 24% female, age mean = 49 years, standard deviation = 8.3 were randomly assigned to received either telephone interview at Visit 1 and in-person interview at Visit 2, or in-person interview at Visit 1 and telephone interview a Visit 2. Both Visits were conducted within one week. Intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC (2,1, were used to evaluate correspondence between modes for both item scores and summary scores. ANOVAs with mode order as a covariate were used to test for presence of an ordering effect. Results ICCs (95%CI for the subscales were 0.92 (0.88-0.94 for Extent, 0.85 (0.80-0.90 for Perceived, and 0.89 (0.84-0.93 for Satisfaction. No ordering effect was observed. Conclusion Telephone administration of the CRIS measure yielded equivalent results to in-person administration. Telephone administration of the CRIS may enable lower costs of administration and greater adoption.

  11. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.

  12. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  13. A COMPRESSED SENSING METHOD WITH ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR LIDAR FEATURE CLASSIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Josef D [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We present an innovative way to autonomously classify LiDAR points into bare earth, building, vegetation, and other categories. One desirable product of LiDAR data is the automatic classification of the points in the scene. Our algorithm automatically classifies scene points using Compressed Sensing Methods via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithms utilizing a generalized K-Means clustering algorithm to extract buildings and foliage from a Digital Surface Models (DSM). This technology reduces manual editing while being cost effective for large scale automated global scene modeling. Quantitative analyses are provided using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves to show Probability of Detection and False Alarm of buildings vs. vegetation classification. Histograms are shown with sample size metrics. Our inpainting algorithms then fill the voids where buildings and vegetation were removed, utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques and Partial Differential Equations (PDE) to create an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) [6]. Inpainting preserves building height contour consistency and edge sharpness of identified inpainted regions. Qualitative results illustrate other benefits such as Terrain Inpainting s unique ability to minimize or eliminate undesirable terrain data artifacts. Keywords: Compressed Sensing, Sparsity, Data Dictionary, LiDAR, ROC, K-Means, Clustering, K-SVD, Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

  14. Molecular evolution of contracting clouds - Basic methods and initial results. [interstellar processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerola, H.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between the dynamics of the interstellar gas and the thermal and chemical effects associated with interstellar molecules and dust is investigated. The evolution of a rather massive isolated initially diffuse cloud under self-gravity is studied, using the equations of hydrodynamics; only radial motions are considered, and the heat, chemical, and radiative-transfer equations are solved simultaneously with the hydrodynamic equations. The relevant chemistry is described along with the thermal model, the radiative-transfer process, and the numerical methods employed. Results for a contracting cloud are discussed in terms of the problem of initial conditions, the dynamical evolution of the cloud, its chemical and thermal evolution, time scales, and column densities. It is shown that the chemical evolution of a massive contracting diffuse cloud is sensitive to such physical properties as temperature and ion abundances, that warm and cool versions of a typical cloud evolve differently, and that the physical origin of this effect is the level of heating due to H2 formation on interstellar dust grains.

  15. AFPTAS results for common variants of bin packing: A new method to handle the small items

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Leah

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known natural variants of bin packing, and show that these packing problems admit asymptotic fully polynomial time approximation schemes (AFPTAS). In bin packing problems, a set of one-dimensional items of size at most 1 is to be assigned (packed) to subsets of sum at most 1 (bins). It has been known for a while that the most basic problem admits an AFPTAS. In this paper, we develop methods that allow to extend this result to other variants of bin packing. Specifically, the problems which we study in this paper, for which we design asymptotic fully polynomial time approximation schemes, are the following. The first problem is "Bin packing with cardinality constraints", where a parameter k is given, such that a bin may contain up to k items. The goal is to minimize the number of bins used. The second problem is "Bin packing with rejection", where every item has a rejection penalty associated with it. An item needs to be either packed to a bin or rejected, and the goal is to minimize the nu...

  16. Analysis Methods and Results for Weak Gamma-Ray Bursts in the BATSE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Anfimov, D. S.; Briggs, M. S.; Fishman, G. J.; Kippen, R. M.; Litvak, M. L.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Sanin, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    We report initial results on the statistical properties of the dimmest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), using new ground-based methods to obtain a sample of GRBs from 502 days of BATSE data. Using the most sensitive ground-based detection of GRBs, the sample extends to GRBs much fainter than those detected by the on-board trigger, but because of the temporal resolution of the data, the sample is limited to GRBs of duration of at least 2(approx.)s. For each detected event, Bayesian probabilities are calculated for the event to belong to each of seven classes of differing physical origins. The sample of GRB candidates is defined by the requirement that the Bayesian probability for belonging to the GRB class is higher than 0.5. The intensity distribution of the GRB sample is corrected using a Monte Carlo simulation of the post-flight detection efficiency. The dimmest BATSE bursts of the sample continue the hardness-intensity trend seen in brighter GREs and are consistent with isotropy.

  17. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: Preliminary results of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreli, Heloise F; Peduzzi, Marina; Bailey, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 professionals in 18 interprofessional teams based in São Paulo, Brazil. In Stage 2, data were collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of team members who participated in the first stage of the study. Results from Stage 1 provided an overview of factors relevant to teamwork, which in turn informed our exploration of the relationship between team climate and IPC. Preliminary findings from Stage 2 indicated that teams with a more positive team climate (in particular, greater participative safety) also reported more effective communication and mutual support. In conclusion, team climate provided insights into IPC, especially regarding aspects of communication and interaction in teams. Further research will provide a better understanding of differences and areas of overlap between team climate and IPC. It will potentially contribute for an innovative theoretical approach to explore interprofessional work in primary care settings.

  18. A compressed sensing method with analytical results for lidar feature classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Josef D.; Yuan, Jiangbo; Liu, Xiuwen; Rahmes, Mark

    2011-04-01

    We present an innovative way to autonomously classify LiDAR points into bare earth, building, vegetation, and other categories. One desirable product of LiDAR data is the automatic classification of the points in the scene. Our algorithm automatically classifies scene points using Compressed Sensing Methods via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithms utilizing a generalized K-Means clustering algorithm to extract buildings and foliage from a Digital Surface Models (DSM). This technology reduces manual editing while being cost effective for large scale automated global scene modeling. Quantitative analyses are provided using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves to show Probability of Detection and False Alarm of buildings vs. vegetation classification. Histograms are shown with sample size metrics. Our inpainting algorithms then fill the voids where buildings and vegetation were removed, utilizing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques and Partial Differential Equations (PDE) to create an accurate Digital Terrain Model (DTM) [6]. Inpainting preserves building height contour consistency and edge sharpness of identified inpainted regions. Qualitative results illustrate other benefits such as Terrain Inpainting's unique ability to minimize or eliminate undesirable terrain data artifacts.

  19. New results to BDD truncation method for efficient top event probability calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yuchang; Zhong, Farong; Zhao, Xiangfu [Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua (China); Yang, Quansheng [Computer Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Nanjing (China); Cui, Gang [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin institute of technology, Harbin (China)

    2012-10-15

    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since its memory consumption is very high. Recently, in order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, Jung presented an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. In this paper, it is first identified that Jung's BDD truncation algorithm can be improved for a more practical use. Then, a more efficient truncation algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can generate truncated BDD with smaller size and approximate TEP with smaller truncation error. Empirical results showed this new algorithm uses slightly less running time and slightly more storage usage than Jung's algorithm. It was also found, that designing a truncation algorithm with ideal features for every possible fault tree is very difficult, if not impossible. The so-called ideal features of this paper would be that with the decrease of truncation limits, the size of truncated BDD converges to the size of exact BDD, but should never be larger than exact BDD.

  20. Trends in Method of Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Results from SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena W. Rodbard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study assessed whether recent screening recommendations have led to increased diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM through routine screening. Methods. Respondents to the 2006 US SHIELD survey reported whether a physician told them they had T2DM, age at diagnosis, specialty of the physician who made the diagnosis, and whether the diagnosis was made after having symptoms, during routine screening, or when being treated for another health problem. Results. Of 3 022 T2DM respondents, 36% of respondents reported that T2DM diagnosis was made during routine screening alone, 20% after having symptoms alone, and 6% when being treated for another health problem alone. The proportion of T2DM respondents reporting a diagnosis based only on screening increased approximately 42% over a 15+-year time span (absolute increase from 31% to 44% (P<.001, whereas symptom-based diagnosis did not change significantly (P=.10. T2DM was diagnosed primarily by family physicians (88.3%. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of regular screening for diabetes and the vital role of primary care physicians in recognizing individuals with T2DM.

  1. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  2. Modelling the molecular Zeeman effect in M-dwarfs: methods and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Shulyak, D; Wende, S; Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Seifahrt, A

    2010-01-01

    We present first quantitative results of the surface magnetic field measurements in selected M-dwarfs based on detailed spectra synthesis conducted simultaneously in atomic and molecular lines of the FeH Wing-Ford $F^4\\,\\Delta-X^4\\,\\Delta$ transitions. A modified version of the Molecular Zeeman Library (MZL) was used to compute Land\\'e g-factors for FeH lines in different Hund's cases. Magnetic spectra synthesis was performed with the Synmast code. We show that the implementation of different Hund's case for FeH states depending on their quantum numbers allows us to achieve a good fit to the majority of lines in a sunspot spectrum in an automatic regime. Strong magnetic fields are confirmed via the modelling of atomic and FeH lines for three M-dwarfs YZ~CMi, EV~Lac, and AD~Leo, but their mean intensities are found to be systematically lower than previously reported. A much weaker field ($1.7-2$~kG against $2.7$~kG) is required to fit FeH lines in the spectra of GJ~1224. Our method allows us to measure average...

  3. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C., E-mail: andrealo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Howard, A. Fuchsia [School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hasan, Haroon [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Goddard, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  4. Adherence to drug-refill is a useful early warning indicator of virologic and immunologic failure among HIV patients on first-line ART in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad El-Khatib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Affordable strategies to prevent treatment failure on first-line regimens among HIV patients are essential for the long-term success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO recommends using routinely collected data such as adherence to drug-refill visits as early warning indicators. We examined the association between adherence to drug-refill visits and long-term virologic and immunologic failure among non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI recipients in South Africa. METHODS: In 2008, 456 patients on NNRTI-based ART for a median of 44 months (range 12-99 months; 1,510 person-years were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study in Soweto. Charts were reviewed for clinical characteristics before and during ART. Multivariable logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis assessed associations with virologic (two repeated VL>50 copies/ml and immunologic failure (as defined by WHO. RESULTS: After a median of 15 months on ART, 19% (n = 88 and 19% (n = 87 had failed virologically and immunologically respectively. A cumulative adherence of <95% to drug-refill visits was significantly associated with both virologic and immunologic failure (p<0.01. In the final multivariable model, risk factors for virologic failure were incomplete adherence (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.2-6.7, and previous exposure to single-dose nevirapine or any other antiretrovirals (adj. OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.2-3.9, adjusted for age and sex. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the virologic failure rate by month 48 was 19% vs. 37% among adherent and non-adherent patients respectively (logrank p value = 0.02. CONCLUSION: One in five failed virologically after a median of 15 months on ART. Adherence to drug-refill visits works as an early warning indicator for both virologic and immunologic failure.

  5. Multiple factor analysis of metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urothelium is often multifocal and subsequent tumors may occur anywhere in the urinary tract after the treatment of a primary carcinoma. Patients initially presenting a bladder cancer are at significant risk of developing metachronous tumors in the upper urinary tract (UUT. We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary invasive bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous UUT TCC after radical cystectomy. The records of 476 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for primary invasive bladder TCC from 1989 to 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The prognostic factors of UUT TCC were determined by multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazards regression model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also used to assess the variable incidence of UUT TCC according to different risk factors. Twenty-two patients (4.6%. developed metachronous UUT TCC. Multiplicity, prostatic urethral involvement by the bladder cancer and the associated carcinoma in situ (CIS were significant and independent factors affecting the occurrence of metachronous UUT TCC (P = 0.0425, 0.0082, and 0.0006, respectively. These results were supported, to some extent, by analysis of the UUT TCC disease-free rate by the Kaplan-Meier method, whereby patients with prostatic urethral involvement or with associated CIS demonstrated a significantly lower metachronous UUT TCC disease-free rate than patients without prostatic urethral involvement or without associated CIS (log-rank test, P = 0.0116 and 0.0075, respectively. Multiple tumors, prostatic urethral involvement and associated CIS were risk factors for metachronous UUT TCC, a conclusion that may be useful for designing follow-up strategies for primary invasive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.

  6. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  7. Good outcome of total hip replacement in patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Garry; Hunt, Linda P; Wilkinson, J Mark; Blom, Ashley W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — People with cerebral palsy (CP) often have painful deformed hips, but they are seldom treated with hip replacement as the surgery is considered to be high risk. However, few data are available on the outcome of hip replacement in these patients. Patients and methods — We linked Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) records to the National Joint Registry for England and Wales to identify 389 patients with CP who had undergone hip replacement. Their treatment and outcomes were compared with those of 425,813 patients who did not have CP. Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated to describe implant survivorship and the curves were compared using log-rank tests, with further stratification for age and implant type. Reasons for revision were quantified as patient-time incidence rates (PTIRs). Nationally collected patient-reported outcomes (PROMS) before and 6 months after operation were compared if available. Cumulative mortality (Kaplan-Meier) was estimated at 90 days and at 1, 3, and 5 years. Results — The cumulative probability of revision at 5 years post-surgery was 6.4% (95% CI: 3.8–11) in the CP cohort as opposed to 2.9% (CI 2.9–3%) in the non-CP cohort (p < 0.001). Patient-reported outcomes showed that CP patients had worse pain and function preoperatively, but had equivalent postoperative improvement. The median improvement in Oxford hip score at 6 months was 23 (IQR: 14–28) in CP and it was 21 (14–28) in non-CP patients. 91% of CP patients reported good or excellent satisfaction with their outcome. The cumulative probability of mortality for CP up to 7 years was similar to that in the controls after stratification for age and sex. Interpretation — Hip replacement for cerebral palsy appears to be safe and effective, although implant revision rates are higher than those in patients without cerebral palsy. PMID:26863583

  8. Pulmonary function tests in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the association between these tests and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Javad Mousavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapidity of progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS to death or respiratory failure impacts patients, clinicians, and clinical investigators. The aim of this study is to evaluate of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs in patients with ALS and the association between these PFTs and survival Methods: A total of 36 ALS patients who PFTs, including vital capacity (VC, maximum mid-expiratory flow rate (MMEFR, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, were available from the time of diagnosis were included in this study. Non-pulmonary characteristics assessed at the time of PFTs. Data were analyzed using chi-square, Student's independent t-test, Kaplan-Meier, correlation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve.The mean age of subjects was 55.36 (SD = 12.24 year, and the male to female ratio was 2.6. Twenty-five (69.4% were died in 5 years period of our study. The mean and median survival time (In months was calculated as 42.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.64-51.39 and 38 (95% CI 27.23-48.77 months, respectively. The rate of ALS survival was 74% at 1(st year, 41% at 3(rd year and 10% at 5(th year of starting symptoms. The results of Kaplan-Meier test showed survival was significantly longer in the group with PFTs closer to normal. In addition, ROC analysis showed that FVC < 50% could potentially be a predictor of death in ALS patients(P = 0.003, area under curve = 0.649.We found single measures of upright FVC, FEV1 to be significantly associated with survival, even after controlling for relevant non-pulmonary patient characteristics. Our study demonstrated that upright FVC, FEV1, VC, and MMEFR are useful non-invasive measures in the prediction of survival in ALS.

  9. Prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease treated in different therapy units at department of cardiology: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cong; Yao, Yuyu; Wang, Xin; Yu, Chaojun; Ma, Genshan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem in global. Benefit from different care unit for various type of CAD is remaining unknown. We investigate if coronary care unit (CCU) reduces the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Method: 806 CAD patients including stable angina (SA) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who treated in department of cardiology were involved in the study as two groups. Each group involved two subgroups according to the therapy unit including CCU and normal unit. 12-48 months follow-up was carried out. The primary end point was all cause mortality. Results: For SA, death from any cause occurred in 1.0% of the patients in the normal group (1 of 108), as compared with 5.1% in the CCU group (3 of 59) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.164; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.017 to 1.580; P=0.118). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two subgroups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.074), revascularization (P=0.660), stroke (P=0.497), heart failure (P=0.658) and hemorrhage (P=0.096). For ACS, death occurred in 1.9% of the patients in the normal subgroup (5 of 267), as compared with 1.3% in the CCU subgroup (5 of 372) (HR, 1.403; 95% CI, 0.406-4.846; P=0.593). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two subgroups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.591), revascularization (P=0.996), stroke (P=0.425), heart failure (P=0.625). Conclusion: CAD patients treated in CCU obtain little benefits compared with normal. PMID:26629060

  10. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, Brandon M., E-mail: barney.brandon@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N. [Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  11. Durability and Predictors of Successful Radiofrequency Ablation for Barrett’s Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sarina; Bulsiewicz, William J.; Hathorn, Kelly E.; Komanduri, Srinadh; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Rothstein, Richard I.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Overholt, Bergein F.; Camara, Daniel S.; Dellon, Evan S.; Lyday, William D.; Ertan, Atilla; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Following radiofrequency ablation (RFA), patients may experience recurrence of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) after complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM). Rates and predictors of recurrence after successful eradication are poorly described. Methods We used the U.S. RFA Registry, a nationwide registry of BE patients receiving RFA, to determine rates and factors that predicted recurrence of IM. We assessed recurrence by Kaplan-Meier analysis for the overall cohort and by worst pretreatment histology. Characteristics associated with recurrence were included in a logistic regression model to identify independent predictors. Results Among 5521 patients, 3728 had biopsies ≥12 months after initiation of RFA. Of these, 3169 (85%) achieved CEIM, and 1634 (30%) met inclusion criteria. Average follow-up was 2.4 years after CEIM. IM recurred in 334 (20%), and was non-dysplastic or indefinite for dysplasia in 86% (287/334); the average length of recurrent BE was 0.6 cm. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, more advanced pretreatment histology was associated with an increased yearly recurrence rate. Compared to patients without recurrence, patients with recurrence were more likely, based on bi-variate analysis, to be older, have longer BE segments, be non-Caucasian, have dysplastic BE before treatment, and require more treatment sessions. In multivariate analysis, likelihood for recurrence was associated with increasing age and BE length, and non-Caucasian race. Conclusion BE recurred in 20% of patients followed for an average of 2.4 years after CEIM. Most recurrences were short segments and were non-dysplastic or indefinite for dysplasia. Older age, non-Caucasian race, and increasing length of BE length were all risk factors. These risk factors should be considered when planning post-RFA surveillance intervals. PMID:24815329

  12. Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 expression is associated with a favorable prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianci; Shu, Tianci; Dong, Siyuan; Li, Peiwen; Li, Weinan; Liu, Dali; Qi, Ruiqun; Zhang, Shuguang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Decreased expression of human chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 (CMTM3) has been identified in a number of human tumors and tumor cell lines, including gastric and testicular cancer, and PC3, CAL27 and Tca-83 cell lines. However, the association between CMTM3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between CMTM3 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in ESCC. CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression was analyzed in ESCC and paired non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used for univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results revealed that CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in 82.5% (30/40) and 75% (30/40) of ESCC tissues, respectively, when compared with matched non-tumor tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated that CMTM3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.002) and clinical stage (P<0.001) in ESCC tissues. Furthermore, the survival time of ESCC patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly shorter than that of ESCC patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.01). In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival time of patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly decreased compared with patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.010). Cox multivariate analysis indicated that CMTM3 protein expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC after resection. This study indicated that CMTM3 expression is significantly decreased in ESCC tissues and CMTM3 protein expression in resected tumors may present an effective prognostic

  13. SAMSN1 is highly expressed and associated with a poor survival in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the expression pattern and prognostic significance of SAMSN1 in glioma. METHODS: Affymetrix and Arrystar gene microarray data in the setting of glioma was analyzed to preliminarily study the expression pattern of SAMSN1 in glioma tissues, and Hieratical clustering of gene microarray data was performed to filter out genes that have prognostic value in malignant glioma. Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier estimates stratified by SAMSN1 expression was then made based on the data of more than 500 GBM cases provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project. At last, we detected the expression of SAMSN1 in large numbers of glioma and normal brain tissue samples using Tissue Microarray (TMA. Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier estimates in each grade of glioma was stratified by SAMSN1 expression. Multivariate survival analysis was made by Cox proportional hazards regression models in corresponding groups of glioma. RESULTS: With the expression data of SAMSN1 and 68 other genes, high-grade glioma could be classified into two groups with clearly different prognoses. Gene and large sample tissue microarrays showed high expression of SAMSN1 in glioma particularly in GBM. Survival analysis based on the TCGA GBM data matrix and TMA multi-grade glioma dataset found that SAMSN1 expression was closely related to the prognosis of GBM, either PFS or OS (P<0.05. Multivariate survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression models confirmed that high expression of SAMSN1 was a strong risk factor for PFS and OS of GBM patients. CONCLUSION: SAMSN1 is over-expressed in glioma as compared with that found in normal brains, especially in GBM. High expression of SAMSN1 is a significant risk factor for the progression free and overall survival of GBM.

  14. The Method for Assessing and Forecasting Value of Knowledge in SMEs – Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007. Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effectiveness of investing in human resources, taking into consideration existing methods. The method presented is focusing on SMEs (taking into consideration their importance for, especially, regional development. It consists of four parts: an SME reference model, an indicator matrix to assess investments into knowledge, innovation indicators, and the GMDH algorithm for decision making. The method presented is exemplified by a case study including 10 companies.

  15. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-01-01

    .... We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic...

  16. GLOBAL CONVERGENCE RESULTS OF A THREE TERM MEMORY GRADIENT METHOD WITH A NON-MONOTONE LINE SEARCH TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qingying

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new class of three term memory gradient method with nonmonotone line search technique for unconstrained optimization is presented. Global convergence properties of the new methods are discussed. Combining the quasi-Newton method with the new method, the former is modified to have global convergence property. Numerical results show that the new algorithm is efficient.

  17. Estimated H-atom anisotropic displacement parameters: a comparison between different methods and with neutron diffraction results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munshi, Parthapratim; Madsen, Anders Ø; Spackman, Mark A;

    2008-01-01

    Anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are compared for H atoms estimated using three recently described procedures, both among themselves and with neutron diffraction results. The results convincingly demonstrate that all methods are capable of giving excellent results for several benchmark...

  18. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  19. Performance of a FieldSpec spectroradiometer for aerosol optical depth retrieval: method and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Estellés, Víctor; Campanelli, Monica; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Martínez-Lozano, José Antonio

    2009-04-10

    The performance of a FieldSpec spectroradiometer for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been assessed after modifying its basic configuration in order to measure direct solar irradiance at ground level. The FieldSpec measurements were obtained during four summertime days in the years 2004 and 2005, over a Spanish agricultural site in Barrax, Albacete (30 degrees 3(') N, 2 degrees 6(') W, 700 m a.s.l.), in the framework of two European Space Agency mission remote sensing field campaigns. From the whole FieldSpec spectral domain (350-2500 nm) the AOD was extracted for channels within atmospheric windows. The instrument was calibrated by means of the standard Langley plot method, performed at a high mountain site in Italy. The AOD retrieved by the FieldSpec has been validated by comparison with the AOD obtained from a colocated CIMEL CE318 Sun photometer. The FieldSpec AOD spectra were convoluted with the CE318 filter transmission functions in order to make both datasets comparable. Our results show that both datasets are very similar (R(2) around 0.9) for all the channels from the CE318, with an average deviation of about 0.02. The temporal evolution of the AOD was accurately monitored by the FieldSpec under different atmospheric conditions, as was the case for a previously reported mineral dust intrusion. As a conclusion, the comparison performed in this study shows that the FieldSpec spectroradiometer is a suitable instrument for retrieving the AOD in different atmospheric situations.

  20. Risk and return of private equity: An overview of data, methods, and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phalippou, L.; Cumming, D.

    2010-01-01

    I cover the different methods to measure risk and return of investing into private equity (also called buyout). However, the reader may bear in mind that the challenges and methods are very similar for other assets classes such as venture capital, real estate or mezzanine. In terms of vocabulary, I

  1. Does Method of Handling Missing Data Affect Results of a Structural Equation Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witta, E. Lea

    The influence of method of handling missing data on estimates produced by a structural equation model of the effects of part-time work on high-school student achievement was investigated. Missing data methods studied were listwise deletion, pairwise deletion, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, regression, and response pattern. The 26…

  2. Risk and return of private equity: An overview of data, methods, and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phalippou, L.; Cumming, D.

    2010-01-01

    I cover the different methods to measure risk and return of investing into private equity (also called buyout). However, the reader may bear in mind that the challenges and methods are very similar for other assets classes such as venture capital, real estate or mezzanine. In terms of vocabulary, I

  3. A Novel Method for Analyzing and Interpreting GCM Results Using Clustered Climate Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. M.; Hargrove, W. W.; Erickson, D. J.; Oglesby, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    A high-performance parallel clustering algorithm has been developed for analyzing and comparing climate model results and long time series climate measurements. Designed to identify biases and detect trends in disparate climate change data sets, this tool combines and simplifies large temporally-varying data sets from atmospheric measurements to multi-century climate model output. Clustering is a statistical procedure which provides an objective method for grouping multivariate conditions into a set of states or regimes within a given level of statistical tolerance. The groups or clusters--statistically defined across space and through time--possess centroids which represent the synoptic conditions of observations or model results contained in each state no matter when or where they occurred. The clustering technique was applied to five business-as-usual (BAU) scenarios from the Parallel Climate Model (PCM). Three fields of significance (surface temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture) were clustered from 2000 through 2098. Our analysis shows an increase in spatial area occupied by the cluster or climate regime which typifies desert regions (i.e., an increase in desertification) and a decrease in the spatial area occupied by the climate regime typifying winter-time high latitude perma-frost regions. The same analysis subsequently applied to the ensemble as a whole demonstrates the consistency and variability of trends from each ensemble member. The patterns of cluster changes can be used to show predicted variability in climate on global and continental scales. Novel three-dimensional phase space representations of these climate regimes show the portion of this phase space occupied by the land surface at all points in space and time. Any single spot on the globe will exist in one of these climate regimes at any single point in time, and by incrementing time, that same spot will trace out a trajectory or orbit among these climate regimes in phase space. When a

  4. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, L. [GEOSIGMA AB/LE Geokonsult AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, {phi}76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order

  5. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 颈内动脉闭塞患者脑缺血事件的随访结果分析%Cerebrovascular ischemic events in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion:an analysis of the follow-up results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱磊; 石进; 张晓敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tofollowupandanalyzetheoccurrenceofcerebrovascularischemiceventsin patientswithinternalcarotidarteryocclusion(ICAO).Methods Atotalof144consecutivepatients with ICAO admitted to the Department of Neurology,the Air Force General Hospital from January 2007 to January 2012 were enrolled retrospectively. All patients were confirmed as unilateral ICAO with DSA and they were divided into either a symptomatic group (n=74)or an asymptomatic group (n=70)according to whether they had the symptoms of ischemic cerebrovascular disease or not. Both patients of the 2 groups were followed up for at least 2 years. Their transient ischemic attack (TIA)and endpoint events were observed,including new symptomatic cerebral infarction,death from any cause,as well as patency of collateral circulation,andthefollow-upresultsbetweenthetwogroupswerecompared.Results Twenty-one patients (28. 4%)of the symptomatic group had new attack of cerebral infarction,10 cases (13. 5%)had TIA,and 4 cases (5. 4%)died;9 patients (12.9%)of the asymptomatic group had new attack of cerebral infarction,4 cases (5 . 7%)had TIA,and no patients died. Risk of recurrent stroke in patients of the symptomatic group was higher than that of the asymptomatic group (P=0. 025). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the incidence of endpoint event of the symptomatic group was higher than that of the asymptomatic group (χ2 =8. 428,P =0. 004). There was significant difference in the patent ratio of the primary collateral circulation between the symptomatic group and the asymptomatic group (64. 9%[48/74] vs. 91. 4%[64/70];P=0. 000);the patent ratio of the primary collateral circulation in patients with new cerebral infarction was significantly lower than that in patients without new cerebral infarction (60. 0%[18/30]vs.82.5%[94/114];P=0.013).Conclusion ThepatientswithsymptomaticICAOaremore likely to have cerebral infarction,and they are likely to die. After ICAO,the primary collateral circulation patent has a significant

  7. On a new iterative method for solving linear systems and comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu

    2008-10-01

    In Ujevic [A new iterative method for solving linear systems, Appl. Math. Comput. 179 (2006) 725-730], the author obtained a new iterative method for solving linear systems, which can be considered as a modification of the Gauss-Seidel method. In this paper, we show that this is a special case from a point of view of projection techniques. And a different approach is established, which is both theoretically and numerically proven to be better than (at least the same as) Ujevic's. As the presented numerical examples show, in most cases, the convergence rate is more than one and a half that of Ujevic.

  8. Phantom skin absorption coefficients from spectrophotometric and integrating sphere methods: preliminary comparative results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimalistic or non-invasive diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders requires accurate information regarding skin optical properties. Spectrophotometric and Integrating Sphere (IS) methods are commonly used to extract information regarding...

  9. Analysis of Perfluorinated Chemicals and Their Fluorinated Precursors in Sludge: Method Development and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rigorous method was developed to maximize the extraction efficacy for perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAc), perfluorosulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorosulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs) from was...

  10. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development...

  11. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution: I. Methods and Example Results

    CERN Document Server

    Way, M J; Scargle, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for detecting and characterizing structure in point data, such as that generated by redshift surveys, are described: classification using self-organizing maps, segmentation using Bayesian blocks, and density estimation using adaptive kernels. The first two methods are new, and allow detection and characterization of structures of arbitrary shape and at a wide range of spatial scales. They elucidate not only clusters, but also sheets, filaments, and the even more general morphologies comprising the Cosmic Web. The methods are demonstrated and compared in application to three data sets: a carefully selected volume-limited sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) redshift data, a similarly selected sample from the Millennium Simulation, and a set of points independently drawn from a uniform probability distribution -- a so-called Poisson distribution. We demonstrate a few of the many ways in which these methods elucidate large scale structure in the distribution of galaxies in the nearby Uni...

  12. The CONSTANCES cohort, an epidemiological research infrastructure. Methods and results of the pilot phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: prospective cohorts represent an essential design for epidemiological studies and allow for the study of the combined effects of lifestyle, environment, genetic predisposition, and other risk factors on a large variety of disease endpoints. The CONSTANCES cohort is intended to provide public health information and to serve as an epidemiological research infrastructure accessible to the epidemiologic research community. Although designed as a “general-purpose” cohort with very broad coverage, it will particularly focus on occupational and social determinants of health, and on chronic diseases and aging.Methods: the CON STANC ES cohort is designed as a randomly selected representative sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200 000 subjects will be included over a five-year period. At inclusion, the selected subjects are invited to fill a questionnaire and to attend a Health Screening Center (HSC for a comprehensive health examination: weight, height, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, vision, auditory, spirometry, and biological parameters; for those aged 45 years and older, a specific work-up of functional, physical, and cognitive capacities is performed. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes a yearly self-administered questionnaire, and a periodic visit to an HSC. Social and work-related events and health data are collected from the French national retirement, health and death databases. The data include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events, behaviors, and occupational factors. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalizations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare utilization and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation at inclusion and attrition throughout the longitudinal follow-up, a

  13. The Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS). Design, methods and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin-Hemphill, L; Kramsch, D M; Azen, S P; DeMets, D; DeBoer, L W; Hwang, I; Vailas, L; Hirsch, L J; Mack, W J; DeBoer, L

    1992-10-23

    The Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS) was designed to evaluate the effect of cholesterol lowering by monotherapy with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor on progression/regression of atherosclerosis in subjects with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the design, methods, and baseline results of MARS. MARS is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with baseline, 2-year, and 4-year coronary angiography as well as carotid, brachial, and popliteal ultrasonography. Outpatient clinics at the University of Southern California School of Medicine and the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine. Two hundred seventy participants of both sexes were recruited directly from the cardiac catheterization laboratory or by chart review of patients having undergone cardiac catheterization in the past. Subjects were considered eligible if they had angiographically demonstrable atherosclerosis in 2 or more coronary artery segments, unaltered by angioplasty, with at least 1 lesion > or = 50% but or = 500 mg/dL; premenopausal females; uncontrolled hypertension; diabetes mellitus; untreated thyroid disease; liver dysfunction; renal insufficiency; congestive heart failure; major arrhythmia; left ventricular conduction defects; or any life-threatening disease. Subjects were placed on a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and either 40 mg b.i.d. lovastatin (Mevacor) or placebo. Randomization was stratified by sex, smoking status, and TC. Per-subject average change in %S as determined by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) is the primary angiographic endpoint. Secondary endpoints are: categorical analyses of the proportion of subjects with progression; human panel reading of coronary angiograms; and change in minimum lumen diameter (MLD) in mm by QCA. Carotid, brachial, and popliteal ultrasonography is also being performed. The subjects randomized into MARS are 91.5% male with an age range of 37 to

  14. Spectral modeling of Ceres VIR data from Dawn: Method and Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ciarniello, M.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Frigeri, A.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; Marchi, S.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Turrini, D.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn spacecraft [1] is at Ceres, the closest of the IAU-defined dwarf planets to the Sun. This work focuses on the interpretation of Ceres’ surface composition based on the data from the VIR instrument [2] onboard Dawn. The Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer combines high spectral and spatial resolution in the VIS (0.25-1mm) and IR (1-5mm) spectral ranges. VIR will provide a very good coverage of the surface during its orbital mission at Ceres.In order to model the measured spectra, we have utilized Hapke's radiative transfer model [3], which allows estimation of the mineral composition, the relative abundances of the spectral end-members, and the grain size. Optical constants of the spectral end-members are approximated by applying the methodology described in [4] to IR spectra reflectance obtained from the RELAB database.The observed spectra of Ceres surface are affected by a thermal emission component that prevents direct comparison with laboratory data at longer wavelengths. Thus to model the whole wavelength range measured by VIR, the thermal emission is modeled together with the reflectance. Calibrated spectra are first cleaned by removing artefacts. A best fit is obtained with a least square optimization algorithm. For further details on the method, see reference [5].The range 2.5 - 2.9 μm is severely hindered by Earth's atmosphere, but it contains a strong absorption band that dominates the IR Ceres’ spectrum. Thanks to the VIR instrument we can obtain a compositional model for the whole IR range [6]. We used several different combinations of materials hypothesized to be representative of the Ceres’ surface including phyllosilicates, ices, carbonaceous chondrites and salts. The results will be discussed.Acknowledgements This work is supported by the Italian Space Agencies and NASA. Enabling contributions from the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams are gratefully acknowledged.Reference[1] Russell et al., Space Sci. Rev., 163

  15. Unsupervised nonlinear dimensionality reduction machine learning methods applied to multiparametric MRI in cerebral ischemia: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vishwa S.; Jacobs, Jeremy R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation and treatment of acute cerebral ischemia requires a technique that can determine the total area of tissue at risk for infarction using diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Typical MRI data sets consist of T1- and T2-weighted imaging (T1WI, T2WI) along with advanced MRI parameters of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) methods. Each of these parameters has distinct radiological-pathological meaning. For example, DWI interrogates the movement of water in the tissue and PWI gives an estimate of the blood flow, both are critical measures during the evolution of stroke. In order to integrate these data and give an estimate of the tissue at risk or damaged; we have developed advanced machine learning methods based on unsupervised non-linear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) techniques. NLDR methods are a class of algorithms that uses mathematically defined manifolds for statistical sampling of multidimensional classes to generate a discrimination rule of guaranteed statistical accuracy and they can generate a two- or three-dimensional map, which represents the prominent structures of the data and provides an embedded image of meaningful low-dimensional structures hidden in their high-dimensional observations. In this manuscript, we develop NLDR methods on high dimensional MRI data sets of preclinical animals and clinical patients with stroke. On analyzing the performance of these methods, we observed that there was a high of similarity between multiparametric embedded images from NLDR methods and the ADC map and perfusion map. It was also observed that embedded scattergram of abnormal (infarcted or at risk) tissue can be visualized and provides a mechanism for automatic methods to delineate potential stroke volumes and early tissue at risk.

  16. Evidenced-based clinical practice of interventional therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma:2-year follow-up results in 59 cases%中晚期肝细胞肝癌介入治疗的循证临床实践二年随访观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保国; 温浩; 郭志; 王海涛

    2010-01-01

    , interventional therapy, systematic review and meta-analysis etc. Based upon an analysis of the searching results, rational evidence based interventional therapy regimes were made. The survival benefit was studied by comparing with the empirical counterpart of the same period and with the same inclusion criteria. Data and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were conducted by SPSS version 16. 0software. Results Nine randomized controlled clinical trials related to clinical questions and three systematic reviews were retrieved. A total of 119 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were included. The evidence-based interventional therapy was performed in 59 cases and empirical interventional therapy in other 60 cases. The 2-year follow-up results confirmed that the evidence-based regimes were more appropriate for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. The 1 and 2-year overall survival rates in evidence-based interventional therapy group and empirical group were 79. 7% vs 68. 3% and 50. 8% vs 31.7% respectively. And the difference was significant (P<0. 05). Conclusion Choosing the therapeutic regimes according to evidence-based medicinemethods can increase the clinical efficacy of interventional therapy and achieve survival benefits.

  17. Fractal methods and results in cellular morphology--dimensions, lacunarity and multifractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T G; Lange, G D; Marks, W B

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of fractal geometry in a cellular biological context. It defines the concept of the fractal dimension. D, as a measure of complexity and illustrates the two different general ways of quantitatively measuring D by length-related and mass-related methods. Then, these several Ds are compared and contrasted. A goal of the paper is to find methods other than length-related measures that can distinguish between two objects that have the same D but are structurally different. The mass-related D is shown potentially to be such a measure. The concept of lacunarity, L, is defined and methods of measuring L are illustrated. L is also shown to be a potentially distinguishing measure. Finally, the notion of multifracticality is defined and illustrated to exist in certain individual nerve and glial cells.

  18. Methods for Minimization and Management of Variability in Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    statistical analyses. A balanced dataset based on analytical results for each planned primary sample: 480 total samples Two demonstration sites... balanced dataset of analytical results from 480 groundwater samples based on analytical results for each planned primary sample: two demonstration...the peer review analyst of the staff chemist , the department supervisor, and finally the data entry personnel. The laboratory report will be

  19. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  20. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  1. Effect of different sample collection methods on the results of raw milk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Jakeline Fernandes; Silva, Marco Antônio Pereira da; Brasil, Rafaella Belchior; Carvalho, Thiago Soares; Giovannini, Cristiane Isabô; Nicolau, Edmar Soares

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of raw milk shall be careful to reflect their actual composition, and different methods of collection, may lead to variations in levels of milk components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of milk sampling on the chemical composition and somatic cell count. Milk samples were taken from 492 cows in a dairy farm of Rio Verde, state of Goiás, Brazil. Two sampling methodologies were used: a pool-sample and a complete sample (40 mL) of...

  2. Sobrevida de mulheres tratadas por câncer de mama no estado do Rio de Janeiro Sobrevida de mujeres tratadas por câncer de mama en el estado de Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil Survival of breast cancer women in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brito

    2009-06-01

    highly complex cancer procedures covered by the National Health System and a sample of 310 medical records of prevalent breast cancer cases attended at 15 inpatient and outpatient cancer care units providing chemotherapy between 1999 and 2002 in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Independent variables were infrastructure of cancer units, interventions, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model (pseudolikelihood were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analyses pointed out significant associations between survival and time between diagnosis and treatment start, surgery, hormone therapy, type of adjuvant hormone therapy, therapy combinations, type of care unit and health insurance, unit size and category. Estimates obtained from the Cox model showed positive associations between hazard of death and time between diagnosis and treatment, unit size and type combined to use of health insurance, and negative associations between survival and surgery and type of hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings show an association between breast cancer survival and health care provided by affiliated services with practical implications for policy making for cancer control in Brazil.

  3. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 1; Overview, Results, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    Scale model fan rigs that simulate new generation ultra-high-bypass engines at about 1/5-scale are achieving increased importance as development vehicles for the design of low-noise aircraft engines. Testing at small scale allows the tests to be performed in existing anechoic wind tunnels, which provides an accurate simulation of the important effects of aircraft forward motion on the noise generation. The ability to design, build, and test miniaturized acoustic treatment panels on scale model fan rigs representative of the fullscale engine provides not only a cost-savings, but an opportunity to optimize the treatment by allowing tests of different designs. The primary objective of this study was to develop methods that will allow scale model fan rigs to be successfully used as acoustic treatment design tools. The study focuses on finding methods to extend the upper limit of the frequency range of impedance prediction models and acoustic impedance measurement methods for subscale treatment liner designs, and confirm the predictions by correlation with measured data. This phase of the program had as a goal doubling the upper limit of impedance measurement from 6 kHz to 12 kHz. The program utilizes combined analytical and experimental methods to achieve the objectives.

  4. Characterization of PV modules by combining results of mechanical and electrical analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Martin; Henke, Bastian; Schwarz, Hannes; Dietrich, Sascha; Schweizer, Stefan; Ebert, Matthias; Bagdahn, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaic modules (PV modules) are supposed to have a lifetime of more than 20 years under various environmental conditions like temperature changes, mechanical loads, etc. Common outdoor exposure may influence efficiency and lifetime which necessitates assessment of PV module performance and detection of output deficits. For this purpose reliable and nondestructive testing methods are desirable. Commercially available PV modules were tested by different analysis methods. The PV module's electrical properties were investigated by thermography and electroluminescence measurements. The combination of these two techniques is well-suited to detect many cell and module defects. A crystalline module showed significant cell breakage after temperature cycle test. To observe the mechanisms of this specific defect type laminated test specimens on smaller scales were produced and analyzed over production process and during temperature cycles derived from the international standards IEC 61215 and IEC 61646. The defect study on small scales allows conclusions about the defect's influence on larger PV modules. Further methods capable for mechanical characterization like Laser Doppler vibrometry, surface geometry scan and digital image correlation are presented briefly. The combination of the methods mentioned above allows a very precise assessment of the mechanical and electrical capability which is essential for reliability and lifetime concepts.

  5. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused...

  6. [Indications, method and results of autotransfusion in trauma and vascular surgery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, L; de Mol, J; Derom, F; de Roose, J

    1975-03-01

    The authors have used the Bentley Ats 100 system, a disposable autotransfusion unit, in 31 cases of trauma and major vascular surgery. An original method of anticoagulation consisting in heparine (1 mg/kg bodyweight) and priming and flushing of the succion unit with ACD is described. The effect of the autotransfusion on the coagulation and the recent problems and advances are discussed.

  7. Results of geophysical methods in the northern forefield of open-pits Merkur and Brezno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobes, M.; Exner, J.; Matous, J.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive geophysical surveys have been conducted around the Merkur and Brezno surface mines, Czechoslovakia, with the objective of mapping the coal seam outcrop, studying the extent of Tertiary sediments and volcanites, and investigating the tectonics of the basement rocks. Geoelectric methods, magnetometry and gravimetry were used in the surveys. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Nutrient limitations in wet, drained and rewetted fen meadows : evaluation of methods and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duren, IC; Pegtel, DM

    2000-01-01

    Restoration of wet grassland communities on peat soils involves management of nutrient supply and hydrology. The concept of nutrient limitation was discussed as well as its interaction with drainage and rewetting of severely drained peat soils. Different methods of assessing nutrient limitation were

  9. Multigroup Analysis in Partial Least Squares (PLS) Path Modeling: Alternative Methods and Empirical Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarstedt, Marko; Henseler, Jörg; Ringle, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling has become a pivotal empirical research method in international marketing. Owing to group comparisons' important role in research on international marketing, we provide researchers with recommendations on how to conduct multigroup analyses in PLS p

  10. Methods of Euphemisms and Dysphemisms Formal Representation as Resulting Units in Relation to the Initial Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Belikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to examine the methods of formal representation of euphemisms and dysphemisms, structurally represented as separate words, phrases or sentences, used in the English-language newspaper text. This analysis enables to take a fresh look at the essence of euphemisms and dysphemisms phenomena, many features of which went unnoticed in the previous theories.

  11. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices - How numerical implementation affects the results

    OpenAIRE

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and ti...

  12. Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in Ethiopia, 2005- 2011: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos M Tiruneh

    Full Text Available Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU-missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring. We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6-11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory.Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64% and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study's end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03-2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15-3.70, respectively, compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100-200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11-3.80] and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00-2.24] were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention.Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient-provider communication could address many of the identified barriers.

  13. Technical note: Determination of acidity in whole raw milk: comparison of results obtained by two different analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, M A; Milanesio, H V; Robert, L M; Speranza, J L; Murphy, M; Rodríguez, G; Castañeda, R

    2006-03-01

    In Argentina, one analytical method is usually carried out to determine acidity in whole raw milk: the Instituto Nacional de Racionalización de Materiales standard (no. 14005), based on the Dornic method of French origin. In a national and international regulation, the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International method (no. 947.05) is proposed as the standard method of analysis. Although these methods have the same foundation, there is no evidence that results obtained using the 2 methods are equivalent. The presence of some trends and discordant data lead us to perform a statistical study to verify the equivalency of the obtained results. We analyzed 266 samples and the existence of significant differences between the results obtained by both methods was determined.

  14. New Cyclic Voltammetry Method for Examining Phase Transitions on Electrodes: Simulated Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Hamad, Ibrahim; Robb, Daniel; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-03-01

    We propose a new experimental technique for cyclic voltammetry, based on the first-order reversal curve (FORC) method for analysis of systems undergoing hysteresis. The advantages of this technique are demonstrated by applying it to dynamical models of electrochemical adsorption. The method can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions, but can also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems with a continuous phase transition. The FORC diagram for a discontinuous phase transition is characterized by a negative (unstable) region separating two positive (stable) regions, while such a negative region does not exist for continuous phase transitions. Experimental data for Electrochemical FORC (EC-FORC) analysis could easily be obtained by simple reprogramming of a potentiostat designed for conventional cyclic-voltammetry experiments.I. Abou Hamad, D.T. Robb, P.A. Rikvold, J. Electroanal. Chem., in press.

  15. Health effects estimation: methods and results for uranium mill tailings contaminated properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Soldat, J.K.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes methods for esimating potential health effects from exposure to uranium mill tailings and presents a summary of risk projections for 57 contaminated properties (residences, schools, churches, and businesses) in the United States. The methods provide realistic estimates of cancer risk to exposed individuals based on property-specific occupancy and contamination patterns. External exposure to gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and consumption of food products grown in radium-contaminated soil are considered. Most of the projected risk was from indoor exposure to radon daughters; however, for some properties the risk from consumption of locally grown food products is similar to that from radon daughters. In all cases, the projected number of lifetime cancer deaths for specific properties is less than one, but for some properties the increase in risk over that normally expected is greater than 100%.

  16. New results on top-quark mass, including new methods, in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Recent results on top-quark mass measurements with the ATLAS detector using proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider are presented. These results correspond to the measurements in the $t\\bar{t}$ all-hadronic and dilepton channels at $\\sqrt{s} = \\mathrm{8\\ TeV}$ collisions and an integrated luminosity of 20 $\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$.

  17. How Laboratory Sampling Techniques and Extraction Methods Affect Reprod