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Sample records for kaplan meier method

  1. The Kaplan-Meier Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerds, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Survival is difficult to estimate when observation periods of individuals differ in length. Students imagine sailing the Titanic and then recording whether they "live" or "die." A clever algorithm is performed which results in the Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival.

  2. The Kaplan-Meier theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Survival probabilities are not straightforward toobtain when observation periods of individuals differ in length. The Kaplan–Meier theatre is a classroom activity, which starts by a data collection exercise where students imagine sailing on the Titanic. Several students ‘fall in the water’ where....... The Kaplan–Meier method assumes that censored individuals have the same survival chances as the individuals who are still observed. During the Kaplan–Meier theatre, students perform a clever algorithm (Efron 1967), which translates the assumption into action and results in the Kaplan–Meier estimate...

  3. The analysis of competing events like cause-specific mortality--beware of the Kaplan-Meier method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, Marion; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Jager, Kitty J.; le Cessie, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier analysis is a popular method used for analysing time-to-event data. In case of competing event analyses such as that of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, however, the Kaplan-Meier method profoundly overestimates the cumulative mortality probabilities for each of the

  4. Modified Weighted Kaplan-Meier Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiq

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many medical studies majority of the study subjects do not reach to the event of interest during the study period. In such situations survival probabilities can be estimated for censored observation by Kaplan Meier estimator. However in case of heavy censoring these estimates are biased and over estimate the survival probabilities. For heavy censoring a new method was proposed (Bahrawar Jan, 2005 to estimate the survival probabilities by weighting the censored observations by non-censoring rate. But the main defect in this weighted method is that it gives zero weight to the last censored observation. To over come this difficulty a new weight is proposed which also gives a non-zero weight to the last censored observation.

  5. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-10-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects.

  6. About an adaptively weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Jean-François

    2009-09-01

    The minimum averaged mean squared error nonparametric adaptive weights use data from m possibly different populations to infer about one population of interest. The definition of these weights is based on the properties of the empirical distribution function. We use the Kaplan-Meier estimate to let the weights accommodate right-censored data and use them to define the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate. The proposed estimate is smoother than the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate and converges uniformly in probability to the target distribution. Simulations show that the performances of the weighted Kaplan-Meier estimate on finite samples exceed that of the usual Kaplan-Meier estimate. A case study is also presented.

  7. The Kaplan-Meier Integral in the Presence of Covariates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas A.; Beyersmann, Jan; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    In a series of papers, Winfried Stute introduced and studied the Kaplan-Meier integral as an estimator of parameters of the joint distribution of survival times and covariates based on right censored survival times. We present a review of this work and show that his estimator has an inverse...... probability of censoring weighting (IPCW) representation. We further investigate large sample bias and efficiency. As a central application in a biostatistical context, Kaplan-Meier integrals are used to estimate transition probabilities in a non-Markov illness-death model. We extend already existing...

  8. Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis Overestimates the Risk of Revision Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacny, Sarah; Wilson, Todd; Clement, Fiona; Roberts, Derek J; Faris, Peter D; Ghali, William A; Marshall, Deborah A

    2015-11-01

    Although Kaplan-Meier survival analysis is commonly used to estimate the cumulative incidence of revision after joint arthroplasty, it theoretically overestimates the risk of revision in the presence of competing risks (such as death). Because the magnitude of overestimation is not well documented, the potential associated impact on clinical and policy decision-making remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to answer the following questions: (1) To what extent does the Kaplan-Meier method overestimate the cumulative incidence of revision after joint replacement compared with alternative competing-risks methods? (2) Is the extent of overestimation influenced by followup time or rate of competing risks? We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Web of Science (1946, 1980, 1980, and 1899, respectively, to October 26, 2013) and included article bibliographies for studies comparing estimated cumulative incidence of revision after hip or knee arthroplasty obtained using both Kaplan-Meier and competing-risks methods. We excluded conference abstracts, unpublished studies, or studies using simulated data sets. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of reporting of the included studies. Among 1160 abstracts identified, six studies were included in our meta-analysis. The principal reason for the steep attrition (1160 to six) was that the initial search was for studies in any clinical area that compared the cumulative incidence estimated using the Kaplan-Meier versus competing-risks methods for any event (not just the cumulative incidence of hip or knee revision); we did this to minimize the likelihood of missing any relevant studies. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) comparing the cumulative incidence estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the competing-risks method for each study and used DerSimonian and Laird random effects models to pool these RRs. Heterogeneity was explored using stratified meta-analyses and

  9. Competing risk bias was common in Kaplan-Meier risk estimates published in prominent medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl; McAlister, Finlay A

    2016-01-01

    Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves are well known to medical researchers, reviewers, and editors. In this study, we determined the proportion of Kaplan-Meier analyses published in prominent medical journals that are potentially biased because of competing events ("competing risk bias"). We randomly selected 100 studies that had at least one Kaplan-Meier analysis and were recently published in prominent medical journals. Susceptibility to competing risk bias was determined by examining the outcome and potential competing events. In susceptible studies, bias was quantified using a previously validated prediction model when the number of outcomes and competing events were given. Forty-six studies (46%) contained Kaplan-Meier analyses susceptible to competing risk bias. Sixteen studies (34.8%) susceptible to competing risk cited the number of outcomes and competing events; in six of these studies (6/16, 37.5%), the outcome risk from the Kaplan-Meier estimate (relative to the true risk) was biased upward by 10% or more. Almost half of Kaplan-Meier analyses published in medical journals are susceptible to competing risk bias and may overestimate event risk. This bias was found to be quantitatively important in a third of such studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review and comparison of methods for recreating individual patient data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves for economic evaluations: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaomin; Peng, Liubao; Li, Yuanjian

    2015-01-01

    In general, the individual patient-level data (IPD) collected in clinical trials are not available to independent researchers to conduct economic evaluations; researchers only have access to published survival curves and summary statistics. Thus, methods that use published survival curves and summary statistics to reproduce statistics for economic evaluations are essential. Four methods have been identified: two traditional methods 1) least squares method, 2) graphical method; and two recently proposed methods by 3) Hoyle and Henley, 4) Guyot et al. The four methods were first individually reviewed and subsequently assessed regarding their abilities to estimate mean survival through a simulation study. A number of different scenarios were developed that comprised combinations of various sample sizes, censoring rates and parametric survival distributions. One thousand simulated survival datasets were generated for each scenario, and all methods were applied to actual IPD. The uncertainty in the estimate of mean survival time was also captured. All methods provided accurate estimates of the mean survival time when the sample size was 500 and a Weibull distribution was used. When the sample size was 100 and the Weibull distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method; however, more biases were identified in the traditional methods. When a lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method generated noticeably less bias and a more accurate uncertainty compared with the Hoyle and Henley method. The traditional methods should not be preferred because of their remarkable overestimation. When the Weibull distribution was used for a fitted model, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method. However, if the lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was less biased compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.

  11. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  12. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  13. Application of Kaplan-Meier analysis in reliability evaluation of products cast from aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szymszal; A. Gierek; J. Kliś

    2010-01-01

    The article evaluates the reliability of AlSi17CuNiMg alloys using Kaplan-Meier-based technique, very popular as a survival estimation tool in medical science. The main object of survival analysis is a group (or groups) of units for which the time of occurrence of an event (failure) taking place after some time of waiting is estimated. For example, in medicine, the failure can be patient’s death. In this study, the failure was the specimen fracture during a periodical fatigue test, while the ...

  14. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyot Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. Methods We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. Results The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. Conclusion The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  15. Enhanced secondary analysis of survival data: reconstructing the data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, A E; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Welton, Nicky J

    2012-02-01

    The results of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on time-to-event outcomes that are usually reported are median time to events and Cox Hazard Ratio. These do not constitute the sufficient statistics required for meta-analysis or cost-effectiveness analysis, and their use in secondary analyses requires strong assumptions that may not have been adequately tested. In order to enhance the quality of secondary data analyses, we propose a method which derives from the published Kaplan Meier survival curves a close approximation to the original individual patient time-to-event data from which they were generated. We develop an algorithm that maps from digitised curves back to KM data by finding numerical solutions to the inverted KM equations, using where available information on number of events and numbers at risk. The reproducibility and accuracy of survival probabilities, median survival times and hazard ratios based on reconstructed KM data was assessed by comparing published statistics (survival probabilities, medians and hazard ratios) with statistics based on repeated reconstructions by multiple observers. The validation exercise established there was no material systematic error and that there was a high degree of reproducibility for all statistics. Accuracy was excellent for survival probabilities and medians, for hazard ratios reasonable accuracy can only be obtained if at least numbers at risk or total number of events are reported. The algorithm is a reliable tool for meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analyses of RCTs reporting time-to-event data. It is recommended that all RCTs should report information on numbers at risk and total number of events alongside KM curves.

  16. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis overestimates cumulative incidence of health-related events in competing risk settings: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacny, Sarah; Wilson, Todd; Clement, Fiona; Roberts, Derek J; Faris, Peter; Ghali, William A; Marshall, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    Kaplan-Meier survival analysis overestimates cumulative incidence in competing risks (CRs) settings. The extent of overestimation (or its clinical significance) has been questioned, and CRs methods are infrequently used. This meta-analysis compares the Kaplan-Meier method to the cumulative incidence function (CIF), a CRs method. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science (1992-2016), and article bibliographies for studies estimating cumulative incidence using the Kaplan-Meier method and CIF. For studies with sufficient data, we calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) comparing Kaplan-Meier and CIF estimates using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. We performed stratified meta-analyses by clinical area, rate of CRs (CRs/events of interest), and follow-up time. Of 2,192 identified abstracts, we included 77 studies in the systematic review and meta-analyzed 55. The pooled RR demonstrated the Kaplan-Meier estimate was 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 1.47] times higher than the CIF. Overestimation was highest among studies with high rates of CRs [RR = 2.36 (95% CI: 1.79, 3.12)], studies related to hepatology [RR = 2.60 (95% CI: 2.12, 3.19)], and obstetrics and gynecology [RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.52, 2.23)]. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the cumulative incidence across 10 clinical areas. Using CRs methods will ensure accurate results inform clinical and policy decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grybaeck, P.; Naeslund, E.; Hellstroem, P.M.; Jacobsson, H.; Backman, L.

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Gastric emptying of solids in humans: improved evaluation by Kaplan-Meier plots, with special reference to obesity and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybaeck, P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Naeslund, E. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Hellstroem, P.M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Backman, L. [Department of Surgery, Karolinska Institute at Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    It has been suggested that obesity is associated with an altered rate of gastric emptying, and that there are also sex differences in gastric emptying. The results of earlier studies examining gastric emptying rates in obesity and in males and females have proved inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of obesity and gender on gastric emptying, by extending conventional evaluation methods with Kaplan-Meier plots, in order to assess whether these factors have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying tests. Twenty-one normal-weight volunteers and nine obese subjects were fed a standardised technetium-99m labelled albumin omelette. Imaging data were acquired at 5- and 10-min intervals in both posterior and anterior projections with the subjects in the sitting position. The half-emptying time, analysed by Kaplan-Meier plot (log-rank test), were shorter in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects and later in females compared to males. Also, the lag-phase and half-emptying time were shorter in obese females than in normal females. This study shows an association between different gastric emptying rates and obesity and gender. Therefore, body mass index and gender have to be accounted for when interpreting results of scintigraphic gastric emptying studies. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  20. KMWin – A Convenient Tool for Graphical Presentation of Results from Kaplan-Meier Survival Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. Results On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. Conclusions We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups. PMID:22723912

  1. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  2. A versatile test for equality of two survival functions based on weighted differences of Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hajime; Tian, Lu; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2015-12-10

    With censored event time observations, the logrank test is the most popular tool for testing the equality of two underlying survival distributions. Although this test is asymptotically distribution free, it may not be powerful when the proportional hazards assumption is violated. Various other novel testing procedures have been proposed, which generally are derived by assuming a class of specific alternative hypotheses with respect to the hazard functions. The test considered by Pepe and Fleming (1989) is based on a linear combination of weighted differences of the two Kaplan-Meier curves over time and is a natural tool to assess the difference of two survival functions directly. In this article, we take a similar approach but choose weights that are proportional to the observed standardized difference of the estimated survival curves at each time point. The new proposal automatically makes weighting adjustments empirically. The new test statistic is aimed at a one-sided general alternative hypothesis and is distributed with a short right tail under the null hypothesis but with a heavy tail under the alternative. The results from extensive numerical studies demonstrate that the new procedure performs well under various general alternatives with a caution of a minor inflation of the type I error rate when the sample size is small or the number of observed events is small. The survival data from a recent cancer comparative study are utilized for illustrating the implementation of the process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Some Supplementary Methods for the Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John R.; Garthwaite, Paul H.; Sutherland, David; Borland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary methods for the analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001) are made available, including (a) quantifying the number of abnormally low achievement scores exhibited by an individual and accompanying this with an estimate of the percentage of the normative population expected to exhibit at…

  4. Applying Kaplan-Meier to Item Response Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Some IRT models can be equivalently modeled in alternative frameworks such as logistic regression. Logistic regression can also model time-to-event data, which concerns the probability of an event occurring over time. Using the relation between time-to-event models and logistic regression and the relation between logistic regression and IRT, this…

  5. Meier-Gorlin syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, S.A. de; Hoefsloot, E.H.; Roukema, J.; Schoots, J.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Jackson, A.P.; Bongers, E.M.H.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism disorder, characterized by microtia, patellar applasia/hypoplasia, and a proportionate short stature. Associated clinical features encompass feeding problems, congenital pulmonary emphysema, mammary hypoplasia in females

  6. Meier-Gorlin syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    de Munnik, Sonja A; Hoefsloot, Elisabeth H; Roukema, Jolt; Schoots, Jeroen; Knoers, Nine V A M; Brunner, Han G; Jackson, Andrew P; Bongers, Ernie M H F

    2015-01-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism disorder, characterized by microtia, patellar applasia/hypoplasia, and a proportionate short stature. Associated clinical features encompass feeding problems, congenital pulmonary emphysema, mammary hypoplasia in females and urogenital anomalies, such as cryptorchidism and hypoplastic labia minora and majora. Typical facial characteristics during childhood comprise a small mouth with full lips and micro-retrognathia...

  7. Analytical Method to Estimate Fatigue Life Time Duration in Service for Runner Blade Mechanism of Kaplan Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana – Maria Budai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present an analytical method that can be used to determianted fatigue life time duration in service for runner blade mechanism of Kaplan turbines. The study was made for lever button of runer blade mechanism using two analytical relation to calculate the maximum number of stress cycles whereupon the mechanism work without any damage. To estimate fatigue life time duration will be used a formula obtained from one of most comon cumulative damage methodology taking in consideration the real exploatation conditions of a specified Kapaln turbine.

  8. Meier-Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munnik, Sonja A; Hoefsloot, Elisabeth H; Roukema, Jolt; Schoots, Jeroen; Knoers, Nine V A M; Brunner, Han G; Jackson, Andrew P; Bongers, Ernie M H F

    2015-09-17

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism disorder, characterized by microtia, patellar applasia/hypoplasia, and a proportionate short stature. Associated clinical features encompass feeding problems, congenital pulmonary emphysema, mammary hypoplasia in females and urogenital anomalies, such as cryptorchidism and hypoplastic labia minora and majora. Typical facial characteristics during childhood comprise a small mouth with full lips and micro-retrognathia. During ageing, a narrow, convex nose becomes more prominent. The diagnosis MGS should be considered in patients with at least two of the three features of the clinical triad of microtia, patellar anomalies, and pre- and postnatal growth retardation. In patients with short stature and/or microtia, the patellae should be assessed with care by ultrasonography before age 6 or radiography thereafter. Mutations in one of five genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6) of the pre-replication complex, involved in DNA-replication, are detected in approximately 67-78% of patients with MGS. Patients with ORC1 and ORC4 mutations appear to have the most severe short stature and microcephaly. Management should be directed towards in-depth investigation, treatment and prevention of associated problems, such as growth retardation, feeding problems, hearing loss, luxating patellae, knee pain, gonarthrosis, and possible pulmonary complications due to congenital pulmonary emphysema with or without broncho- or laryngomalacia. Growth hormone treatment is ineffective in most patients with MGS, but may be effective in patients in whom growth continues to decrease after the first year of life (usually growth velocity normalizes after the first year) and with low levels of IGF1. At present, few data is available about reproduction of females with MGS, but the risk of premature labor might be increased. Here, we propose experience-based guidelines for the regular care and treatment of MGS patients.

  9. The comparative analysis of the current-meter method and the pressure-time method used for discharge measurements in the Kaplan turbine penstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkowski, A.; Krzemianowski, Z.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents experiences gathered during many years of utilizing the current-meter and pressure-time methods for flow rate measurements in many hydropower plants. The integration techniques used in these both methods are different from the recommendations contained in the relevant international standards, mainly from the graphical and arithmetical ones. The results of the comparative analysis of both methods applied at the same time during the hydraulic performance tests of two Kaplan turbines in one of the Polish hydropower plant are presented in the final part of the paper. In the case of the pressure-time method application, the concrete penstocks of the tested turbines required installing a special measuring instrumentation inside the penstock. The comparison has shown a satisfactory agreement between the results of discharge measurements executed using the both considered methods. Maximum differences between the discharge values have not exceeded 1.0 % and the average differences have not been greater than 0.5 %.

  10. The comparative analysis of the current-meter method and the pressure-time method used for discharge measurements in the Kaplan turbine penstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamkowski, A; Krzemianowski, Z

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents experiences gathered during many years of utilizing the current-meter and pressure-time methods for flow rate measurements in many hydropower plants. The integration techniques used in these both methods are different from the recommendations contained in the relevant international standards, mainly from the graphical and arithmetical ones. The results of the comparative analysis of both methods applied at the same time during the hydraulic performance tests of two Kaplan turbines in one of the Polish hydropower plant are presented in the final part of the paper. In the case of the pressure-time method application, the concrete penstocks of the tested turbines required installing a special measuring instrumentation inside the penstock. The comparison has shown a satisfactory agreement between the results of discharge measurements executed using the both considered methods. Maximum differences between the discharge values have not exceeded 1.0 % and the average differences have not been greater than 0.5 %.

  11. Interview with Danny Kaplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…

  12. A method to combine hydrodynamics and constructive design in the optimization of the runner blades of Kaplan turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclosina, C O; Balint, D I; Campian, C V; Frunzaverde, D; Ion, I

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the axial hydraulic turbines of Kaplan type. The optimization of the runner blade is presented systematically from two points of view: hydrodynamic and constructive. Combining these aspects in order to gain a safer operation when unsteady effects occur in the runner of the turbine is attempted. The design and optimization of the runner blade is performed with QTurbo3D software developed at the Center for Research in Hydraulics, Automation and Thermal Processes (CCHAPT) from 'Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita, Romania. QTurbo3D software offers possibilities to design the meridian channel of hydraulic turbines design the blades and optimize the runner blade. 3D modeling and motion analysis of the runner blade operating mechanism are accomplished using SolidWorks software. The purpose of motion study is to obtain forces, torques or stresses in the runner blade operating mechanism, necessary to estimate its lifetime. This paper clearly states the importance of combining the hydrodynamics with the structural design in the optimization procedure of the runner of hydraulic turbines.

  13. A method to combine hydrodynamics and constructive design in the optimization of the runner blades of Kaplan turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclosina, C. O.; Balint, D. I.; Campian, C. V.; Frunzaverde, D.; Ion, I.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the axial hydraulic turbines of Kaplan type. The optimization of the runner blade is presented systematically from two points of view: hydrodynamic and constructive. Combining these aspects in order to gain a safer operation when unsteady effects occur in the runner of the turbine is attempted. The design and optimization of the runner blade is performed with QTurbo3D software developed at the Center for Research in Hydraulics, Automation and Thermal Processes (CCHAPT) from "Eftimie Murgu" University of Resita, Romania. QTurbo3D software offers possibilities to design the meridian channel of hydraulic turbines design the blades and optimize the runner blade. 3D modeling and motion analysis of the runner blade operating mechanism are accomplished using SolidWorks software. The purpose of motion study is to obtain forces, torques or stresses in the runner blade operating mechanism, necessary to estimate its lifetime. This paper clearly states the importance of combining the hydrodynamics with the structural design in the optimization procedure of the runner of hydraulic turbines.

  14. Meritev izkoristka in nastavitev krmilnih parametrov kaplanove turbine z dolgim cevnim sistemom s primerjalno metodo: Measurement of relative turbine efficiency and adjustment of governing parameters on long penstock Kaplan turbine with comparative method:

    OpenAIRE

    Trebše, Andrej J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with efficiency measurement of Kaplan turbine with relative method (index test) and adjustment of operating of runner and guide vane governing system. At certain longer penstocks the looses in conduit at turbineload operation change the net head. On basis of model test on Kaplan turbine and relative turbine efficiency measurement on prototype the turbine governing system was optimized in accordance with comparative method. Prispevek obravnava meritev izkoristka kaplanove tu...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Meier-Gorlin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Microcephaly Information Page Educational Resources (10 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Growth Problems Disease InfoSearch: Meier-Gorlin syndrome ...

  16. Perturbative analysis for Kaplan's lattice chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Hirose, H.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbation theory for lattice fermions with domain wall mass terms is developed and is applied to investigate the chiral Schwinger model formulated on the lattice by Kaplan's method. We calculate the effective action for gauge fields to one loop, and find that it contains a longitudinal component even for anomaly-free cases. From the effective action we obtain gauge anomalies and Chern-Simons currents without ambiguity. We also show that the current corresponding to the fermion number has a nonzero divergence and it flows off the wall into the extra dimension. Similar results are obtained for a proposal by Shamir, who used a constant mass term with free boundaries instead of domain walls

  17. Optimization of Kaplan turbines. A contribution to economic efficiency; Optimierung von Kaplan-Turbinen. Ein Beitrag zur Betriebswirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcik, Petr

    2009-07-01

    The Kaplan turbine has the best theoretical efficiency chart in the total range of operation. In order to achieve these good properties, the turbine has to be adjusted optimally. In general, these settings are performed by the manufacturer of turbines during commissioning. In practice one often meets Kaplan turbines where the scenery does not correspond to the optimal control line. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on possible causes for these errors and also methods of how this scenery can be optimized cost-effectively and how to minimize power losses.

  18. Meier-Gorlin syndrome Clinical genetics and genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Munnik, Sonja A.; Hoefsloot, Elisabeth H.; Roukema, Jolt; Schoots, Jeroen; Knoers, Nine Vam; Brunner, Han G.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Bongers, Ernie Mhf

    2015-01-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism disorder, characterized by microtia, patellar applasia/hypoplasia, and a proportionate short stature. Associated clinical features encompass feeding problems, congenital pulmonary emphysema, mammary hypoplasia in females

  19. Meier-Gorlin syndrome Clinical genetics and genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Munnik (Sonja); E.H. Hoefsloot (Lies); J. Roukema (Jolt); J. Schoots (Jeroen); N.V.A.M. Knoers (Nine); H.G. Brunner; A.P. Jackson (Andrew); E. Bongers (Ernie)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMeier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism disorder, characterized by microtia, patellar applasia/hypoplasia, and a proportionate short stature. Associated clinical features encompass feeding problems, congenital pulmonary emphysema, mammary hypoplasia

  20. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-order curve fitting method. Progressively the linearized Kaplan turbine model, improved ideal Kaplan turbine model, and nonlinear Kaplan turbine model were developed. The nonlinear Kaplan turbine model considered the correction function of the blade angle on the turbine power, thereby improving the model simulation accuracy. The model parameters were calculated or obtained by the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. For the blade control system model, the default blade servomotor time constant given by value of one simplified the modeling and experimental work. Further studies combined with measured test data verified the established model accuracy and laid a foundation for further research into the influence of Kaplan turbine connecting to the grid.

  1. Analysis of the Kaplan turbine draft tube effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motycak, L; Skotak, A; Obrovsky, J, E-mail: motycak.vhs@cbeng.c [CKD Blansko Engineering, a.s., Capkova 2357/5, Blansko 67801 (Czech Republic)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to present information about possible problems and errors which can appear during numerical analyses of low head Kaplan turbines with a view to the runner - draft tube interaction. The setting of numerical model, grid size, used boundary conditions are the interface definition between runner and draft tube are discussed. There are available data from physical model tests which gives a great opportunity to compare CFD and experiment results and on the basis of this comparison to determine the approach to the CFD flow modeling. The main purpose for the Kaplan turbine model measurement was to gather the information about real flow field. The model tests were carried out in new hydraulic laboratory of CKD Blansko Engineering. The model tests were focused on the detailed velocity measurements downstream of the runner by differential pressure probe and on the velocity measurement downstream of the draft tube elbow by Particle Image Velocimetry method (PIV). The data from CFD simulation were compared to the velocity measurement results. In the paper also the design of the original draft tube modification due to flow improvement is discussed in the case of the Kaplan turbine uprating project. The results of the draft tube modification were confirmed by model tests in the hydraulic laboratory as well.

  2. Analysis of the Kaplan turbine draft tube effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motycak, L.; Skotak, A.; Obrovsky, J.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about possible problems and errors which can appear during numerical analyses of low head Kaplan turbines with a view to the runner - draft tube interaction. The setting of numerical model, grid size, used boundary conditions are the interface definition between runner and draft tube are discussed. There are available data from physical model tests which gives a great opportunity to compare CFD and experiment results and on the basis of this comparison to determine the approach to the CFD flow modeling. The main purpose for the Kaplan turbine model measurement was to gather the information about real flow field. The model tests were carried out in new hydraulic laboratory of CKD Blansko Engineering. The model tests were focused on the detailed velocity measurements downstream of the runner by differential pressure probe and on the velocity measurement downstream of the draft tube elbow by Particle Image Velocimetry method (PIV). The data from CFD simulation were compared to the velocity measurement results. In the paper also the design of the original draft tube modification due to flow improvement is discussed in the case of the Kaplan turbine uprating project. The results of the draft tube modification were confirmed by model tests in the hydraulic laboratory as well.

  3. Analysis of the Kaplan turbine draft tube effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motycak, L; Skotak, A; Obrovsky, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about possible problems and errors which can appear during numerical analyses of low head Kaplan turbines with a view to the runner - draft tube interaction. The setting of numerical model, grid size, used boundary conditions are the interface definition between runner and draft tube are discussed. There are available data from physical model tests which gives a great opportunity to compare CFD and experiment results and on the basis of this comparison to determine the approach to the CFD flow modeling. The main purpose for the Kaplan turbine model measurement was to gather the information about real flow field. The model tests were carried out in new hydraulic laboratory of CKD Blansko Engineering. The model tests were focused on the detailed velocity measurements downstream of the runner by differential pressure probe and on the velocity measurement downstream of the draft tube elbow by Particle Image Velocimetry method (PIV). The data from CFD simulation were compared to the velocity measurement results. In the paper also the design of the original draft tube modification due to flow improvement is discussed in the case of the Kaplan turbine uprating project. The results of the draft tube modification were confirmed by model tests in the hydraulic laboratory as well.

  4. Meier-Gorlin syndrome Clinical genetics and genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Munnik, Sonja; Hoefsloot, Lies; Roukema, Jolt; Schoots, Jeroen; Knoers, Nine; Brunner, H.G.; Jackson, Andrew; Bongers, Ernie

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMeier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism disorder, characterized by microtia, patellar applasia/hypoplasia, and a proportionate short stature. Associated clinical features encompass feeding problems, congenital pulmonary emphysema, mammary hypoplasia in females and urogenital anomalies, such as cryptorchidism and hypoplastic labia minora and majora. Typical facial characteristics during childhood comprise a small mouth with full lips and micro-...

  5. Adding gauge fields to Kaplan's fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Kaerkkaeinen, L.

    1994-01-01

    We experiment with adding dynamical gauge field to Kaplan (defect) fermions. In the case of U(1) gauge theory we use an inhomogeneous Higgs mechanism to restrict the 3d gauge dynamics to a planar 2d defect. In our simulations the 3d theory produce the correct 2d gauge dynamics. We measure fermion propagators with dynamical gauge fields. They posses the correct chiral structure. The fermions at the boundary of the support of the gauge field (waveguide) are non-chiral, and have a mass two times heavier than the chiral modes. Moreover, these modes cannot be excited by a source at the defect; implying that they are dynamically decoupled. We have also checked that the anomaly relation is fullfilled for the case of a smooth external gauge field. (orig.)

  6. Unsteady load on an oscillating Kaplan turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakka, O.; Keto-Tokoi, J.; Matusiak, J.

    2013-02-01

    A Kaplan turbine runner oscillating in turbine waterways is subjected to a varying hydrodynamic load. Numerical simulation of the related unsteady flow is time-consuming and research is very limited. In this study, a simplified method based on unsteady airfoil theory is presented for evaluation of the unsteady load for vibration analyses of the turbine shaft line. The runner is assumed to oscillate as a rigid body in spin and axial heave, and the reaction force is resolved into added masses and dampings. The method is applied on three Kaplan runners at nominal operating conditions. Estimates for added masses and dampings are considered to be of a magnitude significant for shaft line vibration. Moderate variation in the added masses and minor variation in the added dampings is found in the frequency range of interest. Reference results for added masses are derived by solving the boundary value problem for small motions of inviscid fluid using the finite element method. Good correspondence is found in the added mass estimates of the two methods. The unsteady airfoil method is considered accurate enough for design purposes. Experimental results are needed for validation of unsteady load analyses.

  7. Prita Meier, Swahili Port Cities: The Architecture of Elsewhere

    OpenAIRE

    Longair, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Prita Meier’s Swahili Port Cities: the Architecture of Elsewhere is a highly original and important contribution to scholarship on East Africa, and more widely for scholars interested in complicating how we understand the formation of global cities and border zone societies. It is not a conventional architectural history, yet it places buildings, in particular the coral and lime stone constructions found on the Swahili coast, at its heart. Meier uses the “materiality of city life” to offer “a...

  8. Calculating the dielectric anisotropy of nematic liquid crystals: a reinvestigation of the Maier–Meier theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, Zhang; Jun, He; Zeng-Hui, Peng; Li, Xuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the average dielectric permittivity (ε-bar ) in the Maier–Meier theory for calculating the dielectric anisotropy (Δε) of nematic liquid crystals. For the reason that ε-bar of nematics has the same expression as the dielectric permittivity of the isotropic state, the Onsager equation for isotropic dielectric was used to calculate it. The computed ε-bar shows reasonable agreement with the results of the numerical methods used in the literature. Molecular parameters, such as the polarizability and its anisotropy, the dipole moment and its angle with the molecular long axis, were taken from semi-empirical quantum chemistry (MOCPAC/AM1) modeling. The calculated values of Δε according to the Maier–Meier equation are in good agreement with the experimental results for the investigated compounds having different core structures and polar substituents. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  9. Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béranger Lueza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in restricted mean survival time ( rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , the area between two survival curves up to time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , is often used in cost-effectiveness analyses to estimate the treatment effect in randomized controlled trials. A challenge in individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses is to account for the trial effect. We aimed at comparing different methods to estimate the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ from an IPD meta-analysis. Methods We compared four methods: the area between Kaplan-Meier curves (experimental vs. control arm ignoring the trial effect (Naïve Kaplan-Meier; the area between Peto curves computed at quintiles of event times (Peto-quintile; the weighted average of the areas between either trial-specific Kaplan-Meier curves (Pooled Kaplan-Meier or trial-specific exponential curves (Pooled Exponential. In a simulation study, we varied the between-trial heterogeneity for the baseline hazard and for the treatment effect (possibly correlated, the overall treatment effect, the time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , the number of trials and of patients, the use of fixed or DerSimonian-Laird random effects model, and the proportionality of hazards. We compared the methods in terms of bias, empirical and average standard errors. We used IPD from the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma (MAC-NPC and its updated version MAC-NPC2 for illustration that included respectively 1,975 and 5,028 patients in 11 and 23 comparisons. Results The Naïve Kaplan-Meier method was unbiased, whereas the Pooled Exponential and, to a much lesser extent, the Pooled Kaplan-Meier methods showed a bias with non-proportional hazards. The Peto-quintile method underestimated the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , except with non-proportional hazards at t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ = 5 years. In the presence of treatment effect

  10. MAINTAINANCE OF KAPLAN TURBINE TO ENHANCE THE EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Shakti Prasanna Khadanga*; Nitish Kumar; Milind Kumar Singh; L. Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hydro power plant is the source of renewable energy which leads to reduction in burning of fossil fuels. So the environment is no longer polluted. This project depicts how sediment erosion occurs in Kaplan turbine and the various components of Kaplan turbine where actually erosion takes place. It reduces efficiency [7] and life of hydro power turbine but also causes problems in operations and maintenance. We conducted some necessary test on Kaplan turbine in fluid power laboratory. We are d...

  11. Improvements of a Kaplan type small turbine: Forbedre og vidreutvikle en Kaplan småturbin

    OpenAIRE

    Fjærvold, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The goal with this master thesis was to establish Hill diagrams and improve a Kaplan turbine intended for use in Afghanistan. The turbine efficiency has been tested in setting 1 and 2. Turbine efficiency in setting 3 and 4 could not be tested because the runner blades interfere with the housing making it impossible to rotate the turbine. The efficiency was tested with an effective pressure head ranging from 2 to 8 meters. Best efficiency point was not reached because of limitations in the te...

  12. Kaplan SpellRead. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Kaplan SpellRead" (formerly known as "SpellRead Phonological Auditory Training"[R]) is a literacy program for struggling readers in grades 2 or above, including special education students, English language learners, and students more than two years below grade level in reading. "Kaplan SpellRead" integrates the…

  13. Influence of Working Environment on Fatigue Life Time Duration for Runner Blades of Kaplan Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper present an analytical analyzes refer to influence of working environment on life time duration in service of runner blades of Kaplan turbines. The study are made using only analytical method, the entry dates being obtained from measurements made in situ for a Kaplan turbine. To calculate the maximum number of stress cycles whereupon the runner blades work without any damage it was used an analytical relation known in specialized literatures under the name of Morrow’s relation. To estimate fatigue life time duration will be used a formula obtained from one of most common cumulative damage methodology taking in consideration the real exploitation conditions of a specified Kaplan turbine.

  14. Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

  15. Numerical simulation of turbulence flow in a Kaplan turbine -Evaluation on turbine performance prediction accuracy-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Kurosawa, S.

    2014-03-01

    The understanding and accurate prediction of the flow behaviour related to cavitation and pressure fluctuation in a Kaplan turbine are important to the design work enhancing the turbine performance including the elongation of the operation life span and the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this paper, high accuracy turbine and cavitation performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Kaplan turbine is presented and evaluated. Two-phase flow field is predicted by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed by volume of fluid method tracking the free surface and combined with Reynolds Stress model. The growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are modelled by the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The prediction accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the model test results of Ns 400 Kaplan model turbine. As a result that the experimentally measured data including turbine efficiency, cavitation performance, and pressure fluctuation are accurately predicted. Furthermore, the cavitation occurrence on the runner blade surface and the influence to the hydraulic loss of the flow passage are discussed. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Kaplan type turbine.

  16. Numerical simulation of turbulence flow in a Kaplan turbine -Evaluation on turbine performance prediction accuracy-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, P; Kurosawa, S

    2014-01-01

    The understanding and accurate prediction of the flow behaviour related to cavitation and pressure fluctuation in a Kaplan turbine are important to the design work enhancing the turbine performance including the elongation of the operation life span and the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this paper, high accuracy turbine and cavitation performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Kaplan turbine is presented and evaluated. Two-phase flow field is predicted by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed by volume of fluid method tracking the free surface and combined with Reynolds Stress model. The growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are modelled by the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The prediction accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the model test results of Ns 400 Kaplan model turbine. As a result that the experimentally measured data including turbine efficiency, cavitation performance, and pressure fluctuation are accurately predicted. Furthermore, the cavitation occurrence on the runner blade surface and the influence to the hydraulic loss of the flow passage are discussed. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Kaplan type turbine

  17. Kaplan-Narayanan-Neuberger lattice fermions pass a perturbative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Levien, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    We test perturbatively a recent scheme for implementing chiral fermions on the lattice, proposed by Kaplan and modified by Narayanan and Neuberger, using as our testing ground the chiral Schwinger model. The scheme is found to reproduce the desired form of the effective action, whose real part is gauge invariant and whose imaginary part gives the correct anomaly in the continuum limit, once technical problems relating to the necesary infinite extent of the extra dimension are properly addressed. The indications from this study are that the Kaplan-Narayanan-Neuberger scheme has a good chance at being a correct lattice regularization of chiral gauge theories

  18. De 'wraak van de geografie' volgens Robert D. Kaplan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    2013-01-01

    De Amerikaanse publicist Robert D. Kaplan heeft een nieuwe bestseller, De wraak van de geografie, waarin hij het belang van geografie voor de internationale politiek uit de doeken doet. Zijn roep om meer aandacht voor geografie is echter erg eenzijdig en een miskenning van alles waar ons vak voor

  19. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S; Liu, D; Wu, Y [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Thermal Eng., Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhou, D [Water Conservancy and Hydropower Eng., Hohai University, Nanjing. 210098 (China); Nishi, M, E-mail: liushuhong@tsinghua.edu.c [Kyushu Inst. Tech. Senior Academy, Kitakyushu, 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  20. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, D.; Liu, D.; Wu, Y.; Nishi, M.

    2010-08-01

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-epsilon turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  1. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S; Liu, D; Wu, Y; Zhou, D; Nishi, M

    2010-01-01

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-ε turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  2. Kaplan turbine tip vortex cavitation – analysis and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motycak, L; Skotak, A; Kupcik, R

    2012-01-01

    The work is focused on one type of Kaplan turbine runner cavitation – a tip vortex cavitation. For detailed description of the tip vortex, the CFD analysis is used. On the basis of this analysis it is possible to estimate the intensity of cavitating vortex core, danger of possible blade surface and runner chamber cavitation pitting. In the paper, the ways how to avoid the pitting effect of the tip vortex are described. In order to prevent the blade surface against pitting, the following possibilities as the change of geometry of the runner blade, dimension of tip clearance and finally the installation of the anti-cavitation lips are discussed. The knowledge of the shape and intensity of the tip vortex helps to design the anti-cavitation lips more sophistically. After all, the results of the model tests of the Kaplan runner with or without anti-cavitation lips and the results of the CFD analysis are compared.

  3. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Feng, J. J.; Wu, G. K.; Luo, X. Q.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  4. Kaplan turbine tip vortex cavitation - analysis and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motycak, L.; Skotak, A.; Kupcik, R.

    2012-11-01

    The work is focused on one type of Kaplan turbine runner cavitation - a tip vortex cavitation. For detailed description of the tip vortex, the CFD analysis is used. On the basis of this analysis it is possible to estimate the intensity of cavitating vortex core, danger of possible blade surface and runner chamber cavitation pitting. In the paper, the ways how to avoid the pitting effect of the tip vortex are described. In order to prevent the blade surface against pitting, the following possibilities as the change of geometry of the runner blade, dimension of tip clearance and finally the installation of the anti-cavitation lips are discussed. The knowledge of the shape and intensity of the tip vortex helps to design the anti-cavitation lips more sophistically. After all, the results of the model tests of the Kaplan runner with or without anti-cavitation lips and the results of the CFD analysis are compared.

  5. Numerical investigation of hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H; Feng, J J; Wu, G K; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the flow field considering the hub clearance flow in a Kaplan turbine has been investigated through using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX based on high-quality structured grids generated by ANSYS ICEM CFD. The turbulence is simulated by k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model together with automatic near wall treatments. Four kinds of simulations have been conducted for the runner geometry without hub clearance, with only the hub front clearance, with only the rear hub clearance, and with both front and rear clearance. The analysis of the obtained results is focused on the flow structure of the hub clearance flow, the effect on the turbine performance including hydraulic efficiency and cavitation performance, which can improve the understanding on the flow field in a Kaplan turbine.

  6. Large mass limit of the continuum theories in Kaplan's formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, T.; Kikukawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Being inspired by Kaplan's proposal for simulating chiral fermions on a lattice, we examine the continuum analogue of his domain-wall construction for two-dimensional chiral Schwinger models. Adopting a slightly unusual dimensional regularization, we explicitly evaluate the one-loop effective action in the limit that the domain-wall mass goes to infinity. For anomaly-free cases, the effective action turns out to be gauge invariant in the two-dimensional sense

  7. Multi-objective shape optimization of runner blade for Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Semenova, A; Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Pylev, I; Chirkov, D; Lyutov, A; Chemy, S; Skorospelov, V

    2014-01-01

    Automatic runner shape optimization based on extensive CFD analysis proved to be a useful design tool in hydraulic turbomachinery. Previously the authors developed an efficient method for Francis runner optimization. It was successfully applied to the design of several runners with different specific speeds. In present work this method is extended to the task of a Kaplan runner optimization. Despite of relatively simpler blade shape, Kaplan turbines have several features, complicating the optimization problem. First, Kaplan turbines normally operate in a wide range of discharges, thus CFD analysis of each variant of the runner should be carried out for several operation points. Next, due to a high specific speed, draft tube losses have a great impact on the overall turbine efficiency, and thus should be accurately evaluated. Then, the flow in blade tip and hub clearances significantly affects the velocity profile behind the runner and draft tube behavior. All these features are accounted in the present optimization technique. Parameterization of runner blade surface using 24 geometrical parameters is described in details. For each variant of runner geometry steady state three-dimensional turbulent flow computations are carried out in the domain, including wicket gate, runner, draft tube, blade tip and hub clearances. The objectives are maximization of efficiency in best efficiency and high discharge operation points, with simultaneous minimization of cavitation area on the suction side of the blade. Multiobjective genetic algorithm is used for the solution of optimization problem, requiring the analysis of several thousands of runner variants. The method is applied to optimization of runner shape for several Kaplan turbines with different heads

  8. Multi-objective shape optimization of runner blade for Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, A.; Chirkov, D.; Lyutov, A.; Chemy, S.; Skorospelov, V.; Pylev, I.

    2014-03-01

    Automatic runner shape optimization based on extensive CFD analysis proved to be a useful design tool in hydraulic turbomachinery. Previously the authors developed an efficient method for Francis runner optimization. It was successfully applied to the design of several runners with different specific speeds. In present work this method is extended to the task of a Kaplan runner optimization. Despite of relatively simpler blade shape, Kaplan turbines have several features, complicating the optimization problem. First, Kaplan turbines normally operate in a wide range of discharges, thus CFD analysis of each variant of the runner should be carried out for several operation points. Next, due to a high specific speed, draft tube losses have a great impact on the overall turbine efficiency, and thus should be accurately evaluated. Then, the flow in blade tip and hub clearances significantly affects the velocity profile behind the runner and draft tube behavior. All these features are accounted in the present optimization technique. Parameterization of runner blade surface using 24 geometrical parameters is described in details. For each variant of runner geometry steady state three-dimensional turbulent flow computations are carried out in the domain, including wicket gate, runner, draft tube, blade tip and hub clearances. The objectives are maximization of efficiency in best efficiency and high discharge operation points, with simultaneous minimization of cavitation area on the suction side of the blade. Multiobjective genetic algorithm is used for the solution of optimization problem, requiring the analysis of several thousands of runner variants. The method is applied to optimization of runner shape for several Kaplan turbines with different heads.

  9. XRF and XANES Data for Kaplan U Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dataset contains two XRF images of iron and uranium distribution on plant roots and a database of XANES data used to produce XANES spectra figure for Figure 7 in the published paper.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Kaplan, D., R. Kukkadapu, J. Seaman, B. Arey, A. Dohnalkova, S. Buettner, D. Li, T. Varga, K. Scheckel, and P. Jaffe. Iron Mineralogy and Uranium-Binding Environment in the Rhizosphere of a Wetland Soil. D. Barcelo SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 569: 53-64, (2016).

  10. Air injection test on a Kaplan turbine: prototype - model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, M.; Rivetti, A.; Díaz, L.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is a very well-known resource to reduce pressure pulsation magnitude in turbines, especially on Francis type. In the case of large Kaplan designs, even when not so usual, it could be a solution to mitigate vibrations arising when tip vortex cavitation phenomenon becomes erosive and induces structural vibrations. In order to study this alternative, aeration tests were performed on a Kaplan turbine at model and prototype scales. The research was focused on efficiency of different air flow rates injected in reducing vibrations, especially at the draft tube and the discharge ring and also in the efficiency drop magnitude. It was found that results on both scales presents the same trend in particular for vibration levels at the discharge ring. The efficiency drop was overestimated on model tests while on prototype were less than 0.2 % for all power output. On prototype, air has a beneficial effect in reducing pressure fluctuations up to 0.2 ‰ of air flow rate. On model high speed image computing helped to quantify the volume of tip vortex cavitation that is strongly correlated with the vibration level. The hydrophone measurements did not capture the cavitation intensity when air is injected, however on prototype, it was detected by a sonometer installed at the draft tube access gallery.

  11. Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Growth and secondary sexual development of a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, Sonja A.; Otten, Barto J.; Schoots, Jeroen; Bicknell, Louise S.; Aftimos, Salim; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; van Bever, Yolande; Bober, Michael B.; Borm, George F.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Deal, Cheri L.; Edrees, Alaa Y.; Feingold, Murray; Fryer, Alan; van Hagen, Johanna M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Jansweijer, Maaike C. E.; Johnson, Diana; Kant, Sarina G.; Opitz, John M.; Ramadevi, A. Radha; Reardon, Willie; Ross, Alison; Sarda, Pierre; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T. R. M.; Sluiter, A. Erik; Temple, I. Karen; Terhal, Paulien A.; Toutain, Annick; Wise, Carol A.; Wright, Michael; Skidmore, David L.; Samuels, Mark E.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Brunner, Han G.; Jackson, Andrew P.; Bongers, Ernie M. H. F.

    2012-01-01

    MeierGorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primordial dwarfism, microtia, and patellar aplasia/hypoplasia. Recently, mutations in the ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6 genes, encoding components of the pre-replication complex, have been identified. This complex

  12. Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Growth and secondary sexual development of a microcephalic primordial dwarfism disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, S.A.; Otten, B.J.; Schoots, J.; Bicknell, L.S.; Aftimos, S.; Al-Aama, J.Y.; van Bever, Y.; Bober, M.B.; Borm, G.F.; Clayton-Smith, J.; Deal, C.L.; Edrees, A.Y.; Feingold, M.; Fryer, A.; van Hagen, J.M.; Hennekam, R.C.M.; Jansweijer, M.C.E.; Johnson, D.; Kant, S.G.; Opitz, J.M.; Ramadevi, A.R.; Reardon, W.; Ross, A.; Sarda, P.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.; Sluiter, A.E.; Temple, I.K.; Terhal, P.A.; Toutain, A.; Wise, C.A.; Wright, M.; Skidmore, D.L.; Samuels, M.E.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Jackson, A.P.; Bongers, M.H.F.

    2012-01-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primordial dwarfism, microtia, and patellar aplasia/hypoplasia. Recently, mutations in the ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6 genes, encoding components of the pre-replication complex, have been identified. This

  13. Case Report: Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Report of an additional patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 7 year old female child with the classical triad of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), (microtia, absent patella and short stature). She had the characteristic facial features, with normal mentality and defective speech, skeletal abnormalities, conductive hearing loss, cystitis and normal growth hormone level.

  14. Numerical investigation of tip clearance cavitation in Kaplan runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, K.; Semenov, G.; Kuznetsov, I.; Spiridonov, E.

    2016-11-01

    There is a gap between the Kaplan runner blade and the shroud that makes for a special kind of cavitation: cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Two types of cavitation caused by the presence of clearance gap are known: tip vortex cavitation that appears at the core of the rolled up vortex on the blade suction side and tip clearance cavitation that appears precisely in the gap between the blade tip edge and the shroud. In the context of this work numerical investigation of the model Kaplan runner has been performed taking into account variable tip clearance for several cavitation regimes. The focus is put on investigation of structure and origination of mechanism of cavitation in the tip leakage flow. Calculations have been performed with the help of 3-D unsteady numerical model for two-phase medium. Modeling of turbulent flow in this work has been carried out using full equations of Navier-Stokes averaged by Reynolds with correction for streamline curvature and system rotation. For description of this medium (liquid-vapor) simplification of Euler approach is used; it is based on the model of interpenetrating continuums, within the bounds of this two- phase medium considered as a quasi-homogeneous mixture with the common velocity field and continuous distribution of density for both phases. As a result, engineering techniques for calculation of cavitation conditioned by existence of tip clearance in model turbine runner have been developed. The detailed visualization of the flow was carried out and vortex structure on the suction side of the blade was reproduced. The range of frequency with maximum value of pulsation was assigned and maximum energy frequency was defined; it is based on spectral analysis of the obtained data. Comparison between numerical computation results and experimental data has been also performed. The location of cavitation zone has a good agreement with experiment for all analyzed regimes.

  15. Coupled skinny baker's maps and the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Maik; Hunt, Brian R.

    2013-09-01

    The Kaplan-Yorke conjecture states that for ‘typical’ dynamical systems with a physical measure, the information dimension and the Lyapunov dimension coincide. We explore this conjecture in a neighborhood of a system for which the two dimensions do not coincide because the system consists of two uncoupled subsystems. We are interested in whether coupling ‘typically’ restores the equality of the dimensions. The particular subsystems we consider are skinny baker's maps, and we consider uni-directional coupling. For coupling in one of the possible directions, we prove that the dimensions coincide for a prevalent set of coupling functions, but for coupling in the other direction we show that the dimensions remain unequal for all coupling functions. We conjecture that the dimensions prevalently coincide for bi-directional coupling. On the other hand, we conjecture that the phenomenon we observe for a particular class of systems with uni-directional coupling, where the information and Lyapunov dimensions differ robustly, occurs more generally for many classes of uni-directionally coupled systems (also called skew-product systems) in higher dimensions.

  16. Pressure pulsation in Kaplan turbines: Prototype-CFD comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, A; Lucino, C; Liscia, S; Muguerza, D; Avellan, F

    2012-01-01

    Pressure pulsation phenomena in a large Kaplan turbine are investigated by means of numerical simulations (CFD) and prototype measurements in order to study the dynamic behavior of flow due to the blade passage and its interaction with other components of the turbine. Numerical simulations are performed with the commercial software Ansys CFX code, solving the incompressible Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes equations under a finite volume scheme. The computational domain involves the entire machine at prototype scale. Special care is taken in the discretization of the wicket gate overhang and runner blade gap. Prototype measurements are performed using pressure transducers at different locations among the wicket gate outlet and the draft tube inlet. Then, CFD results are compared with temporary signals of prototype measurements at identical locations to validate the numerical model. A detailed analysis was focused on the tip gap flow and the pressure field at the discharge ring. From a rotating reference frame perspective, it is found that the mean pressure fluctuates accordingly the wicket gate passage. Moreover, in prototype measurements the pressure frequency that reveals the presence of modulated cavitation at the discharge ring is distinguished, as also verified from the shape of erosion patches in concordance with the number of wicket gates.

  17. Pressure pulsation in Kaplan turbines: Prototype-CFD comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Lucino1, C.; Liscia, S.; Muguerza, D.; Avellan, F.

    2012-11-01

    Pressure pulsation phenomena in a large Kaplan turbine are investigated by means of numerical simulations (CFD) and prototype measurements in order to study the dynamic behavior of flow due to the blade passage and its interaction with other components of the turbine. Numerical simulations are performed with the commercial software Ansys CFX code, solving the incompressible Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stokes equations under a finite volume scheme. The computational domain involves the entire machine at prototype scale. Special care is taken in the discretization of the wicket gate overhang and runner blade gap. Prototype measurements are performed using pressure transducers at different locations among the wicket gate outlet and the draft tube inlet. Then, CFD results are compared with temporary signals of prototype measurements at identical locations to validate the numerical model. A detailed analysis was focused on the tip gap flow and the pressure field at the discharge ring. From a rotating reference frame perspective, it is found that the mean pressure fluctuates accordingly the wicket gate passage. Moreover, in prototype measurements the pressure frequency that reveals the presence of modulated cavitation at the discharge ring is distinguished, as also verified from the shape of erosion patches in concordance with the number of wicket gates.

  18. Axial U(1) current in Grabowska and Kaplan's formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yu; Kawai, Hikaru

    2017-06-01

    Recently, Grabowska and Kaplan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 211602 (2016); Phys. Rev. D 94, 114504 (2016)] suggested a nonperturbative formulation of a chiral gauge theory, which consists of the conventional domain-wall fermion and a gauge field that evolves by gradient flow from one domain wall to the other. We introduce two sets of domain-wall fermions belonging to complex conjugate representations so that the effective theory is a 4D vector-like gauge theory. Then, as a natural definition of the axial-vector current, we consider a current that generates simultaneous phase transformations for the massless modes in 4 dimensions. However, this current is exactly conserved and does not reproduce the correct anomaly. In order to investigate this point precisely, we consider the mechanism of the conservation. We find that this current includes not only the axial current on the domain wall but also a contribution from the bulk, which is nonlocal in the sense of 4D fields. Therefore, the local current is obtained by subtracting the bulk contribution from it.

  19. Unsteady numerical simulation of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Ardalan; Nilsson, Håkan

    2014-03-01

    The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-ε turbulence model closure are utilized to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow throughout the whole flow passage of the U9 Kaplan turbine model. The U9 Kaplan turbine model comprises 20 stationary guide vanes and 6 rotating blades (696.3 RPM), working at best efficiency load (0.71 m3/s). The computations are conducted using a general finite volume method, using the OpenFOAM CFD code. A dynamic mesh is used together with a sliding GGI interface to include the effect of the rotating runner. The clearance is included in the guide vane. The hub and tip clearances are also included in the runner. An analysis is conducted of the unsteady behavior of the flow field, the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube, and the coherent structures of the flow. The tangential and axial velocity distributions at three sections in the draft tube are compared against LDV measurements. The numerical result is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the important flow physics close to the hub in the draft tube is captured. The hub and tip vortices and an on-axis forced vortex are captured. The numerical results show that the frequency of the forced vortex in 1/5 of the runner rotation.

  20. Unsteady numerical simulation of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, Ardalan; Nilsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-ε turbulence model closure are utilized to simulate the unsteady turbulent flow throughout the whole flow passage of the U9 Kaplan turbine model. The U9 Kaplan turbine model comprises 20 stationary guide vanes and 6 rotating blades (696.3 RPM), working at best efficiency load (0.71 m 3 /s). The computations are conducted using a general finite volume method, using the OpenFOAM CFD code. A dynamic mesh is used together with a sliding GGI interface to include the effect of the rotating runner. The clearance is included in the guide vane. The hub and tip clearances are also included in the runner. An analysis is conducted of the unsteady behavior of the flow field, the pressure fluctuation in the draft tube, and the coherent structures of the flow. The tangential and axial velocity distributions at three sections in the draft tube are compared against LDV measurements. The numerical result is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, and the important flow physics close to the hub in the draft tube is captured. The hub and tip vortices and an on-axis forced vortex are captured. The numerical results show that the frequency of the forced vortex in 1/5 of the runner rotation

  1. Blade Profile Optimization of Kaplan Turbine Using CFD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Bashir Janjua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models.

  2. Blade profile optimization of kaplan turbine using cfd analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, A.B.; Khalil, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Utilization of hydro-power as renewable energy source is of prime importance in the world now. Hydropower energy is available in abundant in form of falls, canals rivers, dams etc. It means, there are various types of sites with different parameters like flow rate, heads, etc. Depending upon the sites, water turbines are designed and manufactured to avail hydro-power energy. Low head turbines on runof-river are widely used for the purpose. Low head turbines are classified as reaction turbines. For runof-river, depending upon the variety of site data, low head Kaplan turbines are selected, designed and manufactured. For any given site requirement, it becomes very essential to design the turbine runner blades through optimization of the CAD model of blades profile. This paper presents the optimization technique carried out on a complex geometry of blade profile through static and dynamic computational analysis. It is used through change of the blade profile geometry at five different angles in the 3D (Three Dimensional) CAD model. Blade complex geometry and design have been developed by using the coordinates point system on the blade in PRO-E /CREO software. Five different blade models are developed for analysis purpose. Based on the flow rate and heads, blade profiles are analyzed using ANSYS software to check and compare the output results for optimization of the blades for improved results which show that by changing blade profile angle and its geometry, different blade sizes and geometry can be optimized using the computational techniques with changes in CAD models. (author)

  3. Experiences with environmentally adapted Kaplan runners; Erfarenheter med miljoeanpassade Kaplanloephjul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukonsaari; Jan

    2012-08-15

    This study concerns environmentally adapted Kaplan runners, which have no oil for lubricating the blade regulation mechanisms and bearings. The runners are water or air filled with self lubricated bearings. Recent design also includes regulation system pressure increase and servo motor placement below runner centre and environmentally adapted synthetic ester as hydraulic fluid. These together with power output increase and efficiency optimization are suspected sources of poor runner function. Of 37 runners 43 % have had some kind of problem and 30 % bearing or mechanism related ones. When the axial blade bearing problems are excluded the problems occurred at 16 %. Deeper look into the design of newer runners shows that only bronze based runner hubs is significantly more problem dense regarding regulation mechanisms (50 %). Hidden figures of increased runner regulation forces are suspected. All problems cannot be explained and the young machines limit the experiences. The working group's opinion and bring ups of historical and present examples during the work show evidence that the old oil filled runners function is far from perfect, nor the life length. The future is not with oil filled runner hubs. Main parts of the discovered problems have been solved and can be resolved by thorough design analysis. One future concern is what effects the recent design changes will cause due to increase demand for power output changes including the number of starts and stops. That is why the working group's recommendation is to put joint effort into material fatigue and in which a first step is to identify the real forces the runners are exposed to.

  4. Water hammer 2 phase analysis hydraulic system with a Kaplan turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Dudlik, A.; Koutnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation has been carried out for a case of sudden closing of a Kaplan turbine from a runaway operation. This work has been done at Fraunhofer UMSICHT, supported by VH. The runaway case has been selected as it is known that the discharge through a Kaplan turbine increases with its speed, and may reach up to twice the value of nominal discharge. The simulation model consists of: - penstock - Kaplan turbine (modelled with a valve characteristic) - draft tube All hydraulic pipe element...

  5. Dynamic Model of Kaplan Turbine Regulating System Suitable for Power System Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Li; Liu, Dichen; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Haoyu

    2015-01-01

    Accurate modeling of Kaplan turbine regulating system is of great significance for grid security and stability analysis. In this paper, Kaplan turbine regulating system model is divided into the governor system model, the blade control system model, and the turbine and water diversion system model. The Kaplan turbine has its particularity, and the on-cam relationship between the wicket gate opening and the runner blade angle under a certain water head on the whole range was obtained by high-o...

  6. Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Report of an additional patient with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a 7 year old female child with the classical triad of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS, (microtia, absent patella and short stature. She had the characteristic facial features, with normal mentality and defective speech, skeletal abnormalities, conductive hearing loss, cystitis and normal growth hormone level. She suffered from recurrent chest infection during the first year of life which improved gradually with age. Although congenital heart is rarely observed in MGS, our patient had in addition fenestrated interatrial septal defect.

  7. TÜ, TPÜ ja EHI uusi magistreid / Eda Tursk, Hille Roots, Heidi Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tursk, Eda

    2004-01-01

    Tartu ülikooli eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse osakonnas ning kirjanduse ja rahvaluule osakonnas kaitsesid 2003.a. magistritööd Niina Aasmäe, Piret Voll, Larissa Degel, Reet Hendrikson, Tiina Pai, Petar Kehayov, Anna Baidullina, Katrin Ennus, Kristi Jõesaar, Ell Vahtramäe, Lauri Sommer, Andreas Kalkun, Mirjam Hinrikus, Kristel Nõlvak. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikoolis kaitsesid 2003.a. magistritööd Sirje Nootre, Merike Mägedi, Tiiu Koovit, Heidi Meier, Jaanika Stackhouse, Lilian Ossi, Annika Vamper, Marika Mikkor, Piret Õunapuu, Helin Puksand, Taimi Rosenberg. Eesti Humanitaarinstituudis kaitses 2003.a. magistritööd Merilin Miljan

  8. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.

    2016-11-01

    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  9. Computer Aided Design of Kaplan Turbine Piston with\tSolidWorks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD of Kaplan turbine piston made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine piston 3D geometry, which is dedicaded to the Parts Sketch and Parts Features design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  10. Computer Aided Design of Kaplan Turbine Piston with SolidWorks

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD) of Kaplan turbine piston made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine piston 3D geometry, which is dedicaded to the Parts Sketch and Parts Features design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  11. Kaplan og Norton bør læses af hele ledelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af "Eksekveringsgevinsten - Øget konkurrencekraft med fokuseret strategi og drift", Robert S. Kaplan & David P. Norton, 2009, Gyldendal Business. Udgivelsesdato: 8. april......Anmeldelse af "Eksekveringsgevinsten - Øget konkurrencekraft med fokuseret strategi og drift", Robert S. Kaplan & David P. Norton, 2009, Gyldendal Business. Udgivelsesdato: 8. april...

  12. Individualism, Nationalism, and Universalism: The Educational Ideals of Mordecai M. Kaplan's Philosophy of Jewish Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Ari

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine educational ideals by exploring the relation between the individual, the collective, and humanity in Kaplan's Jewish and educational philosophy. Generally the goals of individualism, nationalism, and universalism are seen as mutually exclusive. By contrast, Kaplan argues for the symbiotic relationship between…

  13. Comparative Study of Barotrauma Risk during Fish Passage through Kaplan Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Romero-Gomez, Pedro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Serkowski, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Graf, Michael J. [Voith Hydro, York, PA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage. However, rapid pressure change is only one of several hydraulic risks encountered by fish during turbine passage in addition to blade strike, shear, and turbulence. To better understand the role of rapid pressure changes, the present work focuses on the application of a computational fluid dynamics based method for evaluating the risk of pressure-related mortality to fish passing through an early 1960s era original hydroelectric Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam (Columbia River, Washington), and a modern advanced Kaplan turbine installed in 2005. The results show that the modeling approach acceptably reproduced the nadir pressure distributions compared to field data previously collected at the site using an autonomous sensor. Our findings show that the new advanced-design unit performs better, in terms of reduced barotrauma risk to fish from exposure to low pressures, than the original turbine unit. The outcomes allow for comparative analyses of turbine designs and operations prior to installation, an advantage that can potentially be integrated in the process of designing new turbine units to achieve superior environmental performance. Overall, the results show that modern turbine designs can achieve the multiple objectives of increasing power generation, lowering cavitation potential, and reducing barotrauma risks to passing fish.

  14. Mathematical, numerical and experimental analysis of the swirling flow at a Kaplan runner outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, S.; Ciocan, T.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Cervantes, M.; Nilsson, H.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents a novel mathematical model for a-priori computation of the swirling flow at Kaplan runners outlet. The model is an extension of the initial version developed by Susan-Resiga et al [1], to include the contributions of non-negligible radial velocity and of the variable rothalpy. Simple analytical expressions are derived for these additional data from three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Kaplan turbine. The final results, i.e. velocity components profiles, are validated against experimental data at two operating points, with the same Kaplan runner blades opening, but variable discharge.

  15. Mathematical, numerical and experimental analysis of the swirling flow at a Kaplan runner outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, S; Ciocan, T; Susan-Resiga, R F; Cervantes, M; Nilsson, H

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel mathematical model for a-priori computation of the swirling flow at Kaplan runners outlet. The model is an extension of the initial version developed by Susan-Resiga et al [1], to include the contributions of non-negligible radial velocity and of the variable rothalpy. Simple analytical expressions are derived for these additional data from three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Kaplan turbine. The final results, i.e. velocity components profiles, are validated against experimental data at two operating points, with the same Kaplan runner blades opening, but variable discharge.

  16. Kaplan kõneles Iraagis rahust / Raivo Nikiforov ; interv. Eda Post

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nikiforov, Raivo

    2005-01-01

    Tapa väljaõppekeskuse kaplan leitnant Raivo Nikiforov käis Bagdadis Eesti rahuvalvajatele jõulujumalateenistust pidamas ning eestlaste elu jälgimas. Iraagi missioonist, rahuvalvajate elamistingimustest

  17. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Willer, Jason R; Davis, Erica E; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Brunner, Han G; Beaudet, Arthur L; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R; Lupski, James R; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yang, Yaping

    2015-12-03

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Hydraulic Loads on the Runner Blades of a Kaplan Turbine using CFD Simulation and Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Iosif Korka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic is today a standard procedure for analyzing and simulating the flow through several hydraulic machines. In this process, the fluid flow domain is divided into small volumes where the governing equations are converted into algebraic ones, which are numerically solved. Computational results strongly depend on the applied mathematical model and on the numerical methods used for converting the governing equations into the algebraic ones. The goal of the paper is to evaluate, by numerical simulation, the hydraulic loads (forces and torques on the runner blades of an existent Kaplan turbine and to compare them with the experimental results obtained from model test.

  19. Verification of Kaplan turbine cam curves realization accuracy at power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of approximately constant value of Kaplan turbine efficiency, for relatively large net head changes, is a result of turbine runner variable geometry. Dependence of runner blades position change on guide vane opening represents the turbine cam curve. The cam curve realization accuracy is of great importance for the efficient and proper exploitation of turbines and consequently complete units. Due to the reasons mentioned above, special attention has been given to the tests designed for cam curves verification. The goal of this paper is to provide the description of the methodology and the results of the tests performed in the process of Kaplan turbine cam curves verification.

  20. Can a polynomial interpolation improve on the Kaplan-Yorke dimension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    The Kaplan-Yorke dimension can be derived using a linear interpolation between an h-dimensional Lyapunov exponent λ (h) >0 and an h+1-dimensional Lyapunov exponent λ (h+1) <0. In this Letter, we use a polynomial interpolation to obtain generalized Lyapunov dimensions and study the relationships among them for higher-dimensional systems

  1. Fatigue Analysis of an Outer Bearing Bush of a Kaplan Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Frunzaverde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the fatigue analysis of an outer bearing bush of aKaplan turbine. This outer bush, together with an inner one, bear thepin lever - trunion - blade subassembly of the runner blade operatingmechanism. For modeling and simulation, SolidWorks software is used.

  2. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  3. Community Music during the New Deal: The Contributions of Willem Van de Wall and Max Kaplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikun, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…

  4. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weili, L; Jinling, L; Xingqi, L; Yuan, L

    2010-01-01

    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  5. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weili, L; Jinling, L; Xingqi, L; Yuan, L, E-mail: liaoweili2004@163.co [Institute of Water Resources and Hydro-Electric Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology No.5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi, 710048 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  6. Research on the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weili, L.; Jinling, L.; Xingqi, L.; Yuan, L.

    2010-08-01

    The sediment concentration in many rivers in our world is very high, and the Kaplan turbine running in these rivers are usually seriously abraded. Since the existence of sand, the probability of cavitation is greatly enhanced. Under the joint action and mutual promotion of cavitation and sand erosion, serious abrasion could be made, the hydraulic performance of the Kaplan turbine may be descended, and the safety and stability of turbine are greatly threatened. Therefore, it is very important and significant to investigate the cavitation characteristic of Kaplan turbine under sediment flow condition. In this paper, numerical simulation of cavitation characteristic in pure water and solid-liquid two-phase flow in Kaplan turbine was performed. The solid-liquid two-fluid model were adopted in the numerical simulation, and the pressure, velocity and particle concentration distributive regularity on turbine blade surface under different diameter and concentration was revealed. Particle trajectory model was used to investigate the region and degree of runner blade abrasion in different conditions. The results showed that serious sand abrasion could be found near the blade head and outlet in large flow rate working condition. Relatively slight abrasion may be found near blade flange in small flow rate working condition. The more the sediment concentration and the large the sand diameter, the serious the runner is abraded, and the greater the efficiency is decreased. further analysis of the combined effects of wear and abrasion was performed. The result shows that the cavitation in silt flow is more serious than in pure water. The runner cavitation performance become worse under high sand concentration and large particle diameter, and the efficiency decrease greatly with the increase of sediment concentration.

  7. Computer Aided Design of the Link-Fork Head-Piston Assembly of the Kaplan Turbine with Solidworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD of the link-fork head-piston assembly of the Kaplan turbine made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine assembly 3D geometry, which is dedicated to the Assembly design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  8. Bifurcation and chaotic behavior in the Euler method for a Kaplan-Yorke prototype delay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu

    2004-01-01

    A discrete model with a simple cubic nonlinearity term is treated in the study the rich dynamics of a prototype delayed dynamical system under Euler discretization. The effect of breaking the symmetry of the system is to create a wide complex operating conditions which would not otherwise be seen. These include multiple steady states, complex periodic oscillations, chaos by period doubling bifurcations

  9. Comparison of Exposure in the Kaplan Versus the Kocher Approach in the Treatment of Radial Head Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leslie Fink; Lombardi, Joseph; Gardner, Thomas R; Strauch, Robert J; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the complete visible surface area of the radial head, neck, and coronoid in the Kaplan and Kocher approaches to the lateral elbow. The hypothesis was that the Kaplan approach would afford greater visibility due to the differential anatomy of the intermuscular planes. Ten cadavers were dissected with the Kaplan and Kocher approaches, and the visible surface area was measured in situ using a 3-dimensional digitizer. Six measurements were taken for each approach by 2 surgeons, and the mean of these measurements were analyzed. The mean surface area visible with the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) preserved in the Kaplan approach was 616.6 mm 2 in comparison with the surface area of 136.2 mm 2 visible in the Kocher approach when the LCL was preserved. Using a 2-way analysis of variance, the difference between these 2 approaches was statistically significant. When the LCL complex was incised in the Kocher approach, the average visible surface area of the Kocher approach was 456.1 mm 2 and was statistically less than the Kaplan approach. The average surface area of the coronoid visible using a proximally extended Kaplan approach was 197.8 mm 2 . The Kaplan approach affords significantly greater visible surface area of the proximal radius than the Kocher approach.

  10. Statistical evaluation of a project to estimate fish trajectories through the intakes of Kaplan hydropower turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Virginia Kay

    This paper examines statistical issues associated with estimating paths of juvenile salmon through the intakes of Kaplan turbines. Passive sensors, hydrophones, detecting signals from ultrasonic transmitters implanted in individual fish released into the preturbine region were used to obtain the information to estimate fish paths through the intake. Aim and location of the sensors affects the spatial region in which the transmitters can be detected, and formulas relating this region to sensor aiming directions are derived. Cramer-Rao lower bounds for the variance of estimators of fish location are used to optimize placement of each sensor. Finally, a statistical methodology is developed for analyzing angular data collected from optimally placed sensors.

  11. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  12. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H; Mulu, B; Cervantes, M

    2010-01-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  13. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Hoersalsvaegen 7A, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Mulu, B; Cervantes, M, E-mail: olivierp@chalmers.s [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  14. A cyclostationary multi-domain analysis of fluid instability in Kaplan turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchi, P.; Borghesani, P.; Chatterton, S.

    2015-08-01

    Hydraulic instabilities represent a critical problem for Francis and Kaplan turbines, reducing their useful life due to increase of fatigue on the components and cavitation phenomena. Whereas an exhaustive list of publications on computational fluid-dynamic models of hydraulic instability is available, the possibility of applying diagnostic techniques based on vibration measurements has not been investigated sufficiently, also because the appropriate sensors seldom equip hydro turbine units. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap and to exploit fully, for this purpose, the potentiality of combining cyclostationary analysis tools, able to describe complex dynamics such as those of fluid-structure interactions, with order tracking procedures, allowing domain transformations and consequently the separation of synchronous and non-synchronous components. This paper will focus on experimental data obtained on a full-scale Kaplan turbine unit, operating in a real power plant, tackling the issues of adapting such diagnostic tools for the analysis of hydraulic instabilities and proposing techniques and methodologies for a highly automated condition monitoring system.

  15. Anterolateral Knee Extra-articular Stabilizers: A Robotic Sectioning Study of the Anterolateral Ligament and Distal Iliotibial Band Kaplan Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeslin, Andrew G; Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; Muckenhirn, Kyle J; Kruckeberg, Bradley M; Brady, Alex W; Coggins, Ashley; Dornan, Grant J; Getgood, Alan M; Godin, Jonathan A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2018-05-01

    The individual kinematic roles of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and the distal iliotibial band Kaplan fibers in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency require further clarification. This will improve understanding of their potential contribution to residual anterolateral rotational laxity after ACL reconstruction and may influence selection of an anterolateral extra-articular reconstruction technique, which is currently a matter of debate. Hypothesis/Purpose: To compare the role of the ALL and the Kaplan fibers in stabilizing the knee against tibial internal rotation, anterior tibial translation, and the pivot shift in ACL-deficient knees. We hypothesized that the Kaplan fibers would provide greater tibial internal rotation restraint than the ALL in ACL-deficient knees and that both structures would provide restraint against internal rotation during a simulated pivot-shift test. Controlled laboratory study. Ten paired fresh-frozen cadaveric knees (n = 20) were used to investigate the effect of sectioning the ALL and the Kaplan fibers in ACL-deficient knees with a 6 degrees of freedom robotic testing system. After ACL sectioning, sectioning was randomly performed for the ALL and the Kaplan fibers. An established robotic testing protocol was utilized to assess knee kinematics when the specimens were subjected to a 5-N·m internal rotation torque (0°-90° at 15° increments), a simulated pivot shift with 10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal rotation torque (15° and 30°), and an 88-N anterior tibial load (30° and 90°). Sectioning of the ACL led to significantly increased tibial internal rotation (from 0° to 90°) and anterior tibial translation (30° and 90°) as compared with the intact state. Significantly increased internal rotation occurred with further sectioning of the ALL (15°-90°) and Kaplan fibers (15°, 60°-90°). At higher flexion angles (60°-90°), sectioning the Kaplan fibers led to significantly greater internal rotation

  16. Development of low head Kaplan turbine for power station rehabilitation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. M.; Ohtake, N.; Kurosawa, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Nishi, H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the latest Kaplan turbine rehabilitation project for Funagira Power Station in Japan completed by J-POWER Group in collaboration with Toshiba Corporation. Area of rehabilitation was restricted to guide vane and runner. The main goal of the rehabilitation project was to expand the operating range of the existing turbine in terms of discharge and power with high operational stability, low noise as well as high cavitation performance. Computational Fluids Dynamics and model test were used to optimize the shape of guide vane and runner in development stage. Finally, field tests and runner inspection were carried out to confirm the performance of the new turbine. It was found that the new turbine has excellent performance in efficiency, power output, operational stability compared with existing turbine. Moreover, no sign of cavitation on the runner blade surface was observed after 5078 hours of operation near 100% load.

  17. Development of low head Kaplan turbine for power station rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S M; Ohtake, N; Kurosawa, S; Suzuki, T; Yamasaki, T; Nishi, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the latest Kaplan turbine rehabilitation project for Funagira Power Station in Japan completed by J-POWER Group in collaboration with Toshiba Corporation. Area of rehabilitation was restricted to guide vane and runner. The main goal of the rehabilitation project was to expand the operating range of the existing turbine in terms of discharge and power with high operational stability, low noise as well as high cavitation performance. Computational Fluids Dynamics and model test were used to optimize the shape of guide vane and runner in development stage. Finally, field tests and runner inspection were carried out to confirm the performance of the new turbine. It was found that the new turbine has excellent performance in efficiency, power output, operational stability compared with existing turbine. Moreover, no sign of cavitation on the runner blade surface was observed after 5078 hours of operation near 100% load.

  18. La chiesa di Richard Meier a Tor Tre Teste e il suo contributo al consolidamento identitario dei nuovi quartieri romani oltre il GRA / The church designed by Richard Meier in Tor Tre Teste and the identity consolidation in the new roman neighbourhoods beyond the Great Circular Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bonaccorso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo proposto ha l’obiettivo di analizzare alcuni significativi brani del tessuto urbano della periferia est di Roma, adottando metodi interpretativi legati alla storia, alla società, alla programmazione urbanistica e alla costruzione. Gli aspetti salienti del quadrante orientale della periferia romana verranno così delineati partendo “dal di dentro”, sottolineandone i percorsi, gli spazi e i nuclei compositivi che sono all’origine della struttura e della forma stessa dei quartieri disposti a cavallo del Grande Raccordo Anulare. In questo ambito, si pone l’attenzione su alcuni episodi chiave che vedono protagoniste le nuove chiese che riescono a creare una centralità all’interno dei quartieri periferici sostituendo le biblioteche, le piazze e i centri commerciali.  Analizzando da vicino questi esempi, si scopre come di recente sono state realizzate chiese firmate da architetti di fama internazionale proprio allo scopo di rafforzare, o meglio di costruire, un fattore identitario per ciascun quartiere ubicato nel settore orientale della città. Partendo quindi dal generale si arriva a indagare una chiesa e un quartiere che possono essere considerati un modello da seguire per tutta la periferia a ridosso del GRA: la chiesa giubilare di Dio Padre Misericordioso progettata da Richard Meier nel quartiere di Tor Tre Teste. La sequenzialità degli eventi che hanno contraddistinto il concorso per la progettazione della chiesa, la scelta della proposta di Richard Meier, la complessità del cantiere, l’analisi tecnica, stilistica e simbolica della realizzazione finale sono quindi analizzate nell’ambito del rapporto con il quartiere e del tentativo di realizzare (attraverso di essa un centro di attrazione per tutta la periferia.   The article analyses some significant parts of the urban tissue at the eastern periphery of Rome, using the interpretative methods inherent to history, society, urban programming and construction

  19. Repair of a Kaplan blade sealing surface without dismantling the turbine; Instandsetzung einer Kaplanschaufel-Dichtflaeche ohne Turbinendemontage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drygas, A.; Bauer, K. [E.ON Wasserkraft GmbH, Landshut (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In spite of aiming at minimum maintenance costs, runners of Kaplan turbines need to be kept in good repair. Besides preserving their main function as an energy converter, ecological reasons have to be considered as well. The latter aspect accounts for fully functional, safe seals of the pivot-mounted Kaplan runner blades. Advanced wear of the sealing surfaces may require mechanical processing, which formerly called for a costly dismantling of the runner. A newly developed and patented processing device now allows for machining the worn out sealing surfaces without dismantling the runner, thus reducing costs considerably. The device was first successfully applied to a Kaplan turbine runner with a diameter of 5.35 m. The device, so far designed for grinding, will be enhanced for lathing, in order to obtain a process even more efficient when combining lathing and grinding. (orig.)

  20. Deficiency in origin licensing proteins impairs cilia formation: implications for the aetiology of Meier-Gorlin syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Stiff

    Full Text Available Mutations in ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6, which encode proteins required for DNA replication origin licensing, cause Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS, a disorder conferring microcephaly, primordial dwarfism, underdeveloped ears, and skeletal abnormalities. Mutations in ATR, which also functions during replication, can cause Seckel syndrome, a clinically related disorder. These findings suggest that impaired DNA replication could underlie the developmental defects characteristic of these disorders. Here, we show that although origin licensing capacity is impaired in all patient cells with mutations in origin licensing component proteins, this does not correlate with the rate of progression through S phase. Thus, the replicative capacity in MGS patient cells does not correlate with clinical manifestation. However, ORC1-deficient cells from MGS patients and siRNA-mediated depletion of origin licensing proteins also have impaired centrosome and centriole copy number. As a novel and unexpected finding, we show that they also display a striking defect in the rate of formation of primary cilia. We demonstrate that this impacts sonic hedgehog signalling in ORC1-deficient primary fibroblasts. Additionally, reduced growth factor-dependent signaling via primary cilia affects the kinetics of cell cycle progression following cell cycle exit and re-entry, highlighting an unexpected mechanism whereby origin licensing components can influence cell cycle progression. Finally, using a cell-based model, we show that defects in cilia function impair chondroinduction. Our findings raise the possibility that a reduced efficiency in forming cilia could contribute to the clinical features of MGS, particularly the bone development abnormalities, and could provide a new dimension for considering developmental impacts of licensing deficiency.

  1. Influence of the vibro-acoustic sensor position on cavitation detection in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.; Kirschner, O.; Riedelbauch, S.; Necker, J.; Kopf, E.; Rieg, M.; Arantes, G.; Wessiak, M.; Mayrhuber, J.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic turbines can be operated close to the limits of the operating range to meet the demand of the grid. When operated close to the limits, the risk increases that cavitation phenomena may occur at the runner and / or at the guide vanes of the turbine. Cavitation in a hydraulic turbine can cause material erosion on the runner and other turbine parts and reduce the durability of the machine leading to required outage time and related repair costs. Therefore it is important to get reliable information about the appearance of cavitation during prototype operation. In this experimental investigation the high frequency acoustic emissions and vibrations were measured at 20 operating points with different cavitation behaviour at different positions in a large prototype Kaplan turbine. The main goal was a comparison of the measured signals at different sensor positions to identify the sensitivity of the location for cavitation detection. The measured signals were analysed statistically and specific values were derived. Based on the measured signals, it is possible to confirm the cavitation limit of the examined turbine. The result of the investigation shows that the position of the sensors has a significant influence on the detection of cavitation.

  2. Examining the Latent Structure of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Justin E; Hofer, Scott M; Iverson, Grant L; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A

    2018-05-04

    The current study aimed to determine whether the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) taps into three executive function factors (inhibition, shifting, fluency) and to assess the relationship between these factors and tests of executive-related constructs less often measured in latent variable research: reasoning, abstraction, and problem solving. Participants included 425 adults from the D-KEFS standardization sample (20-49 years old; 50.1% female; 70.1% White). Eight alternative measurement models were compared based on model fit, with test scores assigned a priori to three factors: inhibition (Color-Word Interference, Tower), shifting (Trail Making, Sorting, Design Fluency), and fluency (Verbal/Design Fluency). The Twenty Questions, Word Context, and Proverb Tests were predicted in separate structural models. The three-factor model fit the data well (CFI = 0.938; RMSEA = 0.047), although a two-factor model, with shifting and fluency merged, fit similarly well (CFI = 0.929; RMSEA = 0.048). A bifactor model fit best (CFI = 0.977; RMSEA = 0.032) and explained the most variance in shifting indicators, but rarely converged among 5,000 bootstrapped samples. When the three first-order factors simultaneously predicted the criterion variables, only shifting was uniquely predictive (p measuring executive-related constructs and provide a framework through which clinicians can interpret D-KEFS results.

  3. Influence of the vibro-acoustic sensor position on cavitation detection in a Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H; Kirschner, O; Riedelbauch, S; Necker, J; Kopf, E; Rieg, M; Arantes, G; Wessiak, M; Mayrhuber, J

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic turbines can be operated close to the limits of the operating range to meet the demand of the grid. When operated close to the limits, the risk increases that cavitation phenomena may occur at the runner and / or at the guide vanes of the turbine. Cavitation in a hydraulic turbine can cause material erosion on the runner and other turbine parts and reduce the durability of the machine leading to required outage time and related repair costs. Therefore it is important to get reliable information about the appearance of cavitation during prototype operation. In this experimental investigation the high frequency acoustic emissions and vibrations were measured at 20 operating points with different cavitation behaviour at different positions in a large prototype Kaplan turbine. The main goal was a comparison of the measured signals at different sensor positions to identify the sensitivity of the location for cavitation detection. The measured signals were analysed statistically and specific values were derived. Based on the measured signals, it is possible to confirm the cavitation limit of the examined turbine. The result of the investigation shows that the position of the sensors has a significant influence on the detection of cavitation

  4. Mitigation of tip vortex cavitation by means of air injection on a Kaplan turbine scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivetti, A; Angulo, M; Lucino, C; Liscia, S

    2014-01-01

    Kaplan turbines operating at full-load conditions may undergo excessive vibration, noise and cavitation. In such cases, damage by erosion associated to tip vortex cavitation can be observed at the discharge ring. This phenomenon involves design features such as (1) overhang of guide vanes; (2) blade profile; (3) gap increasing size with blade opening; (4) suction head; (5) operation point; and (6) discharge ring stiffness, among others. Tip vortex cavitation may cause erosion at the discharge ring and draft tube inlet following a wavy pattern, in which the number of vanes can be clearly identified. Injection of pressurized air above the runner blade centerline was tested as a mean to mitigate discharge ring cavitation damage on a scale model. Air entrance was observed by means of a high-speed camera in order to track the air trajectory toward its mergence with the tip vortex cavitation core. Post-processing of acceleration signals shows that the level of vibration and the RSI frequency amplitude decrease proportionally with air flow rate injected. These findings reveal the potential mitigating effect of air injection in preventing cavitation damage and will be useful in further tests to be performed on prototype, aiming at determining the optimum air flow rate, size and distribution of the injectors

  5. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Mulu, B; Raisee, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR

  6. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, K.; Mulu, B.; Raisee, M.; Cervantes, M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR.

  7. Mitigation of tip vortex cavitation by means of air injection on a Kaplan turbine scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Liscia, S.

    2014-03-01

    Kaplan turbines operating at full-load conditions may undergo excessive vibration, noise and cavitation. In such cases, damage by erosion associated to tip vortex cavitation can be observed at the discharge ring. This phenomenon involves design features such as (1) overhang of guide vanes; (2) blade profile; (3) gap increasing size with blade opening; (4) suction head; (5) operation point; and (6) discharge ring stiffness, among others. Tip vortex cavitation may cause erosion at the discharge ring and draft tube inlet following a wavy pattern, in which the number of vanes can be clearly identified. Injection of pressurized air above the runner blade centerline was tested as a mean to mitigate discharge ring cavitation damage on a scale model. Air entrance was observed by means of a high-speed camera in order to track the air trajectory toward its mergence with the tip vortex cavitation core. Post-processing of acceleration signals shows that the level of vibration and the RSI frequency amplitude decrease proportionally with air flow rate injected. These findings reveal the potential mitigating effect of air injection in preventing cavitation damage and will be useful in further tests to be performed on prototype, aiming at determining the optimum air flow rate, size and distribution of the injectors.

  8. Repair of Kaplan turbine shaft sealing based on evaluation of hydraulic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, K; Szamosi, Z; Bereczkei, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper has been written to call attention to a potential danger what may occur in Kaplan turbine refurbishments. In Tiszalök hydropower plant, Hungary, the shaft sealing of the refurbished turbine was damaged. In searching for the reasons it was assumed that due to increased internal velocities in the turbine, the pressure at the hub clearance became lower than the atmospheric pressure, and therefore the sealing, which always operated satisfactorily before the refurbishment, had uncertain water supply, dry-running occurred, and after some time the sealing was burnt. First the flow conditions in the turbine and the pressure at the hub clearance were calculated by a one-dimensional flow model. Later this was refined by a two-dimensional approach. The above conclusion was also justified by the data acquisition system and by observing the operation of the small dewatering pump. When the turbine operated at a larger discharge than a certain limit value, then the dewatering pump remained standstill, indicating that no water passed through the shaft sealing. External water supply was then applied, and after this the turbine operated all right.

  9. Repair of Kaplan turbine shaft sealing based on evaluation of hydraulic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, K.; Szamosi, Z.; Bereczkei, S.

    2012-11-01

    This paper has been written to call attention to a potential danger what may occur in Kaplan turbine refurbishments. In Tiszalök hydropower plant, Hungary, the shaft sealing of the refurbished turbine was damaged. In searching for the reasons it was assumed that due to increased internal velocities in the turbine, the pressure at the hub clearance became lower than the atmospheric pressure, and therefore the sealing, which always operated satisfactorily before the refurbishment, had uncertain water supply, dry-running occurred, and after some time the sealing was burnt. First the flow conditions in the turbine and the pressure at the hub clearance were calculated by a one-dimensional flow model. Later this was refined by a two-dimensional approach. The above conclusion was also justified by the data acquisition system and by observing the operation of the small dewatering pump. When the turbine operated at a larger discharge than a certain limit value, then the dewatering pump remained standstill, indicating that no water passed through the shaft sealing. External water supply was then applied, and after this the turbine operated all right.

  10. Item response theory analyses of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System card sorting subtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Cho, Sun-Joo; Cutting, Laurie E

    2018-02-02

    In the current study, we examined the dimensionality of the 16-item Card Sorting subtest of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System assessment in a sample of 264 native English-speaking children between the ages of 9 and 15 years. We also tested for measurement invariance for these items across age and gender groups using item response theory (IRT). Results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model that distinguished between verbal and perceptual items provided the best fit to the data. Although the items demonstrated measurement invariance across age groups, measurement invariance was violated for gender groups, with two items demonstrating differential item functioning for males and females. Multigroup analysis using all 16 items indicated that the items were more effective for individuals whose IRT scale scores were relatively high. A single-group explanatory IRT model using 14 non-differential item functioning items showed that for perceptual ability, females scored higher than males and that scores increased with age for both males and females; for verbal ability, the observed increase in scores across age differed for males and females. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Bias Correction Methods Explain Much of the Variation Seen in Breast Cancer Risks of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Janet R; Hsu, Li; Brohet, Richard M; Mourits, Marian J E; de Vries, Jakob; Malone, Kathleen E; Oosterwijk, Jan C; de Bock, Geertruida H

    2015-08-10

    Recommendations for treating patients who carry a BRCA1/2 gene are mainly based on cumulative lifetime risks (CLTRs) of breast cancer determined from retrospective cohorts. These risks vary widely (27% to 88%), and it is important to understand why. We analyzed the effects of methods of risk estimation and bias correction and of population factors on CLTRs in this retrospective clinical cohort of BRCA1/2 carriers. The following methods to estimate the breast cancer risk of BRCA1/2 carriers were identified from the literature: Kaplan-Meier, frailty, and modified segregation analyses with bias correction consisting of including or excluding index patients combined with including or excluding first-degree relatives (FDRs) or different conditional likelihoods. These were applied to clinical data of BRCA1/2 families derived from our family cancer clinic for whom a simulation was also performed to evaluate the methods. CLTRs and 95% CIs were estimated and compared with the reference CLTRs. CLTRs ranged from 35% to 83% for BRCA1 and 41% to 86% for BRCA2 carriers at age 70 years width of 95% CIs: 10% to 35% and 13% to 46%, respectively). Relative bias varied from -38% to +16%. Bias correction with inclusion of index patients and untested FDRs gave the smallest bias: +2% (SD, 2%) in BRCA1 and +0.9% (SD, 3.6%) in BRCA2. Much of the variation in breast cancer CLTRs in retrospective clinical BRCA1/2 cohorts is due to the bias-correction method, whereas a smaller part is due to population differences. Kaplan-Meier analyses with bias correction that includes index patients and a proportion of untested FDRs provide suitable CLTRs for carriers counseled in the clinic. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  13. The Factor Structure and Age-Related Factorial Invariance of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Markon, Kristian E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the structure of and relations among executive functions.The present study examined the factor structure as well as age-related factorial invariance of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), a widely used inventory aimed at assessing executive functions. Analyses were first conducted using data…

  14. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  15. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, A; Gregorc, B; Gale, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatolicje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  16. Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response : Patrick Meier, 2015, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL, 978-1-4822-4839-5, 259 pp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anushree

    2017-12-01

    This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.

  17. Implementation of pressurized air injection system in a Kaplan prototype for the reduction of vibration caused by tip vortex cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, A.; Angulo, M.; Lucino, C.; Hene, M.; Capezio, O.; Liscia, S.

    2016-11-01

    Blade tip cavitation is a well-known phenomenon that affects the performance of large-diameter Kaplan turbines and induces structural vibration. Injection of pressurized air has been found to yield promising results in reducing those damaging effects. In this work, the results of an experimental test of air injection on a 9.5-m-diameter Kaplan turbine are reported. Experiments were performed for several load conditions and for two different net heads. Accelerations, pressure pulsation and noise emission were monitored for every tested condition. Results show that, at the expense of a maximum efficiency drop of 0.2%, air injection induces a decrease on the level of vibration from 57% up to 84%, depending on the load condition. Such decrease is seen to be proportional to the air flow rate, in the range from 0.06 to 0.8‰ (respect to the discharge at the best efficiency point).

  18. Numerical Analysis of Flow in Kaplan Turbine Runner Blades Anticavitation Lip with Modified Hydro-dynamic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the lifetime of runner blades of Kaplan turbines damaged by cavitation erosion, an anticavitation lip is attached to the periphery of the runner blades on the suction side. The anticavitation lip overtakes the cavitation pitting which appears between the runner blades and the runner chamber. A blade with the original anticavitation lip was modeled using CAE. The numerical simulations showed the tip vortex position and the source of the cavitation erosion. Using these data, a modified profile of the anticavitation lip was designed.

  19. Going Large or Going Small in Plant Design: Comparison between a P.P. with three small Kaplan turbines and a P.P. with just one Large Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Otero, C.

    2017-04-01

    Very often small turbine manufacturers are requested to produce sizeable turbines, too large in terms of physical dimensions, power or designing capacity. In these cases clever alternative solutions should be found to meet customers’ needs. For instance: in the old times twin runner Francis turbines were an option instead of one large machine, or if a too large Pelton turbine cannot be manufactured or designed, a good option is to install a medium size Francis and a small Pelton. Likewise, a similar approach needs to be taken should the manufacturer be asked for a too large Kaplan. Facing this situation a good option is to install three or more small Kaplan turbines. This particular case was studied in depth and after all the considerations had been made, the following question arouse: Is this a way out for the manufacturer or is it really the best option for the customer? The choice made as a way out for the manufacturer became the best option for the customer and a success for both parties. This paper aims to encourage developers and engineering firms to search for more options than the traditional one to find the best option in plant design.

  20. Indigolapsed muudavad maailma / Moon Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Moon

    2004-01-01

    Kasvatusteadlased avastasid, et alates u 1980. a-st sündinud lapsed on hoopis teistsugused kui eelmised põlvkonnad. Senine haridussüsteem neile ei sobi, hariduses peaks rohkem pöörama tähelepanu emotsioonidele

  1. Mathematical simulation of fluid flow and analysis of flow pattern in the flow path of low-head Kaplan turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rusanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical investigation of spatial flow of viscous incompressible fluid in flow part of Kaplan turbine PL20 Kremenchug HPP at optimum setting angle of runner blade φb = 15° and at maximum setting angle φb = 35° are shown. The flow simulation has been carried out on basis of numerical integration of the Reynolds equations with an additional term containing artificial compressibility. The differential two-parameter model of Menter (SST has been applied to take into account turbulent effects. Numerical integration of the equations is carried out using an implicit quasi-monotone Godunov type scheme of second - order accuracy in space and time. The calculations have been conducted with the help of the software system IPMFlow. The analysis of fluid flow in the flow part elements is shown and the values of hydraulic losses and local cavitation coefficient have been obtained. Comparison of calculated and experimental results has been carried out.

  2. Mutations in ORC1, encoding the largest subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Louise S; Walker, Sarah; Klingseisen, Anna; Stiff, Tom; Leitch, Andrea; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Martin, Carol-Anne; Yeyati, Patricia; Al Sanna, Nouriya; Bober, Michael; Johnson, Diana; Wise, Carol; Jackson, Andrew P; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A

    2011-02-27

    Studies into disorders of extreme growth failure (for example, Seckel syndrome and Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II) have implicated fundamental cellular processes of DNA damage response signaling and centrosome function in the regulation of human growth. Here we report that mutations in ORC1, encoding a subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome. We establish that these mutations disrupt known ORC1 functions including pre-replicative complex formation and origin activation. ORC1 deficiency perturbs S-phase entry and S-phase progression. Additionally, we show that Orc1 depletion in zebrafish is sufficient to markedly reduce body size during rapid embryonic growth. Our data suggest a model in which ORC1 mutations impair replication licensing, slowing cell cycle progression and consequently impeding growth during development, particularly at times of rapid proliferation. These findings establish a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of microcephalic dwarfism and show a surprising but important developmental impact of impaired origin licensing.

  3. Inability of Kaplan radiation leukemia virus to replicate on mouse fibroblasts is conferred by its long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassart, E.; Paquette, Y.; Jolicoeur, P.

    1988-01-01

    The molecularly cloned infectious Kaplan radiation leukemia virus has previously been shown to be unable to replicate on mouse fibroblasts. To map the viral sequences responsible for this, we constructed chimeric viral DNA genomes in vitro with parental cloned infectious viral DNAs from the nonfibrotropic (F-) BL/VL3 V-13 radiation leukemia virus and the fibrotropic (F+) endogenous BALB/c or Moloney murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). Infectious chimeric MuLVs, recovered after transfection of Ti-6 lymphocytes with these recombinant DNAs, were tested for capacity to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro. We found that chimeric MuLVs harboring the long terminal repeat (LTR) of a fibrotropic MuLV replicated well on mouse fibroblasts. Conversely, chimeric MuLVs harboring the LTR of a nonfibrotropic MuLV were restricted on mouse fibroblasts. These results indicate that the LTR of BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus harbors the primary determinant responsible for its inability to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro. Our results also show that the primary determinant allowing F+ MuLVs (endogenous BALB/c and Moloney MuLVs) to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro resides within the LTR

  4. Fatigue Analysis of the Piston Rod in a Kaplan Turbine Based on Crack Propagation under Unsteady Hydraulic Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Luo, Y Y; Wang, Z W

    2014-01-01

    As an important component of the blade-control system in Kaplan turbines, piston rods are subjected to fluctuating forces transferred by the turbines blades from hydraulic pressure oscillations. Damage due to unsteady hydraulic loads might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. In one running hydropower plant, the fracture failure of the piston rod was found twice at the same location. With the transient dynamic analysis, the retainer ring structure of the piston rod existed a relative high stress concentration. This predicted position of the stress concentration agreed well with the actual fracture position in the plant. However, the local strain approach was not able to explain why this position broke frequently. Since traditional structural fatigue analyses use a local stress strain approach to assess structural integrity, do not consider the effect of flaws which can significantly degrade structural life. Using linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM) approaches that include the effect of flaws is becoming common practice in many industries. In this research, a case involving a small semi-ellipse crack was taken into account at the stress concentration area, crack growth progress was calculated by FEM. The relationship between crack length and remaining life was obtained. The crack propagation path approximately agreed with the actual fracture section. The results showed that presence of the crack had significantly changed the local stress and strain distributions of the piston rod compared with non-flaw assumption

  5. Fatigue Analysis of the Piston Rod in a Kaplan Turbine Based on Crack Propagation under Unsteady Hydraulic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Y Luo, Y.; Wang, Z. W.

    2014-03-01

    As an important component of the blade-control system in Kaplan turbines, piston rods are subjected to fluctuating forces transferred by the turbines blades from hydraulic pressure oscillations. Damage due to unsteady hydraulic loads might generate unexpected down time and high repair cost. In one running hydropower plant, the fracture failure of the piston rod was found twice at the same location. With the transient dynamic analysis, the retainer ring structure of the piston rod existed a relative high stress concentration. This predicted position of the stress concentration agreed well with the actual fracture position in the plant. However, the local strain approach was not able to explain why this position broke frequently. Since traditional structural fatigue analyses use a local stress strain approach to assess structural integrity, do not consider the effect of flaws which can significantly degrade structural life. Using linear elastic fracture mechanism (LEFM) approaches that include the effect of flaws is becoming common practice in many industries. In this research, a case involving a small semi-ellipse crack was taken into account at the stress concentration area, crack growth progress was calculated by FEM. The relationship between crack length and remaining life was obtained. The crack propagation path approximately agreed with the actual fracture section. The results showed that presence of the crack had significantly changed the local stress and strain distributions of the piston rod compared with non-flaw assumption.

  6. How Do We Defend Democratic Education? Lois Weiner and Andy Kaplan Respond to Diane Ravitch's "The Reign of Error"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Lois; Kaplan, Andy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Andy Kaplan discusses with Lois Weiner, Diane Ravitch's latest book "The Reign of Error," which combines scholarly argument and scrupulous research in defense of democratic education. Weiner notes, the book will prove an important resource in the ongoing struggle for the survival of public schooling. Weiner adds,…

  7. Design of a Kaplan turbine for a wide range of operating head -Curved draft tube design and model test verification-

    Science.gov (United States)

    KO, Pohan; MATSUMOTO, Kiyoshi; OHTAKE, Norio; DING, Hua

    2016-11-01

    As for turbomachine off-design performance improvement is challenging but critical for maximising the performing area. In this paper, a curved draft tube for a medium head Kaplan type hydro turbine is introduced and discussed for its significant effect on expanding operating head range. Without adding any extra structure and working fluid for swirl destruction and damping, a carefully designed outline shape of draft tube with the selected placement of center-piers successfully supresses the growth of turbulence eddy and the transport of the swirl to the outlet. Also, more kinetic energy is recovered and the head lost is improved. Finally, the model test results are also presented. The obvious performance improvement was found in the lower net head area, where the maximum efficiency improvement was measured up to 20% without compromising the best efficiency point. Additionally, this design results in a new draft tube more compact in size and so leads to better construction and manufacturing cost performance for prototype. The draft tube geometry parameter designing process was concerning the best efficiency point together with the off-design points covering various water net heads and discharges. The hydraulic performance and flow behavior was numerically previewed and visualized by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The simulation was under the assumption of steady-state incompressible turbulence flow inside the flow passage, and the inlet boundary condition was the carefully simulated flow pattern from the runner outlet. For confirmation, the corresponding turbine efficiency performance of the entire operating area was verified by model test.

  8. The BAH domain of ORC1 links H4K20me2 to DNA replication licensing and Meier-Gorlin syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alex J; Song, Jikui; Cheung, Peggie; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Yamazoe, Sayumi; Chen, James K; Patel, Dinshaw J; Gozani, Or [Stanford; (MSKCC); (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The recognition of distinctly modified histones by specialized 'effector' proteins constitutes a key mechanism for transducing molecular events at chromatin to biological outcomes. Effector proteins influence DNA-templated processes, including transcription, DNA recombination and DNA repair; however, no effector functions have yet been identified within the mammalian machinery that regulate DNA replication. Here we show that ORC1 - a component of ORC (origin of replication complex), which mediates pre-DNA replication licensing - contains a bromo adjacent homology (BAH) domain that specifically recognizes histone H4 dimethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20me2). Recognition of H4K20me2 is a property common to BAH domains present within diverse metazoan ORC1 proteins. Structural studies reveal that the specificity of the BAH domain for H4K20me2 is mediated by a dynamic aromatic dimethyl-lysine-binding cage and multiple intermolecular contacts involving the bound peptide. H4K20me2 is enriched at replication origins, and abrogating ORC1 recognition of H4K20me2 in cells impairs ORC1 occupancy at replication origins, ORC chromatin loading and cell-cycle progression. Mutation of the ORC1 BAH domain has been implicated in the aetiology of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), a form of primordial dwarfism, and ORC1 depletion in zebrafish results in an MGS-like phenotype. We find that wild-type human ORC1, but not ORC1-H4K20me2-binding mutants, rescues the growth retardation of orc1 morphants. Moreover, zebrafish depleted of H4K20me2 have diminished body size, mirroring the phenotype of orc1 morphants. Together, our results identify the BAH domain as a novel methyl-lysine-binding module, thereby establishing the first direct link between histone methylation and the metazoan DNA replication machinery, and defining a pivotal aetiological role for the canonical H4K20me2 mark, via ORC1, in primordial dwarfism.

  9. À LA RECHERCHE DES FONDEMENTS CONCEPTUELS ET METHODOLOGIQUES DU BALANCED SCORECARD : LE MODELE DE KAPLAN ET NORTON REVISITÉ À TRAVERS LE CADRE CONCEPTUEL DES LEVIERS DE CONTROLE.

    OpenAIRE

    Gérald Naro; Denis Travaillé

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to confront the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) with Simons' (1995) levers of control framework and to discuss its role in the various stages of the strategic process. Whereas Kaplan and Norton present the BSC above all as a system of diagnostic control, Simons' (1995) levers of control model leads us to privilege a representation of the BSC in the form of an interactive process. Such an approach presents several theoretical and methodological implica...

  10. A conversation with Drs. Kaplan and Moser about conflicting data, confusing results, and some recent treatment recommendations for the management of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Wendy; Moser, Marvin; Kaplan, Norman

    2005-10-01

    Following a hypertension symposium in Baltimore, MD, on June 1, 2005, Dr. Wendy Post from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, had the opportunity to interview two of the outstanding hypertension experts in the United States on several controversial issues in hypertension management. Dr. Norman Kaplan is Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Southwestern Health Science Center in Dallas, TX, and Dr. Marvin Moser is Clinical Professor of Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Both have been leaders in the field of hypertension treatment and education for more than 40 years. Dr. Kaplan's book Clinical Hypertension has been a standard textbook since 1973 and is now in its ninth edition. Dr. Marvin Moser was the Senior Medical Consultant to the National High Blood Pressure Education Program from 1974 to 2002 and was Chairman of the first Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and a member of the six subsequent committees. His book Clinical Management of Hypertension is in its seventh edition. Drs. Moser and Kaplan were corecipients of the 2004 International Society of Hypertension Award for Outstanding Contributions to Hypertension Treatment and Education and have lectured extensively throughout the United States and overseas.

  11. Trends in study design and the statistical methods employed in a leading general medicine journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosho, M; Sato, Y; Nagashima, K; Takahashi, S

    2018-02-01

    Study design and statistical methods have become core components of medical research, and the methodology has become more multifaceted and complicated over time. The study of the comprehensive details and current trends of study design and statistical methods is required to support the future implementation of well-planned clinical studies providing information about evidence-based medicine. Our purpose was to illustrate study design and statistical methods employed in recent medical literature. This was an extension study of Sato et al. (N Engl J Med 2017; 376: 1086-1087), which reviewed 238 articles published in 2015 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) and briefly summarized the statistical methods employed in NEJM. Using the same database, we performed a new investigation of the detailed trends in study design and individual statistical methods that were not reported in the Sato study. Due to the CONSORT statement, prespecification and justification of sample size are obligatory in planning intervention studies. Although standard survival methods (eg Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression model) were most frequently applied, the Gray test and Fine-Gray proportional hazard model for considering competing risks were sometimes used for a more valid statistical inference. With respect to handling missing data, model-based methods, which are valid for missing-at-random data, were more frequently used than single imputation methods. These methods are not recommended as a primary analysis, but they have been applied in many clinical trials. Group sequential design with interim analyses was one of the standard designs, and novel design, such as adaptive dose selection and sample size re-estimation, was sometimes employed in NEJM. Model-based approaches for handling missing data should replace single imputation methods for primary analysis in the light of the information found in some publications. Use of adaptive design with interim analyses is increasing

  12. [Survival analysis with competing risks: estimating failure probability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Javier; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    To show the impact of competing risks of death on survival analysis. We provide an example of survival time without chronic rejection after heart transplantation, where death before rejection acts as a competing risk. Using a computer simulation, we compare the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement model. The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the probability of rejection. Next, we illustrate the use of the multiple decrement model to analyze secondary end points (in our example: death after rejection). Finally, we discuss Kaplan-Meier assumptions and why they fail in the presence of competing risks. Survival analysis should be adjusted for competing risks of death to avoid overestimation of the risk of rejection produced with the Kaplan-Meier method.

  13. Determination of the most appropriate method for extrapolating overall survival data from a placebo-controlled clinical trial of lenvatinib for progressive, radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Livings, Christopher; Crowe, Lydia; Kapetanakis, Venediktos; Briggs, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness models for the treatment of long-term conditions often require information on survival beyond the period of available data. This paper aims to identify a robust and reliable method for the extrapolation of overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer receiving lenvatinib or placebo. Data from 392 patients (lenvatinib: 261, placebo: 131) from the SELECT trial are used over a 34-month period of follow-up. A previously published criterion-based approach is employed to ascertain credible estimates of OS beyond the trial data. Parametric models with and without a treatment covariate and piecewise models are used to extrapolate OS, and a holistic approach, where a series of statistical and visual tests are considered collectively, is taken in determining the most appropriate extrapolation model. A piecewise model, in which the Kaplan-Meier survivor function is used over the trial period and an extrapolated tail is based on the Exponential distribution, is identified as the optimal model. In the absence of long-term survival estimates from clinical trials, survival estimates often need to be extrapolated from the available data. The use of a systematic method based on a priori determined selection criteria provides a transparent approach and reduces the risk of bias. The extrapolated OS estimates will be used to investigate the potential long-term benefits of lenvatinib in the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients and populate future cost-effectiveness analyses.

  14. Análisis de supervivencia en presencia de riesgos competitivos: estimadores de la probabilidad de suceso Survival analysis with competing risks: estimating failure probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Llorca

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Mostrar el efecto de los riesgos competitivos de muerte en el análisis de supervivencia. Métodos: Se presenta un ejemplo sobre la supervivencia libre de rechazo tras un trasplante cardíaco, en el que la muerte antes de desarrollar el rechazo actúa como riesgo competitivo. Mediante una simulación se comparan el estimador de Kaplan-Meier y el modelo de decrementos múltiples. Resultados: El método de Kaplan-Meier sobrestima el riesgo de rechazo. A continuación, se expone la aplicación del modelo de decrementos múltiples para el análisis de acontecimientos secundarios (en el ejemplo, la muerte tras el rechazo. Finalmente, se discuten las asunciones propias del método de Kaplan-Meier y las razones por las que no puede ser aplicado en presencia de riesgos competitivos. Conclusiones: El análisis de supervivencia debe ajustarse por los riesgos competitivos de muerte para evitar la sobrestimación del riesgo de fallo que se produce con el método de Kaplan-Meier.Objective: To show the impact of competing risks of death on survival analysis. Method: We provide an example of survival time without chronic rejection after heart transplantation, where death before rejection acts as a competing risk. Using a computer simulation, we compare the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement model. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimated the probability of rejection. Next, we illustrate the use of the multiple decrement model to analyze secondary end points (in our example: death after rejection. Finally, we discuss Kaplan-Meier assumptions and why they fail in the presence of competing risks. Conclusions: Survival analysis should be adjusted for competing risks of death to avoid overestimation of the risk of rejection produced with the Kaplan-Meier method.

  15. Comments on the reviews of Kaplan, S. (2008. Children in genocide: Extreme traumatization and affect regulation. London: International Psychoanalytical Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kaplan, Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available My choice of grounded theory as research approach has been made against the background of three factors. The first and foremost is that my research interest evolved when I carried out two interviews with survivors who were children themselves during the Holocaust, i.e. from the data. The information that I obtained gave me a strong sense of urgency, a motivation, to try to understand the major concerns for child survivors, based on their own perspective. I decided to start doctoral studies after many years in clinical practice. My interest thus emerged from the interviews and not from an existing theory. Grounded theory is a method that sticks closely to the empirical and that aims to create theoretical models based on the development of concepts, of relationships between concepts and of theories concerning social and psychological processes from a certain aspect tied to a special context (Glaser, 1978.

  16. THE EMISSION, LIFETIMES, AND FORMATION THRESHOLD OF THE VEGARD–KAPLAN TRANSITION OF SOLID NITROGEN EXPOSED TO FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard–Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200–440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ∼ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  17. THE EMISSION, LIFETIMES, AND FORMATION THRESHOLD OF THE VEGARD–KAPLAN TRANSITION OF SOLID NITROGEN EXPOSED TO FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming, E-mail: bmcheng@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, No. 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-20

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard–Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200–440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ∼ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  18. A full three dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of flow field inside a power plant Kaplan turbine using some model test turbine hill chart points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Raja, A.; Hajikhani, S.

    2012-06-01

    A full three dimensional Navier - Stokes numerical simulation has been performed for performance analysis of a Kaplan turbine which is installed in one of the Irans south dams. No simplifications have been enforced in the simulation. The numerical results have been evaluated using some integral parameters such as the turbine efficiency via comparing the results with existing experimental data from the prototype Hill chart. In part of this study the numerical simulations were performed in order to calculate the prototype turbine efficiencies in some specific points which comes from the scaling up of the model efficiency that are available in the model experimental Hill chart. The results are very promising which shows the good ability of the numerical techniques for resolving the flow characteristics in these kind of complex geometries. A parametric study regarding the evaluation of turbine performance in three different runner angles of the prototype is also performed and the results are cited in this paper.

  19. The Emission, Lifetimes, and Formation Threshold of the Vegard-Kaplan Transition of Solid Nitrogen Exposed to Far-ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard-Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200-440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ˜ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  20. Noh, Kaplan, and Sievers reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, T.W.; Kaplan, S.G.; Sievers, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A reply to the comment for infrared resonance in superconducting LaSrCuO is given. The authors provide direct experimental evidence that the particles studied for the most part single crystals have anisotropic optical properties, the hypothesis and comment do not apply

  1. 2018-09 - Kaplan Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is providing notice of a proceeding to assess a Class II civil penalty for alleged violations of the Clean Water Act (Act). EPA is also providing notice of opportunity to comment on the proposed penalty assessment.

  2. How Do Executive Functions Fit with the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model? Some Evidence from a Joint Factor Analysis of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; Hamilton, Gloria; Parra, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among executive functions and cognitive abilities through a joint exploratory factor analysis and joint confirmatory factor analysis of 25 test scores from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Participants were 100 children and adolescents…

  3. Genetic architecture of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test: evidence for distinct genetic influences on executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew S; Xian, Hong; Grant, Michael D; Lyons, Michael J; Toomey, Rosemary; Jacobson, Kristen C; Kremen, William S

    2012-03-01

    To examine how genes and environments contribute to relationships among Trail Making Test (TMT) conditions and the extent to which these conditions have unique genetic and environmental influences. Participants included 1,237 middle-aged male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System TMT included visual searching, number and letter sequencing, and set-shifting components. Phenotypic correlations among TMT conditions ranged from 0.29 to 0.60, and genes accounted for the majority (58-84%) of each correlation. Overall heritability ranged from 0.34 to 0.62 across conditions. Phenotypic factor analysis suggested a single factor. In contrast, genetic models revealed a single common genetic factor but also unique genetic influences separate from the common factor. Genetic variance (i.e., heritability) of number and letter sequencing was completely explained by the common genetic factor while unique genetic influences separate from the common factor accounted for 57% and 21% of the heritabilities of visual search and set shifting, respectively. After accounting for general cognitive ability, unique genetic influences accounted for 64% and 31% of those heritabilities. A common genetic factor, most likely representing a combination of speed and sequencing, accounted for most of the correlation among TMT 1-4. Distinct genetic factors, however, accounted for a portion of variance in visual scanning and set shifting. Thus, although traditional phenotypic shared variance analysis techniques suggest only one general factor underlying different neuropsychological functions in nonpatient populations, examining the genetic underpinnings of cognitive processes with twin analysis can uncover more complex etiological processes.

  4. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p < .001, and verbal (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p < .01, and semantic fluency (Animal Naming), F(1, 232) = 7.57, p = .006, with the atypical group performing better on each task. Effect sizes were larger for nonverbal (Cohen's d = 0.66) than verbal learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative

  5. INTRAPERITONEAL AEROSOL CHEMOTHERAPY UNDER PRESSURE (IACUP – AN INNOVATIVE METHOD OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer, in fact, is the end-stage of the disease. The survival median of patients is no more than 3–6 months. Development of various methods of intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of this category of patients.Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP in patients with gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis.Materials and methods. The treatment Protocol consisted of a laparotomy or laparoscopy for the staging of the tumor process, 3–4 courses of systemic chemotherapy scheme XELOX followed by conducting at least 3 sessions of intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP with an interval of 6 weeks on the background of chemotherapy. In the case of progression the patient was excluded from the study. Currently, the study included 27 patients with disseminated gastric cancer who underwent 46 procedures of IACUP. There were 8 men and 19 women. The average age of patients was 50.6 years.Results. In the framework of the safety assessment of IACUP there were 3 cases of adverse effects. Two patients (7,4% noted nausea for the first 2 days after running the session of IACUP. In one patient the iatrogenic perforation of the diaphragm during biopsy of the peritoneum with the development of carbonetworks occurred. The survival median was 11 months. One-year survival rate (by KaplanMeier was 50.7%. 14 patients are alive and continue to participate in the study during the first year of observation.Conclusion. Intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy under pressure (IACUP is a simple, minimally invasive and safe method for the palliative treatment of patients with disseminated carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. We developed the treatment Protocol that allows us to achieve one-year survival of more than half of patients.

  6. New methods for estimating follow-up rates in cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Xue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The follow-up rate, a standard index of the completeness of follow-up, is important for assessing the validity of a cohort study. A common method for estimating the follow-up rate, the “Percentage Method”, defined as the fraction of all enrollees who developed the event of interest or had complete follow-up, can severely underestimate the degree of follow-up. Alternatively, the median follow-up time does not indicate the completeness of follow-up, and the reverse Kaplan-Meier based method and Clark’s Completeness Index (CCI also have limitations. Methods We propose a new definition for the follow-up rate, the Person-Time Follow-up Rate (PTFR, which is the observed person-time divided by total person-time assuming no dropouts. The PTFR cannot be calculated directly since the event times for dropouts are not observed. Therefore, two estimation methods are proposed: a formal person-time method (FPT in which the expected total follow-up time is calculated using the event rate estimated from the observed data, and a simplified person-time method (SPT that avoids estimation of the event rate by assigning full follow-up time to all events. Simulations were conducted to measure the accuracy of each method, and each method was applied to a prostate cancer recurrence study dataset. Results Simulation results showed that the FPT has the highest accuracy overall. In most situations, the computationally simpler SPT and CCI methods are only slightly biased. When applied to a retrospective cohort study of cancer recurrence, the FPT, CCI and SPT showed substantially greater 5-year follow-up than the Percentage Method (92%, 92% and 93% vs 68%. Conclusions The Person-time methods correct a systematic error in the standard Percentage Method for calculating follow-up rates. The easy to use SPT and CCI methods can be used in tandem to obtain an accurate and tight interval for PTFR. However, the FPT is recommended when event rates and

  7. Menacalc, a quantitative method of metastasis assessment, as a prognostic marker for axillary node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, Catherine L.; Agarwal, Seema; Pinnaduwage, Dushanthi; Gertler, Frank; Condeelis, John S.; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Johung, Kimberly; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Rohan, Thomas E.; Bull, Shelley B.; Andrulis, Irene L.

    2015-01-01

    Mena calc is an immunofluorescence-based, quantitative method in which expression of the non-invasive Mena protein isoform (Mena11a) is subtracted from total Mena protein expression. Previous work has found a significant positive association between Mena calc and risk of death from breast cancer. Our goal was to determine if Mena calc could be used as an independent prognostic marker for axillary node-negative (ANN) breast cancer. Analysis of the association of Mena calc with overall survival (death from any cause) was performed for 403 ANN tumors using Kaplan Meier survival curves and the univariate Cox proportional hazards (PH) model with the log-rank or the likelihood ratio test. Cox PH models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of Mena calc with risk of death after adjustment for HER2 status and clinicopathological tumor features. High Mena calc was associated with increased risk of death from any cause (P = 0.0199, HR (CI) = 2.18 (1.19, 4.00)). A similarly elevated risk of death was found in the subset of the Mena calc cohort which did not receive hormone or chemotherapy (n = 142) (P = 0.0052, HR (CI) = 3.80 (1.58, 9.97)). There was a trend toward increased risk of death with relatively high Mena calc in the HER2, basal and luminal molecular subtypes. Mena calc may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for the ANN breast cancer patient population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1468-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  8. Short-term Clinical Course of Knee Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Feasibility Study Using Electronic Methods of Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien; Henschke, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders, such as knee pain, are common in children and adolescents, but there is a lack of high quality research that evaluates the clinical course of these conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a prospective study of children and adolescents with knee pain using electronic methods of data collection. Children and adolescents with knee pain that presented to primary care physiotherapy clinics were enrolled and followed-up on a weekly basis via short messaging service (SMS) until their knee pain had recovered (i.e. two consecutive weeks of no pain). Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment, retention and response rates to SMS and an online questionnaire. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measures included pain, disability, physical function, physical activity and health related quality of life. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median time to knee pain recovery. Thirty participants (mean age 13.0 ± 2.2 years, 53% boys) were recruited over 26 months. The overall response rate to weekly SMS follow-up was 71.3% (809 received/1135 sent). One third of participants stopped responding to SMS prior to recovery, and these participants typically had a much lower response rate during the time they remained in the study. At 6-month follow-up, 80% of the cohort completed the final online questionnaire, and 29% of participants still reported current knee pain (≥1/10 VAS). The median time for knee pain recovery was 8 weeks (95%CI: 5, 10). Electronic data collection alone seems insufficient to track pain recovery in young people and may need to be supplemented with more traditional data collection methods. Researchers should consider further measures to address slow recruitment rates and high attrition when designing large prospective studies of children and adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mitigación de la cavitación de extremo de alabe mediante la implementación de inyección de aire en un modelo a escala reducida de turbina Kaplan

    OpenAIRE

    Rivetti, Arturo; Angulo, Mauricio Abel; Lucino, Cecilia Verónica; Liscia, Sergio Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Las Turbinas Kaplan que operan en condiciones de alta carga pueden estar sometidas a vibraciones excesivas, ruido y cavitación. En estos casos puede presentarse erosión por cavitación sobre el anillo de descarga asociada al desarrollo de cavitación de extremo de alabe. Este fenómeno involucra características de diseño tales como sobreapertura de los alabes del distribuidor; perfil de los alabes del rodete; el incremento del huelgo debido a la apertura del alabe; la altura neta de aspiración; ...

  10. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  11. Estimation of Lifetime Duration for a Lever Pin of Runner Blade Operating Mechanism using a Graphic – analytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented a graphic - analytic method that can be used to estimate the fatigue lifetime duration for an operating mechanism lever pin to a Kaplan turbine. The presented calculus algorithm is adapted from the one used by Fuji Electric to made strength calculus in order to refurbish a Romanian hydropower plant, equipped with a Kaplan turbine. The graphic part includes a 3D fatigue diagram for rotating bending stress designed by Fuji Electric specialists.

  12. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  13. Tests Performed on Hydraulic Turbines at Commissioning or after Capital Repairs. Part II. Tests Performed on a 6.5 MW Kaplan Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cuzmoş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tests performed on a hydraulic turbine on commissioning, the devices, test methods and the results obtained from the respective tests, as well as the conclusions and recommendations resulted from these tests. This kind of tests can be performed for the verification of guarantees.

  14. Impact of reconstruction methods and pathological factors on survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Binziad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy for pancreatic head (PH and periampullary carcinoma (PC and provides the only chance of cure. Improvements of surgical technique, increased surgical experience and advances in anesthesia, intensive care and parenteral nutrition have substantially decreased surgical complications and increased survival. We evaluate the effects of reconstruction type, complications and pathological factors on survival and quality of life. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate the impact of various reconstruction methods of the pancreatic remnant after pancreaticoduodenectomy and the pathological characteristics of PC patients over 3.5 years. Patient characteristics and descriptive analysis in the three variable methods either with or without stent were compared with Chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was performed with the logistic regression analysis test and multinomial logistic regression analysis test. Survival rate was analyzed by use Kaplan-Meier test. Results: Forty-one consecutive patients with PC were enrolled. There were 23 men (56.1% and 18 women (43.9%, with a median age of 56 years (16 to 70 years. There were 24 cases of PH cancer, eight cases of PC, four cases of distal CBD cancer and five cases of duodenal carcinoma. Nine patients underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ, 17 patients underwent telescoping pancreatico jejunostomy (PJ and 15 patients pancreaticogastrostomy (PG. The pancreatic duct was stented in 30 patients while in 11 patients, the duct was not stented. The PJ duct-to-mucosa caused significantly less leakage, but longer operative and reconstructive times. Telescoping PJ was associated with the shortest hospital stay. There were 5 postoperative mortalities, while postoperative morbidities included pancreatic fistula-6 patients, delayed gastric emptying in-11, GI fistula-3, wound infection-12, burst abdomen-6 and pulmonary infection-2. Factors

  15. Experimental Analysis of Residual Stresses in Samples of Austenitic Stainless Steel Welded on Martensitic Stainless Steel Used for Kaplan Blades Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses occur in materials as a result of mechanical processes: welding, machining, grinding etc. If residual stresses reach high values they can accelerate the occurrence of cracks and erosion of material. An experimental research was made in order to study the occurrence of residual stresses in the repaired areas of hydraulic turbine components damaged by cavitation erosion. An austenitic stainless steel was welded in various layer thicknesses on a martensitic stainless steel base. The residual stresses were determined using the hole drilling strain gage method.

  16. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the

  17. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik; Park, Seung Jin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the future prospective randomized

  18. Survival chance in papillary thyroid cancer in Hungary: individual survival probability estimation using the Markov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esik, Olga; Tusnady, Gabor; Daubner, Kornel; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Fuezy, Marton; Szentirmay, Zoltan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The typically benign, but occasionally rapidly fatal clinical course of papillary thyroid cancer has raised the need for individual survival probability estimation, to tailor the treatment strategy exclusively to a given patient. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was performed on 400 papillary thyroid cancer patients with a median follow-up time of 7.1 years to establish a clinical database for uni- and multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors related to survival (Kaplan-Meier product limit method and Cox regression). For a more precise prognosis estimation, the effect of the most important clinical events were then investigated on the basis of a Markov renewal model. The basic concept of this approach is that each patient has an individual disease course which (besides the initial clinical categories) is affected by special events, e.g. internal covariates (local/regional/distant relapses). On the supposition that these events and the cause-specific death are influenced by the same biological processes, the parameters of transient survival probability characterizing the speed of the course of the disease for each clinical event and their sequence were determined. The individual survival curves for each patient were calculated by using these parameters and the independent significant clinical variables selected from multivariate studies, summation of which resulted in a mean cause-specific survival function valid for the entire group. On the basis of this Markov model, prediction of the cause-specific survival probability is possible for extrastudy cases, if it is supposed that the clinical events occur within new patients in the same manner and with the similar probability as within the study population. Results: The patient's age, a distant metastasis at presentation, the extent of the surgical intervention, the primary tumor size and extent (pT), the external irradiation dosage and the degree of TSH suppression proved to be

  19. Hybrid Particle-Continuum Numerical Methods for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Many applications of MEMS/NEMS devices, which include micro- turbines [3, 4], micro-sensors for chemical con- centrations or gas ow properties [5, 6, 7...Oran, E. S., and Kaplan , C. R., The Coupled Multiscale Multiphysics Method (CM3) for Rareed Gas Flows, AIAA 2010-823, 2010. [63] Holman, T. D

  20. Kaplan Extended V2 SST anomaly data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data is processed at Lamont-Doherty using a optimal analysis scheme. This dataset is different than previously archived version from Nov 1981 due to a different NCEP...

  1. Public Notice: 2018-09 Kaplan Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is providing notice of a proceeding to assess a Class II civil penalty for alleged violations of the Clean Water Act (Act). EPA is also providing notice of opportunity to comment on the proposed penalty assessment.

  2. First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer HER2 positive - Observational institutional study. ... The progression free survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, from the date of first cycle to the date of progression or at the last consultation, and the median was 12.8 months. Trastuzumab ...

  3. Survival of Root-filled Teeth in the Swedish Adult Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Helena; Dawson, Victoria S; Frisk, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to assess survival in the Swedish population of teeth treated by nonsurgical root canal treatment during 2009. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess cumulative tooth survival during a period of 5-6 years o...

  4. STAT3 inhibitor enhances chemotherapy drug efficacy by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier method of survival analysis were used to determine chemoresistance trends in patients. STAT3 inhibitor treatment, RNAi or ectopic overexpression of STAT3 or MUC1 in NSCLC cells were used to determine their inter-molecular relation and for modulating stemness-related genes.

  5. Survival analysis II: Cox regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards regression can provide an effect estimate by quantifying the difference in survival between patient groups and can adjust for confounding effects of other variables. The purpose of this article is to explain the basic concepts of the

  6. Modelling the survivorship of Nigeria children in their first 10 years of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fagbamigbe

    Conflict of Interest: Authors declared no conflict of interest ... Keywords: Survivorship, Nigeria, children mortality, Kaplan Meier, Brass Indirect method, Prediction ... variables or sex of older siblings, post- neonatal mortality is 12% higher and 2nd ... Relationship between maternal education and child survival in developing ...

  7. The influence of obesity on response to tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Glintborg, Bente; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of obesity on response to the first TNF-α inhibitor (TNFI) treatment course in patients with PsA followed in routine care. METHODS: We performed an observational cohort study based on the Danish and Icelandic biologics registries. Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox and ...

  8. Application of the standard lymphadenectomy in gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Fernandez, Roberto Eduardo; LLera Dominguez, Gerardo de la; Pennon Guerra, Maria; Alvarez Perez, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    The 5-years postoperative survival of 132 patients operated on due to gastric adenocarcinoma that underwent lymphadenectomy of the two first ganglionic levels. The results of the epidemiological parameters were determined and the survival by Kaplan-Meier method was defined

  9. Clinical outcome among HIV-infected patients starting saquinavir hard gel compared to ritonavir or indinavir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Pradier, C

    2001-01-01

    -up within the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: Changes in plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 cell count from baseline were compared between treatment groups. Time to new AIDS-defining events and death were compared in Kaplan--Meier models, and Cox models were established to further assess differences in clinical...

  10. Kuidas Sander Saarmets kosmosest maailma vallutama kipub / Moon Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Moon

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias elektronmuusika erialal õppivast Sander Saarmetsast kui noorest heliloojast, kes on siiani oma nime teinud ulmemuusika ringkondades. Kommenteerivad sõber, muusik, ulmeplaatide boss Aivar Tõnso ja Muschraumi kitarrist Kaur Garšnek

  11. Meier-Gorlin syndrome: Report of an additional patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-05-16

    May 16, 2014 ... which functions during replication can cause Seckel syndrome, a clinically related ... brain, and growth hormone provocation test were normal. Skeletal survey ... atrial defect with left–right shunt [17]. Also our patient suf-.

  12. Lasteaiaõpetajate palk kerkis tibusammul / Jaanika Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Jaanika

    2007-01-01

    Aastaga on tõusnud pea kõigi Tartumaa lasteaiaõpetajate palk, kõige suurem on palgatõus olnud Kambja vallas, kus keskeriharidusega õpetajad saavad praegu palka minimaalselt 6600 ja kõrgharidusega õpetajad 7000 krooni kuus. Lisa: Lasteaiaõpetajate palk Tartumaal

  13. Lille mäele tuleb suveks Flauerpauer / Jaanika Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Jaanika

    2008-01-01

    Tartus Lille Maja hoovis avatakse suvekohvik Flauerpauer. Kohviku väliskujunduse autoriteks on Tartu kõrgema kunstikooli tudengid Tiit Joala ja Oliver Kuusmann, sisekujunduse autoriks Tallinna Ülikooli üliõpilane Kudrun Vunk. Selgitusi jagab Lille Maja direktor Hele Riit-Vällik

  14. Noorteühenduste kogu tutvustab Euroopa Liitu / Jaanika Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Jaanika

    2007-01-01

    Tartu Noorteühenduste Kogu tutvustab projekti "Kodanikuna Euroopa Liidus. Eile. Täna. Homme" noortele Euroopa Liitu, selle toimemehhanisme, arengusuundi ja liidus noortele pakutavaid võimalusi. Lisa: Kas teate

  15. Hakkaks maja värvima / Piret Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Piret, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Ehitushoolde spetsialist Lea Täheväli-Stroh majade välimusest ja värvilahenduse valikutest. Lisaks Mirjam Peili kommentaar küsimusele, miks on Eestis saanud moeks värvida maamajad nn. Rootsi punaseks.

  16. Retention in Care among HIV-Infected Adults in Ethiopia, 2005- 2011: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos M Tiruneh

    Full Text Available Poor retention in HIV care challenges the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This study assessed how well patients stay in care and explored factors associated with retention in the context of an initial ART rollout in Sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a mixed-methods study at a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cohort of 385 patients was followed for a median of 4.6 years from ART initiation to lost-to-follow-up (LTFU-missing appointments for more than three months after last scheduled visit or administrative censoring. We used Kaplan-Meier plots to describe LTFU over time and Cox-regression models to identify factors associated with being LTFU. We held six focus group discussions, each with 6-11 patients enrolled in care; we analyzed data inductively informed by grounded theory.Patients in the cohort were predominantly female (64% and the median age was 34 years. Thirty percent were LTFU by study's end; the median time to LTFU was 1,675 days. Higher risk of LTFU was associated with baseline CD4 counts 200 cells/μL (HR = 1.62; 95% CI:1.03-2.55; and HR = 2.06; 95% CI:1.15-3.70, respectively, compared with patients with baseline CD4 counts of 100-200 cells/μL. Bedridden participants at ART initiation (HR = 2.05; 95% CIs [1.11-3.80] and those with no or only primary education (HR = 1.50; 95% CIs [1.00-2.24] were more likely to be LTFU. Our qualitative data revealed that fear of stigma, care dissatisfaction, use of holy water, and economic constraints discouraged retention in care. Social support and restored health and functional ability motivated retention.Complex socio-cultural, economic, and health-system factors inhibit optimum patient retention. Better tracking, enhanced social support, and regular adherence counseling addressing stigma and alternative healing options are needed. Intervention strategies aimed at changing clinic routines and improving patient-provider communication could address many of the identified barriers.

  17. ["That flesh, pink and perishable": analysis of disease-free survival analysis in breast cancer in Gipuzkoa (Spain) in the presence of competing risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Mitxelena, María José; Basterretxea, Mikel

    2009-01-01

    To analyze time of disease-free survival and relative survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer in the province of Gipuzkoa within the context of competing risks by assessing differences between the direct use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement method on the one hand, and relative survival on the other. All registered breast cancer cases in Gipuzkoa in 1995 and 1996 with stages other than stage IV were included. An 8-year follow-up for recurrence and a 10-year follow-up for survival were performed. Time of disease-free survival was studied by the multiple decrement model. Observed survival and survival corrected by the expected mortality in the population (relative survival) were also studied. Estimation of the probability of recurrence at 8 years with the multiple decrement method was 8.8% lower than that obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method. The difference between the observed and relative survival rates at 10 years was 10.8%. Both results show how, in this case, the Kaplan-Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality from the disease. Two issues are often overlooked when performing survival analyses: firstly, because of the lack of independence between survival time and censoring time, the results obtained by the Kaplan-Meier estimator are uninterpretable; secondly, it is an incontrovertible fact that one way or another, everyone causes failures. In this approach, survival analyses must take into account the probability of failure in the general population of reference. The results obtained in this study show that superficial use of the Kaplan Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality caused by the disease.

  18. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.

    2008-01-01

    -Meier probability plots showed a significantly improved overall survival after PMRT for the BCL2 positive subgroup, whereas practically no survival improvement was seen after PMRT for the BCL2 negative subgroup. In multivariate analysis of OS, however, no significant interaction was found between BCL2......Purpose. To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and methods. The present analysis included 1000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b&c studies. Tissue microarray......, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test, and Cox univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results. p53 accumulation was not significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM or LRR probability in univariate or multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier probability plots...

  19. Reporting of loss to follow-up information in randomised controlled trials with time-to-event outcomes: a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the reporting of loss to follow-up (LTFU information in articles on randomised controlled trials (RCTs with time-to-event outcomes, and to assess whether discrepancies affect the validity of study results. Methods Literature survey of all issues of the BMJ, Lancet, JAMA, and New England Journal of Medicine published between 2003 and 2005. Eligible articles were reports of RCTs including at least one Kaplan-Meier plot. Articles were classified as "assessable" if sufficient information was available to assess LTFU. In these articles, LTFU information was derived from Kaplan-Meier plots, extracted from the text, and compared. Articles were then classified as "consistent" or "not consistent". Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the validity of study results. Results 319 eligible articles were identified. 187 (59% were classified as "assessable", as they included sufficient information for evaluation; 140 of 319 (44% presented consistent LTFU information between the Kaplan-Meier plot and text. 47 of 319 (15% were classified as "not consistent". These 47 articles were included in sensitivity analyses. When various imputation methods were used, the results of a chi2-test applied to the corresponding 2 × 2 table changed and hence were not robust in about half of the studies. Conclusions Less than half of the articles on RCTs using Kaplan-Meier plots provide assessable and consistent LTFU information, thus questioning the validity of the results and conclusions of many studies presenting survival analyses. Authors should improve the presentation of both Kaplan-Meier plots and LTFU information, and reviewers of study publications and journal editors should critically appraise the validity of the information provided.

  20. An improved method for calculation of interface pressure force in PLIC-VOF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefollahi, M.; Shirani, E.

    2004-08-01

    Conventional methods for the modeling of surface tension force in Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation-Volume of Fluid (PLIC-VOF) methods, such as Continuum Surface Force (CSF), Continuum Surface Stress (CSS) and also Meier's method, convert the surface tension force into a body force. Not only do they include the force in the interfacial cells but also in the neighboring cells. Thus they produce spurious currents. Also the pressure jump, due to the surface tension, is not calculated accurately in these methods. In this paper a more accurate method for the application of interface force in the computational modeling of free surfaces and interfaces which use PLIC-VOF methods is developed. This method is based on the evaluation of the surface tension force only in the interfacial cells and not the neighboring cells. Also the normal and the interface surface area needed for the calculation of the surface tension force is calculated more accurately. The present method is applied to a two-dimensional motionless drop of liquid and a bubble of gas as well as a non-circular two-dimensional drop, which oscillates due to the surface tension force, in an initially stagnant fluid with no gravity force. The results are compared with the results of the cases when CSF, CSS and Meier's methods are used. It is shown that the present method calculates pressure jump at the interface more accurately and produces less spurious currents comparing to CSS an CSF models. (author)

  1. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  2. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  3. Measuring survival time: a probability-based approach useful in healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In some clinical situations, the choice between treatment options takes into account their impact on patient survival time. Due to practical constraints (such as loss to follow-up), survival time is usually estimated using a probability calculation based on data obtained in clinical studies or trials. The two techniques most commonly used to estimate survival times are the Kaplan-Meier method and the actuarial method. Despite their limitations, they provide useful information when choosing between treatment options.

  4. Long-acting reversible contraceptive acceptability and unintended pregnancy among women presenting for short-acting methods: a randomized patient preference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Measures of contraceptive effectiveness combine technology and user-related factors. Observational studies show higher effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception compared with short-acting reversible contraception. Women who choose long-acting reversible contraception may differ in key ways from women who choose short-acting reversible contraception, and it may be these differences that are responsible for the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. Wider use of long-acting reversible contraception is recommended, but scientific evidence of acceptability and successful use is lacking in a population that typically opts for short-acting methods. The objective of the study was to reduce bias in measuring contraceptive effectiveness and better isolate the independent role that long-acting reversible contraception has in preventing unintended pregnancy relative to short-acting reversible contraception. We conducted a partially randomized patient preference trial and recruited women aged 18-29 years who were seeking a short-acting method (pills or injectable). Participants who agreed to randomization were assigned to 1 of 2 categories: long-acting reversible contraception or short-acting reversible contraception. Women who declined randomization but agreed to follow-up in the observational cohort chose their preferred method. Under randomization, participants chose a specific method in the category and received it for free, whereas participants in the preference cohort paid for the contraception in their usual fashion. Participants were followed up prospectively to measure primary outcomes of method continuation and unintended pregnancy at 12 months. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate method continuation probabilities. Intent-to-treat principles were applied after method initiation for comparing incidence of unintended pregnancy. We also measured acceptability in terms of level of happiness with the products. Of the 916

  5. [Significance of three-dimensional reconstruction as a method of preoperative planning of laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W W; Wang, H G; Shi, X J; Chen, M Y; Lu, S C

    2016-09-01

    To discuss the significance of three-dimensional reconstruction as a method of preoperative planning of laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation(LRFA). Thirty-two cases of LRFA admitted from January 2014 to December 2015 in Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were analyzed(3D-LRFA group). Three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction were taken as a method of preoperative planning in 3D-LRFA group.Other 64 LRFA cases were paired over the same period without three-dimensional reconstruction before the operation (LRFA group). Hepatobiliary system contrast enhanced CT scan of 3D-RFA patients were taken by multi-slice spiral computed tomography(MSCT), and the DICOM data were processed by IQQA(®)-Liver and IQQA(®)-guide to make 3D reconstruction.Using 3D reconstruction model, diameter and scope of tumor were measured, suitable size (length and radiofrequency length) and number of RFA electrode were chosen, scope and effect of radiofrequency were simulated, reasonable needle track(s) was planed, position and angle of laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) probe was designed and LUS image was simulated.Data of operation and recovery were collected and analyzed. Data between two sets of measurement data were compared with t test or rank sum test, and count data with χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test.Tumor recurrence rate was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. Compared with LRFA group ((216.8±66.2) minutes, (389.1±183.4) s), 3D-LRFA group ((173.3±59.4) minutes, (242.2±90.8) s) has shorter operation time(t=-3.138, P=0.002) and shorter mean puncture time(t=-2.340, P=0.021). There was no significant difference of blood loss(P=0.170), ablation rate (P=0.871) and incidence of complications(P=1.000). Compared with LRFA group ((6.3±3.9)days, (330±102)U/L, (167±64)ng/L), 3D-LRFA group ((4.3±3.1) days, (285±102) U/L, (139±43) ng/L) had shorter post-operative stay(t=-2.527, P=0.016), less

  6. Targeting Peripheral-Derived Regulatory T Cells as a Means of Enhancing Immune Responses Directed against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    28 weeks) to complete this study. Furthermore, using Kaplan - Meier survival curves, we have discovered that TR AMP; L ck-cre; Klf2fl/fl mice do...3 2 Thymus Spleen Thymus Spleen FoxP3 FoxP3 Figure 2. Kaplan -Meier survival curve. TRAMP (black) versus TRAMP; Lck-cre; Klf2fl/fl (red) survival

  7. RBPJ and EphrinB2 as Molecular Targets to Treat Brain Arteriovenous Malformation in Notch4 Induced Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of time for mutant mice to moribundity. We recorded numbers of subjects at risk at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 days old and use the number to generate Kaplan ...Meier curve. We obtained Kaplan -Meier analysis data showed that time to moribundity doubled in Notch4iGOF- EC;RbpjiΔEC mice, as compared to

  8. Challenges in risk estimation using routinely collected clinical data: The example of estimating cervical cancer risks from electronic health-records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Cheung, Li C; Schiffman, Mark; Gage, Julia C; Hyun, Noorie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Sasieni, Peter D; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2018-06-01

    Electronic health-records (EHR) are increasingly used by epidemiologists studying disease following surveillance testing to provide evidence for screening intervals and referral guidelines. Although cost-effective, undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval censoring (in which asymptomatic disease is only observed at the time of testing) raise substantial analytic issues when estimating risk that cannot be addressed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Based on our experience analysing EHR from cervical cancer screening, we previously proposed the logistic-Weibull model to address these issues. Here we demonstrate how the choice of statistical method can impact risk estimates. We use observed data on 41,067 women in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2003-2013, as well as simulations to evaluate the ability of different methods (Kaplan-Meier, Turnbull, Weibull and logistic-Weibull) to accurately estimate risk within a screening program. Cumulative risk estimates from the statistical methods varied considerably, with the largest differences occurring for prevalent disease risk when baseline disease ascertainment was random but incomplete. Kaplan-Meier underestimated risk at earlier times and overestimated risk at later times in the presence of interval censoring or undiagnosed prevalent disease. Turnbull performed well, though was inefficient and not smooth. The logistic-Weibull model performed well, except when event times didn't follow a Weibull distribution. We have demonstrated that methods for right-censored data, such as Kaplan-Meier, result in biased estimates of disease risks when applied to interval-censored data, such as screening programs using EHR data. The logistic-Weibull model is attractive, but the model fit must be checked against Turnbull non-parametric risk estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Melanoma Patients with Unknown Primary Site or Nodal Recurrence after Initial Diagnosis Have a Favourable Survival Compared to Those with Synchronous Lymph Node Metastasis and Primary Tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Weide, Benjamin; Faller, Christine; Els?sser, Margrit; B?ttner, Petra; Pflugfelder, Annette; Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Bauer, J?rgen; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A direct comparison of prognosis between patients with regional lymph node metastases (LNM) detected synchronously with the primary melanoma (primary LNM), patients who developed their first LNM subsequently (secondary LNM) and those with initial LNM in melanoma with unknown primary site (MUP) is missing thus far. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival of 498 patients was calculated from the time point of the first macroscopic LNM using Kaplan Meier and multivariate Cox hazard regression ...

  10. Syncytin immunoreactivity in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Mou; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    monoclonal syncytin antibody we have assessed syncytin expression in a retrospective series of 140 colorectal cancer patients. Variable degrees of syncytin expression were detected in both colonic and rectal tumors and the prognostic impact of such expression was analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method...... and the Cox proportional hazard model. Interestingly, increased syncytin expression was associated with decreased overall survival in rectal but not in colonic cancer patients. Thus, the prognostic impact of syncytin expression appears to vary with the tumor type....

  11. Survival of Patients With Cervical Cancer in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoda Thulaseedharan, Jissa; Malila, Nea; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Esmy Pulikottil, Okuru; Hakama, Matti; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ survival after diagnosis of cervical cancer is indirectly influenced by socio-economic factors. We evaluated this survival and its socio-economic determinants in a rural population in south India. Methods: We assessed 165 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the routine care control arm of a randomized screening trial conducted in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate the observed survival of cancer patients. The effect of socio-econom...

  12. Cetuximab Concomitant with Second-Line Radiation Therapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Akmansu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We presented 9 recurrent head and neck carcinoma patients. Priorly all of them had received radiochemotherapy. We used cetuximab and irradiation concomitantly. Overall survival analysis of the patients was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method on SPSS version 15.0. Based on this calculation, mean follow-up duration is 12.8 months. Mean survival time is 19.8 months and annual mean survival rate is 59.3%.

  13. Application of Enlisted Force Retention Levels and Career Field Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    APPLICATION OF ENLISTED FORCE RETENTION LEVELS AND CAREER FIELD STABILITY THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences ...Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Operations Research Jamie T. Zimmermann, MS, BS Captain, USAF March 2017...Appendix B. The function proc lifetest is a nonparametric estimate of the survivor function using either the Kaplan-Meier method or the actuarial

  14. High income, employment, postgraduate education, and marriage. A suicidal cocktail among psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben

    2007-01-01

    longitudinal data on income, labor market affiliation, educational attainment, and marital and cohabitational status (96,369 patients, 256,619 admissions, and 2727 suicides). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide risks after hospital discharge were depicted using Kaplan-Meier product-limit methods. Hazard ratios (HRs...... is generally associated with low income, unemployment, educational underachievement, and singleness, but this study suggests that the opposite is true among psychiatric patients. However, loss of income, labor market status, and marriage increase the suicide risk....

  15. Competing approaches to analysis of failure times with competing risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, T M; Ali, M M; Slaymaker, E

    2001-12-15

    For the analysis of time to event data in contraceptive studies when individuals are subject to competing causes for discontinuation, some authors have recently advocated the use of the cumulative incidence rate as a more appropriate measure to summarize data than the complement of the Kaplan-Meier estimate of discontinuation. The former method estimates the rate of discontinuation in the presence of competing causes, while the latter is a hypothetical rate that would be observed if discontinuations for the other reasons could not occur. The difference between the two methods of analysis is the continuous time equivalent of a debate that took place in the contraceptive literature in the 1960s, when several authors advocated the use of net (adjusted or single decrement life table rates) rates in preference to crude rates (multiple decrement life table rates). A small simulation study illustrates the interpretation of the two types of estimate - the complement of the Kaplan-Meier estimate corresponds to a hypothetical rate where discontinuations for other reasons did not occur, while the cumulative incidence gives systematically lower estimates. The Kaplan-Meier estimates are more appropriate when estimating the effectiveness of a contraceptive method, but the cumulative incidence estimates are more appropriate when making programmatic decisions regarding contraceptive methods. Other areas of application, such as cancer studies, may prefer to use the cumulative incidence estimates, but their use should be determined according to the application. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 5-year Mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and 5-year mortality in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    population. METHODS: We studied 905 ischemic stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study. Patients had a CT scan and stroke severity was measured by the Scandinavian Stroke Scale on admission. A comprehensive evaluation was performed by a standardized medical examination...... and questionnaire for cardiovascular risk factors, age, and sex. Follow-up was performed 5 years after stroke, and data on mortality were obtained for all, except 6, who had left the country. Five-year mortality was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier procedure and the influence of multiple predictors was analyzed...... by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for age, gender, stroke severity, and risk factor profile. RESULTS: In Kaplan-Meier analyses atrial fibrillation (AF), ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and previous stroke were associated with increased mortality, while smoking and alcohol intake were...

  18. Treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma. The role of external and endoluminal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Gagel, B.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Purpose: In a retrospective study the role of radiation therapy for the treatment of primary tracheal carcinoma was investigated. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1997, 25 patients with primary tracheal carcinoma were treated with external beam radiotherapy (17 squamous-cell carcinoma [SCC], 8 adenoid cystic carcinoma [ACC], median dose SCC 60 Gy, ACC 55 Gy). An additional brachytherapy boost was carried out in 10/25 patients (median dose SCC 18 Gy, ACC 15 Gy). Ten patients underwent operative treatment. Results: The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC was 33 months (ACC 94.2). The 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) for patients with SCC were 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), 64.7% (ACC 85.7%), and 26% (ACC 85.7%). Patients with ACC and patients with a complete remission after treatment had a significantly better survival probability (log rank test, p [de

  19. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b&c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    -Meier probability plots showed a significantly improved overall survival after PMRT for the BCL2 positive subgroup, whereas practically no survival improvement was seen after PMRT for the BCL2 negative subgroup. In multivariate analysis of OS, however, no significant interaction was found between BCL2......PURPOSE: To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present analysis included 1 000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b&c studies. Tissue...... tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test, and Cox univariate and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: p53 accumulation was not significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM or LRR probability in univariate or multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan...

  20. Prospective Validation of 18F-FDG Brain PET Discriminant Analysis Methods in the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weehaeghe, Donatienne; Ceccarini, Jenny; Delva, Aline; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Van Laere, Koen

    2016-08-01

    nearly identical and not separable on an individual basis. Extensive frontotemporal hypometabolism was predictive for a lower survival using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (P < 0.001). On the basis of a previously acquired training set, (18)F-FDG PET with advanced discriminant analysis methods is able to accurately distinguish ALS from controls and aids in assessing individual prognosis. Further validation on multicenter datasets and ALS-mimicking disorders is needed to fully assess the general applicability of this approach. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  1. Influence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya and Kaplan-Shekhtman-Entinwohlman-Aharony superexchange interactions on ground state properties of the one-dimensional spin-Peilers model in open chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hai-Lian; Huang Xian-Shan; Wang Zhi-Guo; Shi Yun-Long

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya (DM) and the Kaplan—Shekhtman—Entinwohlman—Aharony (KSEA) superexchange interactions on the ground state properties of the one-dimensional spin-Peilers system in open chain are studied by using the Lanczos numerical method. The study concentrates mainly on the influence of systemic dimerisation in open chain. The results show that systemic ground state energy density varies with dimerisation parameter δ in different DM interactions, and there exists a special point δ c where the DM interaction has no influence on the systemic dimerisation, no matter whether the DM interaction is relative or irrelative to systemic dimerisation (η = 1 or η = 0). The KSEA interaction has no fixed special point, but the points of intersection are dense relatively in a certain numberical value range, and sparse in other numberical value ranges. So we can conclude that the antisymmetric anisotropy DM interaction differs from the symmetric anisotropy KSEA interaction, but they are analogous in the sense of the influence of systemic dimerisation in open chain

  2. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.

  3. Censoring: a new approach for detection limits in total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the detection limits in the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), which restrict quantification of very low concentrations of trace elements in the samples, can be accounted for using the statistical concept of censoring. We demonstrate that the incomplete TXRF measurements containing the so-called 'nondetects', i.e. the non-measured concentrations falling below the detection limits and represented by the estimated detection limit values, can be viewed as the left random-censored data, which can be further analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method correcting for nondetects. Within this approach, which uses the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator to obtain the cumulative distribution function corrected for the nondetects, the mean value and median of the detection limit censored concentrations can be estimated in a non-parametric way. The Monte Carlo simulations performed show that the Kaplan-Meier approach yields highly accurate estimates for the mean and median concentrations, being within a few percent with respect to the simulated, uncensored data. This means that the uncertainties of KM estimated mean value and median are limited in fact only by the number of studied samples and not by the applied correction procedure for nondetects itself. On the other hand, it is observed that, in case when the concentration of a given element is not measured in all the samples, simple approaches to estimate a mean concentration value from the data yield erroneous, systematically biased results. The discussed random-left censoring approach was applied to analyze the TXRF detection-limit-censored concentration measurements of trace elements in biomedical samples. We emphasize that the Kaplan-Meier approach allows one to estimate the mean concentrations being substantially below the mean level of detection limits. Consequently, this approach gives a new access to lower the effective detection limits for TXRF method, which is of prime interest for

  4. Clinical Significance of Preoperative Albumin and Globulin Ratio in Patients with Gastric Cancer Undergoing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jie Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pretreatment albumin and globulin ratio (AGR was an inflammation-associated factor which was related to the overall survival in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of AGR in patients with gastric cancer. Method. This retrospective study included 862 cases pathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer. All patients were randomly divided into the testing group (431 cases and validation group (431 cases. The relationships of AGR with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Results. In the testing group, the median overall survival was 26.90 months and the cutoff value of AGR was 1.50 based on R language. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that lower AGR was correlated with poorer overall survival. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AGR was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.584, 95% CI = 0.351–0.973, and p = 0.039. In the validation group, the median overall survival was 24.10 months. Lower AGR (≤1.50 also had a significantly poorer overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. According to multivariate analysis, the AGR was also confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 0.578, 95% CI = 0.373–0.897, and p = 0.015. Conclusions. Our study suggested that the pretreatment AGR could be a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in patients with gastric cancer.

  5. The development of a new algorithm to calculate a survival function in non-parametric ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Yoon Ik; Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a generalized formula of the Kaplan-Meier method is developed. The idea of this algorithm is that the result of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is the same as that of the redistribute-to-the right algorithm. Hence, the result of the Kaplan-Meier estimator is used when we redistribute to the right. This can be explained as the following steps, at first, the same mass is distributed to all the points. At second, when you reach the censored points, you must redistribute the mass of that point to the right according to the following rule; to normalize the masses, which are located to the right of the censored point, and redistribute the mass of the censored point to the right according to the ratio of the normalized mass. Until now, we illustrate the main idea of this algorithm.The meaning of that idea is more efficient than PL-estimator in the sense that it decreases the mass of after that area. Just like a redistribute to the right algorithm, this method is enough for the probability theory

  6. Esimese käigu kasulikkusest / Robert D. Kaplan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplan, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 19. aug. 2008, lk. 11. Autor analüüsib USA ja lääneriikide võimalusi Venemaaga hakkamasaamisel pärast Venemaa sõjalist konflikti Gruusiaga ning leiab, et Venemaa esimese käigu eelis avaldus olukorras, kus geopoliitiline tegelikkus erineb tugevalt diplomaatilisest näilisusest

  7. Kaplan võiks olla malevapealiku oluliseks toeks / Peeter Parts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parts, Peeter

    2007-01-01

    Kokkuvõte Kaitseliidu Tallinna maleva Toompea malevkonna pealiku kapten Heiki Arikese peetud ettekandest Kaitseliidu maleva juhtide ootuste kohta kaplani suhtes. Kaplanite erialaoskusi peaks rakendama ka malevlaste psühholoogilisel nõustamisel ning sotsiaalse mälu meeldetuletamisel

  8. Psychiatry in Australia | Kaplan | South African Journal of Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  9. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee | Kaplan | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47, No 3 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  10. DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE EFFICIENCY BY MEANS OF THE CURRENT METER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURECE C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology used for determining the efficiency of a low head Kaplan hydraulic turbine with short converging intake. The measurement method used was the current meters method, the only measurement method recommended by the IEC 41standard for flow measurement in this case. The paper also presents the methodology used for measuring the flow by means of the current meters method and the various procedures for calculating the flow. In the last part the paper presents the flow measurements carried out on the Fughiu HPP hydraulic turbines for determining the actual operating efficiency.

  11. Effectiveness of the Dader Method for Pharmaceutical Care on Patients with Bipolar I Disorder: Results from the EMDADER-TAB Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Amariles, Pedro; Hincapié-García, Jaime A; González-Avendaño, Sebastián; Benjumea, Dora M; Faus, Maria José; Rodriguez, Luis F

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar I disorder (BD-I) is a chronic illness characterized by relapses alternating with periods of remission. Pharmacists can contribute to improved health outcomes in these patients through pharmaceutical care in association with a multidisciplinary health team; however, more evidence derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is needed to demonstrate the effect of pharmaceutical care on patients with BD-I. To assess the effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention using the Dader Method on patients with BD-I, measured by the decrease in the number of hospitalizations, emergency service consultations, and unscheduled outpatient visits from baseline through 1 year of follow-up. This study is based on the EMDADER-TAB trial, which was an RCT designed to compare pharmaceutical care with the usual care given to outpatients with BD-I in a psychiatric clinic. The main outcome was the use of health care services, using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression. The trial protocol was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT01750255). 92 patients were included in the EMDADER-TAB study: 43 pharmaceutical care patients (intervention group) and 49 usual care patients (control group). At baseline, no significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics were found across the 2 groups. After 1 year of follow-up, the risk of hospitalizations and emergencies was higher for the control group than for the intervention group (HR = 9.03, P = 0.042; HR = 3.38, P = 0.034, respectively); however, the risk of unscheduled outpatient visits was higher for the intervention group (HR = 4.18, P = 0.028). There was no "placebo" treatment, and patients in the control group might have produced positive outcomes and reduced the magnitude of differences compared with the intervention group. Compared with usual care, pharmaceutical care significantly reduced hospitalizations and emergency service consultations by outpatients with BD-I. This study received funding from

  12. AKaplan-Meier estimators of distance distributions for spatial point processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddeley, A.J.; Gill, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    When a spatial point process is observed through a bounded window, edge effects hamper the estimation of characteristics such as the empty space function $F$, the nearest neighbour distance distribution $G$, and the reduced second order moment function $K$. Here we propose and study product-limit

  13. A Note on Some Characteristics and Correlates of the Meier Art Test of Aesthetic Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Anderson, Frances E.

    The reliability and the predictive and concurrent validity of the MATAP were investigated with the implicit goal of improving the prediction of course grades in the College of Fine and Applied Arts. It was found that reliability and validity coefficients were low, and it was suggested that the scoring system was a source of error variance. (MS)

  14. Ettevaatusprintsiip keskkonnaõiguses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Kristel Meier ; Akadeemia Nord, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Rita Annus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meier, Kristel, 1966-

    2002-01-01

    Keskkonnaõiguse üldiseloomustus, eesmärk, põhiprintsiibid, ettevaatusprintsiibi ajalooline taust ja areng, Saksa õiguses, rahvusvaheline kohtupraktika, ettevaatusprintsiip Euroopa Ühenduse keskkonnaõiguses

  15. Meier–Gorlin syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2016-01-23

    Jan 23, 2016 ... 1. Introduction. The Meier–Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a rare autosomal reces- ... was 81.5 cm, weight for stature (<3rd centile) and her skull circumference was ... Polycystic ovaries also were reported in ... moderate conductive hearing loss [4]. ... et al. Meier–Gorlin syndrome genotype-phenotype studies: 35.

  16. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Antiretroviral treatment for children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaplan-Meier survival estimate for 407 children at 1 year was. 84% (95% ... highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to 3 million people living with HIV I AIDS in ... 5 Furthermore, improvements in growth and body composition parameters,.

  18. «Esa corporeidad mortal y rosa»: análisis del tiempo libre de enfermedad del cáncer de mama en Gipuzkoa en presencia de riesgos competitivos "That deadly and pink corporeity": Analysis of disease-free survival analysis in breast cancer in Gipuzkoa (Spain in the presence of competing risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez-Camblor

    2009-12-01

    sobrestimación tanto de la probabilidad de recidiva como de la mortalidad debida a la enfermedad.Objective: To analyze time of disease-free survival and relative survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer in the province of Gipuzkoa within the context of competing risks by assessing differences between the direct use of the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the multiple decrement method on the one hand, and relative survival on the other. Methods: All registered breast cancer cases in Gipuzkoa in 1995 and 1996 with stages other than stage IV were included. An 8-year follow-up for recurrence and a 10-year follow-up for survival were performed. Time of disease-free survival was studied by the multiple decrement model. Observed survival and survival corrected by the expected mortality in the population (relative survival were also studied. Results: Estimation of the probability of recurrence at 8 years with the multiple decrement method was 8.8% lower than that obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method. The difference between the observed and relative survival rates at 10 years was 10.8%. Both results show how, in this case, the Kaplan-Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality from the disease. Conclusions: Two issues are often overlooked when performing survival analyses: firstly, because of the lack of independence between survival time and censoring time, the results obtained by the Kaplan-Meier estimator are uninterpretable; secondly, it is an incontrovertible fact that one way or another, everyone causes failures. In this approach, survival analyses must take into account the probability of failure in the general population of reference. The results obtained in this study show that superficial use of the Kaplan Meier estimator overestimates both the probability of recurrence and that of mortality caused by the disease.

  19. Evaluating the reliability of multi-body mechanisms: A method considering the uncertainties of dynamic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianing; Yan, Shaoze; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism reliability is defined as the ability of a certain mechanism to maintain output accuracy under specified conditions. Mechanism reliability is generally assessed by the classical direct probability method (DPM) derived from the first order second moment (FOSM) method. The DPM relies strongly on the analytical form of the dynamic solution so it is not applicable to multi-body mechanisms that have only numerical solutions. In this paper, an indirect probability model (IPM) is proposed for mechanism reliability evaluation of multi-body mechanisms. IPM combines the dynamic equation, degradation function and Kaplan–Meier estimator to evaluate mechanism reliability comprehensively. Furthermore, to reduce the amount of computation in practical applications, the IPM is simplified into the indirect probability step model (IPSM). A case study of a crank–slider mechanism with clearance is investigated. Results show that relative errors between the theoretical and experimental results of mechanism reliability are less than 5%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Highlights: • An indirect probability model (IPM) is proposed for mechanism reliability evaluation. • The dynamic equation, degradation function and Kaplan–Meier estimator are used. • Then the simplified form of indirect probability model is proposed. • The experimental results agree well with the predicted results.

  20. Review of epidemiological and clinical characteristics and overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Eisenhardt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC has high incidence, is often treatable and curable if diagnosed early. This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristic and assess overall survival in patients with CRC treated at a center specializing in oncology. Methods: Medical records of 127 patients with CRC were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics, in addition to treatment protocols and adverse reactions presented by patients were reviewed. The association of significance was assessed by chi-square and Fisher exact tests. The survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The confidence interval was of 95% (p

  1. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  2. Hospital volume and the risk of revision in Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries -an observational study of 14,496 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawy, Mona; Fenstad, Anne M.; Bartz-Johannessen, Christoffer A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High procedure volume and dedication to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been suggested to improve revision rates. This study aimed to quantify the annual hospital volume effect on revision risk in Oxfordu? nicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries. Methods......). The outcome was revision risk after 2 and 10 years calculated using Kaplan Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the Hazard Ratio (HR) of any revision due to specific reasons with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The implant survival was 80% at 10 years in the volume...

  3. Incidence and Outcome of BRCA Mutations in Unselected Patients with Triple Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the incidence of germline and somatic BRCA1\\/2 mutations in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and determine the prognostic significance of carrying a mutation. Methods: DNA was obtained from 77 TNBC and normal tissues. BRCA1\\/2 exons\\/flanking regions were sequenced from tumor and patients classified as mutant or wild type (WT). Sequencing was repeated from normal tissue to identify germline and somatic mutations. Patient characteristics were compared with chi-square. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of mutation status with outcome.

  4. Association of versican turnover with all-cause mortality in patients on haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Karsdal, Morten A; Leeming, Diana J

    2014-01-01

    with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate the association of versican turnover assessed in plasma with survival in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: A specific matrix metalloproteinase-generated neo-epitope fragment of versican (VCANM) was measured in plasma of 364 haemodialysis...... patients with a 5-years follow-up, using a robust competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Association between VCANM plasma concentration and survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: Haemodialysis patients with plasma VCANM concentrations in the lowest quartile...

  5. Epidemiology of Massive Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Chiesa, Flaminia; Vasan, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    in Sweden from 1987 and in Denmark from 1996. A total of 92,057 patients were included. Patients were followed until the end of 2012. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patients and indications. Post transfusion mortality was expressed as crude 30-day...... mortality and as long-term mortality using the Kaplan-Meier method and using standardized mortality ratios. The incidence of massive transfusion was higher in Denmark (4.5 per 10,000) than in Sweden (2.5 per 10,000). The most common indication for massive transfusion was major surgery (61.2%) followed...

  6. The prognostic value of the suPARnosticTM ELISA assay in HIV-1 infected individuals is not affected by uPAR promoter polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Uffe; Nielsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Court

    2007-01-01

    . METHODS: DNA samples were collected retrospectively from 145 Danes infected with HIV-1 with known seroconversion times. In addition, plasma was collected retrospectively from 81 of these participants for use in the suPAR analysis. Survival was analysed using Kaplan Meier analysis. RESULTS: Survival...... to A transition at -118 and an A to G transition at -465 comparative to the transcription start site. These promoter transitions did not influence neither the suPAR levels nor patient survival. CONCLUSION: Plasma suPAR levels, as measured by the suPARnosticTM assay, were strongly predictive of survival in ART...

  7. Effects of mutations in Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene on outcome of AIDS-associated P. carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Benfield, Thomas; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    for folate biosynthesis. We assessed whether mutations in the DHPS gene of P. carinii were associated with exposure to sulpha drugs and influenced outcome from PCP. METHODS: We studied bronchoalveolar samples collected in 1989-99 from a prospective cohort of HIV-1-infected patients who had PCP. In 144...... patients with 152 episodes of PCP, we analysed portions of DHPS using PCR and direct sequencing. The relation between survival, P. carinii DHPS mutations, and other predictors of treatment failure was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analysis. FINDINGS: P. carinii DHPS mutations...

  8. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.

    2008-01-01

    patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years...... of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 69% among 3 758 patients who received the recommended treatment. Within the first 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of loco-regional recurrences, distant metastases or other malignant disease, or death as a first event were 9...

  9. Reexamining trends in premarital sex in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Wu; Steven Martin; Paula England

    2018-01-01

    Background: In a heavily cited paper, Finer (2007) asserted that by age 30, 82Š of US women born 1939-1948 engaged in premarital sex, increasing to 94Š for those born 1969-1978. Using the same data, our age 30 estimates are 55Š and 87Š for women born 1939-1948 and 1969-1978. Our analyses thus document strikingly different levels and trends. Methods: We replicate Finer's single-decrement Kaplan-Meier estimates of premarital sex using Cycles 3-6 of the National Survey of Family Growth, the s...

  10. Prognostic role of syncytin expression in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Holck, Susanne; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer cells were recently found to produce syncytin, an endogenous retroviral protein implicated in cell fusion, immune regulation, and nitric oxide synthase expression. To determine whether syncytin has a prognostic role in breast cancer, we investigated a series of 165 premenopausal lymph...... node-negative women for syncytin expression using an immunocytochemical scoring system. Results were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and with the Cox proportional hazard model. Syncytin expression was observed in 38% of the patients, and the degree of syncytin expression constituted a positive...

  11. Detection of angiogenesis-dependent parameters by functional MRI: Correlation between histomorphology and evaluation of clinical relevance as prognostic factor for the example of cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawighorst, H.; Knopp, M.V.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Essig, M.; Kaick, G. van; Schaeffer, U.; Knapstein, P.G.; Weikel, W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this study is to compare functional MRI parameters with histomorphological markers of tumor microvessel density (MVD) and permeability (vascular endothelial growth factor) and to determine the ultimate value of both approaches by correlation with disease outcome in patients with primary cancer of the uterine cervix. Method: Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging series in 37 patients with biopsy-proven primary cervical cancer. On the operative whole mount specimens, histomorphological markers of tumor angiogenesis (MVD, VEGF) were compared with the MRI-derived parameters. For MRI and histomorphological data, Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated and compared using logrank statistics. Results: Significant (p [de

  12. Molecular genetics analysis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients in India

    OpenAIRE

    Soumittra, Nagasamy; Meenakumari, Balaiah; Parija, Tithi; Sridevi, Veluswami; Nancy, Karunakaran N; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Rajalekshmy, Kamalalayam R; Majhi, Urmila; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hereditary cancers account for 5–10% of cancers. In this study BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2*(1100delC) were analyzed for mutations in 91 HBOC/HBC/HOC families and early onset breast and early onset ovarian cancer cases. Methods PCR-DHPLC was used for mutation screening followed by DNA sequencing for identification and confirmation of mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were computed for five-year survival data on Breast and Ovarian cancer cases separately, and differe...

  13. Renal replacement therapy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spithoven, Edwin M; Kramer, Anneke; Meijer, Esther

    2014-01-01

    on RRT prevalence and survival on RRT in 12 European countries with 208 million inhabitants. We studied four 5-year periods (1991-2010). Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: From the first to the last study period, the prevalence...... for non-ADPKD subjects. Improved survival was noted for all RRT modalities: haemodialysis [adjusted hazard ratio for mortality during the last versus first time period 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.91), peritoneal dialysis 0.55 (0.38-0.80) and transplantation 0.52 (0.32-0.74)]. Cardiovascular...

  14. The 434(G>C) polymorphism in the eosinophil cationic protein gene and its association with tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Michele C; Oliveira, Denise T; Olivieri, Eloísa H R

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)-gene polymorphism 434(G>C) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and its association with tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE), demographic, clinical, and microscopic...... of ECP-gene polymorphism 434(G>C) with TATE, demographic, clinical, and microscopic variables in OSCC patients. Disease-free survival and overall survival were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit actuarial method and the comparison of the survival curves were performed using log rank test...

  15. Magnitude of bacteraemia predicts one-year mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Søgaard, Mette

    Objectives: All hospitals in our region use the BacT/Alert® blood culture (BC) system with a 3-bottle BC set for adults. We hypothesized that the magnitude of bacteremia (i.e., number of positive bottles in the initial BC set) predicted one-year mortality. Methods In a population-based study we...... with a BC index of 1 (i.e., one positive bottle) were chosen as the reference group. We computed Kaplan-Meier curves and performed Cox regression analyses to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95 % confidence intervals [CIs] 30 and 365 days after the initial BC sampling date, first in crude analyses...... mortality....

  16. Restaging and Survival Analysis of 4036 Ovarian Cancer Patients According to the 2013 FIGO Classification for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Høgdall, Claus Kim; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With the 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer, the number of substages changed from 10 to 14. Any classification of a malignancy should easily assign patients to prognostic groups, refer....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, surgical, histological, and survival data from 4036 ovarian cancer patients were used in the analysis. Five-year survival rates (5YSR) and hazard ratios for the old and revised FIGO staging were calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. RESULTS: A total...

  17. Markov chains and semi-Markov models in time-to-event analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abner, Erin L; Charnigo, Richard J; Kryscio, Richard J

    2013-10-25

    A variety of statistical methods are available to investigators for analysis of time-to-event data, often referred to as survival analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression are commonly employed tools but are not appropriate for all studies, particularly in the presence of competing risks and when multiple or recurrent outcomes are of interest. Markov chain models can accommodate censored data, competing risks (informative censoring), multiple outcomes, recurrent outcomes, frailty, and non-constant survival probabilities. Markov chain models, though often overlooked by investigators in time-to-event analysis, have long been used in clinical studies and have widespread application in other fields.

  18. Demographic clinical and prognostic characteristics of primary ovarian, peritoneal and tubal adenocarcinomas of serous histology-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Sørensen, Rie D; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Invasive serous adenocarcinomas may present as primary ovarian (POC), primary fallopian tube (PFC) or primary peritoneal (PPC) carcinomas. Whether they are variants of the same malignancy or develop through different pathways is debated. METHODS: Population-based prospectively collected...... data on POC (n=1443), PPC (n=268) and PFC (n=171) cases was obtained from the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (2005-2013). Chi-square, Fisher's or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, multivariate logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox-regression were used as appropriate. Statistical tests...

  19. Cementless One-Stage Revision in Chronic Periprosthetic Hip Joint Infection. Ninety-One Percent Infection Free Survival in 56 Patients at Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Solgaard, Søren

    2018-01-01

    was re-revision performed due to infection and was evaluated by competing risk analysis, with death and aseptic revision as competing events. All-cause mortality was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Oxford Hip Score (OHS) was used as disease-specific patient-reported outcome measure. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Cementless 1-stage revision in chronic periprosthetic hip joint infections is limited evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a specific treatment protocol in this patient group. METHODS: The study was performed as a multicenter, proof-of-concept, observational study...

  20. Increased 30-day mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransgaard, T; Thygesen, L C; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    with the use of antidiabetic drugs identified through the Danish National Prescription Registry and DCCG. The 30-day mortality was examined by the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test and the Cox regression model used to test statistical significance. RESULTS: The study included 29 353 patients, of whom...... 3250 had preexisting diabetes. The 30-day mortality was significantly increased in patients with CRC and preexisting diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35, P = 0.03). The type of antidiabetic medication used was not associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Preexisting diabetes...

  1. Experience of the Casablanca radiotherapy-oncology centre on radiotherapy in the treatment of the adult Hodgkin lymphoma; Experience du centre de radiotherapie-oncologie de Casablanca sur la radiotherapie dans le traitement du lymphome de Hodgkin de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Sellai, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Service radiotherapie-oncologie, CHU Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the local control, global survival and survival without recurrence, and also late complications, based on retrospective study over 8 years of 169 cases Hodgkin lymphoma in patients older than 18 (average age of 34) and who had been submitted to radiotherapy. Survival has been computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The authors notice that the recurrence rate is slightly higher than in the literature. During the considered period, radiotherapy was two-dimensional with higher doses than those corresponding to current standards. The improvement of radiotherapy techniques and the decrease of doses within the standards should improve the therapeutic results. Short communication

  2. Clinical Features in a Danish Population-Based Cohort of Probable Multiple System Atrophy Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starhof, Charlotte; Korbo, Lise; Lassen, Christina Funch

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, sporadic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. We aimed to describe the clinical features of Danish probable MSA patients, evaluate their initial response to dopaminergic therapy and examine mortality. Methods: From the Danish National...... the criteria for probable MSA. We recorded clinical features, examined differences by MSA subtype and used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to examine mortality. Results: The mean age at onset of patients with probable MSA was 60.2 years (range 36-75 years) and mean time to wheelchair dependency was 4.7 years...

  3. Estimating a population cumulative incidence under calendar time trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan N; Overgaard, Morten; Andersen, Per K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of a disease or psychiatric disorder is frequently measured by the age-specific cumulative incidence. Cumulative incidence estimates are often derived in cohort studies with individuals recruited over calendar time and with the end of follow-up governed by a specific date....... It is common practice to apply the Kaplan-Meier or Aalen-Johansen estimator to the total sample and report either the estimated cumulative incidence curve or just a single point on the curve as a description of the disease risk. METHODS: We argue that, whenever the disease or disorder of interest is influenced...

  4. Initial high anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron with dexamethasone is not maintained over repeated cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R.; van den Berg, H.; Burghouts, J.; Nortier, J.; Slee, P.; Rodenburg, C.; Keizer, J.; Fonteyn, M.; Verweij, J.; Wils, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have reported previously that the anti-emetic efficacy of single agent 5HT3 antagonists is not maintained when analysed with the measurement of cumulative probabilities. Presently, the most effective anti-emetic regimen is a combination of a 5HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone. We, therefore, assessed the sustainment of efficacy of such a combination in 125 patients, scheduled to receive cisplatin > or = 70 mg m(-2) either alone or in combination with other cytotoxic drugs. Anti-emetic therapy was initiated with 10 mg of dexamethasone and 3 mg of granisetron intravenously, before cisplatin. On days 1-6, patients received 8 mg of dexamethasone and 1 mg of granisetron twice daily by oral administration. Protection was assessed during all cycles and calculated based on cumulative probability analyses using the method of Kaplan-Meier and a model for transitional probabilities. Irrespective of the type of analysis used, the anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron/dexamethasone decreased over cycles. The initial complete acute emesis protection rate of 66% decreased to 30% according to the method of Kaplan-Meier and to 39% using the model for transitional probabilities. For delayed emesis, the initial complete protection rate of 52% decreased to 21% (Kaplan-Meier) and to 43% (transitional probabilities). In addition, we observed that protection failure in the delayed emesis period adversely influenced the acute emesis protection in the next cycle. We conclude that the anti-emetic efficacy of a 5HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone is not maintained over multiple cycles of highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and that the acute emesis protection is adversely influenced by protection failure in the delayed emesis phase. PMID:9652766

  5. Simplified tools for measuring retention in care in antiretroviral treatment program in Ethiopia: cohort and current retention in care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal Assefa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patient retention in care is a critical challenge for antiretroviral treatment programs. This is mainly because retention in care is related to adherence to treatment and patient survival. It is therefore imperative that health facilities and programs measure patient retention in care. However, the currently available tools, such as Kaplan Meier, for measuring retention in care have a lot of practical limitations. The objective of this study was to develop simplified tools for measuring retention in care. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data were collected from patient registers in nine health facilities in Ethiopia. Retention in care was the primary outcome for the study. Tools were developed to measure "current retention" in care during a specific period of time for a specific "ART-age group" and "cohort retention" in care among patients who were followed for the last "Y" number of years on ART. "Probability of retention" based on the tool for "cohort retention" in care was compared with "probability of retention" based on Kaplan Meier. RESULTS: We found that the new tools enable to measure "current retention" and "cohort retention" in care. We also found that the tools were easy to use and did not require advanced statistical skills. Both "current retention" and "cohort retention" are lower among patients in the first two "ART-age groups" and "ART-age cohorts" than in subsequent "ART-age groups" and "ART-age cohorts". The "probability of retention" based on the new tools were found to be similar to the "probability of retention" based on Kaplan Meier. CONCLUSION: The simplified tools for "current retention" and "cohort retention" will enable practitioners and program managers to measure and monitor rates of retention in care easily and appropriately. We therefore recommend that health facilities and programs start to use these tools in their efforts to improve retention in care and patient outcomes.

  6. Long-Term Survivors Using Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Recurrent Gynecologic Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Phuoc T.; Su Zheng; Hara, Wendy; Husain, Amreen; Teng, Nelson; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of therapy and identify prognostic factors for patients treated with surgery followed by intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for gynecologic malignancies at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 36 consecutive patients treated with IORT to 44 sites with mean follow-up of 50 months. The primary site was the cervix in 47%, endometrium in 31%, vulva in 14%, vagina in 6%, and fallopian tubes in 3%. Previous RT had failed in 72% of patients, and 89% had recurrent disease. Of 38 IORT sessions, 84% included maximal cytoreductive surgery, including 18% exenterations. The mean age was 52 years (range, 30-74), mean tumor size was 5 cm (range, 0.5-12), previous disease-free interval was 32 months (range, 0-177), and mean IORT dose was 1,152 cGy (range, 600-1,750). RT and systemic therapy after IORT were given to 53% and 24% of the cohort, respectively. The outcomes measured were locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and treatment-related complications. Results: The Kaplan-Meier 5-year LRC, DMFS, and DSS probability for the whole group was 44%, 51%, and 47%, respectively. For cervical cancer patients, the Kaplan-Meier 5-year LRC, DMFS, and DSS estimate was 45%, 60%, and 46%, respectively. The prognostic factors found on multivariate analysis (p ≤ 0.05) were the disease-free interval for LRC, tumor size for DMFS, and cervical primary, previous surgery, and locoregional relapse for DSS. Our cohort had 10 Grade 3-4 complications associated with treatment (surgery and IORT) and a Kaplan-Meier 5-year Grade 3-4 complication-free survival rate of 72%. Conclusions: Survival for pelvic recurrence of gynecologic cancer is poor (range, 0-25%). IORT after surgery seems to confer long-term local control in carefully selected patients

  7. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyndi, M.; Alsner, J.; Nielsen, H.M.; Overgaard, J.; Soerensen, F.B.; Knudsen, H.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and methods. The present analysis included 1 000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b and c studies. Tissue microarray sections were stained with immunohistochemistry for p53 and BCL2. Median potential follow-up was 17 years. Clinical endpoints were locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DM), overall mortality, and overall survival (OS). Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, χ2 or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test, and Cox univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results. p53 accumulation was not significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM or LRR probability in univariate or multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier probability plots showed reduced OS and improved DM and LRR probabilities after PMRT within subgroups of both p53 negative and p53 positive patients. Negative BCL2 expression was significantly associated with increased overall mortality, DM and LRR probability in multivariate Cox regression analyses. Kaplan-Meier probability plots showed a significantly improved overall survival after PMRT for the BCL2 positive subgroup, whereas practically no survival improvement was seen after PMRT for the BCL2 negative subgroup. In multivariate analysis of OS, however, no significant interaction was found between BCL2 and randomization status. Significant reductions in LRR probability after PMRT were recorded within both the BCL2 positive and BCL2 negative subgroups. Conclusion. p53 was not associated with survival after radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer, but BCL2 might be

  8. Mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease: applications to a cohort assembled from electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Li C; Pan, Qing; Hyun, Noorie; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Lorey, Thomas; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2017-09-30

    For cost-effectiveness and efficiency, many large-scale general-purpose cohort studies are being assembled within large health-care providers who use electronic health records. Two key features of such data are that incident disease is interval-censored between irregular visits and there can be pre-existing (prevalent) disease. Because prevalent disease is not always immediately diagnosed, some disease diagnosed at later visits are actually undiagnosed prevalent disease. We consider prevalent disease as a point mass at time zero for clinical applications where there is no interest in time of prevalent disease onset. We demonstrate that the naive Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk estimator underestimates risks at early time points and overestimates later risks. We propose a general family of mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease that we call prevalence-incidence models. Parameters for parametric prevalence-incidence models, such as the logistic regression and Weibull survival (logistic-Weibull) model, are estimated by direct likelihood maximization or by EM algorithm. Non-parametric methods are proposed to calculate cumulative risks for cases without covariates. We compare naive Kaplan-Meier, logistic-Weibull, and non-parametric estimates of cumulative risk in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Kaplan-Meier provided poor estimates while the logistic-Weibull model was a close fit to the non-parametric. Our findings support our use of logistic-Weibull models to develop the risk estimates that underlie current US risk-based cervical cancer screening guidelines. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone After Surgery: A Clinicopathological Study of 80 Cases from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-dong Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This aim of the present study was to identify specific markers determining the recurrence of the giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB. Methods: This study involved the clinicopathological analysis of 80 cases. All of the clinical features, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade, histological features and surgical methods were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Ki-67, CD147, mutant p53 and p63 in GCTB. Comparisons between different groups were performed using the Chi-square test. The risk factors affecting recurrence were analyzed using a binary logistic model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was employed for the survival analysis between the groups. Cell proliferation assays, migration and invasion assays were used to detect the function of CD147 on GCTB in vitro. Results: The univariate analysis showed that Ki-67 and CD147 expression, pathological fracture, Campanacci grade and surgical method were associated with recurrence. The multivariate analysis revealed that CD147 expression, Campanacci grade and surgical method were the factors affecting GCTB recurrence. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that these factors affected tumor-free survival time. In vitro study revealed that the CD147 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA technique dramatically reduced the proliferation, migration and invasion of GCTB. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CD147 may serve as an adequate marker for GCTB recurrence. Campanacci grade is a risk factor for GCTB recurrence, which is also affected by the surgical method used.

  10. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents; Interdisziplinaere interventionelle Therapie tracheobronchialer Stenosen mit modernen Metallmaschenstents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M. [Klinikum Innenstadt der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abteilung Pulmonologie, Medizinische Klinik

    2002-08-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erfassung des therapeutischen Potenzials der Stentbehandlung bei tracheobronchialen Stenosen, in-vivo Vergleich verschiedener Stenttypen und Erarbeitung von geeigneten Kriterien zur Stentwahl. Material und Methodik: Prospektive Fallanalyse. Zwischen 1993 und 1999 wurden insgesamt 53 Stents in das Tracheobronichalsystem von 39 konsekutiven Patienten implantiert. Jeder einzelne Stent (26 Streckerstents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Nitinolstents, ein Dumonstent

  11. Cynthia Kaplan : Venemaa ei suuda mõista, mida tähendab suveräänsetest rahvusriikidest naabrite omamine / Cynthia Kaplan ; interv. Liisa Past

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplan, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    California ülikooli politoloogiaprofessor, Eesti-ekspert vastab küsimustele, kas tavaliste eestlaste ja venelaste puhul toimib identiteet ja suhe oma riigiga erinevalt, kas on reaalne leida peale rahvusliku identiteedi ka riigi- või kodanikuidentiteet, kas ta suhtub skeptiliselt mõttesse leida Eestis ühine ajalugu, kas Venemaal on endiselt imperialistlikke ambitsioone teiste riikide suhtes

  12. Perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2008-01-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417

  13. Distillation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)

  14. Comparison of colorectal and gastric cancer: Survival and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Safaee, Azadeh; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    Gastric and colorectal cancers are the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in Iran. We aim to compare the survival rates and prognostic factors between these two cancers. We studied 1873 patients with either gastric or colorectal cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. All patients were followed from their time of diagnosis until December 2006 (as failure time). Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier Method and compared by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 1873 patients, there were 746 with gastric cancer and 1138 with colorectal cancer. According to the Kaplan-Meier method 1, 3, 5, and 7-year survival rates were 71.2, 37.8, 25.3, and 19.5%, respectively, in gastric cancer patients and 91.1, 73.1, 61, and 54.9%, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Also, univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis were of prognostic significance in both cancers ( P < 0.0001). However, in multivariate analysis, only distant metastasis in colorectal cancer and age at diagnosis, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer were identified as independent prognostic factors influencing survival. According to our findings, survival is significantly related to histological differentiation of tumor and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and only to distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. (author)

  15. Correlations of Hemoglobin Level and Perioperative Blood Transfusion with the Prognosis of Gastric Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dai-Yang; Duan, Yu-Han; Zhang, Ying-Qiong; Cui, Xian-Nian; Luo, Zheng

    2017-05-23

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the correlations of hemoglobin level (Hb) and perioperative blood transfusion with the prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study consisted of 210 patients with GC who all received a D2 radical operation. These patients were assigned into three groups: 68 cases in group A (blood transfusion >5 U); 59 cases in group B (blood transfusion blood transfusion). A 5-year follow-up was conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival of the patients. Univariate analysis was performed to reveal the relationship between the indicators and the patients with GC. Kaplan-Meier method was employed to analyze the survival rate of patients, and Cox regression analysis was applied to determine the independent prognostic factors of GC. RESULTS The univariate analysis indicated that age, perioperative blood transfusion amount, TNM staging, maximal tumor diameter, differentiation degree and invasion degree were associated with the prognosis of GC. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the disease-free survival rate was declined in the patients who were older, those received more amount of blood transfusion, those in advanced TNM staging, those had larger tumor diameter, and those with decreased degree of differentiation and invasion. Cox regression analysis indicated that perioperative blood transfusion, maximal tumor diameter and invasion degree were the independent factors affecting disease-free survival of the GC. CONCLUSIONS Our study revealed that large amount of perioperative blood transfusion leads to poor prognosis of GC.

  16. Metastatic volume: an old oncologic concept and a new prognostic factor for stage IV melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiti, V; Curzio, M; Roberti, V; Lieto, P; Devirgiliis, V; Gobbi, S; Naspi, A; Coppola, R; Lopez, T; di Meo, N; Gatti, A; Trevisan, G; Londei, P; Calvieri, S

    2013-01-01

    The last melanoma staging system of the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer takes into account, for stage IV disease, the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the site of distant metastases. Our aim was to compare the significance of metastatic volume, as evaluated at the time of stage IV melanoma diagnosis, with other clinical predictors of prognosis. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study. To establish which variables were statistically correlated both with death and survival time, contingency tables were evaluated. The overall survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Metastatic volume and number of affected organs were statistically related to death. In detail, patients with a metastatic volume >15 cm(3) had a worse prognosis than those with a volume lower than this value (survival probability at 60 months: 6.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier method confirmed that survival time was significantly related to the site(s) of metastases, to elevated LDH serum levels and to melanoma stage according to the latest system. Our results suggest that metastatic volume may be considered as a useful prognostic factor for survival among melanoma patients.

  17. [Application of Competing Risks Model in Predicting Smoking Relapse Following Ischemic Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Sha; Li, Ji-Jie; Du, Xu-Dong; Yan, Pei-Jing; Zhu, Cai-Rong

    2017-07-01

    To determine factors associated with smoking relapse in men who survived from their first stroke. Data were collected through face to face interviews with stroke patients in the hospital, and then repeated every three months via telephone over the period from 2010 to 2014. Kaplan-Meier method and competing risk model were adopted to estimate and predict smoking relapse rates. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated a higher relapse rate than the competing risk model. The four-year relapse rate was 43.1% after adjustment of competing risk. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoking outside of home and workplace (such as bars and restaurants) ( P =0.01), single ( P <0.01), and prior history of smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day ( P =0.02) were significant predictors of smoking relapse. When competing risks exist, competing risks model should be used in data analyses. Smoking interventions should give priorities to those without a spouse and those with a heavy smoking history. Smoking ban in public settings can reduce smoking relapse in stroke patients.

  18. Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Køber Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens. Results The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26 and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62 for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06. Conclusions We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.

  19. galerkin's methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The assumed deflection shapes used in the approximate methods such as in the Galerkin's method were normally ... to direct compressive forces Nx, was derived by Navier. [3]. ..... tend to give higher frequency and stiffness, as well as.

  20. Censoring approach to the detection limits in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.; Kubala-Kukus, A.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate that the effect of detection limits in the X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), which limits the determination of very low concentrations of trace elements and results in appearance of the so-called 'nondetects', can be accounted for using the statistical concept of censoring. More precisely, the results of such measurements can be viewed as the left random censored data, which can further be analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method correcting the data for the presence of nondetects. Using this approach, the results of measured, detection limit censored concentrations can be interpreted in a nonparametric manner including the correction for the nondetects, i.e. the measurements in which the concentrations were found to be below the actual detection limits. Moreover, using the Monte Carlo simulation technique we show that by using the Kaplan-Meier approach the corrected mean concentrations for a population of the samples can be estimated within a few percent uncertainties with respect of the simulated, uncensored data. This practically means that the final uncertainties of estimated mean values are limited in fact by the number of studied samples and not by the correction procedure itself. The discussed random-left censoring approach was applied to analyze the XRF detection-limit-censored concentration measurements of trace elements in biomedical samples

  1. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate

  2. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphorus-32 therapy for cystic craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriger, Robert Bryan; Chang, Andrew; Lo, Simon S.; Timmerman, Robert D.; DesRosiers, Colleen; Boaz, Joel C.; Fakiris, Achilles J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine control rates for predominantly cystic craniopharyngiomas treated with intracavitary phosphorus-32 (P-32). Material and methods: 22 patients with predominantly cystic craniopharyngiomas were treated at Indiana University between October 1997 and December 2006. Nineteen patients with follow-up of at least 6 months were evaluated. The median patient age was 11 years, median cyst volume was 9 ml, a median dose of 300 Gy was prescribed to the cyst wall, and median follow-up was 62 months. Results: Overall cyst control rate after the initial P-32 treatment was 67%. Complete tumor control after P-32 was 42%. Kaplan-Meier 1-, 3-, and 5-year initial freedom-from-progression rates were 68%, 49%, and 31%, respectively. Following salvage therapy, the Kaplan-Meier 1-, 3-, and 5-year ultimate freedom-from-progression rates were 95%, 95%, and 86%, respectively. All patients were alive at the last follow-up. Visual function was stable or improved in 81% when compared prior to P-32 therapy. Pituitary function remained stable in 74% of patients following P-32 therapy. Conclusions: Intracystic P-32 can be an effective and tolerable treatment for controlling cystic components of craniopharyngiomas as a primary treatment or after prior therapies, but frequently allows for progression of solid tumor components. Disease progression in the form of solid tumor progression, re-accumulation of cystic fluid, or development of new cysts may require further radiotherapy or surgical intervention for optimal long-term disease control.

  4. Interdisciplinary interventional therapy for tracheobronchial stenosis with modern metal net stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Fedorowski, A.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hautmann, H.; Huber, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Study objectives: Assessment of the therapeutic potential of tracheobronchial stenting for obstructive tracheobronchial disease, in-vivo comparison of different stent types and development of helpful criteria for choosing the suitable stent type. Material and Methods: Prospective case analysis. Between 1993 and 1999 53 stents were implanted into the tracheobronchial system of 39 consecutive patients with benign or malignant airway obstruction. Every single stent (26 Strecker Stents, 18 Wallstents, 6 Accuflex Nitinolstents, 1 Dumon-, 1 Ruesch- and 1 Palmazstent) was recorded in an unified database. Analysis comprised clinical effectiveness, lung function if possible, relevant complications and radiologic follow-up parameters. The probability of their remaining within the tracheobronchial system, of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for three stent types. Results: Stent placement proved itself to be an effective treatment in 86% of the patients. Resistance could be normalized in 9/9 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis clearly revealed a higher probability for the Wall- and Nitinolstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system and to remain uncompressed. Dislocation also occurred more rarely. Explanation of the Wallstent, however, if desired, was much more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also occasionally led to the formation of granulation tissue especially at the proximal stent end and, as such, required reintervention. (orig.) [de

  5. An electronic health record-enabled obesity database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of weight loss therapies is commonly measured using body mass index and other obesity-related variables. Although these data are often stored in electronic health records (EHRs and potentially very accessible, few studies on obesity and weight loss have used data derived from EHRs. We developed processes for obtaining data from the EHR in order to construct a database on patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Methods Clinical data obtained as part of standard of care in a bariatric surgery program at an integrated health delivery system were extracted from the EHR and deposited into a data warehouse. Data files were extracted, cleaned, and stored in research datasets. To illustrate the utility of the data, Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate length of post-operative follow-up. Results Demographic, laboratory, medication, co-morbidity, and survey data were obtained from 2028 patients who had undergone RYGB at the same institution since 2004. Pre-and post-operative diagnostic and prescribing information were available on all patients, while survey laboratory data were available on a majority of patients. The number of patients with post-operative laboratory test results varied by test. Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, over 74% of patients had post-operative weight data available at 4 years. Conclusion A variety of EHR-derived data related to obesity can be efficiently obtained and used to study important outcomes following RYGB.

  6. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  7. Radiologic Placement of Tunneled Central Venous Catheters in Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ji; Song, Soon Young; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Ho [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We evaluated the technical success and complication rates associated with the radiological placement of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Between May 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008, a total of 46 tunneled central venous catheters were placed in 34 children (M:F = 22:12; mean age, 9.9 years [9 months to 16.8 years]). All procedures were performed under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance. Follow-up data were obtained through the retrospective review of the medical records. We used the Kaplan-Meier survival method for the evaluation of survival rate of the catheters. All procedures were technically successful. The observed periprocedural complications included hematoma formation in three patients. The mean catheter life was 189.3 days (total, 8710 days; range, 7-810). Catheters were removed due to death (n=9), the end of treatment (n=8), catheter sepsis (n=4), malfunction (n=8), and accidental removal (n=4). The rate of catheter sepsis and malfunction was 0.459 and 0.919 for every 1000 catheter days, respectively. The expected mean catheter life was 479.6 days as per the Kaplan- Meier analysis. The results suggest that the radiologic placement of a tunneled central venous catheter is an effective technique with a high technical success rate and low complication rate.

  8. Assessing the effect of quantitative and qualitative predictors on gastric cancer individuals survival using hierarchical artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Zohreh; Mohammad, Kazem; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Zeraati, Hojjat

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous unanswered questions in the application of artificial neural network models for analysis of survival data. In most studies, independent variables have been studied as qualitative dichotomous variables, and results of using discrete and continuous quantitative, ordinal, or multinomial categorical predictive variables in these models are not well understood in comparison to conventional models. This study was designed and conducted to examine the application of these models in order to determine the survival of gastric cancer patients, in comparison to the Cox proportional hazards model. We studied the postoperative survival of 330 gastric cancer patients who suffered surgery at a surgical unit of the Iran Cancer Institute over a five-year period. Covariates of age, gender, history of substance abuse, cancer site, type of pathology, presence of metastasis, stage, and number of complementary treatments were entered in the models, and survival probabilities were calculated at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months using the Cox proportional hazards and neural network models. We estimated coefficients of the Cox model and the weights in the neural network (with 3, 5, and 7 nodes in the hidden layer) in the training group, and used them to derive predictions in the study group. Predictions with these two methods were compared with those of the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator as the gold standard. Comparisons were performed with the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Survival probabilities at different times were determined using the Cox proportional hazards and a neural network with three nodes in the hidden layer; the ratios of standard errors with these two methods to the Kaplan-Meier method were 1.1593 and 1.0071, respectively, revealed a significant difference between Cox and Kaplan-Meier (P neural network, and the neural network and the standard (Kaplan-Meier), as well as better accuracy for the neural network (with 3 nodes in the hidden layer

  9. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  10. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  11. Discipline methods

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2012-01-01

    Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...

  12. Maintenance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, H.; Aucher, P.

    1990-01-01

    The maintenance method applied at the Hague is summarized. The method was developed in order to solve problems relating to: the different specialist fields, the need for homogeneity in the maintenance work, the equipment diversity, the increase of the materials used at the Hague's new facilities. The aim of the method is to create a knowhow formalism, to facilitate maintenance, to ensure the running of the operations and to improve the estimation of the maintenance cost. One of the method's difficulties is the demonstration of the profitability of the maintenance operations [fr

  13. Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.; Murray, A.

    1992-01-01

    The principles involved in the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter are described, as are the principles behind methods of radiation detection. Different types of radiation detectors are described and methods of detection such as alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis are presented. Details are given of measurements of uranium-series disequilibria. (UK)

  14. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    . Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves a caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down the call stack, e......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional...

  15. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds of abstraction and reuse......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional....... Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves a caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down the call stack, e...

  16. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  17. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, ...... the call stack, e.g., to a callee's callee. The mechanism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta. Variants of the mechanism could be added to almost any imperative programming language.......The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...

  18. Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  19. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...... of abstraction and reuse. Method mixins use shared name spaces to transfer information between caller and callee, as opposed to traditional invocation which uses parameters and returned results. This relieves the caller from dependencies on the callee, and it allows direct transfer of information further down...... the call stack, e.g., to a callee's callee. The mechanism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta. Variants of the mechanism could be added to almost any imperative programming language....

  20. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  1. Sieve methods

    CERN Document Server

    Halberstam, Heine

    2011-01-01

    Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri

  2. LenoxKaplan_Role of natural gas in meeting electric sector emissions reduction strategy_dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is for an analysis that used the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Deep NIR spectrum of the Orion Bar PDR (Kaplan+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, K. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Oh, H.; Mace, G. N.; Kim, H.; Sokal, K. R.; Pavel, M. D.; Lee, S.; Pak, S.; Park, C.; Oh, J. S.; Jaffe, D. T.

    2017-11-01

    The data were taken with the IGRINS on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory on the night of 2014 October 24 UT; R~45000 or 7.5km/s in two separate H- and K-band channels (1.45-2.45μm). Figure 1 shows the finder chart and the IGRINS slit position and angle superposed on the Orion Bar. The center of the slit was positioned at 05:35:19.73,-05:25:26.7 (J2000). (1 data file).

  4. Determination of the performance of the Kaplan hydraulic turbines through simplified procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Campian, C. V.; Haţiegan, C.

    2018-01-01

    A simplified procedure has been developed, compared to the complex one recommended by IEC 60041 (i.e. index samples), for measurement of the performance of the hydraulic turbines. The simplified procedure determines the minimum and maximum powers, the efficiency at maximum power, the evolution of powers by head and flow and to determine the correct relationship between runner/impeller blade angle and guide vane opening for most efficient operation of double-regulated machines. The simplified procedure can be used for a rapid and partial estimation of the performance of hydraulic turbines for repair and maintenance work.

  5. The Quality Challenge: How Kaplan Is Tackling the LEAP Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter

    2012-01-01

    When the author attended a Network for Academic Renewal conference sponsored by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) in 2011, he was surprised by the level of skepticism expressed from the podium about proprietary higher education. This article is intended as a response. From his perspective as a for-profit educator, the…

  6. Characterization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  7. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals

  8. Chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.; Stary, J.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics are given of chromatographic separation and the methods are listed. Methods and data on materials used in partition, adsorption, precipitation and ion exchange chromatography are listed and conditions are described under which ion partition takes place. Special attention is devoted to ion exchange chromatography where tables are given to show the course of values of the partition coefficients of different ions in dependence on the concentration of agents and the course of equilibrium sorptions on different materials in dependence on the solution pH. A theoretical analysis is given and the properties of the most widely used ion exchangers are listed. Experimental conditions and apparatus used for each type of chromatography are listed. (L.K.)

  9. Numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlquist, Germund

    1974-01-01

    ""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.

  10. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    positive for CD8þ TIL. Conversely, of the cases that were positive for CD8þ TIL, approximately half also contained CD20þ TIL. By KaplanMeier analysis...and D). Scale bars: 100 mm (A and B) or 50 mm (C and D). Representative of 5 tumor samples. E, KaplanMeier curves showing that the presence of both...CH, Subramanian S, van de Rijn M, Turbin D, et al. Intraepithelial T cells and prognosis in ovarian carcinoma: novel associations with stage, tumor

  11. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  12. Decontaminating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Toshiharu; Shibuya, Kiichiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a method of eliminating radioactive contaminations capable of ease treatment for decontaminated liquid wastes and grinding materials. Method: Those organic grinding materials such as fine wall nuts shell pieces cause no secondary contaminations since they are softer as compared with inorganic grinding materials, less pulverizable upon collision against the surface to be treated, being capable of reusing and producing no fine scattering powder. In addition, they can be treated by burning. The organic grinding material and water are sprayed by a nozzle to the surface to be treated, and decontaminated liquid wastes are separated into solid components mainly composed of organic grinding materials and liquid components mainly composed of water by filtering. The thus separated solid components are recovered in a storage tank for reuse as the grinding material and, after repeating use, subjected to burning treatment. While on the other hand, water is recovered into a storage tank and, after repeating use, purified by passing through an ion exchange resin-packed column and decontaminated to discharge. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Contribution of lymph node staging method and prognostic factors in malignant ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: A world wide database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieyu; Li, Jun; Chen, Ruifang; Lu, Xin

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in patients with malignant sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) with lymph node dissection, and at the same time, to evaluate the influence of the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) on their survival. Patients diagnosed with malignant SCSTs who underwent lymph node dissection were extracted from the 1988-2013 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of survival. 576 patients with malignant SCSTs and with lymphadenectomy were identified, including 468 (81.3%) patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) and 80 (13.9%) patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs). 399 (69.3%) patients and 118 (20.5%) patients were in the LODDS < -1 group and -1 ≤ LODDS < -0.5 group, respectively. The 10-year OS rate was 80.9% and CSS was 87.2% in the LODDS < -0.5 group, whereas the survival rates for other groups were 68.5% and 73.3%. On multivariate analysis, age 50 years or less (p < 0.001), tumor size of 10 cm or less (p < 0.001), early-stage disease (p < 0.001), and GCT histology (p ≤ 0.001) were the significant prognostic factors for improved survival. LODDS < -0.5 was associated with a favorable prognosis (OS: p = 0.051; CSS:P = 0.055). Younger age, smaller tumor size, early stage, and GCT histologic type are independent prognostic factors for improved survival in patients with malignant SCST with lymphadenectomy. Stratified LODDS could be regarded as an effective value to assess the lymph node status, and to predict the survival status of patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. WELDING METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, A.A.; Dunbar, J.V.; Ruffner, J.H.

    1959-09-29

    A semi-automatic method is described for the weld joining of pipes and fittings which utilizes the inert gasshielded consumable electrode electric arc welding technique, comprising laying down the root pass at a first peripheral velocity and thereafter laying down the filler passes over the root pass necessary to complete the weld by revolving the pipes and fittings at a second peripheral velocity different from the first peripheral velocity, maintaining the welding head in a fixed position as to the specific direction of revolution, while the longitudinal axis of the welding head is disposed angularly in the direction of revolution at amounts between twenty minutas and about four degrees from the first position.

  15. Casting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  16. Radiochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This little volume is one of an extended series of basic textbooks on analytical chemistry produced by the Analytical Chemistry by Open Learning project in the UK. Prefatory sections explain its mission, and how to use the Open Learning format. Seventeen specific sections organized into five chaptrs begin with a general discussion of nuclear properties, types, and laws of nuclear decay and proceeds to specific discussions of three published papers (reproduced in their entirety) giving examples of radiochemical methods which were discussed in the previous chapter. Each section begins with an overview, contains one or more practical problems (called self-assessment questions or SAQ's), and concludes with a summary and a list of objectives for the student. Following the main body are answers to the SAQ's, and several tables of physical constants, SI prefixes, etc. A periodic table graces the inside back cover

  17. Moment methods and Lanczos methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to many of the speakers at this conference I am less interested in average properties of nuclei than in detailed spectroscopy. I will try to show, however, that the two are very closely connected and that shell-model calculations may be used to give a great deal of information not normally associated with the shell-model. It has been demonstrated clearly to us that the level spacing fluctuations in nuclear spectra convey very little physical information. This is true when the fluctuations are averaged over the entire spectrum but not if one's interest is in the lowest few states, whose spacings are relatively large. If one wishes to calculate a ground state (say) accurately, that is with an error much smaller than the excitation energy of the first excited state, very high moments, μ/sub n/, n approx. 200, are needed. As I shall show, we use such moments as a matter of course, albeit without actually calculating them; in fact I will try to show that, if at all possible, the actual calculations of moments is to be avoided like the plague. At the heart of the new shell-model methods embodied in the Glasgow shell-model program and one or two similar ones is the so-called Lanczos method and this, it turns out, has many deep and subtle connections with the mathematical theory of moments. It is these connections that I will explore here

  18. On method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Kortlandt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis of linguistic reconstruction is the comparative method, which starts from the assumption that there is “a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident”, implying the existence of a common source (thus Sir William Jones in 1786. It follows that there must be a possible sequence of developments from the reconstructed system to the attested data. These developments must have been either phonetically regular or analogical. The latter type of change requires a model and a motivation. A theory which does not account for the data in terms of sound laws and well-motivated analogical changes is not a linguistic reconstruction but philosophical speculation.The pre-laryngealist idea that any Proto-Indo-European long vowel became acute in Balto-Slavic is a typical example of philosophical speculation contradicted by the comparative evidence. Other examples are spontaneous glottalization (Jasanoff’s “acute assignment”, unattested anywhere in the world, Jasanoff’s trimoraic long vowels, Eichner’s law, Osthoff’s law, and Szemerényi’s law, which is an instance of circular reasoning. The Balto-Slavic acute continues the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals and the glottalic feature of the traditional Proto-Indo-European “unaspirated voiced” obstruents (Winter’s law. My reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European glottalic obstruents is based on direct evidence from Indo-Iranian, Armenian, Baltic and Germanic and indirect evidence from Indo-Iranian, Greek, Latin and Slavic.

  19. Methods of Evaluating Tank Platoon Battle Run Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    a a OCZ 410041 aCCa a4..𔃾 a ... 41.041 41 ~.- . - 0 C41. 0 41 C a 41 0 41 -l 41 4 - 10 C ’V - .4 11 a a .4 41 ’a a 41 0 " a.󈧭 41 30 - ~41 0 0 a...who are required to arrive at a consensual judgment as in the Delphi technique (Dalkey & Helmer, 1963; Girshick, Kaplan , & Skogstad, 1950; Gordon...Flanagan, J. C. Use of comprehensive rationales. Educational and Psycho- logical Measurement, 1951, 11, 151-155. Girshick, M., Kaplan , A., & Skogstad, A

  20. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Glasgow, Amy E.; Jacob, Jeffrey T.; Habermann, Elizabeth B.; Link, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS were identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000 cases

  1. The Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Risk of Second Neoplasms After Diagnosis and Treatment of Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma: Analysis of 9460 Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Matthew L., E-mail: carlson.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Glasgow, Amy E. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research and the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jacob, Jeffrey T. [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Habermann, Elizabeth B. [Division of Health Care Policy and Research and the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of second intracranial neoplasms after the diagnosis and treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database including all patients identified with a diagnosis of VS and a second intracranial tumor. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the incidence of second tumors while allowing for censoring at loss to follow-up or death. Multivariable associations between treatment modality and second tumor formation were explored using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Two illustrative cases are also presented. Results: In all, 9460 patients with unilateral VS were identified between 2004 and 2012. Overall, 66 (0.7%) patients experienced a separate intracranial tumor, benign or malignant, after treatment of VS. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to second neoplasm at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.3%, 0.7%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable comparison between VS treatment modalities revealed that the risk of second tumor formation was similar between radiation and surgery (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-1.51; P=.93) but greater for tumors managed with observation alone compared with radiation (HR 2.48; 95% CI 1.31-4.71; P<.01). A total of 6 (0.06%) intracranial malignancies were diagnosed after VS treatment. Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to malignancy at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and treatment modality, the probability of malignancy after radiation was not greater than after observation alone or microsurgery (HR 4.88; 95% CI 0.85-28.14; P=.08) during the study period. Conclusions: The risk for the development of a second intracranial neoplasm, benign or malignant, at 5 years after treatment of unilateral VS is approximately 0.8%, whereas the risk of acquiring a separate malignancy is 0.1%, or approximately 1 per 1000 cases

  2. Pesticide mixtures in the Swedish streams: Environmental risks, contributions of individual compounds and consequences of single-substance oriented risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Mikael; Kreuger, Jenny; Bundschuh, Mirco; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents the ecotoxicological assessment and environmental risk evaluation of complex pesticide mixtures occurring in freshwater ecosystems in southern Sweden. The evaluation is based on exposure data collected between 2002 and 2013 by the Swedish pesticide monitoring program and includes 1308 individual samples, detecting mixtures of up to 53 pesticides (modal=8). Pesticide mixture risks were evaluated using three different scenarios for non-detects (best-case, worst-case and using the Kaplan-Meier method). The risk of each scenario was analyzed using Swedish Water Quality Objectives (WQO) and trophic-level specific environmental thresholds. Using the Kaplan-Meier method the environmental risk of 73% of the samples exceeded acceptable levels, based on an assessment using Concentration-Addition and WQOs for the individual pesticides. Algae were the most sensitive organism group. However, analytical detection limits, especially for insecticides, were insufficient to analyze concentrations at or near their WQO's. Thus, the risk of the analyzed pesticide mixtures to crustaceans and fish is systematically underestimated. Treating non-detects as being present at their individual limit of detection increased the estimated risk by a factor 100 or more, compared to the best-case or the Kaplan-Meier scenario. Pesticide mixture risks are often driven by only 1-3 compounds. However, the risk-drivers (i.e., individual pesticides explaining the largest share of potential effects) differ substantially between sites and samples, and 83 of the 141 monitored pesticides need to be included in the assessment to account for 95% of the risk at all sites and years. Single-substance oriented risk mitigation measures that would ensure that each individual pesticide is present at a maximum of 95% of its individual WQO, would also reduce the mixture risk, but only from a median risk quotient of 2.1 to a median risk quotient of 1.8. Also, acceptable total risk levels would still

  3. Activity-Based Costing (ABC and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC: Applicable Methods for University Libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate-Riin Kont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article provides an overview of how university libraries research and adapt new cost accounting models, such as “activity-based costing” (ABC and “time-driven activity-based costing” (TDABC, focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of both methods to determine which of these two is suitable for application in university libraries.Methods – This paper reviews and summarizes the literature on cost accounting and costing practices of university libraries. A brief overview of the history of cost accounting, costing, and time and motion studies in libraries is also provided. The ABC and the TDABC method, designed as a revised and easier version of the ABC by Kaplan and Anderson (Kaplan & Anderson 2004 at the beginning of the 21st century, as well as the adoption and adaptation of these methods by university libraries are described, and their strengths and weaknesses, as well as their suitability for university libraries, are analyzed. Results – Cost accounting and costing studies in libraries have a long history, the first of these dating back to 1877. The development of cost accounting and time and motion studies can be seen as a natural evolution of techniques which were created to solve management problems. The ABC method is the best-known management accounting innovation of the last 20 years, and is already widely used in university libraries around the world. However, setting up an ABC system can be very costly, and the system needs to be regularly updated, which further increases its costs. The TDABC system can not only be implemented more quickly (and thus more cheaply, but also can be updated more easily than the traditional ABC, which makes the TDABC the more suitable method for university libraries.Conclusion – Both methods are suitable for university libraries. However, the ABC method can only be implemented in collaboration with an accounting department. The TDABC method can be tested and implemented by

  4. Age at hysterectomy as a predictor for subsequent pelvic organ prolapse repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, Jan; Ottesen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    from 1977 to 2009 from the Danish National Patient Registry. The cohort consisted of 154,882 hysterectomized women, who were followed up for up to 32 years. Survival analysis for each age group at hysterectomy was performed using Kaplan-Meier product limit methods. RESULTS: For all hysterectomized......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patient age at the time of hysterectomy and subsequent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery. METHODS: We gathered data on all benign hysterectomies and POP surgeries performed in Denmark on Danish women...... women, we found that low age at hysterectomy yielded a lower risk of subsequent POP surgery than did hysterectomy at an older age. This difference diminished after stratification by indication; all non-POP hysterectomies had a low cumulative incidence at 8-11 % at the end of the follow-up period...

  5. Increased mortality associated with low use of clopidogrel in patients with heart failure and acute myocardial infarction not undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Sorensen, Rikke; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2010-01-01

    with patients not treated with clopidogrel. Similarly, 2 groups without HF were identified. Risks of all-cause death were obtained by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: We identified 56,944 patients with first-time AMI. In the matched cohort with HF (n = 5,050) and a mean follow......OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of clopidogrel with mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with heart failure (HF) not receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Use of clopidogrel after AMI is low in patients with HF, despite the fact that clopidogrel...... is associated with absolute mortality reduction in AMI patients. METHODS: All patients hospitalized with first-time AMI (2000 through 2005) and not undergoing PCI within 30 days from discharge were identified in national registers. Patients with HF treated with clopidogrel were matched by propensity score...

  6. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Bodin, Lennart; Kongsted, Alice

    2012-01-01

    to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor) variables? This question was answered using generalized...... involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview...... for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS: A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions...

  7. Survival analysis in hematologic malignancies: recommendations for clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Julio; Pereira, Arturo; Villamor, Neus; López-Guillermo, Armando; Rozman, Ciril

    2014-01-01

    The widespread availability of statistical packages has undoubtedly helped hematologists worldwide in the analysis of their data, but has also led to the inappropriate use of statistical methods. In this article, we review some basic concepts of survival analysis and also make recommendations about how and when to perform each particular test using SPSS, Stata and R. In particular, we describe a simple way of defining cut-off points for continuous variables and the appropriate and inappropriate uses of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression models. We also provide practical advice on how to check the proportional hazards assumption and briefly review the role of relative survival and multiple imputation. PMID:25176982

  8. Fractionated afterloading therapy in inoperable malignant tumours of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of the method of afterloading the range of uses for fractionated interstitial brady-therapy could be broadened to include malignant cerebral tumours. The mean survival time of 33 female patients was calculated to be 8.3 months for the entire group and 11.3 months for cases not otherwise pretreated. Even though the age, tumour volume, target dose and Karnofsky index obviously tended to influence the survival time, such relationships could not be confirmed statistically. Using the method by Kaplan-Meier it was determined that 65% of the total study group were likely to survive beyond six months and 32% to survive for one year. A separate analysis of patients receiving no previous treatment showed these chances to be 75% and 44%, respectively. The advantages of this therapy are discussed on a comparative basis. (VHE) [de

  9. Breast conserving treatment of breast carcinoma T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 by neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy, high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, external beam radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: local control and overall survival analysis; Tratamento conservador do cancer de mama T2 ({<=} 4 cm) e T3 por quimioterapia neoadjuvante, quadrantectomia, braquiterapia com alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante: analise de controle local e sobrevida global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Celia Regina; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Baraldi, Helena Espindola; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: celiarsoares@terra.com.br; Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia; Paes, Roberto Pinto [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 ({<=} 4 cm) and T3 through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering local control and overall survival. Material and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 88 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIb and IIIa, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, treated from June/1995 to December/2006. Median follow-up was 58 months. Using clinical methods the tumor was evaluated before and after three or four cycles of chemotherapy based on anthracyclines. Overall survival and local control were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results: Local control and overall survival in five years were 90% and 73.5%, respectively. Conclusion: local control and overall survival were comparable to other forms of treatment. (author)

  10. PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and effect of gemcitabine in advanced breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte Levin Tykjær; Nielsen, Torsten O; Bjerre, Karsten D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro studies suggest basal breast cancers are more sensitive to gemcitabine relative to other intrinsic subtypes. The main objective of this study was to use specimens from a randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether the basal-like subtype identifies patients with advanced...... breast cancer who benefit from gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) compared to single agent docetaxel (D). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From patients randomly assigned to GD or D, RNA was isolated from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast tumor tissue and used for PAM50 intrinsic subtyping...... chemotherapy were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazards regression models. Data analysis was performed independently by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) statistical core and all statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: RNA from 270 patients was evaluable; 84...

  11. Prognostic impact of tumor MET expression among patients with stage IV gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Kelsh, Michael A; Oliner, Kelly S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic impact of tumor mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET) expression in stage IV gastric cancers in a real-world clinical setting because existing evidence is sparse. METHODS: The study included archived cancer specimens from 103...... stage IV gastric cancer patients (2003-2010). We analyzed MET-protein expression by immunohistochemistry (MET-positive if ≥25% of tumor cells showed MET expression). We calculated overall survival using the Kaplan-Meier method and hazard ratios comparing mortality among MET-positive and MET.......6 months), corresponding to an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor MET expression is prevalent and has substantial prognostic impact in stage IV gastric cancer patients....

  12. LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL ESTİMATİON FOR RIGHT CENSORED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Yılmaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, firstly we will define a right censored data. If we say shortly right-censored data is censoring values that above the exact line. This may be related with scaling device. And then  we will use response variable acquainted from right-censored explanatory variables. Then the linear regression model will be estimated. For censored data’s existence, Kaplan-Meier weights will be used for  the estimation of the model. With the weights regression model  will be consistent and unbiased with that.   And also there is a method for the censored data that is a semi parametric regression and this method also give  useful results  for censored data too. This study also might be useful for the health studies because of the censored data used in medical issues generally.

  13. The prognostic value of lymph node metastases and tumour regression grade in rectal cancer patients treated with long-course preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, J; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Ploen, J

    2009-01-01

    to the tumour regression grade system and lymph node status in the surgical specimen was assessed. The prognostic value of clinico-pathological parameters was analysed using univariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier methods for comparison of groups. RESULTS: All patients responded to treatment and 47% had a major......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of tumour regression and the post-treatment lymph node status on the prognosis of rectal cancer treated by preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-five patients with locally advanced T3.......01). CONCLUSION: The combined assessment of lymph-node status and tumour response has strong prognostic value in locally advanced rectal cancer patient treated with preoperative long-course chemoradiation....

  14. Effect of intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dezhong; Li Huai; Zeng Huiying; Yang Ling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer. Methods: 1993-1998 years, Thirty four patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer had received epi-adriamycin, cisplatin, mitomycin and 5-fluorouracil by intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Twelve patients had received embolization. Results: Six patients (17.65%) had a complete response, 12 patients (35.29%) had a partial response. The overall response rate was 52.94%. Cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years were 56.90%, 25.00%, 5.00% and 5.00% respectively (Kaplan-Meier method). The median overall survival time was 11.5 months. Conclusion: Intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy is safe and effective for liver metastasis from breast cancer and should be the first choice of treatment for these patients

  15. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2016-01-01

    physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient......OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...... Register and The Danish Civil Registration System of 742 eligible patients. Physical activity was quantified with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression and logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Patients with a moderate to high physical...

  16. Radiation therapy for the cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Masashi; Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1990-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 19 patients with carcinoma of the cervical esophagus (Ce) and 36 of the upper thoracic esophagus (Iu) treated with radiotherapy between September 1977 and December 1987. Three-year survival rates by Kaplan-Meier method were 18% in Ce cancer and 7% in Iu cancer. Two-year local tumor control was obtained in 3 Ce and 4 Iu cancer. Concerning the treatment methods for the above 7 patients, 3 patients with carcinoma of the Ce were treated with double wedged technique and 4 of Iu were treated with box-technique (2 patients), rotation technique (1) and double wedge technique (1). There were no 2-year local tumor control in patients who received less than 60 Gy of the tumor dose or whose tumor exceeded more than 10 cm in length. Double wedge technique is suitable for radiotherapy of Ce cancer, while further investigation of dose and compensation is necessary for Iu cancer. (author)

  17. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy have a better survival than the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreas Røder, Martin; Brasso, Klaus; Drimer Berg, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    underwent radical prostatectomy. Patients were followed prospectively per protocol. No patients were lost to follow-up. Overall and cause-specific survival were described using Kaplan-Meier plots. Standardized relative survival and mortality ratio were calculated based on expected survival in the age......INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate standardised relative survival and mortality ratio for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer at our institution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2010, a total of 1,350 consecutive patients......-matched Danish population using the methods and macros described by Dickmann. The country-specific population mortality rates used for calculation of the expected survival were based on data from The Human Mortality Database. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 3.4 years (range: 0-14.3 years). A total of 59 (4...

  18. Does surgery or radiation provide the best overall survival in Ewing's sarcoma? A review of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin J; Gao, Yubo; Duchman, Kyle R

    2017-09-01

    There is continuing debate regarding the ideal modality for local control of the primary tumor for patients with Ewing's sarcoma. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the method of local control on overall survival in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients Ewing's sarcoma of bone. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed at 2, 5, and 10 years. Factors with a level of significance of P 8 cm, and male sex while controlling for tumor site. Surgery alone was consistently the method of local control that resulted in the highest overall survival. Surgery alone resulted in the best overall survival for patients with Ewing's sarcoma of bone. The results of this investigation provide support to the approach of surgical resection with negative margins when possible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Conditional survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Pedersen, Niels Tinggaard; Christensen, Bjarne E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognosis of lymphoma patients is usually estimated at the time of diagnosis and the estimates are guided by the International Prognostic Index (IPI). However, conditional survival estimates are more informative clinically, as they consider those patients only who have already survive...... survival probability provides more accurate prognostic information than the conventional survival rate estimated from the time of diagnosis.......BACKGROUND: Prognosis of lymphoma patients is usually estimated at the time of diagnosis and the estimates are guided by the International Prognostic Index (IPI). However, conditional survival estimates are more informative clinically, as they consider those patients only who have already survived...... a period of time after treatment. Conditional survival data have not been reported for lymphoma patients. METHODS: Conditional survival was estimated for 1209 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) from the population-based LYFO registry of the Danish Lymphoma Group. The Kaplan-Meier method...

  20. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. METHODS: A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of foetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies...... between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were...... computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without...

  1. Development of the pressure-time method as a relative and absolute method for low-head hydraulic machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Pontus [Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, Michel [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The pressure-time method is an absolute method common for flow measurements in power plants. The method determines the flow rate by measuring the pressure and estimating the losses between two sections in the penstock during a closure of the guide vanes. The method has limitations according to the IEC41 standard, which makes it difficult to use at Swedish plants where the head is generally low. This means that there is limited experience/knowledge in Sweden on this method, where the Winter-Kennedy is usually used. Since several years, Luleaa University of Technology works actively in the development of the pressure-time method for low-head hydraulic machines with encouraging results. Focus has been in decreasing the distance between both measuring sections and evaluation of the viscous losses. Measurements were performed on a pipe test rig (D=0.3 m) in a laboratory under well controlled conditions with 7Kaplan turbine compared to transit-time flow measurements. The new formulation taking into account the unsteady losses allows a better estimation of the flow rate, up to 0.3%. As an alternative to the Winter-Kennedy widely used in Sweden, the pressure-time method was tested as a relative method by measuring the pressure between the free surface and a section in the penstock without knowing the exact geometry, i.e., pipe factor. Such measurements may be simple to perform as most of the inlet spiral casings have pressure taps. Furthermore, the viscous losses do not need to be accurately determined as long as they are handled similarly between the measurements. The pressure-time method may thus become an alternative to the Winter-Kennedy.

  2. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Cancer Trials Designed to Delay or Avoid Radiotherapy: I. Basic Concepts and First Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard G.; Machin, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, although irradiation after disease progression is an important event, patients who have disease progression may decline radiotherapy (RT), or those without disease progression may opt for elective RT. To accurately describe the cumulative need for RT in such instances, it is crucial to account for these distinct events and to evaluate how each contributes to the delay or advancement of irradiation via a competing risks analysis. Methods and Materials: We describe the summary of competing events in such trials using competing risks methods based on cumulative incidence functions and Gray's test. The results obtained are contrasted with standard survival methods based on Kaplan-Meier curves, cause-specific hazard functions and log-rank test. Results: The Kaplan-Meier method overestimates all event-specific rates. The cause-specific hazard analysis showed reduction in hazards for all events (A: RT after progression; B: no RT after progression; C: elective RT) among children with ependymoma. For event A, a higher cumulative incidence was reported for ependymoma. Although Gray's test failed to detect any difference (p = 0.331) between histologic subtypes, the log-rank test suggested marginal evidence (p = 0.057). Similarly, for event C, the log-rank test found stronger evidence of reduction in hazard among those with ependymoma (p = 0.005) as compared with Gray's test (p = 0.086). Conclusions: To evaluate treatment differences, failing to account for competing risks using appropriate methodology may lead to incorrect interpretations.

  3. Sobrevivência após acidentes de trânsito: impacto das variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares Sobrevida después de accidentes de tránsito: impacto de las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias Survival after motor vehicle crash: impact of clinical and prehospital variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis clínicas e pré-hospitalares associadas à sobrevivência de vítimas de acidente de trânsito. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado no município de São Paulo, SP, de 1999 a 2003. Foram analisados dados de 175 pacientes, entre 12 e 65 anos, vitimados por acidente de trânsito. A Análise de Sobrevivência de Kaplan-Meier foi utilizada na abordagem dos resultados na cena do acidente com as vítimas de escore OBJETIVO: Analizar las variables clínicas y pre hospitalarias asociadas a la sobrevida de víctimas de accidentes del tránsito. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado en el municipio de São Paulo (Sudeste de Brasil, de 1999 a 2003. Fueron analizados datos de 175 pacientes, entre 12 y 65 años, victimas de accidentes de tránsito. El análisis de Sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier fue utilizado en el abordaje de los resultados en la escena del accidente con las víctimas de score OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and prehospital variables associated with survival of motor vehicle crash victims. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. Data from 175 patients, who were aged between 12 and 65 years and had been motor vehicle crash victims, were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis was used to approach the results at the accident scene with victims scoring <11, according to the Revised Trauma Score. Variables analyzed were: sex, age, injury mechanisms, basic and advanced support procedures, Revised Trauma Score parameters and fluctuations, time elapsed in the prehospital phase and trauma severity according to the Injury Severity Score and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that victims who were less likely to survive during the hospitalization period showed serious lesions in the abdomen, thorax, or lower limbs, with negative fluctuation of respiratory frequency and Revised Trauma Score in the prehospital phase. In addition, they needed specialized

  4. Determining the sample size required to establish whether a medical device is non-inferior to an external benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Adrian; Crowther, Michael J; Judge, Andrew; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-08-28

    The use of benchmarks to assess the performance of implants such as those used in arthroplasty surgery is a widespread practice. It provides surgeons, patients and regulatory authorities with the reassurance that implants used are safe and effective. However, it is not currently clear how or how many implants should be statistically compared with a benchmark to assess whether or not that implant is superior, equivalent, non-inferior or inferior to the performance benchmark of interest.We aim to describe the methods and sample size required to conduct a one-sample non-inferiority study of a medical device for the purposes of benchmarking. Simulation study. Simulation study of a national register of medical devices. We simulated data, with and without a non-informative competing risk, to represent an arthroplasty population and describe three methods of analysis (z-test, 1-Kaplan-Meier and competing risks) commonly used in surgical research. We evaluate the performance of each method using power, bias, root-mean-square error, coverage and CI width. 1-Kaplan-Meier provides an unbiased estimate of implant net failure, which can be used to assess if a surgical device is non-inferior to an external benchmark. Small non-inferiority margins require significantly more individuals to be at risk compared with current benchmarking standards. A non-inferiority testing paradigm provides a useful framework for determining if an implant meets the required performance defined by an external benchmark. Current contemporary benchmarking standards have limited power to detect non-inferiority, and substantially larger samples sizes, in excess of 3200 procedures, are required to achieve a power greater than 60%. It is clear when benchmarking implant performance, net failure estimated using 1-KM is preferential to crude failure estimated by competing risk models. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  5. Comparison of Pathologic Response Evaluation Systems after Anthracycline with/without Taxane-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy among Different Subtypes of Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Lee

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to assess the pathologic response of breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC to predict clinical outcome. However, the clinical utility of these systems for each molecular subtype of breast cancer is unclear. Therefore, we applied six pathologic response assessment systems to specific subtypes of breast cancer and compared the results.Five hundred and eighty eight breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC were retrospectively analyzed, and the ypTNM stage, residual cancer burden (RCB, residual disease in breast and nodes (RDBN, tumor response ratio, Sataloff's classification, and Miller-Payne grading system were evaluated. The results obtained for each assessment system were analyzed in terms of patient survival.In triple-negative tumors, all systems were significantly associated with disease-free survival and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for disease-free survival were clearly separated by all assessment methods. For HR+/HER2- tumors, systems assessing the residual tumor (ypTNM stage, RCB, and RDBN had prognostic significance. However, for HER2+ tumors, the association between patient survival and the pathologic response assessment results varied according to the system used, and none resulted in distinct Kaplan-Meier curves.Most of the currently available pathologic assessment systems used after anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC effectively classified triple-negative breast cancers into groups showing different prognoses. The pathologic assessment systems evaluating residual tumors only also had prognostic significance in HR+/HER2- tumors. However, new assessment methods are required to effectively evaluate the pathologic response of HR+/HER2+ and HR-/HER2+ tumors to anthracycline with/without taxane-based NAC.

  6. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011 among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and "charity for kidney patients" of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients′ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.47 (1.02-2.13]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered.

  7. Third-line Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J Connor; Stukalin, Igor; Norton, Craig

    2017-01-01

    and were included in the analysis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Patients were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival using Kaplan-Meier curves, and were evaluated for overall response. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the statistical association...

  8. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  9. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    patients without a plasma Cbl measurement. Patients treated with Cbl were excluded. Survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Mortality risk ratios (MRR) were computed using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, cancer stage and comorbidity, scored...

  10. MNS16A minisatellite genotypes in relation to risk of glioma and meningioma and to glioblastoma outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, U.; Osterman, P.; Sjostrom, S.

    2009-01-01

    was analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and equality of survival distributions using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard ratios. The MNS16A genotype was not associated with risk of occurrence of glioma, glioblastoma (GBM) or meningioma. For GBM there were median survivals of 15.3, 11.0 and 10...

  11. Role of IKK-alpha in the EGFR Signaling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    expression. (E) Kaplan -Meier overall survival curves of IKKin breast cancer patient data set. 16 Reference 1. Lo, H. W., Xia, W., Wei, Y...150- 100- 50- 150- 100- Twist1 AKT1-p AKT-T C 250- 150- 100- N-cad P1 P2 P3 TGFβ - - - + + - + + - - + - - + + + - - + - - + + + 50- Vimentin 150- 100

  12. Age at sexual initiation and factors associated with it among youths ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the median age at first sexual intercourse and the associated .... Wollo Zone, Amhara National Regional State, North East ..... censored. Urba n. Rura l. Residence rural/urban. Fig 2: Kaplan Meier curve showing log survival for ..... renting and selling pornography films.

  13. Epilepsy in Rett syndrome--lessons from the Rett networked database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissenkorn, Andreea; Levy-Drummer, Rachel S; Bondi, Ori

    2015-01-01

    collected. Statistical analysis was done using the IBM SPSS Version 21 software, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Epilepsy was present in 68.1% of the patients, with uncontrolled seizures in 32.6% of the patients with epilepsy. Mean age of onset of epilepsy was 4...

  14. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.

    2008-01-01

    -points were loco-regional recurrence, distant metastases, disease-specific survival and overall survival. Statistical analyses included kappa statistics, chi(2) or exact tests, Kaplan-Meier probability plots, Log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. Results CA IX was assessable in 945 cores. The percentage...

  15. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-30

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...

  16. Influence of antiviral therapy on survival of patients with hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mortality rates in two groups were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier estimate. ... 274 (76.9 %) died, with 89 patients belonging to the antiviral group while the ... TACE is different from systemic ... and identification of study participants was not ..... Table 3: Cox regression analysis to deteermine variables associated with overall ...

  17. Is there racial/ethnic variance in cervical cancer- specific survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incident cervical carcinoma, between 1992 and 1999, in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Data was linked with Medicare to examine the impact of race/ethnicity on overall and cancer-specific survival, using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and multivariable Cox Regression model. Results: There was ...

  18. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Median age was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During...

  19. Measuring quality indicators in the operating room: cleaning and turnover time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Marli de Carvalho; Perroca, Márcia Galan; da Penha, Vivian Colombo

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory-descriptive study was carried out in the Surgical Center Unit of a university hospital aiming to measure time spent with concurrent cleaning performed by the cleaning service and turnover time and also investigated potential associations between cleaning time and the surgery's magnitude and specialty, period of the day and the room's size. The sample consisted of 101 surgeries, computing cleaning time and 60 surgeries, computing turnover time. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze time and Pearson's correlation to study potential correlations. The time spent in concurrent cleaning was 7.1 minutes and turnover time was 35.6 minutes. No association between cleaning time and the other variables was found. These findings can support nurses in the efficient use of resources thereby speeding up the work process in the operating room.

  20. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: Clinical features, prognostic factors and survival with RCHOP in Arab patients in the PET scan era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shemmari, Salem; Sankaranarayanan, Sreedharan P; Krishnan, Yamini

    2014-07-01

    PMBCL is a distinct type of nonhodgkins lymphoma with specific clinicopathological features. To clarify clinical features, treatment alternatives and outcomes, we evaluated 28 Arab patients treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy between 2006 and 2011. PMBCL lymphoma patients identified according to WHO classification and treated at KCCC between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data are presented as means or medians. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival rates were compared using the log-rank test. A P lymphoma entity seen in the young with good survival. The role of PET scan for response evaluation and the type of consolidation therapy needs to be further clarified.

  1. Impact of Gender, Co-Morbidity and Social Factors on Labour Market Affiliation after First Admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Mårtensson, Solvej; Prescott, Eva

    2014-01-01

    -morbidity and socio-economic position on subsequent labour market affiliation and transition between various social services in patients admitted for the first time with ACS. METHODS: From 2001 to 2009 all first-time hospitalisations for ACS were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry (n = 79......BACKGROUND: Over the last decades survival after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has improved, leading to an increasing number of patients returning to work, but little is known about factors that may influence their labour market affiliation. This study examines the impact of gender, co...... between the above labour market states was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: A total of 37% of patients were in work 30 days after first ACS diagnosis, while 55% were on sick leave and 8% were unemployed. Seventy-nine per cent returned to work once during...

  2. Characterization of annual disease progression of multiple sclerosis patients: A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freilich, Jonatan; Manouchehrinia, Ali; Trusheim, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Previous research characterizing factors influencing multiple sclerosis (MS) disease progression has typically been based on time to disease milestones (Kaplan-Meier, Cox hazard regression, etc.). A limitation of these methods is the handling of the often large groups of patients not reaching...... the milestone. To characterize clinical factors influencing MS disease progression as annual transitions from each Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The annual progression of 11,964 patients from the Swedish MS Registry was analysed with 10 multinomial logistic regressions, that is, one for transition...... from each full EDSS with explanatory variables age, sex, age at onset, time in current EDSS, highest prior EDSS, MS course and treatment. All factors (except sex) investigated had statistically significant impacts on transitions from at least one EDSS. However, significance and size of the effect...

  3. A nationwide study of serous “borderline” ovarian tumors in Denmark 1978–2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Vang, Russell; Junge, Jette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the study population and estimate overall survival of women with a serous "borderline" ovarian tumor (SBT) in Denmark over 25 years relative to the general population. METHODS: The Danish Pathology Data Bank and the Danish Cancer Registry were used to identify 1487 women...... as noninvasive or invasive. Medical records were collected from hospital departments and reviewed. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and relative survival was estimated with follow-up through September 2, 2013. RESULTS: A cohort of 1042 women with a confirmed SBT diagnosis was identified. Women with stage I...... had an overall survival similar to the overall survival expected from the general population (p=0.3), whereas women with advanced stage disease had a poorer one (pwomen with noninvasive (pwomen with advanced stage...

  4. Nomogram based overall survival prediction in stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligo-metastatic lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanadini-Lang, S; Rieber, J; Filippi, A R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radical local treatment of pulmonary metastases is practiced with increasing frequency due to acknowledgment and better understanding of oligo-metastatic disease. This study aimed to develop a nomogram predicting overall survival (OS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT......) for pulmonary metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional database of 670 patients treated with SBRT for pulmonary metastases was used as training cohort. Cox regression analysis with bidirectional variable elimination was performed to identify factors to be included into the nomogram model...... to predict 2-year OS. The calibration rate of the nomogram was assessed by plotting the actual Kaplan-Meier 2-year OS against the nomogram predicted survival. The nomogram was externally validated using two separate monocentric databases of 145 and 92 patients treated with SBRT for pulmonary metastases...

  5. Expression and clinical significance of PIWIL2 in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y J; Xiong, X F; Wen, S Q; Tian, L; Cheng, W L; Qi, Y Q

    2015-06-26

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between PIWI-like protein 2 (PIWIL2) and clinicopathological charac-teristics and prognosis after radical resection. To accomplish this, we analyzed PIWIL2 expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. PIWIL2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 hilar cholangiocarcinoma samples and 10 control tissues. Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence were used to investigate PIWIL2 expression in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line QBC939 and the bile duct epithelial cell line HIBEpic. Univariate and multivariate surviv-al analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method for hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients who underwent radical resection. PIWIL2 expression was significantly higher in the hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues and QBC939 cells than in control tissues and HIBEpic cells, respectively (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma (P hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Risk of invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ in women with atypical papillary lesions of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Kyle C; Dash, Rajesh C; Wilke, Lee G; Horton, Janet K; Koontz, Bridget F

    2012-09-01

    Benign papillary lesions of the breast include papilloma and papillomatosis. A retrospective analysis of patients with a papillary breast lesion diagnosed between October 1992 and December 2009 was performed. Patients were excluded if they had a previous or concurrent diagnosis of invasive or in situ cancer or less than 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the risk of developing subsequent malignancy. The log rank test was used to compare groups of patients. Median follow-up for the 167 patients included in the study was 4.6 years. Fifty-one patients had a papillary lesion with atypia and 116 patients had a papillary lesion without atypia. Patients with a papillary lesion with atypia were more likely to develop invasive or in situ breast cancer with a 5 year risk of 13.0% versus 4.6% in patients with no atypia (p = 0.03). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Registry of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School: first official solid organ and tissue transplantation report - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Azeka

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report a single center experience of organ and tissue transplantation INTRODUCTION: This is the first report of organ and tissue transplantation at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School. METHODS: We collected data from each type of organ transplantation from 2002 to 2007. The data collected were patient characteristics and actuarial survival Kaplan-Meier curves at 30 days, one year, and five years RESULTS: There were a total of 3,321 transplants at our institution and the 5-year survival curve ranged from 53% to 88%. CONCLUSION: This report shows that solid organ and tissue transplants are feasible within the institution and allow us to expect that the quality of transplantation will improve in the future.

  8. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... diagnosis. RESULTS: Survival improved over the period studied. The use of active treatment varied between geographical areas, with inter-quintile ranges of 9%-17% for surgical resection, 4%-13% for radical radiotherapy, and 22%-35% for chemotherapy. At 2 years, there were 188 potentially avoidable deaths...

  9. Simpson's atherectomy in peripheral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, G.; Spengel, F.A.; Hansen, R.; Pfluger, T.; Nathrath, W.; Muenchen Univ.; Muenchen Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Over a seventeen-month period, a percutaneous transluminal removal of stenosing plaque material from leg and pelvic arteries was performed successfully and without complication in 43 patients. A complete atherectomy in the femoropopliteal vessels succeeded in 99% of cases. In the pelvic region, the primary results were much lower (58%). After six months, the angiographically checked restenosis rate was 17% for femoropopliteal vessels and 11% for iliac arteries, and the corresponding Kaplan-Meier cumulative patency rates were 73.8 and 78.7% respectively. Simpson's atherectomy is the only method of its kind that is therapeutically effective and diagnostically significant, since the removed plaque can be used for further tests. (orig.) [de

  10. Direct visual internal urethrotomy: Is it a durable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Ghosh, Bastab

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for anterior urethral strictures. We retrospectively analyzed the results for patients who underwent internal urethrotomy from January 2009 to January 2014 for anterior urethral strictures. Patients were followed till January 2016. Patients with complicated urethral strictures with a history of previous urethroplasty, hypospadias repair, or previous radiation were excluded from the study, as anticipated low success rate of direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in these patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, and third urethrotomy. A total of 186 patients were included in this study. Stricture-free rates after first, second, and third urethrotomy were 29.66%, 22.64%, and 13.33%, respectively. Although DVIU may be a management option for anterior urethral stricture disease, it seems that long-term results are disappointing.

  11. Tuberculosis-related mortality in people living with HIV in Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud; Schultze, Anna

    2016-01-01

    baseline, whichever occurred first. Risk factors for all-cause and tuberculosis-related deaths were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. FINDINGS: Of 1406 patients (834 in eastern Europe, 317 in western Europe, and 255 in Latin America), 264 (19%) died within 12 months. 188 (71...... a multiregional (eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America) prospective cohort study: the TB:HIV study. METHODS: Consecutive HIV-positive patients aged 16 years or older with a diagnosis of tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013, were enrolled from 62 HIV and tuberculosis clinics in 19...... countries in eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America. The primary endpoint was death within 12 months after starting tuberculosis treatment; all deaths were classified according to whether or not they were tuberculosis related. Follow-up was either until death, the final visit, or 12 months after...

  12. Whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romestaing, P.; Gallo, C.; Gerard, J.F.; Ardiet, J.M.; Carrie, C.

    1989-01-01

    The prognosis of ovarian cancers, which are frequently diagnosed at a late stage, can probably be improved by whole abdominal radiotherapy. 45 patients in Lyon and 8 patients in Montelimar (7 stage I or C, 10 stage II and 36 stage III) were treated by whole abdominal radiotherapy, generally after 6 courses of chemotherapy (46 cases). The overall 5-year survival of this group of patients was 48% (Kaplan-Meier method). When the patients treated by complete resection at 1st look surgery (19 cases) are compared with those in whom 1st look surgery was incomplete (34 cases), the actuarial survival was 83% versus 27%. This study demonstrates that whole abdominal radiotherapy is feasible without any serious long-term complications after two operations and 6 courses of chemotherapy. These encouraging results need to be confirmed by randomized prospective studies [fr

  13. Mortality and secular trend in the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. All first......-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates......, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased...

  14. Survival pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Longoria Boada, Lourdes B.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and longitudinal study of 273 women with breast cancer belonging to Granma province was carried out from 2003 to 2004, in order to analyze the survival of this female population, reason why the method of Kaplan Meier was used for the calculation of the mentioned variable and the Log Rank test was used for the comparison of curves. Patients with higher survival at 5 years were those who had tumors of 2 cm or less (87.5%), histological grade I (90.3%), nuclear grade I (88.3%), as well as the absence of vascular, lymphatic or lymph node invasion (with 80.6; 74.9 and 6.1% respectively). Also, tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, nodal status, as well as lymphatic and vascular invasion constituted prognosis factors, which favored the individualization of therapeutic behaviors

  15. Immunological effects of Sizofiran (SPG) combined with irradiation in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Tominaga, Naohiro; Tokuhisa, Michio

    1995-01-01

    Effects of Sizofiran (SPG) combined with irradiation for primary oral squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated with regard to cell-mediated immunity. Twenty-four patients, who were managed with irradiation from 1989 to 1993, were divided into two groups, a SPG group and a control group. Thirteen patients received concomitant administration of SPG intramuscularly with irradiation as SPG group, and 11 patients were not administered any biological response modifiers as the control group. In the SPG group, depression of blastoid transformation of lymphocytes, IL-2 production and LAK activity due to irradiation were prevented, and recovery of blastoid transformation was promoted, while peripheral monocytes tended to increase. Upon comparison for survival (Kaplan-Meier method) between the SPG group and control group, the survival rate of the SPG group tended to be superior to that of the control group. However, no significant difference was observed between them. (author)

  16. Combined effect of angioinfarction with immunotherapy in patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Jeong, Yu Mee; Ko, Young Tae; Chang, Sung Goo

    1994-01-01

    To assess the combined effectiveness of angioinfarction and immunotherapy for improving survival in patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma. During the past 3 years, 13 patients of stage IV renal cell carcinoma were treated with angioinfarction and immunotherapy. Angioinfarction was performed on these 13 patients using absolute ethanol and occlusive balloon catheter. After angioinfarction, Interferon alpha was used for immunotherapy. For our analysis, 12 control patients of stage IV renal cell carcinoma without treatment were included in the study. Survival has been calculated according to the Kaplan and Meier method. The 1 year survival rate and median survival time in patients treated with angioinfarction and immunotherapy, were 46% and 13 months and in patients without treatment, 16% and 4 months, respectively. The combined treatment of angioinfarction and immunotherapy is of considerable value for improving survival in patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma

  17. Prognostic value of body mass index before treatment for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qu; Zou, Lan; Liu, Tian-Run; Yang, An-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer often suffer from malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). A total of 473 patients with LSCC initially treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2005 and July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Low BMI before treatment was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with LSCC (P<0.001). BMI was an independent prognostic factor for patients with LSCC. Leanness before treatment was associated with poor prognosis in patients with LSCC. Good nutritional status is favorable to improve survival in patients with LSCC

  18. Clinical outcome of 19 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. A review of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kitahara, Nobuo; Asanuma, Satoshi; Ichimura, Keiichi; Abe, Kazuya

    2001-01-01

    We clinically examined 19 cases of nasopharyngeal cancer in which primary care was administered in the Department of Otolaryngology, Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital between September 1990 and August 1999. The subjects consisted of 11 males and 8 females. Histophathological study revealed 17 cases of WHO type III tumors (14 cases were poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases were lymph-epithelioma). The accumulated 5-year survival rate by the Kaplan-Meier method was 50% in T1, 75% in T2, 0% in T4, and 36% overall. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 15 cases and distant metastasis appeared in 3 cases (21%) after definitive radiotherapy. The biological characteristic of WHO type III tumors is a tendency towards early metastasis, and we speculated that this might be the cause of the lower level of effectiveness of the neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in these cases. At present, this therapy is not effective and further improvement is required. (author)

  19. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus Hedebo

    2014-01-01

    in the feasibility study cohort were reviewed with respect to the effect of screening participation on stages and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of CRC in a feasibility study cohort diagnosed from the beginning of the study until two years after the study ended were identified. Differences...... in the distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers...... detected through screening were diagnosed at significantly lower stages than among screening non-responders. There were relatively fewer locally advanced rectal cancers among patients diagnosed through positive FOBT than among non-responders. Survival among screening cancer patients was superior...

  20. The risk of healing complications in primary teeth with intrusive luxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Eva; Blanche, Paul; Yousaf, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intrusive luxation is a frequent injury in the primary dentition. Complications such as ankylosis or pulp necrosis and infection with periapical inflammation may affect the developing permanent tooth if not diagnosed and treated in time. The aim of this study was to report the risk...... of pulp necrosis (PN), pulp canal obliteration (PCO), infection-related resorption (IRR), ankylosis-related resorption (ARR) and premature tooth loss (PTL) in primary teeth following intrusive luxation, and to identify possible risk factors for PN and PTL. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A retrospective analysis...... of a cohort comprising 149 patients 194 intruded primary incisors. No treatment was performed. The follow-up programme included examination after 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and at 6 years of age. The minimum follow-up period was 1 year or until time of tooth loss. STATISTICS: The Kaplan Meier...

  1. Cabazitaxel as second-line or third-line therapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Per; Svane, Inge M; Lindberg, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    To compare treatment outcomes in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with cabazitaxel (CA) as second-line or third-line therapy in the everyday clinical setting. Charts from 94 patients treated with CA as second-line (n=28) or third-line therapy (n=66) were...... evaluated. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were used to register grade 3-4 nonhematological toxicity during treatment with CA. Baseline metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer-related prognostic factors, duration of therapy, and maximum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) percentage...... change were registered during treatment with CA and previous/subsequent novel androgen receptor targeting therapies. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A median of 6 versus 5 treatment cycles was administered in patients treated...

  2. Survival benefit of early androgen receptor inhibitor therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of endocrine therapy in non-metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is still an issue of debate. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trial comparing bicalutamide 150mg once daily with placebo in addition to standard care in patients with hormone-naïve, non......-metastatic PCa. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was performed to analyse time-to-event (death). FINDINGS: A total of 1218 patients were included into the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG)-6 study of which 607 were randomised...... disease (hazard ratios (HR)=0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0.94, p=0.01), regardless of baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), with a survival benefit which was apparent throughout the study period. In contrast, survival favoured randomisation to the placebo arm in patients with localised...

  3. Increased risk of revision for infection in rheumatoid arthritis patients with total hip replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, Johannes Cornelis; Fenstad, Anne M; Dale, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose-Medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed dramatically over the last 15 years, including immune modulation. We investigated the risk of revision for infection after primary total hip replacement (THR) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis over a 16-year...... period, and compared it with that in THR patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Patients and methods-We identified 13,384 THRs in RA patients and 377,287 THRs in OA patients from 1995 through 2010 in a dataset from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA). Kaplan-Meier survival curves......, with revision for infection as the endpoint, were constructed. Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate the relative risk (RR) of revision for infection adjusted for age, sex, fixation technique, and year of primary surgery.Results-RA patients had a 1.3 times (95% CI 1.0-1.6) higher risk of revision...

  4. Clinical and echocardiographic assessment of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis: the Scandinavian multicentre, prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaverstad, Rune; Vitale, Nicola; Karevold, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is the prospective, multicentre evaluation of clinical results and haemodynamic performance of the Medtronic Advantage aortic valve prosthesis. METHODS: From April 2001 to June 2003, 166 patients (male:female 125:41; mean (SD) age 61.8 (11.8) years) received...... an aortic advantage valve prosthesis. Complete cumulative follow-up was 242.7 patient-years (maximum 3.2; mean 1.6 years). Postoperatively, patients underwent early (within 30 days) and 1 year transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: 30 day mortality was 2.4% (n = 4). Kaplan-Meier estimates of freedom from...... echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Haemodynamic performance and early clinical results of Medtronic advantage in the aortic position were satisfactory and comparable with those of other bileaflet valves in current clinical use....

  5. The association of donor and recipient age with graft survival in paediatric renal transplant recipients in a European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplantation Association Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Bonthuis, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. The effect of donor and recipient age combinations on 5-year graft-failure risk, stratified by donor source, was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression, while adjusting for sex, primary renal diseases with a high risk of recurrence, pre......Background The impact of donor age in paediatric kidney transplantation is unclear. We therefore examined the association of donor-recipient age combinations with graft survival in children. Methods Data for 4686 first kidney transplantations performed in 13 countries in 1990-2013 were extracted......-emptive transplantation, year of transplantation and country. Results The risk of graft failure in older living donors (50-75 years old) was similar to that of younger living donors {adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.47]}. Deceased donor (DD) age was non-linearly associated with graft...

  6. Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...

  7. Radical prostatectomy in clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    ) is regarded as primary therapy by others. This study examined the outcome for high-risk localized PCa patients treated with RP. Material and methods. Of 1300 patients who underwent RP, 231 were identified as high-risk. Patients were followed for biochemical recurrence (BCR) (defined as prostate-specific......Abstract Objective. The optimal therapeutic strategy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Supported by randomized trials, the combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and endocrine therapy (ET) is advocated by many, while radical prostatectomy (RP...... antigen ≥ 0.2 ng/ml), metastatic disease and survival. Excluding node-positive patients, none of the patients received adjuvant therapy before BCR was confirmed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Median follow-up was 4.4 years...

  8. Cholecystokinin in plasma predicts cardiovascular mortality in elderly females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens P.; Rehfeld, Jens F; Alehagen, Urban

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin are related gastrointestinal hormones with documented cardiovascular effects of exogenous administration. It is unknown whether measurement of endogenous CCK or gastrin in plasma contains information regarding cardiovascular mortality. METHODS......: Mortality risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Elderly patients in a primary care setting with symptoms of cardiac disease, i.e. shortness of breath, peripheral edema, and/or fatigue, were evaluated (n=470). Primary care patients were followed for 13years...... information was obtained from 4th quartile gastrin concentrations on 5-year cardiovascular mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: CCK in plasma is an independent marker of cardiovascular mortality in elderly female patients. The study thus introduces measurement of plasma CCK in gender-specific cardiovascular risk...

  9. Long-Term Safety of In Utero Exposure to Anti-TNFα Drugs for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaparro, M; Verreth, A; Lobaton, T

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The long-term safety of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNFα) drugs during pregnancy has received little attention. We aimed to compare the relative risk of severe infections in children of mothers with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were exposed to anti-TNFα drugs...... in utero with that of children who were not exposed to the drugs. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter cohort study. Exposed cohort: children from mothers with IBD receiving anti-TNFα medication (with or without thiopurines) at any time during pregnancy or during the 3 months before conception. Non......-exposed cohort: children from mothers with IBD not treated with anti-TNFα agents or thiopurines at any time during pregnancy or the 3 months before conception. The cumulative incidence of severe infections after birth was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, which were compared using the log-rank test. Cox...

  10. The influence of unilateral oophorectomy on the age of menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, M; Simonsen, M K; Kjer, J J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age of menopause after premenopausal unilateral oophorectomy (UO) and to establish whether UO at a young age leads to menopause at a younger age than if UO occurs at an older age. METHODS: A cohort of 28 731 women, of whom 17 781 (62%) were menopausal, was investigated....... Information on menopause was obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Surgical data were obtained from the National Patient Register to avoid recollection bias. Age of menopause after UO/not UO was determined using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression was used to identify factors of importance for early...... menopause. RESULTS: UO was performed in 1148 women. Women with UO after the age of 45 years, premenopausal hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and cancer were excluded, leaving 236 in the analysis. Menopause occurred 1.8 years earlier after UO compared to women with two intact ovaries (mean 49.5 vs. 51...

  11. Long-term mortality in patients with atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Camilla; Karunanithi, Zarmiga; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In this nationwide cohort of atrial septal defect (ASD) patients, the largest to date, we report the longest follow-up time with and without closure in childhood and adulthood compared with a general population cohort. Methods and results: Using population-based registries, we included Danish...... individuals born before 1994 who received an ASD diagnosis between 1959 and 2013. All diagnoses were subsequently validated (n = 2277). Using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for sex, birth year, and a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index, we compared the mortality...... of ASD patients with that of a birth year and sex matched general population cohort. The median follow-up from ASD diagnosis was 18.1 years (range 1-53 years). Patients with ASD had a higher mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-1.9] compared with the general...

  12. Association between poor clinical prognosis and sleep duration among breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between clinical progression and the quality and duration of sleep in women with breast cancer. Method: longitudinal study, with 114 participants, conducted in a hospital in Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Beck Depression Inventory and Herth Hope Scale. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and survival analyses (outcome: poor clinical progression, using the Kaplan-Meier curve, Log-rank test and Cox proportional model. Results: a higher probability of poor clinical progression was verified in women with sleep durations of less than six hours or nine hours and over (p=.0173. Conclusion: the results suggest the importance of further studies that seek to verify whether the quantitative management of sleep disorders would have an impact on the progression of breast cancer. Women should be encouraged to report sleep problems to nurses.

  13. Analyzing survival curves at a fixed point in time for paired and clustered right-censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Shyr, Yu; Liao, Yi-De

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials, information about certain time points may be of interest in making decisions about treatment effectiveness. Rather than comparing entire survival curves, researchers can focus on the comparison at fixed time points that may have a clinical utility for patients. For two independent samples of right-censored data, Klein et al. (2007) compared survival probabilities at a fixed time point by studying a number of tests based on some transformations of the Kaplan-Meier estimators of the survival function. However, to compare the survival probabilities at a fixed time point for paired right-censored data or clustered right-censored data, their approach would need to be modified. In this paper, we extend the statistics to accommodate the possible within-paired correlation and within-clustered correlation, respectively. We use simulation studies to present comparative results. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of these methods using two real data sets. PMID:29456280

  14. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus in aged patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Satoshi; Imada, Hajime; Yamashita, Shigeru; Terashima, Hiromi; Nakata, Hajime; Itoh, Hideaki; Ohsato, Keiichi; Okamura, Takeshi

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-four patients with esophageal carcinoma were treated with either irradiation alone or irradiation combined with surgery at the University of Occupational and Environmental Health Hospital between January 1980 and February 1992. The number of patients 75 years old and older was 25. In patients 74 years old and younger, the overall five-year survival rate by Kaplan-Meier method was 24.5%. The survival rate was best in the patients who were treated by a combination of irradiation and surgery. In patients 75 years old and older, the one-year survival rate was 59%, and the three-year rate was 20%. Aged patients had a tendency to be worse in performance status, and there was no correlation between treatment modality and survival time. We conclude that radiotherapy is useful for treating esophageal cancer in aged patients particularly when maintenance of the quality of life is considered. (author)

  15. Genital lesions after consensual sexual intercourse: They are frequent and they last for several days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Ravn, Pernille

    , respectively. The median survival time for lacerations was 24 hours (n=19) seen with the naked eye, 40 hours seen with the colposcope (n=28) and 80 hours seen with toluidine blue dye (n=26). Several important pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions using the three techniques were identified. We propose a model...... insight into the duration of lesions, frequency of lesions seen with different investigative techniques and to identify pitfalls in the diagnosis of lesions. Materials and Methods: 98 women were examined within 48 hours of consensual sexual intercourse using the naked eye, the colposcope and toluidine...... blue dye application. 50 of the women were re-examined after 3 or 4 days and again after 6 or 7 days, and Kaplan-Meier plots of the duration of lacerations were produced. Results: Lacerations were the most frequent lesion seen with all three techniques, seen in 31%, 41% and 49% of participants...

  16. Marital status is an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients: An analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Song, Yiyan; Tan, Wulin; Qiu, Zeting; Li, Si; Chen, Qinchang; Gao, Shaowei

    2017-09-01

    Marital status's prognostic impact on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) has not been rigorously studied. We aimed to explore the relationship between marital status and outcomes of PNET. We retrospectively investigated 2060 PNET cases between 2004 and 2010 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Variables were compared by Chi 2 test, t-test as appropriate. Kaplan-Meier methods and COX proportional hazard models were used to ascertain independent prognostic factors. Married patients had better 5-year overall survival (OS) (53.37% vs. 42.27%, Pvs. 59.82%, P=0.001) comparing with unmarried patients. Multivariate analysis revealed marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (HR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.65-0.84; Punmarried patients may be associated with a delayed diagnosis with advanced tumor stage, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Fatigue, General Health, and Ischemic Heart Disease in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic.......08-2.00) compared with participants without fatigue. CONCLUSION: We concluded that fatigue in nondisabled older adults free of cardiovascular disease is an early predictor for development of subsequent poor general health and IHD....

  18. Smooth conditional distribution function and quantiles under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Eve; Poiraud-Casanova, Sandrine; Thomas-Agnan, Christine

    2002-09-01

    We consider a nonparametric random design regression model in which the response variable is possibly right censored. The aim of this paper is to estimate the conditional distribution function and the conditional alpha-quantile of the response variable. We restrict attention to the case where the response variable as well as the explanatory variable are unidimensional and continuous. We propose and discuss two classes of estimators which are smooth with respect to the response variable as well as to the covariate. Some simulations demonstrate that the new methods have better mean square error performances than the generalized Kaplan-Meier estimator introduced by Beran (1981) and considered in the literature by Dabrowska (1989, 1992) and Gonzalez-Manteiga and Cadarso-Suarez (1994).

  19. Long-term mortality in patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis: A Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Casper; Engsig, Frederik Neess; Omland, Lars Haukali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term mortality, the causes of death and the incidence of cancer in listeria meningitis patients. METHODS: Nationwide, population-based cohort study including all adult patients diagnosed with listeria meningitis from 1977 to 2006 and alive 1 year after diagnosis......, and an age-and gender-matched, population control cohort. Kaplan-Meier tables, Cox regression analysis and cumulative incidence function were used as outcome analyses. RESULTS: We identified 114 listeria meningitis patients and 1026 population controls. The adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for listeria...... meningitis patients the first 5 years of follow-up was 2.35(95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-3.45) thereafter the MRR was 0.93(95% CI: 0.56-1.55). Listeria meningitis patients had an increased risk of death due to cancer the first 5 years of follow-up, and in the same period patients above 50 years of age...

  20. Demographic, Clinical, and Prognostic Factors of Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinomas According to Endometriosis Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Høgdall, Estrid; Thomsen, Lotte Nedergaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women with endometriosis carry an increased risk for ovarian clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCCs). Clear cell adenocarcinoma may develop from endometriosis lesions. Few studies have compared clinical and prognostic factors and overall survival in patients diagnosed as having CCC according...... to endometriosis status. METHODS: Population-based prospectively collected data on CCC with coexisting pelvic (including ovarian; n = 80) and ovarian (n = 46) endometriosis or without endometriosis (n = 95) were obtained through the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. χ Test, independent-samples t test, logistic...... regression, Kaplan-Meier test, and Cox regression were used. Statistical tests were 2 sided. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Patients with CCC and pelvic or ovarian endometriosis were significantly younger than CCC patients without endometriosis, and a higher...

  1. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... to statistical adjustments for age, sex, socio-economic status, performance status and co-morbidity. CONCLUSION: The extent of use of different treatment modalities varies between geographical areas in England. These variations are not attributable to measurable patient and tumour characteristics, and more...

  2. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Chest computed tomography scores are predictive of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Up to a third of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients awaiting lung transplantation (LTX) die while waiting. Inclusion of computed tomography (CT) scores may improve survival prediction models such as the lung allocation score (LAS). Objectives: This study investigated the association between...... CT and survival in CF patients screened for LTX. Methods: Clinical data and chest CTs of 411 CF patients screened for LTX between 1990 and 2005 were collected from 17 centers. CTs were scored with the Severe Advanced Lung Disease (SALD) 4-category scoring system, including the components "infection....../inflammation" (INF), air trapping/hypoperfusion (AT), normal/hyperperfusion (NOR) and bulla/cysts (BUL). The volume of each component was computed using semi-automated software. Survival analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves, and Cox-regression models. Measurements and main results: 366 (186 males) out of 411...

  4. Phase II Study of Paclitaxel Given Once per Week Along With Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab in Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chau; Iyengar, Neil; Datko, Farrah; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Theodoulou, Maria; Dickler, Maura; Goldfarb, Shari; Lake, Diana; Fasano, Julie; Fornier, Monica; Gilewski, Theresa; Modi, Shanu; Gajria, Devika; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Hamilton, Nicola; Patil, Sujata; Jochelson, Maxine; Norton, Larry; Baselga, Jose; Hudis, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The CLEOPATRA (Clinical Evaluation of Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab) study demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when pertuzumab was added to trastuzumab and docetaxel. Paclitaxel given once per week is effective and less toxic than docetaxel. We performed a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with paclitaxel given once per week. Patients and Methods Patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer with zero to one prior therapy were enrolled. Treatment consisted of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 once per week plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose → 6 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks plus pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose → 420 mg) once every 3 weeks, all given intravenously. The primary end point was 6-month PFS assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods. Results From January 2011 to December 2013, we enrolled 69 patients: 51 (74%) and 18 (26%) treated in first- and second-line metastatic settings, respectively. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 3 to 38 months), 6-month PFS was 86% (95% CI, 75% to 92%). The median PFS was 19.5 months (95% CI, 14 to 26 months) overall. PFS was 24.2 months (95% CI, 14 months to not reached [NR]) and 16.4 months (95% CI, 8.5 months to NR) for those without and with prior treatment, respectively. At 1 year, Kaplan-Meier PFS was 70% (95% CI, 56% to 79%) overall, 71% (95% CI, 55% to 82%) for those without prior therapy, and 66% (95% CI, 40% to 83%) for those with prior therapy. Treatment was well-tolerated; there was no febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Conclusion Paclitaxel given once per week with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is highly active and well tolerated and seems to be an effective alternative to docetaxel-based combination therapy. PMID:25547504

  5. Combination therapy with hormonal, radiation and chemotherapy for stage C prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Toshihisa; Matsumoto, Hidetsugu

    1996-01-01

    To improve the effectiveness of treatment for patients with stage C prostate cancer, therapy in combination with hormonal, radiation and chemotherapy was given for the initial period, and there after, hormonal therapy was continuously administered to 18 patients with chemotherapy and three patients without it. At the Social Health Insurance Medical Center, between May 1988 and August 1991, 21 patients were diagnosed to have stage C histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The average age of the patients was 69.0 years. The tumor was well, moderate and poorly differentiated in 5, 6 and 10 patients, respectively. As hormonal therapy, orchiectomy was performed on 19 of the 21 patients. Furthermore, 11 patients were administered estramustine phosphate, 9 chlormadinone acetate, and one diethylstilbesterol diphosphate. As, radiation therapy, all patients were treated with AP-PA parallel opposing technique to small pelvis with a 12 cm x 12 cm treatment field (44-45 Gy) combined with conformation radiotherapy to prostate (20-26 Gy). Chemotherapy was performed using either one or a combination of the following; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and etoposide. The observation period was 54.5 months on the average. Recurrence was observed in 3 patients, for all of which the sites were at bone. The 5-year non-recurrence rate was 90.4% by Kaplan-Meier's method. There were 4 deaths, three were due to prostate cancer and one to gastric cancer. The 5-year cumulative survival rate by Kaplan-Meier's method was 90.5%. In conclusion, this treatment was effective for stage C cases of prostate cancer. (author)

  6. Aplicación y técnicas del análisis de supervivencia en las investigaciones clínicas Application and techniques of survival analysis in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Gramatges Ortiz

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una actualización sobre el análisis de supervivencia en las investigaciones clínicas. Se expusieron algunos de los conceptos más generales sobre este tipo de análisis y las características de los tiempos de supervivencia.Se abordan temas relacionados con los diferentes métodos que facilitan la estimación de las probabilidades de supervivencia para uno o más grupos de individuos, con la ejemplificación del cálculo de las probabilidades para el método de Kaplan-Meier. Se destaca la comparación de la supervivencia de varios grupos atendiendo a distintos factores que los diferencian, así como también se enuncian algunas de las pruebas estadísticas que nos posibilitan la comparación, como son la prueba log rank y la Breslow, como alternativa de esta cuando se evidencia una divergencia del azar proporcional, es decir, cuando las curvas de supe DE SUPERVI rvivencia se cruzanconcepts of this type of analyses and the characteristics of survival times were presented. Aspects related with the different methods facilitating the estimation of survival probabilities for one or more groups of subjects, including the example of calculation of Kaplan Meier method´s probabilities were dealt with . The survival rates of several groups were compared, taking into consideration various factors that differentiate them. Some of the statistical tests making the comparison possible such as log rank test, and the Breslow test as an alternative of the former when there is a proportional random divergence, that is, when survival curves cross were stated

  7. Validating a Local Failure Risk Stratification for Use in Prospective Studies of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tucker, Kai N.; Bekelman, Justin E.; Herr, Harry W.; Lerner, Seth P.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To inform prospective trials of adjuvant radiation therapy (adj-RT) for bladder cancer after radical cystectomy, a locoregional failure (LF) risk stratification was proposed. This stratification was developed and validated using surgical databases that may not reflect the outcomes expected in prospective trials. Our purpose was to assess sources of bias that may affect the stratification model's validity or alter the LF risk estimates for each subgroup: time bias due to evolving surgical techniques; trial accrual bias due to inclusion of patients who would be ineligible for adj-RT trials because of early disease progression, death, or loss to follow-up shortly after cystectomy; bias due to different statistical methods to estimate LF; and subgrouping bias due to different definitions of the LF subgroups. Methods and Materials: The LF risk stratification was developed using a single-institution cohort (n=442, 1990-2008) and the multi-institutional SWOG 8710 cohort (n=264, 1987-1998) treated with radical cystectomy with or without chemotherapy. We evaluated the sensitivity of the stratification to sources of bias using Fine-Gray regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results: Year of radical cystectomy was not associated with LF risk on univariate or multivariate analysis after controlling for risk group. By use of more stringent inclusion criteria, 26 SWOG patients (10%) and 60 patients from the single-institution cohort (14%) were excluded. Analysis of the remaining patients confirmed 3 subgroups with significantly different LF risks with 3-year rates of 7%, 17%, and 36%, respectively (P<.01), nearly identical to the rates without correcting for trial accrual bias. Kaplan-Meier techniques estimated higher subgroup LF rates than competing risk analysis. The subgroup definitions used in the NRG-GU001 adj-RT trial were validated. Conclusions: These sources of bias did not invalidate the LF risk stratification or substantially change the model's LF estimates.

  8. Dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment: five year outcomes, treatment optimization, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Hanlon, Alexandra L. M.S.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Pinover, Wayne H.; Movsas, Benjamin; Epstein, Barry E.; Hunt, Margie

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes of dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment (3DCRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred thirty-two consecutive patients were treated with 3DCRT alone between 6/89 and 10/92 with ICRU reporting point dose that increased from 63 to 79 Gy. The median follow-up was 60 months, and any patient free of clinical or biochemical evidence of disease was termed bNED. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) rising on two consecutive recordings and exceeding 1.5 ng/ml. Morbidity was reported by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale, the Late Effects Normal Tissue (LENT) scale, and a Fox Chase modification of the latter (FC-LENT). All patients were treated with a four-field technique with a 1 cm clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin to the prostate or prostate boost; the CTV and gross tumor volume (GTV) were the same. Actuarial rates of outcome were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence methods and compared using the log rank and Gray's test statistic, respectively. Cox regression models were used to establish prognostic factors predictive of the various measures of outcome. Five-year Kaplan-Meier bNED rates were utilized by dose group to estimate logit response models for bNED and late morbidity. Results: PSA 10 ng/ml based on 5-year bNED results. No dose response was observed for patients with pretreatment PSA 10 ng/ml strongly suggests that clinical trials employing radiation should investigate the use of 3DCRT and prostate doses of 76-80 Gy

  9. Prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia after first acute myocardial infarction: five year follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1995-01-01

    infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation of ambulatory ST segment depression, exercise test variables, and left ventricular ejection fraction to subsequent objective (cardiac death or myocardial infarction) or subjective (need for coronary revascularisation) events. RESULTS: 23 of the 123 patients had...... an association between transient ST segment depression and an adverse long term outcome was found (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P = 0.004). The presence of exercise induced angina identified a similar proportion of patients with a poor prognosis (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P ... ST segment depression had high specificity but poor sensitivity. The presence of exercise induced ST segment depression was of no value in predicting combined cardiac events. Indeed, patients without exertional ST segment depression were at increased risk of future objective end points (Kaplan...

  10. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kwon Kim

    Full Text Available There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and overall survival (OS following radical prostatectomy (RP for patients with prostate cancer.A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT. Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups.The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%. Among these patients, 350 (79.5% received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5% received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001, CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012, and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001 in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group.We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic PBT.

  11. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced and Recurrent Soft-Tissue Sarcomas in Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Phuoc T.; Hara, Wendy; Su Zheng; Lin, H. Jill; Bendapudi, Pavan K.; Norton, Jeffrey; Teng, Nelson; King, Christopher R.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of and identify prognostic factors for patients treated with surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for locally advanced and recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma in adults from a single institution. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 50 consecutive patients treated with IORT to 62 sites of disease. Primary sites included retroperitoneum-pelvis (78%), extremity (8%), and other (14%). Seventy percent of patients had recurrent disease failing prior surgery (70%) and/or radiation (32%). Mean disease-free interval (DFI) before IORT was 1.9 years (range, 2 weeks-5.4 years). The IORT was delivered with orthovoltage X-rays using individually sized beveled cone applicators. Clinical characteristics were as follows: mean tumor size, 10 cm (range, 1-25 cm); high-grade histologic subtype (72%); and mean dose, 1,159 cGy (range, 600-1,600 cGy). Postoperative radiation or chemotherapy was administered to 37% of IORT Sites and 32% of patients, respectively. Outcomes measured were infield control (IFC), locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and treatment-related complications. Mean and median follow-up of alive patients were 59 and 35 months, respectively. Results: Kaplan-Meier 5-year IFC, LRC, DMFS, and DSS probabilities for the entire group were 55%, 26%, 51%, and 25%, respectively. Prognostic factors found to be significant (p < 0.05) on multivariate analysis were prior DFI and tumor size for LRC, extremity location and leiomyosarcoma histologic subtype for DMFS, and prior DFI for DSS. Our cohort had five Grade 3/4 complications associated with treatment or a 5-year Kaplan-Meier Grade 3/4 complication-free survival rate of 85%. Conclusions: IORT after tumor reductive surgery is well tolerated and seems to confer IFC in carefully selected patients

  12. Phase II study of paclitaxel given once per week along with trastuzumab and pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Chau; Iyengar, Neil; Datko, Farrah; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Theodoulou, Maria; Dickler, Maura; Goldfarb, Shari; Lake, Diana; Fasano, Julie; Fornier, Monica; Gilewski, Theresa; Modi, Shanu; Gajria, Devika; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Hamilton, Nicola; Patil, Sujata; Jochelson, Maxine; Norton, Larry; Baselga, Jose; Hudis, Clifford

    2015-02-10

    The CLEOPATRA (Clinical Evaluation of Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab) study demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival when pertuzumab was added to trastuzumab and docetaxel. Paclitaxel given once per week is effective and less toxic than docetaxel. We performed a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab and trastuzumab with paclitaxel given once per week. Patients with metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer with zero to one prior therapy were enrolled. Treatment consisted of paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) once per week plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose → 6 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks plus pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose → 420 mg) once every 3 weeks, all given intravenously. The primary end point was 6-month PFS assessed by Kaplan-Meier methods. From January 2011 to December 2013, we enrolled 69 patients: 51 (74%) and 18 (26%) treated in first- and second-line metastatic settings, respectively. At a median follow-up of 21 months (range, 3 to 38 months), 6-month PFS was 86% (95% CI, 75% to 92%). The median PFS was 19.5 months (95% CI, 14 to 26 months) overall. PFS was 24.2 months (95% CI, 14 months to not reached [NR]) and 16.4 months (95% CI, 8.5 months to NR) for those without and with prior treatment, respectively. At 1 year, Kaplan-Meier PFS was 70% (95% CI, 56% to 79%) overall, 71% (95% CI, 55% to 82%) for those without prior therapy, and 66% (95% CI, 40% to 83%) for those with prior therapy. Treatment was well-tolerated; there was no febrile neutropenia or symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Paclitaxel given once per week with trastuzumab and pertuzumab is highly active and well tolerated and seems to be an effective alternative to docetaxel-based combination therapy. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. The prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume in FDG PET/CT evaluation of post-operative survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wanqi; Yu Jinming; Sun Xiaorong; Xing Ligang; Xie Peng; Sun Xindong; Guo Hongbo; Yang Guoren; Kong Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value of MTV on 18 F-FDG PET/CT in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: Forty-nine patients with esophageal cancer underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan before surgery. The median follow-up time for the patients was 29 months (range, 8-57 months). The prognostic significance of MTV, age, sex, histologic grade, SUV max of the primary tumor, tumor size measured on PET/CT, T stage, N stage, M stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, number and location of lymph nodes metastases were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox model. Results: In the univariate analysis, AJCC stage (χ 2 =16.206, hazard ratio (HR)=1.177, P<0.001), N stage (χ 2 =9.536, HR=10.833, P=0.002), T stage (χ 2 =5.810, HR=2.397, P=0.016), number of lymph nodes metastases (χ 2 =11.423, HR=1.567, P=0.001), and MTV (χ 2 =3.872, HR=2.433, P=0.049) were significant predictors of survival.Multivariate analysis showed that MTV and AJCC stage were independent predictors of survival (χ 2 =4.525, HR 1.170, P=0.033; χ 2 =4.875, HR=3.071, P=0.027). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed longer survival time of low-MTV group as compared to high-MTV group (Log-rank, χ 2 =4.186, P=0.041). Conclusion: MTV on 18 F-FDG PET/CT may be an independent prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. (authors)

  14. Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Uveal Melanomas at Nice Teaching Hospital: 16 Years' Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caujolle, Jean-Pierre; Mammar, Hamid; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Pinon, Fabien; Herault, Joel; Gastaud, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To present the results of uveal melanomas treated at Nice Teaching Hospital. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 886 consecutive patients referred to our clinic for the treatment of uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy from June 1991 to December 2007. Survival rates were determined by using Kaplan-Meier estimates, and prognostic factors were evaluated using the log-rank test or Cox model. Results: The number (percent total) of subjects staged according to the TNM classification system (6th edition) of malignant tumors included 39 stage T1 (4.4%), 420 stage T2 (47.40%), 409 stage T3 (46.16%), and 18 stage T4 (2.03%) patients. The median follow-up was 63.7 months. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate at 5 years according to the sixth edition TNM classification was 92% for T1, 89% for T2, 67% for T3, and 62% for T4; and at 10 years, 86% for T1, 78% for T2, 43% for T3, and 41% for T4. Five factors were found to be associated with an increased death rate: advanced age, tumor thickness, largest tumor basal diameter, tumor volume, and tumor volume-to-eyeball volume ratio. The metastasis-free survival rates were 88.3 % at 5 years and 76.4 % at 10 years. The local control rates were 93.9% at 5 years and 92.1% at 10 years. The ocular conservation rates were 91.1% at 5 years and 87.3% at 10 years. Conclusions: We report the results of a large series of patients treated for uveal melanomas with a very long follow-up. Despite the large tumor volume treated, our results were similar to previously published findings relating to proton beam therapy.

  15. SAMSN1 is highly expressed and associated with a poor survival in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the expression pattern and prognostic significance of SAMSN1 in glioma. METHODS: Affymetrix and Arrystar gene microarray data in the setting of glioma was analyzed to preliminarily study the expression pattern of SAMSN1 in glioma tissues, and Hieratical clustering of gene microarray data was performed to filter out genes that have prognostic value in malignant glioma. Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier estimates stratified by SAMSN1 expression was then made based on the data of more than 500 GBM cases provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project. At last, we detected the expression of SAMSN1 in large numbers of glioma and normal brain tissue samples using Tissue Microarray (TMA. Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier estimates in each grade of glioma was stratified by SAMSN1 expression. Multivariate survival analysis was made by Cox proportional hazards regression models in corresponding groups of glioma. RESULTS: With the expression data of SAMSN1 and 68 other genes, high-grade glioma could be classified into two groups with clearly different prognoses. Gene and large sample tissue microarrays showed high expression of SAMSN1 in glioma particularly in GBM. Survival analysis based on the TCGA GBM data matrix and TMA multi-grade glioma dataset found that SAMSN1 expression was closely related to the prognosis of GBM, either PFS or OS (P<0.05. Multivariate survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression models confirmed that high expression of SAMSN1 was a strong risk factor for PFS and OS of GBM patients. CONCLUSION: SAMSN1 is over-expressed in glioma as compared with that found in normal brains, especially in GBM. High expression of SAMSN1 is a significant risk factor for the progression free and overall survival of GBM.

  16. A novel systemic immune-inflammation index predicts survival and quality of life of patients after curative resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Cong; Wang, Jiangfeng; Huang, Xiaochen; Cheng, Yufeng

    2017-10-01

    A novel systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) based on platelet (P), neutrophil (N), and lymphocyte (L) counts has been reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in several solid tumors. We aimed to investigate its prognostic value in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the potential relationship with quality of life (QOL). A total of 280 ESCC patients who underwent esophagectomy were enrolled. SII (SII = P × N/L) was calculated on the basis of data obtained within 1 week before surgery. An optimal cut-off value stratified patients into high (≥560) and low (<560) preoperative SII groups. The widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OES18 were utilized to assess QOL at cancer diagnosis and 36 months after surgery. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to evaluate the association of SII with QOL. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional regression were used to analyze the prognostic value of SII. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that higher SII correlated significantly with poorer overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p < 0.001) in patients with ESCC. Multivariate analysis identified SII as an independent prognostic factor for OS (p < 0.001; HR 2.578; 95% CI 1.625-4.088) and DFS (p < 0.001; HR 2.699; 95% CI 1.726-4.223). In addition, patients with high SII exhibited notably deteriorating QOL (p < 0.05). The preoperative SII is a promising biomarker for predicting survival and QOL of patients with ESCC. It may help to identify the high-risk patients for treatment strategy decisions.

  17. The association between high on-treatment platelet reactivity and early recurrence of ischemic events after minor stroke or TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zilong; Zheng, Huaguang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Anxin; Liu, Liping; Dong, Kehui; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yilong; Cao, Yibin

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the role of HTPR in predicting early recurrence of ischemic events in patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. From January 2014 to September 2014, a single center continuously enrolled patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA and gave them antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin with clopidogrel. HTPR was assessed by TEG after 7 days of antiplatelet therapy and detected CYP2C19 genotype. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was assessed 3 months after onset. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was compared between the HTPR and NTPR groups with the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk factors associated with recurrent ischemic events. We enrolled 278 eligible patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. Through TEG testing, patients with HTPR were 22.7%, and carriers were not associated with HTPR to ADP by TEG-ADP(%) (p = 0.193). A total of 265 patients completed 3 months of follow-up, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with HTPR had a higher percentage of recurrent ischemic events compared with patients with NTPR (p = 0.002). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, history of ischemic stroke or TIA (HR 4.45, 95% CI 1.77-11.16, p = 0.001) and HTPR (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.41-7.91, p = 0.006) was independently associated with recurrent ischemic events. In patients with minor stroke or TIA, the prevalence of HTPR was 22.7%, and HTPR was independently associated with recurrent ischemic events.

  18. Predicting long-term graft survival in adult kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W Pinsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to accurately predict a population′s long-term survival has important implications for quantifying the benefits of transplantation. To identify a model that can accurately predict a kidney transplant population′s long-term graft survival, we retrospectively studied the United Network of Organ Sharing data from 13,111 kidney-only transplants completed in 1988- 1989. Nineteen-year death-censored graft survival (DCGS projections were calculated and com-pared with the population′s actual graft survival. The projection curves were created using a two-part estimation model that (1 fits a Kaplan-Meier survival curve immediately after transplant (Part A and (2 uses truncated observational data to model a survival function for long-term projection (Part B. Projection curves were examined using varying amounts of time to fit both parts of the model. The accuracy of the projection curve was determined by examining whether predicted sur-vival fell within the 95% confidence interval for the 19-year Kaplan-Meier survival, and the sample size needed to detect the difference in projected versus observed survival in a clinical trial. The 19-year DCGS was 40.7% (39.8-41.6%. Excellent predictability (41.3% can be achieved when Part A is fit for three years and Part B is projected using two additional years of data. Using less than five total years of data tended to overestimate the population′s long-term survival, accurate prediction of long-term DCGS is possible, but requires attention to the quantity data used in the projection method.

  19. Long-Term Outcomes With Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Component of Treatment for Locally Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, Brandon M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report our institutional experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a component of treatment for women with locally advanced or recurrent uterine sarcoma. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2010, 16 women with primary (n = 3) or locoregionally recurrent (n = 13) uterine sarcoma received IORT as a component of combined modality treatment. Tumor histology studies found leiomyosarcoma (n = 9), endometrial stromal sarcoma (n = 4), and carcinosarcoma (n = 3). Surgery consisted of gross total resection in 2 patients, subtotal resection in 6 patients, and resection with close surgical margins in 8 patients. The median IORT dose was 12.5 Gy (range, 10–20 Gy). All patients received perioperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 20–62.5 Gy), and 6 patients also received perioperative systemic therapy. Results: Seven of the 16 patients are alive at a median follow-up of 44 months (range, 11–203 months). The 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of local relapse (within the EBRT field) was 7%, and central control (within the IORT field) was 100%. No local failures occurred in any of the 6 patients who underwent subtotal resection. The 3-year freedom from distant relapse was 48%, with failures occurring most frequently in the lungs or mediastinum. Median survival was 18 months, and 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of cause-specific and overall survival were 58% and 53%, respectively. Three patients (19%) experienced late Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusions: A combined modality approach with perioperative EBRT, surgery, and IORT for locally advanced or recurrent uterine sarcoma resulted in excellent local disease control with acceptable toxicity, even in patients with positive resection margins. With this approach, some patients were able to experience long-term freedom from recurrence.

  20. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, Brandon M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  1. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and determinants among Brazilian children under two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Warkentin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study described the duration and identified the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher 2006 (National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children 2006. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by trained professionals and refer to a subsample of 1,704 children aged less than 24 months. The estimated durations of exclusive breastfeeding are presented according to socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological variables. Kaplan Meier estimator curves were used to produce valid estimates of breastfeeding duration and the Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to identify risks. RESULTS: The median estimated duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 60 days. The final Cox model consisted of mother's age <20 years (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.11-1.48, use of pacifier (hazard ratio=1.53, 95% confidence interval=1.37-1.71, not residing in the country's southeast region (hazard ratio=1.22, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.40 and socioeconomic status (hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.55. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan Meier estimator corrected the underestimated duration of breastfeeding in the country when calculated by the current status methodology. Despite the national efforts done in the last decades to promote breastfeeding, the results indicate that the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is still half of that recommended for this dietary practice to promote health. Ways to revert this situation would be ongoing educational activities involving the educational and health systems, associated with advertising campaigns on television and radio mainly targeting young mothers with low education level and low income, identified as those at high risk of weaning their children early.

  2. Perioperative and mid-term oncologic outcomes of robotic assisted radical cystectomy with totally intracorporeal neobladder: Results of a propensity score matched comparison with open cohort from a single-centre series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppe; Tuderti, Gabriele; Misuraca, Leonardo; Anceschi, Umberto; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Minisola, Francesco; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Gallucci, Michele

    2018-04-17

    In this study, we compared perioperative and oncologic outcomes of patients treated with either open or robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder at a tertiary care center. The institutional prospective bladder cancer database was queried for "cystectomy with curative intent" and "neobladder". All patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder or open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer or muscle invasive bladder cancer with a follow-up length ≥2 years were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was used. Kaplan-Meier method was performed to compare oncologic outcomes of selected cohorts. Survival rates were computed at 1,2,3 and 4 years after surgery and the log rank test was applied to assess statistical significance between the matched groups. Overall, 363 patients (299 open and 64 robotic) were included. Open radical cystectomy patients were more frequently male (p = 0.08), with higher pT stages (p = 0.003), lower incidence of urothelial histologies (p = 0.05) and lesser adoption of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (open radical cystectomy cases (all p ≥ 0.22). Open cohort showed a higher rate of perioperative overall complications (91.3% vs 42.2%, p 0.001). At Kaplan-Meier analysis robotic and open cohorts displayed comparable disease-free survival (log-rank p = 0.746), cancer-specific survival (p = 0.753) and overall-survival rates (p = 0.909). Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder provides comparable oncologic outcomes of open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder at intermediate term survival analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  3. Retinitis pigmentosa reduces the risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Fang Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the association between retinitis pigmentosa (RP and the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR. METHODS: Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of Taiwan, we identified individuals with an initial diagnosis for RP during the period of 1997-2008. A non-RP comparison group, 10-fold frequency matched by sex, age, index year and the year of diabetes diagnosed, were randomly selected from the same database. The occurrence of DR was observed for all subjects until the end of 2009. The Kaplan-Meier curves were used to illustrate the cumulative probability of developing DR for the RP group and comparison groups. The hazard ratio (HR of DR for the RP group relative to the comparison group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier curves were not statistically significant different between the RP group and the comparison group. However, the RP group had a higher cumulative probability of developing DR during the first six to seven years. The cumulative probability kept increasing and became higher in the comparison group but remained unchanged in the RP group. The HR for the RP patients comparing with the comparison group was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.43-2.14. Stratified by severity, RP was associated with a non-statistically significant reduced risk of proliferative DR (PDR (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.16-3.14. The HR for non-proliferative DR (NPDR was 1.08 (95% CI = 0.40-2.86. CONCLUSION: In this study, RP was not statistically significant associated with the incidence of DR.

  4. Basal 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel; Lopez-Fidalgo, Jesus Fernando; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Mar Munoz Sanchez, Maria del; Alvarez Cabellos, Ruth; Espinosa Aunion, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between basal 18 F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with 18 F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  5. Are recommendations from carcinoma of the cervix Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) applicable to centers in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craighead, Peter S.; Smulian, Hubert G.; Groot, Henk J. de; Toit, Pierre F.M. du

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient demographics, treatment resources, practice patterns, and outcome results for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) between the 1978 and 1983 Patterns of Care studies (PCS) in the United States of America (USA) and a nonacademic center within a developing country. Methods and Materials: Patient details (race, age, stage, and number per year), treatment used, and treatment outcome were retrieved from the charts of the 1160 cases registered at this center with SCC of the cervix between 1976 and 1985. Demographic variables and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated and compared with results from published PCS reviews. Results: There is a significant difference in the racial group presentation of cervix cancer at this center compared with the PCS reviews (p < 0.005), and median ages are significantly lower at this center (t = p < 0.001). The proportion of patients with Stage III or more was significantly higher at this center than the PCS centers (24 vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There were also vast differences in facility resources. Fewer cases at this center underwent intracavitary insertions than at PCS centers. Mean Point A doses were significantly reduced for this center compared with the PCS reviews. Kaplan-Meier estimates were similar for Stage I and II in PCS centers and this center, but were inferior for this center in Stage III patients (p < 0.05 for OS and p < 0.01 for LC). Late morbidity rates were similar for both PCS centers and this center. Conclusion: PCS recommendations may be applicable to nonacademic centers within developing countries, if the latter use staging techniques that are consistent with the PCS staging guidelines

  6. Effect and toxicity of endoluminal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in centrally located tumors of the upper respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.; Wannenmacher, M.; Becker, H.; Herth, F.; Fritz, P.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To assess effect an toxicity of high-dose-rate afterloading (HDR) alone or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in centrally located tumors of the upper respiratory tract. Patients and Methods: From 1987 to 1996, 55 patients were treated. Twenty-one patients (group A1: 17 non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC], A2: 4 metastases from other malignancies) were treated using HDR alone due to a relapse after external beam irradiation. In 34 previously untreated and inoperable patients (group B1: 27 NSCLC, B2: 7 metastases from other malignancies) HDR was given as a boost after EBRT (30 to 60 Gy, median 50). HDR was carried out with a 192 Ir source (370 GBq). The brachytherapy dose (group A: 5 to 27 Gy, median 20; B: 10 to 20 Gy, median 15) was prescribed to 1 cm distance from the source axis. A distanciable applicator was used in 39/55 patients. Results: In group A1, a response rate (CR, PR) of 53% (group B1: 77%) was reached. The median survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 5 months in group A1 (B1: 20 months). The 1-, 3- and 5-year local progression free survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were 66% (15%), 52% (0%), and 37% (0%) in group B1 (group A1). Prognostic favorable factors in group B1 were a tumor diameter 70. Grade-1 or 2 toxicity (RTOG/EORTC) occurred in 0% in group A and in 6% in group B. We observed no Grad-3 or 4 toxicity. Complications caused by persistent or progressive local disease occurred in 3 patients in goup A (fatal hemorrhage, tracheomediastinal fistula, hemoptysis) and in 2 patients in group B (fatal hemorrhage, hemoptysis). Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment with moderate side effects. In combination with external beam irradiation long-term remissions can be reached in one third of the patients. (orig.) [de

  7. C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio is a predictor of hepatitis B virus related decompensated cirrhosis: time-dependent receiver operating characteristics and decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si-Si; Xie, Dong-Mei; Cai, Yi-Jing; Wu, Jian-Min; Chen, Rui-Chong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Song, Mei; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Wang, Yu-Qun; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Ke-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major health problem and HBV-related-decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DC) usually leads to a poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine the utility of inflammatory biomarkers in predicting mortality of HBV-DC. A total of 329 HBV-DC patients were enrolled. Survival estimates for the entire study population were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic values for model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, Child-Pugh score, and inflammatory biomarkers neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR), and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) for HBV-DC were compared using time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves and time-dependent decision curves. The survival time was 23.1±15.8 months. Multivariate analysis identified age, CAR, LMR, and platelet count as prognostic independent risk factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that CAR of at least 1.0 (hazard ratio, 7.19; 95% confidence interval, 4.69-11.03), and LMR less than 1.9 (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.41) were independently associated with mortality of HBV-DC. The time-dependent receiver operating characteristic indicated that CAR showed the best performance in predicting mortality of HBV-DC compared with LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score. The results were also confirmed by time-dependent decision curves. CAR and LMR were associated with the prognosis of HBV-DC. CAR was superior to LMR, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score in HBV-DC mortality prediction.

  8. Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwango, Albert; Stringer, Jeffrey; Ledergerber, Bruno; Mulenga, Lloyd; Bucher, Heiner C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Calmy, Alexandra; Boulle, Andrew; Chintu, Namwinga; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. Methods and Findings HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative incidence. We calculated hazard ratios for LTFU across CD4 cell count strata using cause-specific Cox models, or Fine and Gray subdistribution models, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and clinical stage. 89,339 patients from Zambia and 1,860 patients from Switzerland were included. 12,237 patients (13.7%) in Zambia and 129 patients (6.9%) in Switzerland were LTFU and 8,498 (9.5%) and 29 patients (1.6%), respectively, died. In Zambia, the probability of LTFU was overestimated in Kaplan-Meier curves: estimates at 3.5 years were 29.3% for patients starting ART with CD4 cells Switzerland since only few patients died. The results from Cox and Fine and Gray models were similar: in Zambia the risk of loss to follow-up and death increased with decreasing CD4 counts at the start of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was a trend in the opposite direction, with patients with higher CD4 cell counts more likely to be lost to follow-up. Conclusions In ART programmes in low-income settings the competing risk of death can substantially bias standard analyses of LTFU. The CD4 cell count and other prognostic factors may be differentially associated with LTFU in low-income and high-income settings. PMID:22205933

  9. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C., E-mail: andrealo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Howard, A. Fuchsia [School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hasan, Haroon [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Goddard, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  10. High Rab27A expression indicates favorable prognosis in CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuanbing; Yang, Xiaojun; Ni, Yijiang; Hou, Ning; Xu, Li; Zhan, Feng; Zhu, Huijun; Xiong, Lin; Chen, Pingsheng

    2015-06-13

    Rab27A is a peculiar member in Rab family and has been suggested to play essential roles in the development of human cancers. However, the association between Rab27A expression and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been elucidated yet. One-step quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test with 18 fresh-frozen CRC samples and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 112 CRC cases were executed to evaluate the relationship between Rab27A expression and the clinicopathological features of CRC. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for 112 CRC patients. The results specified that the expression levels of Rab27A mRNA and protein were significantly higher in CRC tissues than that in matched non-cancerous tissues, in both qPCR test (p = 0.029) and IHC analysis (p = 0.020). The IHC data indicated that the Rab27A protein expression in CRC was statistically correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.022) and TNM stage (p = 0.026). Cox multi-factor analysis and Kaplan-Meier method suggested Rab27A protein expression (p = 0.012) and tumor differentiation (p = 0.004) were significantly associated with the overall survival of CRC patients. The data indicated the differentiate expression of Rab27A in CRC tissues and matched non-cancerous tissues. Rab27A may be used as a valuable prognostic biomarker for CRC patients.

  11. The impact of engagement in street-based income generation activities on stimulant drug use cessation among people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Richardson, Lindsey; DeBeck, Kora; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of illicit stimulant drug use internationally, and the widespread involvement of people who inject drugs (IDU) within street-based drug markets, little is known about the impact of different types of street-based income generation activities on the cessation of stimulant use among IDU. Data were derived from an open prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. We used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the effect of different types of street-based income generation activities (e.g., sex work, drug dealing, and scavenging) on time to cessation of stimulant use. Between December, 2005 and November, 2012, 887 IDU who use stimulant drugs (cocaine, crack cocaine, or crystal methamphetamine) were prospectively followed-up for a median duration of 47 months. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, compared to those who did not engage in street-based income generation activities, participants who reported sex work, drug dealing, scavenging, or more than one of these activities were significantly less likely to report stimulant drug use cessation (all pstreet-based income generation activity remained significantly associated with a slower time to stimulant drug cessation (all p<0.005). Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to address stimulant dependence, including novel pharmacotherapies. Also important, structural interventions, such as low-threshold employment opportunities, availability of supportive housing, legal reforms regarding drug use, and evidence-based approaches that reduce harm among IDU are urgently required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-Term Outcomes With Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Component of Treatment for Locally Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, Brandon M., E-mail: barney.brandon@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N. [Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report our institutional experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a component of treatment for women with locally advanced or recurrent uterine sarcoma. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2010, 16 women with primary (n = 3) or locoregionally recurrent (n = 13) uterine sarcoma received IORT as a component of combined modality treatment. Tumor histology studies found leiomyosarcoma (n = 9), endometrial stromal sarcoma (n = 4), and carcinosarcoma (n = 3). Surgery consisted of gross total resection in 2 patients, subtotal resection in 6 patients, and resection with close surgical margins in 8 patients. The median IORT dose was 12.5 Gy (range, 10-20 Gy). All patients received perioperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 20-62.5 Gy), and 6 patients also received perioperative systemic therapy. Results: Seven of the 16 patients are alive at a median follow-up of 44 months (range, 11-203 months). The 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of local relapse (within the EBRT field) was 7%, and central control (within the IORT field) was 100%. No local failures occurred in any of the 6 patients who underwent subtotal resection. The 3-year freedom from distant relapse was 48%, with failures occurring most frequently in the lungs or mediastinum. Median survival was 18 months, and 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of cause-specific and overall survival were 58% and 53%, respectively. Three patients (19%) experienced late Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusions: A combined modality approach with perioperative EBRT, surgery, and IORT for locally advanced or recurrent uterine sarcoma resulted in excellent local disease control with acceptable toxicity, even in patients with positive resection margins. With this approach, some patients were able to experience long-term freedom from recurrence.

  13. Multiple factor analysis of metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urothelium is often multifocal and subsequent tumors may occur anywhere in the urinary tract after the treatment of a primary carcinoma. Patients initially presenting a bladder cancer are at significant risk of developing metachronous tumors in the upper urinary tract (UUT. We evaluated the prognostic factors of primary invasive bladder cancer that may predict a metachronous UUT TCC after radical cystectomy. The records of 476 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for primary invasive bladder TCC from 1989 to 2001 were reviewed retrospectively. The prognostic factors of UUT TCC were determined by multivariate analysis using the COX proportional hazards regression model. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also used to assess the variable incidence of UUT TCC according to different risk factors. Twenty-two patients (4.6%. developed metachronous UUT TCC. Multiplicity, prostatic urethral involvement by the bladder cancer and the associated carcinoma in situ (CIS were significant and independent factors affecting the occurrence of metachronous UUT TCC (P = 0.0425, 0.0082, and 0.0006, respectively. These results were supported, to some extent, by analysis of the UUT TCC disease-free rate by the Kaplan-Meier method, whereby patients with prostatic urethral involvement or with associated CIS demonstrated a significantly lower metachronous UUT TCC disease-free rate than patients without prostatic urethral involvement or without associated CIS (log-rank test, P = 0.0116 and 0.0075, respectively. Multiple tumors, prostatic urethral involvement and associated CIS were risk factors for metachronous UUT TCC, a conclusion that may be useful for designing follow-up strategies for primary invasive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy.

  14. Neoadjuvant treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with high risk prostate cancer and radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorticati, Carlos; Aguilar, Jorge A.; Gonzalez Granda, Pablo; Mendez, Fernando; Montiel, Raul; Rege, Eduardo; Alvarez, Patricio; Lopez, Miguel A.; Rizzi, Alfredo; Mazza, Osvaldo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: To analyze the results of the treatment in patients with cancer of prostate of high risk. Material and Method: Retrospective and observational analysis of 130 patients operated by CAP of high risk (criteria of D'Amico) average 41,48 months, divided in form nonrandomized in three groups 1: radical prostatectomy, 2: neoadjuvant hormonoterapy (BAC) + PR, 3: BAC + PR + x-ray (RT). Statistical analysis: multivaried, test of curved Chi2 and p statistical and of Kaplan Meier. Results: Biochemical relapse 68 patients (52.3%), average 23,37 months. Without differences according to therapeutic modality (p: 0.043). In the multivaried analysis of the 3 factors of presurgical, single risk we found a statistically significant relation in the coexistence of the 3 factors with the presence of positive margin in the PR piece. (p: 0,002). The analysis to make or not, neoadjuvant BAC without significant difference (p: 0,403) evaluating in such the rate of M+, actuarial global survival according to curves of Kaplan Meier to 5 and 10 years (P: 0,5257) and survival 5 actuarial specific cancer to and 10a (P: 0,2165). Conclusions: Without significant differences in: RB, clinical progression, pathological relapse, global and specific survival, rate of positive surgical margins. The 3 criteria of D'Amico were predictive of positive surgical margins and RB, the patients with RB in group 2 presented/displayed greater risk of clinical progression, the PR demonstrated a global survival and specify actuarial to 10 years greater to 50%, considering it therapeutic an option been worth. (authors) [es

  15. Prognostic significance of multidrug-resistance protein (MDR-1 in renal clear cell carcinomas: A five year follow-up analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazzullo Viviana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of renal cancer patients shows poor or partial response to chemotherapy and the mechanisms have not been still understood. Multi-drug resistance is the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapic drugs. The role of the multi-drug resistant transporter (MDR-1/P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR-1, and that one of the so-called multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP, two energy-dependent efflux pumps, are commonly known to confer drug resistance. We studied MDR-1 expression in selected cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, clear cell type, with long-term follow-up, in order to establish its prognostic role and its possible contribution in the choice of post-surgical therapy. Methods MDR-1 has been studied by standard LSAB-HRP immunohistochemical technique, in paraffin embedded RCC samples. Protein expression has been compared to clinical and histopathological data and to disease specific survival of RCC patients, by Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses. Results Two groups of RCCs were obtained by esteeming MDR-1 expression and disease specific survival (obtained with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox multivariate regression analyses: the first one presents low or absent MDR-1 expression and good survival; the second one is characterized by high MDR-1 expression and significant poor outcome (p p p p Conclusion In our opinion, the results of this study well prove the relationship between MDR-1 expression and worse clinical prognosis in RCC, because MDR-1 over-expressing RCCs can be considered a group of tumours with a more aggressive behavior. This finding outlines a possible role of MDR-1 as prognostic factor, dependent and independent of multidrug resistance. These results could be useful to predict cancer evolution and to choose the appropriate treatment: this is another step that can stimulate further promising and interesting investigations on broader

  16. Endolymphatic sac surgery versus tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the management of patients with unilateral definite Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Silviu; Babighian, Gregorio; Amadori, Maurizio; Trabalzini, Franco

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to compare the outcomes of patients with Meniere's disease submitted to either endolymphatic mastoid shunt (ES) or tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles (TSTM). This is a retrospective chart review of patients treated with ES or TSTM between 2000 and 2010 and followed up for at least 12 months. The main outcomes were represented by: (1) vertigo class, hearing stage and functional level according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria; (2) adjustment of dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and (3) complete and substantial vertigo control using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria: 34 underwent ES and 29 TSTM. The baseline demographic characteristics, the hearing stage, the functional level, the DHI and hearing levels were not different between the two groups. No significant difference in vertigo class was demonstrated: 66 % of TSTM patients attained class A compared to 44 % in the ES group (p = 0.14). Kaplan-Meier survival curves specific to class A showed significant differences, favoring TSTM (log-rank test, p = 0.022). TSTM patients demonstrated significantly improved functional level (p = 0.0004) and improved DHI scores (p = 0.001). Eight ES patients (25 %) demanded a second surgical attempt compared to none in the TSTM. Aural fullness was significantly improved in TSTM group (p = 0.01), while the difference in tinnitus improvement was non-significant. Hearing preservation was significantly better in TSTM group (p = 0.001). TSTM is a safe surgical procedure, with significant vertigo control rates, and important hearing preservation rates. More patients and longer follow-up are needed to support our preliminary findings.

  17. Lymph node density as a prognostic predictor in patients with betel nut-related oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chin; Lin, Chun-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2018-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a poor prognostic factor. The histopathologic stage (e.g., pN) is used to evaluate the severity of lymph node metastasis; however, the current staging system insufficiently predicts survival and recurrence. We investigated clinical outcomes and lymph node density (LND) in betel nut-chewing individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 389 betel nut-exposed patients with primary OSCC who underwent surgical resection in 2002-2015. The prognostic significance of LND was evaluated by overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the 5-year OS and DFS rates in all patients were 60.9 and 48.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that variables independently prognostic for OS were aged population (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.1-2.5; P = .025), and cell differentiation classification (HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4-4.2; P = .002). In pathologic N-positive patients, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for OS was used and indicated the best cutoff of 0.05, and the multivariate analysis showed that LND was an independent predictor of OS (HR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.7; P = .004). Lymph node density, at a cutoff of 0.05, was an independent predictor of OS and DFS. OS and DFS underwent multiple analyses, and LND remained significant. The pathologic N stage had no influence in the OS analysis. LND is a more reliable predictor of survival in betel nut-chewing patients for further post operation adjuvant treatment, such as reoperation or adjuvant radiotherapy.

  18. Chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 expression is associated with a favorable prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianci; Shu, Tianci; Dong, Siyuan; Li, Peiwen; Li, Weinan; Liu, Dali; Qi, Ruiqun; Zhang, Shuguang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Decreased expression of human chemokine-like factor-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 3 (CMTM3) has been identified in a number of human tumors and tumor cell lines, including gastric and testicular cancer, and PC3, CAL27 and Tca-83 cell lines. However, the association between CMTM3 expression and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between CMTM3 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in ESCC. CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression was analyzed in ESCC and paired non-tumor tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was also used for univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results revealed that CMTM3 mRNA and protein expression levels were lower in 82.5% (30/40) and 75% (30/40) of ESCC tissues, respectively, when compared with matched non-tumor tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated that CMTM3 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.002) and clinical stage (P<0.001) in ESCC tissues. Furthermore, the survival time of ESCC patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly shorter than that of ESCC patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.01). In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the overall survival time of patients exhibiting low CMTM3 expression was significantly decreased compared with patients exhibiting high CMTM3 expression (P=0.010). Cox multivariate analysis indicated that CMTM3 protein expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC after resection. This study indicated that CMTM3 expression is significantly decreased in ESCC tissues and CMTM3 protein expression in resected tumors may present an effective prognostic

  19. The long-term outcomes of epilepsy surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon; Nicolson, Andrew; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Smith, David; Osman Farah, Jibril; Eldridge, Paul; Wieshmann, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Objective Despite modern anti-epileptic drug treatment, approximately 30% of epilepsies remain medically refractory and for these patients, epilepsy surgery may be a treatment option. There have been numerous studies demonstrating good outcome of epilepsy surgery in the short to median term however, there are a limited number of studies looking at the long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the long-term outcome of resective epilepsy surgery in a large neurosurgery hospital in the U.K. Methods This a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. We used the 2001 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification system to classify seizure freedom and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to estimate the probability of seizure freedom. Results We included 284 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery (178 anterior temporal lobe resections, 37 selective amygdalohippocampectomies, 33 temporal lesionectomies, 36 extratemporal lesionectomies), and had a prospective median follow-up of 5 years (range 1–27). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that 47% (95% CI 40–58) remained seizure free (apart from simple partial seizures) at 5 years and 38% (95% CI 31–45) at 10 years after surgery. 74% (95% CI 69–80) had a greater than 50% seizure reduction at 5 years and 70% (95% CI 64–77) at 10 years. Patients who had an amygdalohippocampectomy were more likely to have seizure recurrence than patients who had an anterior temporal lobe resection (p = 0.006) and temporal lesionectomy (p = 0.029). There was no significant difference between extra temporal and temporal lesionectomies. Hippocampal sclerosis was associated with a good outcome but declined in relative frequency over the years. Conclusion The vast majority of patients who were not seizure free experienced at least a substantial and long-lasting reduction in seizure frequency. A positive long-term outcome after epilepsy surgery is possible for many patients and especially those with

  20. The Risk of Herpes Zoster in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer according to Chemotherapy Regimens: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors versus Cytotoxic Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Miso; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Heo, Dae Seog; Jo, Seong Jin

    2018-04-05

    Despite the successful use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in cancer patients, their effect on herpes zoster development has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) TKI and cytotoxic chemotherapy on the risk of herpes zoster development in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We conducted a medical review of all eligible NSCLC patients in Seoul National University hospital between 2002 and 2015. We classified patients based on whether they previously underwent EGFR TKI therapy into either the TKI group or the cytotoxic group. We compared the incidence rates of herpes zoster during TKI therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Additionally, the longitudinal risk of herpes zoster from TKIs was analyzed using the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of the TKI group to the cytotoxic group and the log-rank test of the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 2,981 NSCLC patients, 54 patients (1.54%) developed herpes zoster. In the TKI group (2,002 patients), the IRR of herpes zoster during TKI therapy compared to that during cytotoxic chemotherapy was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 2.09). The IRR of the TKI group compared to the cytotoxic group was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.64 to 2.76). The Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk of both groups was not significantly different. Our results show that the incidence rate of herpes zoster in the TKI group was not statistically different from the incidence in the cytotoxic group during and after chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.

  1. Basal {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel [University General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Fidalgo, Jesus Fernando; Amo-Salas, Mariano [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Department of Mathematics, Ciudad Real (Spain); Mar Munoz Sanchez, Maria del [Virgen de la Luz Hospital, Oncology Department, Cuenca (Spain); Alvarez Cabellos, Ruth [Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Oncology Department, Toledo (Spain); Espinosa Aunion, Ruth [La Mancha Centro Hospital, Oncology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    To explore the relationship between basal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  2. Miners’ return to work following injuries in coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW following a miner’s injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person’s social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners’ injuries. Material and Methods: A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000–2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners’ return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. Conclusions: The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6:729–742

  3. Extraneural metastases of medulloblastoma: desmoplastic variants may have prolonged survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert J; Khakoo, Yasmin; Yhu, Stephen; Wolden, Suzanne; De Braganca, Kevin C; Gilheeney, Stephen W; Dunkel, Ira J

    2015-04-01

    Extraneural metastases from CNS medulloblastoma are rare and poorly described. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of a large single institution series of patients with medulloblastoma who developed extraneural metastases. We retrospectively reviewed a departmental database over a 20 year period for all patients with medulloblastoma who developed extraneural metastases. Chart and imaging reviews were performed, and overall survival (OS) estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. We found 14 patients with medulloblastoma and extraneural metastases. The median age at initial diagnosis was 16.3 years (range, 3.2-44.2), and the most common subtype was desmoplastic (n = 6, 42.9%). After initial gross total resection, most patients received radiation therapy alone (n = 10, 71.4%). Metastases to bone were most common (n = 11, 78.6%) followed by metastases to bone marrow (n = 6, 42.9%), usually to the spine. The median time from initial diagnosis to first extraneural metastasis was 1.5 years (range, 0.2-17.4), and the median OS from extraneural metastasis to death was 3.3 years (range, 0-18). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of 5 year OS from extraneural metastasis diagnosis was 40.0% (95% CI, 20.2-79.2). Extraneural metastases from medulloblastoma may rarely develop after initial diagnosis to involve bone and bone marrow. We found that desmoplastic variant extraneural tumors had longer survival than nondesmoplastic variants, suggesting that histopathological and more recent molecular subtyping have important roles in determining the prognosis of medulloblastoma patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  5. BDF-methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Astrid Kuijers

    1999-01-01

    An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented.......An introduction to BDF-methods is given. The use of these methods on differential algebraic equations (DAE's) with different indexes with respect to order, stability and convergens of the BDF-methods is presented....

  6. Uranium price forecasting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again

  7. Methods in aquatic bacteriology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, B

    1988-01-01

    .... Within these sections detailed chapters consider sampling methods, determination of biomass, isolation methods, identification, the bacterial microflora of fish, invertebrates, plants and the deep...

  8. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  9. Finite element method for computational fluid dynamics with any type of elements; Finite Element Methode zur numerischen Stroemungsberechnung mit beliebigen Elementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steibler, P.

    2000-07-01

    The unsteady, turbulent flow is to be calculated in a complex geometry. For this purpose a stabilized finite element formulation in which the same functions for velocity and pressure are used is developed. Thus the process remains independent of the type of elements. This simplifies the application. Above all, it is easier to deal with the boundary conditions. The independency from the elements is also achieved by the extended uzawa-algorithm which uses quadratic functions for velocity and an element-constant pressure. This method is also programmed. In order to produce the unstructured grids, an algorithm is implemented which produces meshes consisting of triangular and tetrahedral elements with flow-dependent adaptation. With standard geometries both calculation methods are compared with results. Finally the flow in a draft tube of a Kaplan turbine is calculated and compared with results from model tests. (orig.) [German] Die instationaere, turbulente Stroemung in einer komplexen Geometrie soll berechnet werden. Dazu wird eine Stabilisierte Finite Element Formulierung entwickelt, bei der die gleichen Ansatzfunktionen fuer Geschwindigkeiten und Druck verwendet werden. Das Verfahren wird damit unabhaengig von der Form der Elemente. Dies vereinfacht die Anwendung. Vor allem wird der Umgang mit den Randbedingungen erleichert. Die Elementunabhaengigkeit erreicht man auch mit dem erweiterten Uzawa-Algorithmus, welcher quadratische Ansatzfunktionen fuer die Geschwindigkeiten und elementweisen konstanten Druck verwendet. Dieses Verfahren wird ebenso implementiert. Zur Erstellung der unstrukturierten Gitter wird ein Algorithmus erzeugt, der Netze aus Dreiecks- und Tetraederelementen erstellt, welche stroemungsabhaengige Groessen besitzen koennen. Anhand einiger Standardgeometrien werden die beiden Berechnungsmethoden mit Ergebnissen aus der Literatur verglichen. Als praxisrelevantes Beispiel wird abschliessend die Stroemung in einem Saugrohr einer Kaplanturbine berechnet

  10. Mõõtke kulusid õigesti - tehke õigeid otsuseid / Robin Cooper, Robert S Kaplan, Leonard L Berry...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Tegevuspõhise kuluarvestussüsteemi tutvustus. Kulude jaotumine tegevuspõhist kuluarvestussüsteemi arvesse võttes. Tabelid: Kuidas tegevuspõhine kuluarvestus muudab toote kasumlikkust; kasumi jagunemine kommerts-turustuskanalite kaupa: vana ja uus süsteem

  11. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright

  12. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  13. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes-LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  14. Methods of nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1970-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  15. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  16. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  17. The three circle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garncarek, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The three circle method in its general form is presented. The method is especially useful for investigation of shapes of agglomerations of objects. An example of its applications to investigation of galaxies distribution is given. 17 refs. (author)

  18. Design Methods in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...... in Danish companies. The paper concludes that design methods in practice deviate substantially from Pahl & Beitz’s description of method use: The object and problems, which are the starting points for method use, are more contested and less given than generally assumed; The steps of methods are often...

  19. Advances in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mastorakis, Nikos E

    2009-01-01

    Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.

  20. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  1. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  2. VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Dorisz Talas

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala) classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of managemen...

  3. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  4. Possibilities of roentgenological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivash, Eh.S.; Sal'man, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Literary and experimental data on estimating possibilities of roentgenologic investigations using an electron optical amplifier, X-ray television and roentgen cinematography are generalized. Different methods of studying gastro-intestinal tract are compared. The advantage of the roentgenologic method over the endoscopic method after stomach resection is shown [ru

  5. The Generalized Sturmian Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2011-01-01

    these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...... generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...

  6. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  7. DOE methods compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasure, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established an analytical methods compendium development program to integrate its environmental analytical methods. This program is administered through DOE's Laboratory Management Division (EM-563). The primary objective of this program is to assemble a compendium of analytical chemistry methods of known performance for use by all DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. This compendium will include methods for sampling, field screening, fixed analytical laboratory and mobile analytical laboratory analyses. It will also include specific guidance on the proper selection of appropriate sampling and analytical methods in using specific analytical requirements

  8. Methods for assessing geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.

  9. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  10. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  11. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid......A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  12. Angular correlation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An outline of the theory of angular correlations is presented, and the difference between the modern density matrix method and the traditional wave function method is stressed. Comments are offered on particular angular correlation theoretical techniques. A brief discussion is given of recent studies of gamma ray angular correlations of reaction products recoiling with high velocity into vacuum. Two methods for optimization to obtain the most accurate expansion coefficients of the correlation are discussed. (1 figure, 53 references) (U.S.)

  13. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  14. Rossi Alpha Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-α is no longer an α-eigenvalue

  15. Qualitative methods textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Barndt, William

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the number of political science departments offering qualitative methods courses has grown substantially. The number of qualitative methods textbooks has kept pace, providing instructors with an overwhelming array of choices. But how to decide which text to choose from this exhortatory smorgasbord? The scholarship desperately needs evaluated. Yet the task is not entirely straightforward: qualitative methods textbooks reflect the diversity inherent in qualitative metho...

  16. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  17. Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Congdon, P

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...

  18. [Methods of quantitative proteomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, A T; Zgoda, V G

    2007-01-01

    In modern science proteomic analysis is inseparable from other fields of systemic biology. Possessing huge resources quantitative proteomics operates colossal information on molecular mechanisms of life. Advances in proteomics help researchers to solve complex problems of cell signaling, posttranslational modification, structure and functional homology of proteins, molecular diagnostics etc. More than 40 various methods have been developed in proteomics for quantitative analysis of proteins. Although each method is unique and has certain advantages and disadvantages all these use various isotope labels (tags). In this review we will consider the most popular and effective methods employing both chemical modifications of proteins and also metabolic and enzymatic methods of isotope labeling.

  19. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  20. Method of chronokinemetrical invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Shelkovenko, A.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    A particular case of a general dyadic method - the method of chronokinemetric invariants is formulated. The time-like dyad vector is calibrated in a chronometric way, and the space-like vector - in a kinemetric way. Expressions are written for the main physical-geometrical values of the dyadic method and for differential operators. The method developed may be useful for predetermining the reference system of a single observer, and also for studying problems connected with emission and absorption of gravitational and electromagnetic waves [ru

  1. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  2. Methods for data classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, George [Okemos, MI; Lilburn, Timothy G [Front Royal, VA

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  3. Computational methods working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  4. Method for exchanging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  5. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  6. Methods of numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)

  7. Differential equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotikov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of massive Feynman diagrams calculation is presented. It provides a fairly simple procedure to obtain the result without the D-space integral calculation (for the dimensional regularization). Some diagrams are calculated as an illustration of this method capacities. (author). 7 refs

  8. DISCOURSE ON METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOUCHER, JOHN G.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

  9. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  10. Attribute-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Wiktor L. Adamowicz

    2003-01-01

    Stated preference methods of environmental valuation have been used by economists for decades where behavioral data have limitations. The contingent valuation method (Chapter 5) is the oldest stated preference approach, and hundreds of contingent valuation studies have been conducted. More recently, and especially over the last decade, a class of stated preference...

  11. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  12. Radiation borehole logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  13. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1980-01-01

    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Essential numerical computer methods

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...

  15. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  16. Bayesian Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabalinejad, M.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce cost of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for time-consuming processes, Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) is introduced in this paper. The BMC method reduces number of realizations in MC according to the desired accuracy level. BMC also provides a possibility of considering more priors. In other words, different priors can be integrated into one model by using BMC to further reduce cost of simulations. This study suggests speeding up the simulation process by considering the logical dependence of neighboring points as prior information. This information is used in the BMC method to produce a predictive tool through the simulation process. The general methodology and algorithm of BMC method are presented in this paper. The BMC method is applied to the simplified break water model as well as the finite element model of 17th Street Canal in New Orleans, and the results are compared with the MC and Dynamic Bounds methods.

  17. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  18. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  19. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  20. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...